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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Hyeon Seo, Sung C Jun
Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) is an appealing method to treat neurological disorders. To achieve optimal stimulation effects and a better understanding of the underlying brain mechanisms, neuroscientists have proposed computational modeling studies for a decade. Recently, multi-scale models that combine a volume conductor head model and multi-compartmental models of cortical neurons have been developed to predict stimulation effects on the macroscopic and microscopic levels more precisely. As the need for better computational models continues to increase, we overview here recent multi-scale modeling studies; we focused on approaches that coupled a simplified or high-resolution volume conductor head model and multi-compartmental models of cortical neurons, and constructed realistic fiber models using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Eric Moulton, Cécile Galléa, Claire Kemlin, Romain Valabregue, Marc A Maier, Pavel Lindberg, Charlotte Rosso
Structural and functional differences are known to exist within the cortical sensorimotor networks with respect to the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Similarly, the cerebellum, a key structure in the sensorimotor network with its cerebello-cortical connections, has been reported to respond differently when using the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Several groups have already investigated causal interactions during diverse motor paradigms using effective connectivity but few have studied the larger visuomotor network, including key structures such as the parietal cortex and the cerebellum, with both hands...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Robin Souron, Thibault Besson, Chris J McNeil, Thomas Lapole, Guillaume Y Millet
Local vibration (LV) has been recently validated as an efficient training method to improve muscle strength. Understanding the acute effects may help elucidate the mechanism(s). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a single bout of prolonged LV on knee extensor force production and corticospinal responsiveness of vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in healthy young and old adults. Across two visits, 23 adult subjects (20-75 years old) performed pre- and post-test measurements, separated by 30-min of either rest (control; CON) or LV...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yan Li, Wei Bian, Peder Larson, Jason C Crane, Prasanna Parvathaneni, Srikantan Nagarajan, Sarah J Nelson
Purpose: To evaluate spectral acquisition processes important for obtaining reliable and reproducible γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signals from volunteers in brain regions that are frequently used for neuroimaging studies [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), superior temporal gyrus, and caudate] at ultra-high field. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers were studied using a single-voxel Point-RESolved Spectrosocpy (PRESS) sequence with band selective inversion with gradient dephasing pulses (BASING). The editing pulse was designed to be symmetrically placed at 2...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Oksana Zinchenko, Vasily Klucharev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Maojin Liang, Junpeng Zhang, Jiahao Liu, Yuebo Chen, Yuexin Cai, Xianjun Wang, Junbo Wang, Xueyuan Zhang, Suijun Chen, Xianghui Li, Ling Chen, Yiqing Zheng
Activation of the auditory cortex by visual stimuli has been reported in deaf children. In cochlear implant (CI) patients, a residual, more intense cortical activation in the frontotemporal areas in response to photo stimuli was found to be positively associated with poor auditory performance. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which visual processing in CI users activates the auditory-associated cortex during the period after cochlear implantation as well as its relation to CI outcomes. Twenty prelingually deaf children with CI were recruited...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Mahta Karimpoor, Nathan W Churchill, Fred Tam, Corinne E Fischer, Tom A Schweizer, Simon J Graham
The Trail Making Test (TMT) is widely used for assessing executive function, frontal lobe abilities, and visual motor skills. Part A of this pen-and-paper test (TMT-A) involves linking numbers randomly distributed in space, in ascending order. Part B (TMT-B) alternates between linking numbers and letters. TMT-B is more demanding than TMT-A, but the mental processing that supports the performance of this test remains incompletely understood. Functional MRI (fMRI) may help to clarify the relationship between TMT performance and brain activity, but providing an environment that supports real-world pen-and-paper interactions during fMRI is challenging...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kyoung-Hyun Lee, Asheeba Baksh, Alyssa Bryant, Mollie McGowan, Ryan McMillan, Raymond K Chong
Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations - from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Thomas Grice-Jackson, Hugo D Critchley, Michael J Banissy, Jamie Ward
Around a quarter of the population report "mirror pain" experiences in which bodily sensations of pain are elicited in response to viewing another person in pain. We have shown that this population of responders further fractionates into two distinct subsets (Sensory/localized and Affective/General), which presents an important opportunity to investigate the neural underpinnings of individual differences in empathic responses. Our study uses fMRI to determine how regions involved in the perception of pain interact with regions implicated in empathic regulation in these two groups, relative to controls...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sigal Tal, Amir Hadanny, Efrat Sasson, Gil Suzin, Shai Efrati
Background: Recent clinical studies in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims suffering chronic neurological injury present evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can induce neuroplasticity. Objective: To assess the neurotherapeutic effect of HBOT on prolonged post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) due to TBI, using brain microstructure imaging. Methods: Fifteen patients afflicted with PPCS were treated with 60 daily HBOT sessions. Imaging evaluation was performed using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced (DSC) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) MR sequences...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Giovanna Lagravinese, Ambra Bisio, Alessia Raffo De Ferrari, Elisa Pelosin, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove, Laura Avanzino
Observing other people in action activates the "mirror neuron system" that serves for action comprehension and prediction. Recent evidence suggests that this function requires a high level codification triggered not only by components of motor behavior, but also by the environment where the action is embedded. An overlooked component of action perceiving is the one related to the emotional information provided by the context where the observed action takes place. Indeed, whether valence and arousal associated to an emotion might exert an influence on motor system activation during action observation has not been assessed so far...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sangtae Ahn, Sung C Jun
Multi-modal integration, which combines multiple neurophysiological signals, is gaining more attention for its potential to supplement single modality's drawbacks and yield reliable results by extracting complementary features. In particular, integration of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is cost-effective and portable, and therefore is a fascinating approach to brain-computer interface (BCI). However, outcomes from the integration of these two modalities have yielded only modest improvement in BCI performance because of the lack of approaches to integrate the two different features...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicoletta Nicolaou, Asad Malik, Ian Daly, James Weaver, Faustina Hwang, Alexis Kirke, Etienne B Roesch, Duncan Williams, Eduardo R Miranda, Slawomir J Nasuto
Beat perception is fundamental to how we experience music, and yet the mechanism behind this spontaneous building of the internal beat representation is largely unknown. Existing findings support links between the tempo (speed) of the beat and enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) activity at tempo-related frequencies, but there are no studies looking at how tempo may affect the underlying long-range interactions between EEG activity at different electrodes. The present study investigates these long-range interactions using EEG activity recorded from 21 volunteers listening to music stimuli played at 4 different tempi (50, 100, 150 and 200 beats per minute)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Solveig Næss, Chaitanya Chintaluri, Torbjørn V Ness, Anders M Dale, Gaute T Einevoll, Daniel K Wójcik
The EEG signal is generated by electrical brain cell activity, often described in terms of current dipoles. By applying EEG forward models we can compute the contribution from such dipoles to the electrical potential recorded by EEG electrodes. Forward models are key both for generating understanding and intuition about the neural origin of EEG signals as well as inverse modeling, i.e., the estimation of the underlying dipole sources from recorded EEG signals. Different models of varying complexity and biological detail are used in the field...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Taeho Kim, Cornelia Frank, Thomas Schack
Action observation training and motor imagery training have independently been studied and considered as an effective training strategy for improving motor skill learning. However, comparative studies of the two training strategies are relatively few. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of action observation training and motor imagery training on the development of mental representation structure and golf putting performance as well as the relation between the changes in mental representation structure and skill performance during the early learning stage...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Günter Meinhardt, Bozana Meinhardt-Injac, Malte Persike
Some years ago Cheung et al. (2008) proposed the complete design (CD) for measuring the failure of selective attention in composite objects. Since the CD is a fully balanced design, analysis of response bias may reveal potential effects of the experimental manipulation, the stimulus material, and/or attributes of the observers. Here we used the CD to prove whether external features modulate perception of internal features with the context congruency paradigm (Nachson et al., 1995; Meinhardt-Injac et al., 2010) in a larger sample of N = 303 subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Can Jiao, Ting Wang, Xiaozhe Peng, Fang Cui
Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is associated with deficits in social communication and avoidance of social contact. It has been hypothesized that people with IAD may have an impaired capacity for empathy. The purpose of the current study was to examine the processing of empathy for others' pain in IADs. Event-related potentials produced in response to pictures showing others in painful and non-painful situations were recorded in 16 IAD subjects and 16 healthy controls (HCs). The N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential components were compared between the two groups...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Careesa C Liu, Sujoy Ghosh Hajra, Teresa P L Cheung, Xiaowei Song, Ryan C N D'Arcy
Spontaneous blinking occurs 15-20 times per minute. Although blinking has often been associated with its physiological role of corneal lubrication, there is now increasing behavioral evidence suggesting that blinks are also modulated by cognitive processes such as attention and information processing. Recent low-density electroencephalography (EEG) studies have reported so-called blink-related oscillations (BROs) associated with spontaneous blinking at rest. Delta-band (0.5-4 Hz) BROs are thought to originate from the precuneus region involved in environmental monitoring and awareness, with potential clinical utility in evaluation of disorders of consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tom Maudrich, Rouven Kenville, Jöran Lepsien, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert, Christopher J Steele
During unimanual motor tasks, muscle activity may not be restricted to the contracting muscle, but rather occurs involuntarily in the contralateral resting limb, even in healthy individuals. This phenomenon has been referred to as mirror electromyographic activity (MEMG). To date, the physiological (non-pathological) form of MEMG has been observed predominately in upper extremities (UE), while remaining sparsely described in lower extremities (LE). Accordingly, evidence regarding the underlying mechanisms and modulation capability of MEMG, i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Haruki Okawa, Kaori Suefusa, Toshihisa Tanaka
A method of reconstructing perceived or imagined music by analyzing brain activity has not yet been established. As a first step toward developing such a method, we aimed to reconstruct the imagery of rhythm, which is one element of music. It has been reported that a periodic electroencephalogram (EEG) response is elicited while a human imagines a binary or ternary meter on a musical beat. However, it is not clear whether or not brain activity synchronizes with fully imagined beat and meter without auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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