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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Vladimir Bostanov, Lilian Ohlrogge, Rita Britz, Martin Hautzinger, Boris Kotchoubey
Mindfulness-based interventions have proved effective in reducing various clinical symptoms and in improving general mental health and well-being. The investigation of the mechanisms of therapeutic change needs methods for assessment of mindfulness. Existing self-report measures have, however, been strongly criticized on various grounds, including distortion of the original concept, response bias, and other. We propose a psychophysiological method for the assessment of the mindfulness learned through time-limited mindfulness-based therapy by people who undergo meditation training for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Keum-Shik Hong, M Jawad Khan, Melissa J Hong
In this study, a brain-computer interface (BCI) framework for hybrid functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) for locked-in syndrome (LIS) patients is investigated. Brain tasks, channel selection methods, and feature extraction and classification algorithms available in the literature are reviewed. First, we categorize various types of patients with cognitive and motor impairments to assess the suitability of BCI for each of them. The prefrontal cortex is identified as a suitable brain region for imaging...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Lousin Moumdjian, Jeska Buhmann, Iris Willems, Peter Feys, Marc Leman
Background: Interdisciplinary work is needed for scientific progress, and with this review, our interest is in the scientific progress toward understanding the underlying mechanisms of auditory-motor coupling, and how this can be applied to gait rehabilitation. Specifically we look into the process of entrainment and synchronization; where entrainment is the process that governs the dynamic alignments of the auditory and motor domains based on error-prediction correction, whereas synchronization is the stable maintenance of timing during auditory-motor alignment...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Vasanth Sarathy
Real world problem-solving (RWPS) is what we do every day. It requires flexibility, resilience, resourcefulness, and a certain degree of creativity. A crucial feature of RWPS is that it involves continuous interaction with the environment during the problem-solving process. In this process, the environment can be seen as not only a source of inspiration for new ideas but also as a tool to facilitate creative thinking. The cognitive neuroscience literature in creativity and problem-solving is extensive, but it has largely focused on neural networks that are active when subjects are not focused on the outside world, i...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xia-An Bi, Yingchao Liu, Qin Jiang, Qing Shu, Qi Sun, Jianhua Dai
As the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable, pervasive and prevalent, the clinical diagnosis of ASD is vital. In the existing literature, a single neural network (NN) is generally used to classify ASD patients from typical controls (TC) based on functional MRI data and the accuracy is not very high. Thus, the new method named as the random NN cluster, which consists of multiple NNs was proposed to classify ASD patients and TC in this article. Fifty ASD patients and 42 TC were selected from autism brain imaging data exchange (ABIDE) database...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Chang Liu, Lucas De Macedo, James M Finley
The ability to maintain dynamic balance in response to unexpected perturbations during walking is largely mediated by reactive control strategies. Reactive control during perturbed walking can be characterized by multiple metrics such as measures of whole-body angular momentum (WBAM), which capture the rotational dynamics of the body, and through Floquet analysis which captures the orbital stability of a limit cycle attractor. Recent studies have demonstrated that people with spatiotemporal asymmetries during gait have impaired control of whole-body dynamics as evidenced by higher peak-to-peak ranges of WBAM over the gait cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Heinz Boeker, Rainer Kraehenmann
A mechanism-based approach was developed focusing on the psychodynamic, psychological and neuronal mechanisms in healthy and depressed persons. In this integrative concept of depression, the self is a core dimension in depression. It is attributed to negative emotions (e.g., failure, guilt). The increased inward focus in depression is connected with a decreased environmental focus . The development of neuropsychodynamic hypotheses of the altered self-reference is based on the investigation of the emotional-cognitive interaction in depressed patients...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jennifer T Sneider, Julia E Cohen-Gilbert, Derek A Hamilton, Elena R Stein, Noa Golan, Emily N Oot, Anna M Seraikas, Michael L Rohan, Sion K Harris, Lisa D Nickerson, Marisa M Silveri
The frontal cortex undergoes substantial structural and functional changes during adolescence and significant developmental changes also occur in the hippocampus. Both of these regions are notably vulnerable to alcohol and other substance use, which is typically initiated during adolescence. Identifying measures of brain function during adolescence, particularly before initiation of drug or alcohol use, is critical to understanding how such behaviors may affect brain development, especially in these vulnerable brain regions...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Zubaida Shebani, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Recent neuropsychological studies in neurological patients and healthy subjects suggest a close functional relationship between the brain systems for language and action. Facilitation and inhibition effects of motor system activity on language processing have been demonstrated as well as causal effects in the reverse direction, from language processes on motor excitability or performance. However, as the documented effects between motor and language systems were sometimes facilitatory and sometimes inhibitory, the "sign" of these effects still remains to be explained...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Ippei Nojima
Aging can impair an ability to lean the body forward to the edge of the base of support. Here, we investigated, using a coherence analysis, common inputs to bilateral and unilateral plantar flexor muscles to test a hypothesis that the age-related impairment would be related to strong synchronous bilateral activation and reduced cortical control of these muscles. Healthy young ( n = 14) and elderly adults ( n = 19), who were all right-foot dominant, performed quiet standing task and tasks that required the subjects to lean their body forward to 35 and 75% of the maximum lean distance...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Cuilan Han, Zhongming Chen, Lin Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Midori Kodama, Takashi Ono, Fumio Yamashita, Hiroki Ebata, Meigen Liu, Shoko Kasuga, Junichi Ushiba
Recent studies have revealed rapid (e.g., hours to days) training-induced cortical structural changes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, there is great interest in studying how such a rapid brain structural change affects behavioral improvement. Structural reorganization contributes to memory or enhanced information processing in the brain and may increase its capability of skill learning. If the gray matter (GM) is capable of such rapid structural reorganization upon training, the extent of volume increase may characterize the learning process...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Qing Sun, Wenliang Fan, Jin Ye, Ping Han
Background and Aims : Abnormalities in neural activity have been reported in cirrhosis with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms in this disorder. We aimed to investigate the altered patterns of regional synchronization and functional connections in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBV-RC) patients with and without MHE using both regional homogeneity (ReHo) and region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) computational methods...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Chi Zhang, Kai Qiao, Linyuan Wang, Li Tong, Ying Zeng, Bin Yan
In recent years, research on decoding brain activity based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has made eye-catching achievements. However, constraint-free natural image reconstruction from brain activity remains a challenge, as specifying brain activity for all possible images is impractical. The problem was often simplified by using semantic prior information or just reconstructing simple images, including digitals and letters. Without semantic prior information, we present a novel method to reconstruct natural images from the fMRI signals of human visual cortex based on the computation model of convolutional neural network (CNN)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Hiroshi Yokoyama, Isao Nambu, Jun Izawa, Yasuhiro Wada
Action selection is typically influenced by the history of previously selected actions (the immediate motor history), which is apparent when a selected action is switched from a previously selected one to a new one. This history dependency of the action selection is even observable during a mental hand rotation task. Thus, we hypothesized that the history-dependent interaction of actions might share the same neural mechanisms among different types of action switching tasks. An alternative hypothesis is that the history dependency of the mental hand rotation task might involve a distinctive neural mechanism from the general action selection tasks so that the reported observation with the mental hand rotation task in the previously published literature might lack generality...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sarah C Goodroe, Jon Starnes, Thackery I Brown
Decades of research have established the importance of the hippocampus for episodic and spatial memory. In spatial navigation tasks, the role of the hippocampus has been classically juxtaposed with the role of the dorsal striatum, the latter of which has been characterized as a system important for implementing stimulus-response and action-outcome associations. In many neuroimaging paradigms, this has been explored through contrasting way finding and route-following behavior. The distinction between the contributions of the hippocampus and striatum to spatial navigation has been supported by extensive literature...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Pablo A Ortega-Auriol, Thor F Besier, Winston D Byblow, Angus J C McMorland
The development of fatigue elicits multiple adaptations from the neuromuscular system. Muscle synergies are common patterns of neuromuscular activation that have been proposed as the building blocks of human movement. We wanted to identify possible adaptations of muscle synergies to the development of fatigue in the upper limb. Recent studies have reported that synergy structure remains invariant during the development of fatigue, but these studies did not examine isolated synergies. We propose a novel approach to characterise synergy adaptations to fatigue by taking advantage of the spatial tuning of synergies...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Carlos Ventura-Bort, Janine Wirkner, Hannah Genheimer, Julia Wendt, Alfons O Hamm, Mathias Weymar
Recent research suggests that the P3b may be closely related to the activation of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. To further study the potential association, we applied a novel technique, the non-invasive transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), which is speculated to increase noradrenaline levels. Using a within-subject cross-over design, 20 healthy participants received continuous tVNS and sham stimulation on two consecutive days (stimulation counterbalanced across participants) while performing a visual oddball task...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Linda Drijvers, James P Trujillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicco Reggente, Michael S Cohen, Zhong S Zheng, Alan D Castel, Barbara J Knowlton, Jesse Rissman
When given a long list of items to remember, people typically prioritize the memorization of the most valuable items. Prior neuroimaging studies have found that cues denoting the presence of high value items can lead to increased activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), which in turn results in up-regulation of medial temporal lobe encoding processes and better memory for the high value items. Value cues may also trigger the use of elaborative semantic encoding strategies which depend on interactions between frontal and temporal lobe structures...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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