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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Catherine J Norris, Daniel Creem, Reuben Hendler, Hedy Kober
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00315.].
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Gorka Fraga González, Dirk J A Smit, Melle J W van der Molen, Jurgen Tijms, Cornelis Jan Stam, Eco J C de Geus, Maurits W van der Molen
Developmental dyslexia may involve deficits in functional connectivity across widespread brain networks that enable fluent reading. We investigated the large-scale organization of electroencephalography (EEG) functional networks at rest in 28 dyslexics and 36 typically reading adults. For each frequency band (delta, theta alpha and beta), we assessed functional connectivity strength with the phase lag index (PLI). Network topology was examined using minimum spanning tree (MST) graphs derived from the functional connectivity matrices...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Albulena Shaqiri, James Danckert, Lauren Burnett, Britt Anderson
Statistical learning is the implicit learning of the contingencies between sequential stimuli, typically from mere exposure. It is present from infancy onward, and plays a role in functions from language learning to selective attention. Despite these observations, there are few data on whether statistical learning capacity changes with age or after brain injury. In order to examine how brain injury affects the ability to learn and update statistical representations, we had young control and healthy elder participants, as well as participants with either left or right brain injury, perform an auditory statistical learning task...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Andy W K Yeung
Background: The insula is one of the most researched brain regions with many highly cited papers. However, unlike the literature of other fields, there is currently no study that has identified the 100 most cited papers within the literature of the insula. The aim of the current study was to fill in the knowledge gap by determining which publications concerning the insula have been cited most often, who contributed to them, and what topics they were dealing with. Methods: The Web of Science online database was searched to identify the 100 most cited publications mentioning the insular cortex in their titles, abstracts or keywords...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Giulia Cartocci, Enrica Modica, Dario Rossi, Patrizia Cherubino, Anton Giulio Maglione, Alfredo Colosimo, Arianna Trettel, Marco Mancini, Fabio Babiloni
Tobacco constitutes a global emergency with totally preventable millions of deaths per year and smoking-related illnesses. Public service announcements (PSAs) are the main tool against smoking and by now their efficacy is still assessed through questionnaires and metrics, only months after their circulation. The present study focused on the young population, because at higher risk of developing tobacco addiction, investigating the reaction to the vision of Effective, Ineffective and Awarded antismoking PSAs through: electroencephalography (EEG), autonomic activity variation (Galvanic skin response-GSR- and Heart Rate-HR-) and Eye-Tracking (ET)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
C S E Weston
Amygdala is an intensively researched brain structure involved in social processing and multiple major clinical disorders, but its functions are not well understood. The functions of a brain structure are best hypothesized on the basis of neuroanatomical connectivity findings, and of behavioral, neuroimaging, neuropsychological and physiological findings. Among the heaviest neuroanatomical interconnections of amygdala are those with perirhinal cortex (PRC), but these are little considered in the theoretical literature...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Joshua Klein, Bryan Whitsell, Panagiotis K Artemiadis, Christopher A Buneo
Proprioception refers to the senses of body position, movement, force and effort. Previous studies have demonstrated workspace and direction-dependent differences in arm proprioceptive sensitivity within the horizontal plane. In addition, studies of reaching in the vertical plane have shown that proprioception plays a key role in anticipating arm configuration dependent effects of gravity. This suggests that proprioceptive sensitivity could vary with the direction of arm displacement relative to the gravitational vector, as well as with arm configuration...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Haoran Liu, Chenfeng Zhang, Yannan Ji, Li Yang
The term "resilience" refers to the ability to adapt successfully to stress, trauma and adversity, enabling individuals to avoid stress-induced mental disorders such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. Here, we review evidence from both animal models and humans that is increasingly revealing the neurophysiological and neuropsychological mechanisms that underlie stress susceptibility, as well as active mechanisms underlying the resilience phenotype. Ultimately, this growing understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of resilience should result in the development of novel interventions that specifically target neural circuitry and brain areas that enhance resilience and lead to more effective treatments for stress-induced disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xiaolan Yang, Yiyang Lin, Mei Gao, Xuejun Jin
Studies of search behavior have shown that individuals stop searching earlier and accept a lower point than predicted by the optimal, risk-neutral stopping rule. This behavior may be related to individual risk preferences. Studies have also found correlativity between risk preferences and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). As risk attitude plays a crucial role in search behavior, we studied whether modulating the activity of DLPFC, by using a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) device, can change individual search behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicolas Zink, Wiebke Bensmann, Christian Beste, Ann-Kathrin Stock
The detrimental effects of acute alcohol intoxication and long-term alcohol (ab)use on cognition are well-known. Yet, only little is known about the cognitive effects of an acute alcohol hangover, even though it might affect executive functions associated with workplace performance or driving skills. Given that alcohol hangover may increase the speed of information accumulation, we assessed the behavioral effects of conflict load (induced by a subliminal prime) on cognitive control, as assessed via the Flanker effect...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ryoki Sasaki, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Naofumi Otsuru, Hideaki Onishi
Somatosensory inputs induced by repetitive passive movement (RPM) modulate primary motor cortex (M1) excitability; however, it is unclear whether RPM affects primary somatosensory cortex (S1) excitability. In this study, we investigated whether RPM affects somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and resting state brain oscillation, including alpha and beta bands, depend on RPM frequency. Nineteen healthy subjects participated in this study, and SEPs elicited by peripheral nerve electrical stimulation were recorded from the C3' area in order to assess S1 excitability (Exp...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Klas Ihme, Anirudh Unni, Meng Zhang, Jochem W Rieger, Meike Jipp
Experiencing frustration while driving can harm cognitive processing, result in aggressive behavior and hence negatively influence driving performance and traffic safety. Being able to automatically detect frustration would allow adaptive driver assistance and automation systems to adequately react to a driver's frustration and mitigate potential negative consequences. To identify reliable and valid indicators of driver's frustration, we conducted two driving simulator experiments. In the first experiment, we aimed to reveal facial expressions that indicate frustration in continuous video recordings of the driver's face taken while driving highly realistic simulator scenarios in which frustrated or non-frustrated emotional states were experienced...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Daniele Belvisi, Antonella Conte, Francesca Natalia Cortese, Matteo Tartaglia, Nicoletta Manzo, Pietro Li Voti, Antonio Suppa, Alfredo Berardelli
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between motor surround inhibition (mSI) and the modulation of somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) induced by voluntary movement. Seventeen healthy volunteers participated in the study. To assess mSI, we delivered transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) single pulses to record motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right abductor digiti minimi (ADM; "surround muscle") during brief right little finger flexion. mSI was expressed as the ratio of ADM MEP amplitude during movement to MEP amplitude at rest...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alessandro Scano, Andrea Chiavenna, Matteo Malosio, Lorenzo Molinari Tosatti, Franco Molteni
Background: The efficacy of robot-assisted rehabilitation as a technique for achieving motor recovery is still being debated. The effects of robotic assistance are generally measured using standard clinical assessments. Few studies have investigated the value of human-centered instrumental analysis, taking the modular organization of the human neuromotor system into account in assessing how stroke survivors interact with robotic set-ups. In this paper, muscle synergy analysis was coupled with clustering procedures to elucidate the effect of human-robot interaction on the spatial and temporal features, and directional tuning of motor modules during robot-assisted movements...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Juan L Terrasa, Pedro Montoya, Ana M González-Roldán, Carolina Sitges
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00280.].
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xiaoyan Wu, Pengfei Xu, Yue-Jia Luo, Chunliang Feng
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a powerful regulator of various social behaviors across many species. However, seemingly contradictory effects of AVP have been found in both animal and human studies, e.g., promoting aggression on one hand and facilitating social bonding on the other hand. Therefore, we hypothesize that the role of AVP in social behaviors is context-dependent. To this end, we examined the modulatory effect of AVP on male's behavioral and neural responses to infant and adult cues. After intranasal and double-blind treatment of AVP or placebo, male participants were asked to rate their subjective approaching willingness to infant and adult faces in specific contexts informed by cue words while EEG recording...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Andy W K Yeung, Tazuko K Goto, W Keung Leung
Background: From time to time, neuroimaging research findings receive press coverage and attention by the general public. Scientific articles therefore should be written in a readable manner to facilitate knowledge translation and dissemination. However, no published readability report on neuroimaging articles like those published in education, medical and marketing journals is available. As a start, this study therefore aimed to evaluate the readability of the most-cited neuroimaging articles. Methods: The 100 most-cited articles in neuroimaging identified in a recent study by Kim et al...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Lei Qiao, Lei Xu, Xianwei Che, Lijie Zhang, Yadan Li, Gui Xue, Hong Li, Antao Chen
It has been shown that reward motivation can facilitate proactive control, a cognitive control mode that is characterized of prior preparation and sustained holding of the goal-relevant information in working memory. However, it remains to be established the neural networks that may be involved in this promotion effect. In this study, participants underwent the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) that measures relative proactive control during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. We employed independent component analysis to decompose multiple brain networks and identified the task related network...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Emily L L Sin, R Shao, Xiujuan Geng, Valda Cho, Tatia M C Lee
Rumination is a trait that includes two subcomponents, namely brooding and reflective pondering, respectively construed as maladaptive and adaptive response styles to negative experiences. Existing evidence indicates that rumination in general is associated with structural and functional differences in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, conclusive evidence on the specific neural structural basis of each of the two subcomponents is lacking. In this voxel-based morphometry study, we investigated the independent and specific neural structural basis of brooding and reflective pondering in 30 healthy young adults, who belonged to high or low brooding or reflective pondering groups...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Idit Shalev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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