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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337136/corrigendum-brain-networks-of-perceptual-decision-making-an-fmri-ale-meta-analysis
#1
Max C Keuken, Christa Müller-Axt, Robert Langner, Simon B Eickhoff, Birte U Forstmann, Jane Neumann
[This corrects the article on p. 445 in vol. 8, PMID: 24994979.].
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337135/deficits-in-letter-speech-sound-associations-but-intact-visual-conflict-processing-in-dyslexia-results-from-a-novel-erp-paradigm
#2
Sarolta Bakos, Karin Landerl, Jürgen Bartling, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Kristina Moll
The reading and spelling deficits characteristic of developmental dyslexia (dyslexia) have been related to problems in phonological processing and in learning associations between letters and speech-sounds. Even when children with dyslexia have learned the letters and their corresponding speech sounds, letter-speech sound associations might still be less automatized compared to children with age-adequate literacy skills. In order to examine automaticity in letter-speech sound associations and to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with the frequently used visual-auditory oddball paradigm, we developed a novel electrophysiological letter-speech sound interference paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337134/acoustic-enhancement-of-sleep-slow-oscillations-and-concomitant-memory-improvement-in-older-adults
#3
Nelly A Papalambros, Giovanni Santostasi, Roneil G Malkani, Rosemary Braun, Sandra Weintraub, Ken A Paller, Phyllis C Zee
Acoustic stimulation methods applied during sleep in young adults can increase slow wave activity (SWA) and improve sleep-dependent memory retention. It is unknown whether this approach enhances SWA and memory in older adults, who generally have reduced SWA compared to younger adults. Additionally, older adults are at risk for age-related cognitive impairment and therefore may benefit from non-invasive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine if acoustic stimulation can increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337133/inferring-master-painters-esthetic-biases-from-the-statistics-of-portraits
#4
Hassan Aleem, Ivan Correa-Herran, Norberto M Grzywacz
The Processing Fluency Theory posits that the ease of sensory information processing in the brain facilitates esthetic pleasure. Accordingly, the theory would predict that master painters should display biases toward visual properties such as symmetry, balance, and moderate complexity. Have these biases been occurring and if so, have painters been optimizing these properties (fluency variables)? Here, we address these questions with statistics of portrait paintings from the Early Renaissance period. To do this, we first developed different computational measures for each of the aforementioned fluency variables...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326031/can-neuromodulation-also-enhance-social-inequality-some-possible-indirect-interventions-of-the-state
#5
Andrea Lavazza
There is evidence that noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and especially transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can improve some cognitive functions, at least temporarily. However, as the improvement only applies to some "lucky" people, it may raise ethical, social and legal issues related to fairness in selective contexts (exams, competitions, job interviews). In this regard, an important element tends to be overlooked: the variability in individual response to tDCS in particular. If intensive study or practice and massive doses of chemical enhancers can have slightly different effects over different people, tDCS can sometimes be completely ineffective...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326030/expansion-of-perceptual-body-maps-near-but-not-across-the-wrist
#6
Matthew R Longo
Perceiving the external spatial location of touch requires that tactile information about the stimulus location on the skin be integrated with proprioceptive information about the location of the body in external space, a process called tactile spatial remapping. Recent results have suggested that this process relies on a distorted representation of the hand. Here, I investigated whether similar distortions are also found on the forearm and how they are affected by the presence of the wrist joint, which forms a categorical, segmental boundary between the hand and the arm...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326029/beta-oscillatory-changes-and-retention-of-motor-skills-during-practice-in-healthy-subjects-and-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Aaron B Nelson, Clara Moisello, Jing Lin, Priya Panday, Serena Ricci, Andrea Canessa, Alessandro Di Rocco, Angelo Quartarone, Giuseppe Frazzitta, Ioannis U Isaias, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli, M Felice Ghilardi
Recently we found that modulation depth of beta power during movement increases with practice over sensory-motor areas in normal subjects but not in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). As such changes might reflect use-dependent modifications, we concluded that reduction of beta enhancement in PD represents saturation of cortical plasticity. A few questions remained open: What is the relation between these EEG changes and retention of motor skills? Would a second task exposure restore beta modulation enhancement in PD? Do practice-induced increases of beta modulation occur within each block? We thus recorded EEG in patients with PD and age-matched controls in two consecutive days during a 40-min reaching task divided in fifteen blocks of 56 movements each...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326028/inter-trial-correlations-in-predictive-saccade-endpoints-fractal-scaling-reflects-differential-control-along-task-relevant-and-orthogonal-directions
#8
Pamela Federighi, Aaron L Wong, Mark Shelhamer
Saccades exhibit variation in performance from one trial to the next, even when paced at a constant rate by targets at two fixed locations. We previously showed that amplitude fluctuations in consecutive predictive saccades have fractal structure: the spectrum of the sequence of consecutive amplitudes has a power-law (f(-α)) form, indicative of inter-trial correlations that reflect the storage of prior performance information to guide the planning of subsequent movements. More gradual decay of these inter-trial correlations coincides with a larger magnitude of spectral slope α, and indicates stronger information storage over longer times...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321187/steps-to-health-in-cognitive-aging-effects-of-physical-activity-on-spatial-attention-and-executive-control-in-the-elderly
#9
Giancarlo Condello, Roberta Forte, Simone Falbo, John B Shea, Angela Di Baldassarre, Laura Capranica, Caterina Pesce
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (PA) habits may positively impact performance of the orienting and executive control networks in community-dwelling aging individuals and diabetics, who are at risk of cognitive dysfunction. To this aim, we tested cross-sectionally whether age, ranging from late middle-age to old adulthood, and PA level independently or interactively predict different facets of the attentional performance. Hundred and thirty female and male individuals and 22 adults with type 2 diabetes aged 55-84 years were recruited and their daily PA (steps) was objectively measured by means of armband monitors...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321186/brain-activity-during-mental-imagery-of-gait-versus-gait-like-plantar-stimulation-a-novel-combined-functional-mri-paradigm-to-better-understand-cerebral-gait-control
#10
Matthieu Labriffe, Cédric Annweiler, Liubov E Amirova, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Aram Ter Minassian, Louis-Marie Leiber, Olivier Beauchet, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Mickaël Dinomais
Human locomotion is a complex sensorimotor behavior whose central control remains difficult to explore using neuroimaging method due to technical constraints, notably the impossibility to walk with a scanner on the head and/or to walk for real inside current scanners. The aim of this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was to analyze interactions between two paradigms to investigate the brain gait control network: (1) mental imagery of gait, and (2) passive mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot with the Korvit boots...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321185/sex-matters-hippocampal-volume-predicts-individual-differences-in-associative-memory-in-cognitively-normal-older-women-but-not-men
#11
Zhiwei Zheng, Rui Li, Fengqiu Xiao, Rongqiao He, Shouzi Zhang, Juan Li
The hippocampus plays a prominent role in associative memory by supporting relational binding and recollection processes. Structural atrophy in the hippocampus is likely to induce associative memory deficits in older adults. Previous studies have primarily focused on average age-related differences in hippocampal structure and memory performance. To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in hippocampal morphometry underlie differential associative memory performance, and whether there are sex differences in the structural correlates of associative memory in healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316568/towards-a-functional-understanding-of-pgo-waves
#12
REVIEW
Jarrod A Gott, David T J Liley, J Allan Hobson
Ponto-Geniculo-Occipital (PGO) waves are biphasic field potentials identified in a range of mammalian species that are ubiquitous with sleep, but can also be identified in waking perception and eye movement. Their role in REM sleep and visual perception more broadly may constitute a promising avenue for further research, however what was once an active field of study has recently fallen into stasis. With the reality that invasive recordings performed on animals cannot be replicated in humans; while animals themselves cannot convey experience to the extent required to elucidate how PGO waves factor into awareness and behavior, innovative solutions are required if significant research outcomes are to ever be realized...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316567/distinct-functional-connectivities-predict-clinical-response-with-emotion-regulation-therapy
#13
REVIEW
David M Fresco, Amy K Roy, Samantha Adelsberg, Saren Seeley, Emmanuel García-Lesy, Conor Liston, Douglas S Mennin
Despite the success of available medical and psychosocial treatments, a sizable subgroup of individuals with commonly co-occurring disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), fail to make sufficient treatment gains thereby prolonging their deficits in life functioning and satisfaction. Clinically, these patients often display temperamental features reflecting heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss (e.g., somatic anxiety) as well as inordinate negative self-referential processing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303097/language-learning-enhanced-by-massive-multiple-online-role-playing-games-mmorpgs-and-the-underlying-behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Yongjun Zhang, Hongwen Song, Xiaoming Liu, Dinghong Tang, Yue-E Chen, Xiaochu Zhang
Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303096/what-is-the-contribution-of-ia-afference-for-regulating-motor-output-variability-during-standing
#15
Niklas König, Matteo G Ferraro, Heiner Baur, William R Taylor, Navrag B Singh
Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements, and describes the system's stability and rigidity during the performance of functional motor tasks such as balancing. In order to ensure successful task execution, the nervous system is thought to be able to flexibly select the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unknown which neurophysiological pathways are utilized for the control of motor output variability. In responding to natural variability (in this example sway), it is plausible that the neuro-physiological response to muscular elongation contributes to restoring a balanced upright posture...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303095/an-explanation-for-the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-aesthetic-judgments
#16
Richard H A H Jacobs, Frans W Cornelissen
It has been proposed that the top-down guidance of feature-based attention is the basis for the involvement of the amygdala in various tasks requiring emotional decision-making (Jacobs et al., 2012a). Aesthetic judgments are correlated with particular visual features and can be considered emotional in nature (Jacobs et al., 2016). Moreover, we have previously shown that various aesthetic judgments result in observers preferentially attending to different visual features (Jacobs et al., 2010). Here, we argue that-together-this explains why the amygdalae become active during aesthetic judgments of visual materials...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303094/child-robot-interactions-for-second-language-tutoring-to-preschool-children
#17
Paul Vogt, Mirjam de Haas, Chiara de Jong, Peta Baxter, Emiel Krahmer
In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298890/the-differential-effect-of-arm-movements-during-gait-on-the-forward-acceleration-of-the-centre-of-mass-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-and-typically-developing-children
#18
Pieter Meyns, Guy Molenaers, Jacques Duysens, Ilse Jonkers
Background: We aimed to study the contribution of upper limb movements to propulsion during walking in typically developing (TD) children (n = 5) and children with hemiplegic and diplegic cerebral palsy (CP; n = 5 and n = 4, respectively). Methods: Using integrated three-dimensional motion capture data and a scaled generic musculoskeletal model that included upper limbs, we generated torque driven simulations of gait in OpenSim. Induced acceleration analyses were then used to determine the contributions of the individual actuators located at the relevant degrees of freedoms of the upper and lower limb joints to the forward acceleration of the COM at each time point of the gait simulation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298889/cortical-sensitivity-to-guitar-note-patterns-eeg-entrainment-to-repetition-and-key
#19
David A Bridwell, Emily Leslie, Dakarai Q McCoy, Sergey M Plis, Vince D Calhoun
Music is ubiquitous throughout recent human culture, and many individual's have an innate ability to appreciate and understand music. Our appreciation of music likely emerges from the brain's ability to process a series of repeated complex acoustic patterns. In order to understand these processes further, cortical responses were measured to a series of guitar notes presented with a musical pattern or without a pattern. ERP responses to individual notes were measured using a 24 electrode Bluetooth mobile EEG system (Smarting mBrainTrain) while 13 healthy non-musicians listened to structured (i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298888/reaching-and-grasping-a-glass-of-water-by-locked-in-als-patients-through-a-bci-controlled-humanoid-robot
#20
Rossella Spataro, Antonio Chella, Brendan Allison, Marcello Giardina, Rosario Sorbello, Salvatore Tramonte, Christoph Guger, Vincenzo La Bella
Locked-in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients are fully dependent on caregivers for any daily need. At this stage, basic communication and environmental control may not be possible even with commonly used augmentative and alternative communication devices. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology allows users to modulate brain activity for communication and control of machines and devices, without requiring a motor control. In the last several years, numerous articles have described how persons with ALS could effectively use BCIs for different goals, usually spelling...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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