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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Yasuto Inukai, Kei Saito, Ryoki Sasaki, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Naofumi Otsuru, Hideaki Onishi
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a representative non-invasive brain stimulation method (NIBS). tDCS increases cortical excitability not only in healthy individuals, but also in stroke patients where it contributes to motor function improvement. Recently, two additional types of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) methods have been introduced that may also prove beneficial for stimulating cortical excitability; these are transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Elisabeth A Karuza, Zuzanna Z Balewski, Roy H Hamilton, John D Medaglia, Nathan Tardiff, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
In the cognitive domain, enormous variation in methodological approach prompts questions about the generalizability of behavioral findings obtained from studies of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). To determine the impact of common variations in approach, we systematically manipulated two key stimulation parameters-current polarity and intensity-and assessed their impact on a task of inhibitory control (the Eriksen Flanker). Ninety participants were randomly assigned to one of nine experimental groups: three stimulation conditions (anode, sham, cathode) crossed with three intensity levels (1...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jing Wang, Haixian Wang
Node definition is a very important issue in human brain network analysis and functional connectivity studies. Typically, the atlases generated from meta-analysis, random criteria, and structural criteria are utilized as nodes in related applications. However, these atlases are not originally designed for such purposes and may not be suitable. In this study, we combined normalized cut (Ncut) and a supervoxel method called simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) to parcellate whole brain resting-state fMRI data in order to generate appropriate brain atlases...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Masumi Wakita
Observing another person's piano play and listening to a melody interact with the observer's execution of piano play. This interaction is thought to occur because the execution of musical-action and the perception of both musical-action and musical-sound share a common representation in which the frontoparietal network is involved. However, it is unclear whether the perceptions of observed piano play and listened musical sound use a common neural resource. The present study used near-infrared spectroscopy to determine whether the interaction between the perception of musical-action and musical-sound sequences appear in the left prefrontal area...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Normand Teasdale, Martin Simoneau, Lisa Hudon, Mathieu Germain Robitaille, Thierry Moszkowicz, Denis Laurendeau, Louis Bherer, Simon Duchesne, Carol Hudon
The driving performance of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is suboptimal when compared to healthy older adults. It is expected that the driving will worsen with the progression of the cognitive decline and thus, whether or not these individuals should continue to drive is a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to provide support to the claim that individuals with MCI can benefit from a training program and improve their overall driving performance in a driving simulator. Fifteen older drivers with MCI participated in five training sessions in a simulator (over a 21-day period) and in a 6-month recall session...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sahil Bajaj, Stephen N Housley, David Wu, Mukesh Dhamala, G A James, Andrew J Butler
Balance of motor network activity between the two brain hemispheres after stroke is crucial for functional recovery. Several studies have extensively studied the role of the affected brain hemisphere to better understand changes in motor network activity following stroke. Very few studies have examined the role of the unaffected brain hemisphere and confirmed the test-retest reliability of connectivity measures on unaffected hemisphere. We recorded blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals from nine stroke survivors with hemiparesis of the left or right hand...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Simone Gazzellini, Maria Dettori, Francesca Amadori, Barbara Paoli, Antonio Napolitano, Francesco Mancini, Cristina Ottaviani
Recent data suggests that several psychopathological conditions are associated with alterations in the variability of behavioral and physiological responses. Pathological worry, defined as the cognitive representation of a potential threat, has been associated with reduced variability of heart beat oscillations (i.e., decreased heart rate variability; HRV) and lapses of attention indexed by reaction times (RTs). Clinical populations with attention deficit show RTs oscillation around 0.05 and 0.01 Hz when performing a sustained attention task...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Melanie T Kungl, Rainer Leyh, Gottfried Spangler
Frontal and parietal asymmetries have repeatedly been shown to be related to specific functional mechanisms involved in emotion regulation. From a developmental perspective, attachment representations based on experiences with the caregiver are theorized to serve regulatory functions and influence how individuals deal with emotionally challenging situations throughout the life span. This study aimed to investigate neural substrates of emotion regulation by assessing state- and trait dependent EEG asymmetries in secure, insecure-dismissing and insecure-preoccupied subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marcelo L Berthier, Ignacio Moreno-Torres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Akshay R Maggu, Fang Liu, Mark Antoniou, Patrick C M Wong
Across time, languages undergo changes in phonetic, syntactic, and semantic dimensions. Social, cognitive, and cultural factors contribute to sound change, a phenomenon in which the phonetics of a language undergo changes over time. Individuals who misperceive and produce speech in a slightly divergent manner (called innovators) contribute to variability in the society, eventually leading to sound change. However, the cause of variability in these individuals is still unknown. In this study, we examined whether such misperceptions are represented in neural processes of the auditory system...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ariane Wiegand, Vanessa Nieratschker, Christian Plewnia
High inter-individual variability substantially challenges the explanatory power of studies on the modulation of cognitive functions with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). These differences in responsivity have been linked with a critical state-dependency of stimulation effects. In general, genetic diversity is a decisive biological basis of variations in neuronal network functioning. Therefore, it is most likely that inter-individual variability of tDCS-induced changes in cognitive functions is due to specific interactions between genetically determined network properties and the specific type of stimulation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Huiyan Lin, Miriam Mueller-Bardorff, Martin Mothes-Lasch, Christine Buff, Leonie Brinkmann, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Straube
For several stimulus categories (e.g., pictures, odors, and words), the arousal of both negative and positive stimuli has been shown to modulate amygdalar activation. In contrast, previous studies did not observe similar amygdalar effects in response to negative and positive facial expressions with varying intensity of facial expressions. Reasons for this discrepancy may be related to analytical strategies, experimental design and stimuli. Therefore, the present study aimed at re-investigating whether the intensity of facial expressions modulates amygdalar activation by circumventing limitations of previous research...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Mikkel M Beck, Rune R Lind, Svend S Geertsen, Christian Ritz, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Jacob Wienecke
Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether fine or gross motor activity integrated into math lessons (i.e., motor-enrichment) could improve children's mathematical performance. Methods: A 6-week within school cluster-randomized intervention study investigated the effects of motor-enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tzu-Yu Hsu, Chi-Hung Juan, Philip Tseng
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been extensively used to examine whether neural activities can be selectively increased or decreased with manipulations of current polarity. Recently, the field has reevaluated the traditional anodal-increase and cathodal-decrease assumption due to the growing number of mixed findings that report the effects of the opposite directions. Therefore, the directionality of tDCS polarities and how it affects each individual still remain unclear. In this study, we used a visual working memory (VWM) paradigm and systematically manipulated tDCS polarities, types of different independent baseline measures, and task difficulty to investigate how these factors interact to determine the outcome effect of tDCS...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rolf Verleger, Mechthild Haake, Alexandra Baur, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
When Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) are measured, participants are required to voluntarily perform a predefined number of identical movements, with varying intervals between movements, exceeding some obligatory minimum interval. Participants might cope with these demands on timing by installing a slow, broadly tuned rhythm of activation, serving as an internal trigger for executing movements in time. The BP might reflect the rising phase of this activation, culminating at the movement. If so (i) not only should BP amplitudes become larger, but BPs should also have their onsets earlier before movements when longer minimum intervals are required between movements (Experiment 1)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rodrigo S Fernández, Luz Bavassi, Laura Kaczer, Cecilia Forcato, María E Pedreira
Following the presentation of a reminder, consolidated memories become reactivated followed by a process of re-stabilization, which is referred to as reconsolidation. The most common behavioral tool used to reveal this process is interference produced by new learning shortly after memory reactivation. Memory interference is defined as a decrease in memory retrieval, the effect is generated when new information impairs an acquired memory. In general, the target memory and the interference task used are the same...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Annie J Hill, Hugh M Breslin
Asynchronous telerehabilitation in which computer-based interventions are remotely monitored and adapted offline is an emerging service delivery model in the rehabilitation of communication disorders. The asynchronous nature of this model may hold a benefit over its synchronous counterpart by eliminating scheduling issues and thus improving efficiency in a healthcare landscape of constrained resource allocation. The design of asynchronous telerehabilitation platforms should therefore ensure efficiency and flexibility...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ignacio Moreno-Torres, Peter Mariën, Guadalupe Dávila, Marcelo L Berthier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yong M Kwon, Hyeok G Kwon, Jessica Rose, Su M Son
Objectives: Corticospinal tract (CST) is the most important tract in motor control. However, there was no study about the change of CST location with aging. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we attempted to investigate the change of CST location at cortex, corona radiata (CR) and posterior limb of internal capsule (IC) level with aging in typically developing children. Methods: We recruited 76 healthy pediatric subjects (range; 0-19 years). According to the result of DTT, the location of CST at cortex level was classified as follows; prefrontal cortex (PFC), PFC with Premotor cortex (PMC), PMC, PMC with primary motor cortex (M1), M1, M1 with Primary sensory cortex (S1)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Matthew J Bancroft, Brian L Day
Postural activity normally precedes the lift of a foot from the ground when taking a step, but its function is unclear. The throw-and-catch hypothesis of human gait proposes that the pre-step activity is organized to generate momentum for the body to fall ballistically along a specific trajectory during the step. The trajectory is appropriate for the stepping foot to land at its intended location while at the same time being optimally placed to catch the body and regain balance. The hypothesis therefore predicts a strong coupling between the pre-step activity and step location...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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