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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326577/does-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-combined-with-peripheral-electrical-stimulation-have-an-additive-effect-in-the-control-of-hip-joint-osteonecrosis-pain-associated-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-protocol-for-a-one-session-double-blind-block-randomized
#1
Tiago da Silva Lopes, Wellington Dos Santos Silva, Sânzia B Ribeiro, Camila A Figueiredo, Fernanda Q Campbell, Gildasio de Cerqueira Daltro, Antônio Valenzuela, Pedro Montoya, Rita de C S Lucena, Abrahão F Baptista
Chronic pain in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is probably related to maladaptive plasticity of brain areas involved in nociceptive processing. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES) can modulate cortical excitability and help to control chronic pain. Studies have shown that combined use of tDCS and PES has additive effects. However, to date, no study investigated additive effects of these neuromodulatory techniques on chronic pain in patients with SCD. This protocol describes a study aiming to assess whether combined use of tDCS and PES more effectively alleviate pain in patients with SCD compared to single use of each technique...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326576/dynamic-changes-in-upper-limb-corticospinal-excitability-during-a-pro-anti-saccade-double-choice-task
#2
Luca Falciati, Claudio Maioli
Under natural behavioral conditions, visually guided eye movements are linked to direction-specific modulations of cortico-spinal system (CSS) excitability in upper-limb muscles, even in absence of a manual response. These excitability changes have been shown to be compatible with a covert motor program encoding a manual movement toward the same target of the eyes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether this implicit oculo-manual coupling is enforced following every saccade execution or it depends on the behavioral context...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326575/posture-used-in-fmri-pet-elicits-reduced-cortical-activity-and-altered-hemispheric-asymmetry-with-respect-to-sitting-position-an-eeg-resting-state-study
#3
Chiara Spironelli, Alessandro Angrilli
Horizontal body position is a posture typically adopted for sleeping or during brain imaging recording in both neuroscience experiments and diagnostic situations. Recent literature showed how this position and similar ones with head down are associated to reduced plasticity, impaired pain and emotional responses. The present study aimed at further understanding the decrease of cortical activity associated with horizontal body position by measuring high-frequency EEG bands - typically associated with high-level cognitive activation - in a resting state experimental condition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326574/response-commentary-skilled-bimanual-training-drives-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#4
COMMENT
Ya-Ching Hung, Kathleen M Friel, Andrew M Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326573/two-processes-in-early-bimanual-motor-skill-learning
#5
Maral Yeganeh Doost, Jean-Jacques Orban de Xivry, Benoît Bihin, Yves Vandermeeren
Most daily activities are bimanual and their efficient performance requires learning and retention of bimanual coordination. Despite in-depth knowledge of the various stages of motor skill learning in general, how new bimanual coordination control policies are established is still unclear. We designed a new cooperative bimanual task in which subjects had to move a cursor across a complex path (a circuit) as fast and as accurately as possible through coordinated bimanual movements. By looking at the transfer of the skill between different circuits and by looking at training with varying circuits, we identified two processes in early bimanual motor learning...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326572/differential-effects-of-carbohydrates-on-behavioral-and-neuroelectric-indices-of-selective-attention-in-preadolescent-children
#6
Anne M Walk, Lauren B Raine, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Naiman A Khan, Charles H Hillman
The importance of breakfast consumption for ideal cognitive performance has received much attention in recent years, although research on the topic has yielded mixed results. The present study utilized event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited during a modified flanker task to investigate the neuroelectric implications of receiving different mixed macronutrient beverages after an overnight fast. A repeated measures design was employed whereby preadolescent participants (9-10 years of age) completed cognitive testing while ERPs were collected during two non-consecutive testing sessions, one in which they received one of three treatment beverages consisting of mixed-macronutrient formulations (either Carbohydrate Blend, Sucrose, Maltodextrin) and the other in which they received a placebo drink containing Sucralose...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326571/the-mindfulbreather-motion-guided-mindfulness
#7
Tom B Mole, Julieta Galante, Iona C Walker, Anna F Dawson, Laura A Hannah, Pieter Mackeith, Mark Ainslie, Peter B Jones
For millennia, humans have focused their attention on the breath to develop mindfulness, but finding a scientific way to harness mindful breathing has proven elusive. Existing attempts to objectively measure and feedback on mindfulness have relied on specialist external hardware including electroencephalograms or respirometers that have been impractical for the majority of people learning to meditate. Consequently, training in the key skill of breath-awareness has lacked practical objective measures and guidance to enhance training...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326570/spinal-cord-excitability-and-sprint-performance-are-enhanced-by-sensory-stimulation-during-cycling
#8
Gregory E P Pearcey, Steven A Noble, Bridget Munro, E Paul Zehr
Spinal cord excitability, as assessed by modulation of Hoffmann (H-) reflexes, is reduced with fatiguing isometric contractions. Furthermore, spinal cord excitability is reduced during non-fatiguing arm and leg cycling. Presynaptic inhibition of Ia terminals is believed to contribute to this suppression of spinal cord excitability. Electrical stimulation to cutaneous nerves reduces Ia presynaptic inhibition, which facilitates spinal cord excitability, and this facilitation is present during arm cycling. Although it has been suggested that reducing presynaptic inhibition may prolong fatiguing contractions, it is unknown whether sensory stimulation can alter the effects of fatiguing exercise on performance or spinal cord excitability...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326569/construct-validity-and-reliability-of-the-sara-gait-and-posture-sub-scale-in-early-onset-ataxia
#9
Tjitske F Lawerman, Rick Brandsma, Renate J Verbeek, Johannes H van der Hoeven, Roelineke J Lunsing, Hubertus P H Kremer, Deborah A Sival
Aim: In children, gait and posture assessment provides a crucial marker for the early characterization, surveillance and treatment evaluation of early onset ataxia (EOA). For reliable data entry of studies targeting at gait and posture improvement, uniform quantitative biomarkers are necessary. Until now, the pediatric test construct of gait and posture scores of the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia sub-scale (SARA) is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to validate the construct validity and reliability of the pediatric (SARAGAIT/POSTURE) sub-scale...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321736/commentary-musicians-online-performance-during-auditory-and-visual-statistical-learning-tasks
#10
COMMENT
Federica Menchinelli, Petra M J Pollux, Simon J Durrant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311883/altered-volume-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-habenula-in-schizophrenia
#11
Lei Zhang, Hao Wang, Shuxin Luan, Shaojun Yang, Zhuo Wang, Jinhui Wang, Hua Zhao
The pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCH) is associated with the dysfunction of monoamine neurotransmitters, the synthesis and release of which are mainly regulated by a key structure, the habenular (Hb) nucleus. However, little is known regarding whether SCH is associated with structural or functional alterations in the Hb. In this study, we combined structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the changes in volume and functional connectivity of the Hb in 15 patients with SCH vs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311882/editorial-can-t-get-you-out-of-my-head-brain-body-interactions-in-perseverative-cognition
#12
EDITORIAL
Cristina Ottaviani, Julian F Thayer, Bart Verkuil, Hugo D Critchley, Jos F Brosschot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311881/editorial-embodying-the-self-neurophysiological-perspectives-on-the-psychopathology-of-anomalous-bodily-experiences
#13
EDITORIAL
Mariateresa Sestito, Andrea Raballo, Giovanni Stanghellini, Vittorio Gallese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311880/neural-habituation-to-painful-stimuli-is-modulated-by-dopamine-evidence-from-a-pharmacological-fmri-study
#14
Eva M Bauch, Christina Andreou, Vanessa H Rausch, Nico Bunzeck
In constantly changing environments, it is crucial to adaptively respond to threatening events. In particular, painful stimuli are not only processed in terms of their absolute intensity, but also with respect to their context. While contextual pain processing can simply entail the repeated processing of information (i.e., habituation), it can, in a more complex form, be expressed through predictions of magnitude before the delivery of nociceptive information (i.e., adaptive coding). Here, we investigated the brain regions involved in the adaptation to nociceptive electrical stimulation as well as their link to dopaminergic neurotransmission (placebo/haloperidol)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311879/food-related-odors-activate-dopaminergic-brain-areas
#15
Agnieszka Sorokowska, Katherina Schoen, Cornelia Hummel, Pengfei Han, Jonathan Warr, Thomas Hummel
Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving carefully preselected odors of edible and non-edible substances...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311878/default-network-activity-is-associated-with-better-performance-in-a-vigilance-task
#16
Carsten Bogler, Alexander Vowinkel, Paul Zhutovsky, John-Dylan Haynes
When attention has to be maintained over prolonged periods performance slowly fluctuates and errors can occur. It has been shown that lapses of attention are correlated with BOLD signals in frontal and parietal cortex. This raises the question how attentional fluctuations are linked to the fronto-parietal default network. Because the attentional state fluctuates slowly we expect that potential links between attentional fluctuations and brain activity should be observable on longer time scales and importantly also before the execution of the task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311877/quantifying-the-beauty-of-words-a-neurocognitive-poetics-perspective
#17
Arthur M Jacobs
In this paper I would like to pave the ground for future studies in Computational Stylistics and (Neuro-)Cognitive Poetics by describing procedures for predicting the subjective beauty of words. A set of eight tentative word features is computed via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA) and a novel metric for quantifying word beauty, the aesthetic potential is proposed. Application of machine learning algorithms fed with this QNA data shows that a classifier of the decision tree family excellently learns to split words into beautiful vs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311876/what-does-eye-blink-rate-variability-dynamics-tell-us-about-cognitive-performance
#18
Rafal Paprocki, Artem Lenskiy
Cognitive performance is defined as the ability to utilize knowledge, attention, memory, and working memory. In this study, we briefly discuss various markers that have been proposed to predict cognitive performance. Next, we develop a novel approach to characterize cognitive performance by analyzing eye-blink rate variability dynamics. Our findings are based on a sample of 24 subjects. The subjects were given a 5-min resting period prior to a 10-min IQ test. During both stages, eye blinks were recorded from Fp1 and Fp2 electrodes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311875/electroencephalography-based-analysis-of-working-memory-load-and-affective-valence-in-an-n-back-task-with-emotional-stimuli
#19
Sebastian Grissmann, Josef Faller, Christian Scharinger, Martin Spüler, Peter Gerjets
Most brain-based measures of the electroencephalogram (EEG) are used in highly controlled lab environments and only focus on narrow mental states (e.g., working memory load). However, we assume that outside the lab complex multidimensional mental states are evoked. This could potentially create interference between EEG signatures used for identification of specific mental states. In this study, we aimed to investigate more realistic conditions and therefore induced a combination of working memory load and affective valence to reveal potential interferences in EEG measures...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311874/effect-of-explicit-evaluation-on-neural-connectivity-related-to-listening-to-unfamiliar-music
#20
Chao Liu, Elvira Brattico, Basel Abu-Jamous, Carlos S Pereira, Thomas Jacobsen, Asoke K Nandi
People can experience different emotions when listening to music. A growing number of studies have investigated the brain structures and neural connectivities associated with perceived emotions. However, very little is known about the effect of an explicit act of judgment on the neural processing of emotionally-valenced music. In this study, we adopted the novel consensus clustering paradigm, called binarisation of consensus partition matrices (Bi-CoPaM), to study whether and how the conscious aesthetic evaluation of the music would modulate brain connectivity networks related to emotion and reward processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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