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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Venla Kuusinen, Elena Cesnaite, Jari Peräkylä, Keith H Ogawa, Kaisa M Hartikainen
Patients with lesion to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) experience challenges in emotional control and emotion-guided behaviors. The OFC is known to participate in executive functions and attentional control of emotion and our previous research suggests OFC lesion alters the balance between voluntary and involuntary attention and cognitive control within the context of emotion. To better understand how OFC lesion affects the dynamics and interaction of these functions, we studied EEG and performance of 12 patients with lesion to the OFC and 11 control subjects with intact OFC in a Go/NoGo visual reaction time (RT) task with neutral targets and intervening threat-related emotional distractors (Executive RT Test)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Caspar Krampe, Nadine Ruth Gier, Peter Kenning
Recent research in the field of "neuro-marketing" shows promise to substantially increase knowledge on marketing issues for example price-perception, advertising efficiency, branding and shopper behaviour. Recently, an innovative and mobile applicable neuroimaging method has been proposed, namely functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). However, this method is, in the research field of marketing, still in its infancy and is, consequently, lacking substantial validity. Against this background, this research work applied a convergent validity approach to challenge the validity of (mobile) fNIRS in the field of "neuro-marketing" and consumer neuroscience...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Aleksandra Landowska, David Roberts, Peter Eachus, Alan Barrett
Exposure Therapy (ET) has demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of phobias, anxiety and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), however, it suffers a high drop-out rate because of too low or too high patient engagement in treatment. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is comparably effective regarding symptom reduction and offers an alternative tool to facilitate engagement for avoidant participants. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that both ET and VRET normalize brain activity within a fear circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sahar Toluee Achacheluee, Leila Rahnama, Noureddin Karimi, Iraj Abdollahi, Syed Asadullah Arslan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
It is believed that unihemispheric concurrent dual-site transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCSUHCDS ) of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) causes an increase in motor cortex excitability. However, the clinical effect of this type of stimulation on patients with neurological conditions is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of anodal-tDCSUHCDS (a-tDCSUHCDS ) on upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients. Fifteen patients participated in this sham-controlled crossover study...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Felix Putze, Christian Mühl, Fabien Lotte, Stephen Fairclough, Christian Herff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sébastien Paquette, Hui C Li, Sherryse L Corrow, Stephanie S Buss, Jason J S Barton, Gottfried Schlaug
Studies have shown subtle gray and white matter abnormalities in subjects with several developmental disorders including prosopagnosia, tone-deafness, and dyslexia. Correlational evidence suggests that tone-deafness and dyslexia tend to co-occur, suggesting a link between these two developmental disorders. However, it is not known whether tone-deafness can also be associated with other developmental disorders such as impaired face recognition or prosopagnosia. We addressed this question by assessing face perception abilities in a group of tone-deaf individuals and matched non-tone-deaf subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicolette B Mogilever, Lucrezia Zuccarelli, Ford Burles, Giuseppe Iaria, Giacomo Strapazzon, Loredana Bessone, Emily B J Coffey
Renewed interest in human space exploration has highlighted the gaps in knowledge needed for successful long-duration missions outside low-Earth orbit. Although the technical challenges of such missions are being systematically overcome, many of the unknowns in predicting mission success depend on human behavior and performance, knowledge of which must be either obtained through space research or extrapolated from human experience on Earth. Particularly in human neuroscience, laboratory-based research efforts are not closely connected to real environments such as human space exploration...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Hui Li, Xiuqin Jia, Zhigang Qi, Xiang Fan, Tian Ma, Ran Pang, Hong Ni, Chiang-Shan R Li, Jie Lu, Kuncheng Li
Background: The cornu ammonis (CA), as part of the hippocampal formation, represents a primary target region of neural degeneration in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Previous studies have revealed subtle structural deficits of the CA subregions (CA1-CA3, bilateral) in aMCI; however, it is not clear how the network function is impacted by aMCI. The present study examined longitudinal changes in resting state functional connectivity (FC) of each CA subregion and how these changes relate to neuropsychological profiles in aMCI...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Anja Ries, Catie Chang, Sarah Glim, Chun Meng, Christian Sorg, Afra Wohlschläger
Ongoing, slowly fluctuating brain activity is organized in resting-state networks (RSNs) of spatially coherent fluctuations. Beyond spatial coherence, RSN activity is governed in a frequency-specific manner. The more detailed architecture of frequency spectra across RSNs is, however, poorly understood. Here we propose a novel measure-the Spectral Centroid (SC)-which represents the center of gravity of the full power spectrum of RSN signal fluctuations. We examine whether spectral underpinnings of network fluctuations are distinct across RSNs...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Anh Son Le, Hirofumi Aoki, Fumihiko Murase, Kenji Ishida
Driver cognitive distraction is a critical factor in road safety, and its evaluation, especially under real conditions, presents challenges to researchers and engineers. In this study, we considered mental workload from a secondary task as a potential source of cognitive distraction and aimed to estimate the increased cognitive load on the driver with a four-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device by introducing a machine-learning method for hemodynamic data. To produce added cognitive workload in a driver beyond just driving, two levels of an auditory presentation n-back task were used...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Heather Burte, Benjamin O Turner, Michael B Miller, Mary Hegarty
Individuals differ greatly in their ability to learn and navigate through environments. One potential source of this variation is "directional sense" or the ability to identify, maintain, and compare allocentric headings. Allocentric headings are facing directions that are fixed to the external environment, such as cardinal directions. Measures of the ability to identify and compare allocentric headings, using photographs of familiar environments, have shown significant individual and strategy differences; however, the neural basis of these differences is unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Deana Davalos, Giovanna Mioni, Simon Grondin, Felipe Ortuño
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Emmanuel Biau, Sonja A Kotz
How the brain decomposes and integrates information in multimodal speech perception is linked to oscillatory dynamics. However, how speech takes advantage of redundancy between different sensory modalities, and how this translates into specific oscillatory patterns remains unclear. We address the role of lower beta activity (~20 Hz), generally associated with motor functions, as an amodal central coordinator that receives bottom-up delta-theta copies from specific sensory areas and generate top-down temporal predictions for auditory entrainment...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Takao Fukui, Misako Sano, Ari Tanaka, Mayuko Suzuki, Sooyung Kim, Hiromi Agarie, Reiko Fukatsu, Kengo Nishimaki, Yasoichi Nakajima, Makoto Wada
It is known that motor actions performed by individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are clumsy and a previous study revealed that children with ASD of around 8 years old showed less smooth movement and dysfunction of appropriate usage of online vision for grip aperture control. The present study investigates whether and how the kinematic properties of reach-to-grasp movements in older adolescents and adults with ASD [mean (±SD) age: 18.3 ± 2.1] differ from those in typically developing (TD) peers [mean (±SD) age: 19...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Daniela Andres
Neuronal signals are usually characterized in terms of their discharge rate, a description inadequate to account for the complex temporal organization of spike trains. Complex temporal properties, which are characteristic of neuronal systems, can only be described with the appropriate, complex mathematical tools. Here, I apply high order structure functions to the analysis of neuronal signals recorded from parkinsonian patients during functional neurosurgery, recovering multifractal properties. To achieve an accurate model of such multifractality is critical for understanding the basal ganglia, since other non-linear properties, such as entropy, depend on the fractal properties of complex systems...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Anna Göddertz, Laura-Isabelle Klatt, Christine Mertes, Daniel Schneider
Shifts of attention within working memory based on retroactive (retro-) cues were shown to facilitate performance in working memory tasks. Although posterior asymmetries in the EEG, such as the contralateral delay activity (CDA), have been used to study the active storage of lateralized working memory representations, results on the relation of such asymmetric effects to retro-cue benefits remain inconclusive. We recorded EEG in a retro-cue working memory task with lateralized items and a continuous performance response...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xie Ma, Nai Ding, Yun Tao, Yu Fang Yang
In music, chords are organized into hierarchical structures based on recursive or embedded syntax. How the brain extracts recursive grammar is a central question in musical cognition and other cognitive neuroscience, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. By analyzing event related potentials (ERPs) and neural oscillatory activity, the present study investigated neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of center-embedded structure in music by examining the differences in center-embedded and non-embedded structure processing and evaluating how these differences are affected by musical proficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Narumi Katsuyama, Eriko Kikuchi-Tachi, Nobuo Usui, Hideyuki Yoshizawa, Aya Saito, Masato Taira
Several studies have demonstrated that observation of a dummy or mirror-reflected hand being stroked or moving at the same time as the hidden hand evokes a feeling that the dummy hand is one's own, such as the rubber hand illusion (RHI) and mirror visual feedback (MVF). Under these conditions, participants also report sensing the tactile stimulation applied to the fake hands, suggesting that tactile perception is modulated by visual information during the RHI and MVF. Previous studies have utilized passive stimulation conditions; however, active touch is more common in real-world settings...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yuexin Cai, Guisheng Chen, Xiaoli Zhong, Guangzheng Yu, Hanjie Mo, Jiajia Jiang, Xiaoting Chen, Fei Zhao, Yiqing Zheng
The objective was to investigate the influence of audiovisual training on horizontal sound localization and the underlying neurological mechanisms using a combination of psychoacoustic and electrophysiological (i.e., event-related potential, ERP) measurements on sound localization. Audiovisual stimuli were used in the training group, whilst the control group was trained using auditory stimuli only. Training sessions were undertaken once per day for three consecutive days. Sound localization accuracy was evaluated daily after training, using psychoacoustic tests...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jie Wei, Tong Chen, Chuandong Li, Guangyuan Liu, Jiang Qiu, Dongtao Wei
Studies have demonstrated that there are widespread significant differences in spontaneous brain activity between eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting states. However, it remains largely unclear whether spontaneous brain activity is effectively related to EO and EC resting states. The amplitude, local functional concordance, inter-hemisphere functional synchronization, and network centrality of spontaneous brain activity were measured by the fraction amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and degree centrality (DC), respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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