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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Karuna Subramaniam, Hardik Kothare, Danielle Mizuiri, Srikantan S Nagarajan, John F Houde
Self-agency is the experience of being the agent of one's own thoughts and motor actions. The intact experience of self-agency is necessary for successful interactions with the outside world (i.e., reality monitoring) and for responding to sensory feedback of our motor actions (e.g., speech feedback control). Reality monitoring is the ability to distinguish internally self-generated information from outside reality (externally-derived information). In the present study, we examined the relationship of self-agency between lower-level speech feedback monitoring (i...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Daniele Di Lernia, Silvia Serino, Giovanni Pezzulo, Elisa Pedroli, Pietro Cipresso, Giuseppe Riva
The nature of time is rooted in our body. Constellations of impulses arising from the flesh constantly create our interoceptive perception and, in turn, the unfolding of these perceptions defines human awareness of time. This study explored the connection between time perception and interoception and proposes the Interoceptive Buffer saturation (IBs) index. IBs evaluates subjects' ability to process salient stimuli from the body by measuring subjective distortions of interoceptive time perception, i.e., the estimated duration of tactile interoceptive stimulations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Pei-Pei Sun, Fu-Lun Tan, Zong Zhang, Yi-Han Jiang, Yang Zhao, Chao-Zhe Zhu
The mirror neuron system (MNS), mainly including the premotor cortex (PMC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and rostral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), has attracted extensive attention as a possible neural mechanism of social interaction. Owing to high ecological validity, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become an ideal approach for exploring the MNS. Unfortunately, for the feasibility of fNIRS to detect the MNS, none of the four dominant regions were found in previous studies, implying a very limited capacity of fNIRS to investigate the MNS...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shijing Wu, Jun Li, Lantian Gao, Changshui Chen, Sailing He
Hemodynamic response to motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) was investigated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We used a 31 channel fNIRS system which allows non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation changes induced by cortical activation. Sixteen healthy subjects (mean-age 24.5 yeas) were recruited and the changes in concentration of hemoglobin were examined during right and left hand finger tapping tasks and kinesthetic MI. To suppress the systemic physiological interference, we developed a preprocessing procedure which prevents over-activated reporting in NIRS-SPM...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jakub Limanowski, Felix Blankenburg
Spatially and temporally congruent visuotactile stimulation of a fake hand together with one's real hand may result in an illusory self-attribution of the fake hand. Although this illusion relies on a representation of the two touched body parts in external space, there is tentative evidence that, for the illusion to occur, the seen and felt touches also need to be congruent in an anatomical reference frame. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a somatotopical, virtual reality-based setup to isolate the neuronal basis of such a comparison...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Elvira Khachatryan, Benjamin Wittevrongel, Kim De Keyser, Miet De Letter, Marc M Van Hulle
Half of the global population can be considered bilingual. Nevertheless when faced with patients with aphasia, clinicians and therapists usually ignore the patient's second language (L2) albeit its interference in first language (L1) processing has been shown. The excellent temporal resolution by which each individual linguistic component can be gaged during word-processing, promoted the event-related potential (ERP) technique for studying language processing in healthy bilinguals and monolingual aphasia patients...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marjan Persuh, Eric LaRock, Jacob Berger
Working memory (WM), an important posit in cognitive science, allows one to temporarily store and manipulate information in the service of ongoing tasks. WM has been traditionally classified as an explicit memory system-that is, as operating on and maintaining only consciously perceived information. Recently, however, several studies have questioned this assumption, purporting to provide evidence for unconscious WM. In this article, we focus on visual working memory (VWM) and critically examine these studies as well as studies of unconscious perception that seem to provide indirect evidence for unconscious WM...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kian F Wong, James Teng, Michael W L Chee, Kinjal Doshi, Julian Lim
Mindfulness based training (MBT) is becoming increasingly popular as a means to improve general wellbeing through developing enhanced control over metacognitive processes. In this preliminary study, we tested a cohort of 36 nurses (mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.52; 2 male) who participated in an 8-week MBT intervention to examine the improvements in sustained attention and its energetic costs that may result from MBT. Changes in sustained attention were measured using the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and electroencephalography (EEG) was collected both during PVT performance, and during a brief period of meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rupesh K Chikara, Erik C Chang, Yi-Chen Lu, Dar-Shong Lin, Chin-Teng Lin, Li-Wei Ko
A reward or punishment can modulate motivation and emotions, which in turn affect cognitive processing. The present simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography study examines neural mechanisms of response inhibition under the influence of a monetary reward or punishment by implementing a modified stop-signal task in a virtual battlefield scenario. The participants were instructed to play as snipers who open fire at a terrorist target but withhold shooting in the presence of a hostage...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Luqing Wei, Hong Chen, Guo-Rong Wu
The neurovisceral integration model has shown a key role of the amygdala in neural circuits underlying heart rate variability (HRV) modulation, and suggested that reciprocal connections from amygdala to brain regions centered on the central autonomic network (CAN) are associated with HRV. To provide neuroanatomical evidence for these theoretical perspectives, the current study used covariance analysis of MRI-based gray matter volume (GMV) to map structural covariance network of the amygdala, and then determined whether the interregional structural correlations related to individual differences in HRV...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Monika Schönauer, Svenja Brodt, Dorothee Pöhlchen, Anja Breßmer, Amory H Danek, Steffen Gais
During creative problem solving, initial solution attempts often fail because of self-imposed constraints that prevent us from thinking out of the box . In order to solve a problem successfully, the problem representation has to be restructured by combining elements of available knowledge in novel and creative ways. It has been suggested that sleep supports the reorganization of memory representations, ultimately aiding problem solving. In this study, we systematically tested the effect of sleep and time on problem solving, using classical insight tasks and magic tricks...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sarah Marchina, Andrea Norton, Sandeep Kumar, Gottfried Schlaug
Functional imaging studies have provided insight into the effect of rate on production of syllables, pseudowords, and naturalistic speech, but the influence of rate on repetition of commonly-used words/phrases suitable for therapeutic use merits closer examination. Aim: To identify speech-motor regions responsive to rate and test the hypothesis that those regions would provide greater support as rates increase, we used an overt speech repetition task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to capture rate-modulated activation within speech-motor regions and determine whether modulations occur linearly and/or show hemispheric preference...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kimiya Fujio, Hiroki Obata, Taku Kitamura, Noritaka Kawashima, Kimitaka Nakazawa
Recent studies demonstrated that the corticospinal pathway is one of the key nodes for the feedback control of human standing and that the excitability is flexibly changed according to the current state of posture. However, it has been unclear whether this pathway is also involved in a predictive control of human standing. Here, we investigated whether the corticospinal excitability of the soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles during standing would be modulated anticipatorily when perturbation was impending...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Thomas Parr, Geraint Rees, Karl J Friston
Computational theories of brain function have become very influential in neuroscience. They have facilitated the growth of formal approaches to disease, particularly in psychiatric research. In this paper, we provide a narrative review of the body of computational research addressing neuropsychological syndromes, and focus on those that employ Bayesian frameworks. Bayesian approaches to understanding brain function formulate perception and action as inferential processes. These inferences combine 'prior' beliefs with a generative (predictive) model to explain the causes of sensations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Gaia Olivo, Francesco Latini, Lyle Wiemerslage, Elna-Marie Larsson, Helgi B Schiöth
Background : Neurovascular coupling is associated with white matter (WM) structural integrity, and it is regulated by specific subtypes of dopaminergic receptors. An altered activity of such receptors, highly expressed in reward-related regions, has been reported in carriers of obesity-risk alleles of the fat mass and obesity associated ( FTO ) gene. Among the reward-related regions, the thalamus and the nucleus accumbens are particularly vulnerable to blood pressure dysregulation due to their peculiar anatomo-vascular characteristics, and have been consistently reported to be altered in early-stage obesity...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marjolaine Cohen, G Mahé, Marina Laganaro, Pascal Zesiger
Reading predictors evolve through age: phonological awareness is the best predictor of reading abilities at the beginning of reading acquisition while Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) becomes the best reading predictor in more experienced readers (around 9-10 years old). Those developmental changes in the relationship between RAN and reading have so far been explained in term of participants' age. However, it should be noted that in the previous experiments age always co-vary with participants reading level. It is thus not clear whether RAN-reading relationship is developmental in nature or related to the reading system itself...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Valentina Ferpozzi, Luca Fornia, Marcella Montagna, Chiara Siodambro, Antonella Castellano, Paola Borroni, Marco Riva, Marco Rossi, Federico Pessina, Lorenzo Bello, Gabriella Cerri
The exact nature of the role of Broca's area in control of speech and whether it is exerted at the cognitive or at the motor level is still debated. Intraoperative evidence of a lack of motor responses to direct electrical stimulation (DES) of Broca's area and the observation that its stimulation induces a "speech arrest" without an apparent effect on the ongoing activity of phono-articulatory muscles, raises the argument. Essentially, attribution of direct involvement of Broca's area in motor control of speech, requires evidence of a functional connection of this area with the phono-articulatory muscles' motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rachel C Leung, Elizabeth W Pang, Evdokia Anagnostou, Margot J Taylor
Social cognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ability to perceive and interpret affect is integral to successful social functioning and has an extended developmental course. However, the neural mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in ASD are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), the present study explored neural activation during implicit emotional face processing in young adults with and without ASD. Twenty-six young adults with ASD and 26 healthy controls were recruited...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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