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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736519/isolating-discriminant-neural-activity-in-the-presence-of-eye-movements-and-concurrent-task-demands
#1
Jon Touryan, Vernon J Lawhern, Patrick M Connolly, Nima Bigdely-Shamlo, Anthony J Ries
A growing number of studies use the combination of eye-tracking and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures to explore the neural processes that underlie visual perception. In these studies, fixation-related potentials (FRPs) are commonly used to quantify early and late stages of visual processing that follow the onset of each fixation. However, FRPs reflect a mixture of bottom-up (sensory-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) processes, in addition to eye movement artifacts and unrelated neural activity. At present there is little consensus on how to separate this evoked response into its constituent elements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729830/resting-state-fluctuations-of-eeg-sensorimotor-rhythm-reflect-bold-activities-in-the-pericentral-areas-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#2
Shohei Tsuchimoto, Shuka Shibusawa, Nobuaki Mizuguchi, Kenji Kato, Hiroki Ebata, Meigen Liu, Takashi Hanakawa, Junichi Ushiba
Blockade of the scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) is a well-known phenomenon following attempted or executed motor functions. Such a frequency-specific power attenuation of the SMR occurs in the alpha and beta frequency bands and is spatially registered at primary somatosensory and motor cortices. Here, we hypothesized that resting-state fluctuations of the SMR in the alpha and beta frequency bands also covary with resting-state sensorimotor cortical activity, without involving task-related neural dynamics...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729829/cortex-parcellation-associated-whole-white-matter-parcellation-in-individual-subjects
#3
Patrick Schiffler, Jan-Gerd Tenberge, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth
The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729828/working-memory-profiles-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-infected-children-a-comparison-with-neurotypical-controls
#4
Robyn Milligan, Kate Cockcroft
This study compared the working memory profiles of three groups of children, namely HIV-infected (HIV-I; n = 95), HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU; n = 86) and an HIV-unexposed, uninfected, (HIV-UU; n = 92) neurotypical control group. Working memory, an executive function, plays an important role in frontal lobe-controlled behaviors, such as motivation, planning, decision making, and social interaction, and is a strong predictor of academic success in school children. Memory impairments have been identified in HIV-I children, particularly in visuospatial processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725191/bilateral-reflex-fluctuations-during-rhythmic-movement-of-remote-limb-pairs
#5
Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, E Paul Zehr
The modulation of spinal cord excitability during rhythmic limb movement reflects the neuronal coordination underlying actions of the arms and legs. Integration of network activity in the spinal cord can be assessed by reflex variability between the limbs, an approach so far very little studied. The present work addresses this question by eliciting Hoffmann (H-) reflexes in both limbs to assess if common drive onto bilateral pools of motoneurons influence spinal cord excitability simultaneously or with a delay between sides...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725190/reliability-of-eeg-interactions-differs-between-measures-and-is-specific-for-neurological-diseases
#6
Yvonne Höller, Kevin Butz, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Elisabeth Schmid, Andreas Uhl, Arne C Bathke, Georg Zimmermann, Santino O Tomasi, Raffaele Nardone, Wolfgang Staffen, Peter Höller, Markus Leitinger, Julia Höfler, Gudrun Kalss, Alexandra C Taylor, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Eugen Trinka
Alterations of interaction (connectivity) of the EEG reflect pathological processes in patients with neurologic disorders. Nevertheless, it is questionable whether these patterns are reliable over time in different measures of interaction and whether this reliability of the measures is the same across different patient populations. In order to address this topic we examined 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment, five patients with subjective cognitive complaints, six patients with right-lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, seven patients with left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, and 20 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713257/language-paleoneurology-and-the-fronto-parietal-system
#7
Emiliano Bruner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713256/baseline-performance-predicts-tdcs-mediated-improvements-in-language-symptoms-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#8
Eric M McConathey, Nicole C White, Felix Gervits, Sherry Ash, H Branch Coslett, Murray Grossman, Roy H Hamilton
Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by insidious irreversible loss of language abilities. Prior studies suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) directed toward language areas of the brain may help to ameliorate symptoms of PPA. In the present sham-controlled study, we examined whether tDCS could be used to enhance language abilities (e.g., picture naming) in individuals with PPA variants primarily characterized by difficulties with speech production (non-fluent and logopenic)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713255/the-impact-of-aerobic-exercise-on-fronto-parietal-network-connectivity-and-its-relation-to-mobility-an-exploratory-analysis-of-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Chun L Hsu, John R Best, Shirley Wang, Michelle W Voss, Robin G Y Hsiung, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Todd C Handy, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Impaired mobility is a major concern for older adults and has significant consequences. While the widely accepted belief is that improved physical function underlies the effectiveness of targeted exercise training in improving mobility and reducing falls, recent evidence suggests cognitive and neural benefits gained through exercise may also play an important role in promoting mobility. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this relationship are currently unclear. Thus, we hypothesize that 6 months of progressive aerobic exercise training would alter frontoparietal network (FPN) connectivity during a motor task among older adults with mild subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI)-and exercise-induced changes in FPN connectivity would correlate with changes in mobility...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713254/short-term-effects-of-thoracic-spine-manipulation-on-the-biomechanical-organisation-of-gait-initiation-a-randomized-pilot-study
#10
Sébastien Ditcharles, Eric Yiou, Arnaud Delafontaine, Alain Hamaoui
Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. "Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude" (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713253/on-the-keyhole-hypothesis-high-mutual-information-between-ear-and-scalp-eeg
#11
Kaare B Mikkelsen, Preben Kidmose, Lars K Hansen
We propose and test the keyhole hypothesis-that measurements from low dimensional EEG, such as ear-EEG reflect a broadly distributed set of neural processes. We formulate the keyhole hypothesis in information theoretical terms. The experimental investigation is based on legacy data consisting of 10 subjects exposed to a battery of stimuli, including alpha-attenuation, auditory onset, and mismatch-negativity responses and a new medium-long EEG experiment involving data acquisition during 13 h. Linear models were estimated to lower bound the scalp-to-ear capacity, i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713252/effect-of-postural-control-demands-on-early-visual-evoked-potentials-during-a-subjective-visual-vertical-perception-task-in-adolescents-with-idiopathic-scoliosis
#12
Yi-Tzu Chang, Ling-Fu Meng, Chun-Ju Chang, Po-Liang Lai, Chi-Wen Lung, Jen-Suh Chern
Subjective visual vertical (SVV) judgment and standing stability were separately investigated among patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Although, one study has investigated the central mechanism of stability control in the AIS population, the relationships between SVV, decreased standing stability, and AIS have never been investigated. Through event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study examined the effect of postural control demands (PDs) on AIS central mechanisms related to SVV judgment and standing stability to elucidate the time-serial stability control process...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706481/adverse-effects-of-the-apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-on-episodic-memory-task-switching-and-gray-matter-volume-in-healthy-young-adults
#13
Jianfei Nao, Hongzan Sun, Qiushi Wang, Shuang Ma, Shuo Zhang, Xiaoyu Dong, Ying Ma, Xiaoming Wang, Dongming Zheng
Many studies have shown that healthy elderly subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who carry the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele have worse cognitive function and more severe brain atrophy than non-carriers. However, it remains unclear whether this ApoE polymorphism leads to changes of cognition and brain morphology in healthy young adults. In this study, we used an established model to measure verbal episodic memory and core executive function (EF) components (response inhibition, working memory and task switching) in 32 ApoE ε4 carriers and 40 non-carriers between 20 years and 40 years of age...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706480/task-context-influences-brain-activation-during-music-listening
#14
Andjela Markovic, Jürg Kühnis, Lutz Jäncke
In this paper, we examined brain activation in subjects during two music listening conditions: listening while simultaneously rating the musical piece being played [Listening and Rating (LR)] and listening to the musical pieces unconstrained [Listening (L)]. Using these two conditions, we tested whether the sequence in which the two conditions were fulfilled influenced the brain activation observable during the L condition (LR → L or L → LR). We recorded high-density EEG during the playing of four well-known positively experienced soundtracks in two subject groups...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706479/impact-of-semantic-relatedness-on-associative-memory-an-erp-study
#15
Pierre Desaunay, Patrice Clochon, Franck Doidy, Anna Lambrechts, Dermot M Bowler, Priscille Gérardin, Jean-Marc Baleyte, Francis Eustache, Bérengère Guillery-Girard
Encoding and retrieval processes in memory for pairs of pictures are thought to be influenced by inter-item similarity and by features of individual items. Using Event-Related Potentials (ERP), we aimed to identify how these processes impact on both the early mid-frontal FN400 and the Late Positive Component (LPC) potentials during associative retrieval of pictures. Twenty young adults undertook a sham task, using an incidental encoding of semantically related and unrelated pairs of drawings. At test, we conducted a recognition task in which participants were asked to identify target identical pairs of pictures, which could be semantically related or unrelated, among new and rearranged pairs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706478/the-effects-of-reducing-preparation-time-on-the-execution-of-intentionally-curved-trajectories-optimization-and-geometrical-analysis
#16
Dovrat Kohen, Matan Karklinsky, Yaron Meirovitch, Tamar Flash, Lior Shmuelof
When subjects are intentionally preparing a curved trajectory, they are engaged in a time-consuming trajectory planning process that is separate from target selection. To investigate the construction of such a plan, we examined the effect of artificially shortening preparation time on the performance of intentionally curved trajectories using the Timed Response task that enforces initiation of movements prematurely. Fifteen subjects performed obstacle avoidance movements toward one of four targets that were presented 25 or 350 ms before the "go" signal, imposing short and long preparation time conditions with mean values of 170 ms and 493 ms, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701944/commentary-cluster-failure-why-fmri-inferences-for-spatial-extent-have-inflated-false-positive-rates
#17
COMMENT
Karsten Mueller, Jöran Lepsien, Harald E Möller, Gabriele Lohmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701943/aberrant-long-range-temporal-correlations-in-depression-are-attenuated-after-psychological-treatment
#18
Matti Gärtner, Mona Irrmischer, Emilia Winnebeck, Maria Fissler, Julia M Huntenburg, Titus A Schroeter, Malek Bajbouj, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Vadim V Nikulin, Thorsten Barnhofer
The spontaneous oscillatory activity in the human brain shows long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) that extend over time scales of seconds to minutes. Previous research has demonstrated aberrant LRTC in depressed patients; however, it is unknown whether the neuronal dynamics normalize after psychological treatment. In this study, we recorded EEG during eyes-closed rest in depressed patients (N = 71) and healthy controls (N = 25), and investigated the temporal dynamics in depressed patients at baseline, and after attending either a brief mindfulness training or a stress reduction training...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701942/neural-mechanisms-underlying-conscious-and-unconscious-gaze-triggered-attentional-orienting-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Wataru Sato, Takanori Kochiyama, Shota Uono, Sayaka Yoshimura, Motomi Toichi
Impaired joint attention represents the core clinical feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Behavioral studies have suggested that gaze-triggered attentional orienting is intact in response to supraliminally presented eyes but impaired in response to subliminally presented eyes in individuals with ASD. However, the neural mechanisms underlying conscious and unconscious gaze-triggered attentional orienting remain unclear. We investigated this issue in ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701941/rapid-alleviation-of-parkinson-s-disease-symptoms-via-electrostimulation-of-intrinsic-auricular-muscle-zones
#20
Yusuf O Cakmak, Hülya Apaydin, Güneş Kiziltan, Ayşegül Gündüz, Burak Ozsoy, Selim Olcer, Hakan Urey, Ozgur O Cakmak, Yasemin G Ozdemir, Sibel Ertan
Background: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) significantly improve cardinal motor symptoms and postural instability and gait difficulty, respectively, in Parkinson's disease (PD). Objective and Hypothesis: Intrinsic auricular muscle zones (IAMZs) allow the potential to simultaneously stimulate the C2 spinal nerve, the trigeminal nerve, the facial nerve, and sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves in addition to providing muscle feedback and control areas including the STN, the PPN and mesencephalic locomotor regions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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