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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522968/the-effect-of-visual-spatial-and-temporal-manipulations-on-embodiment-and-action
#1
Natasha Ratcliffe, Roger Newport
The feeling of owning and controlling the body relies on the integration and interpretation of sensory input from multiple sources with respect to existing representations of the bodily self. Illusion paradigms involving multisensory manipulations have demonstrated that while the senses of ownership and agency are strongly related, these two components of bodily experience may be dissociable and differentially affected by alterations to sensory input. Importantly, however, much of the current literature has focused on the application of sensory manipulations to external objects or virtual representations of the self that are visually incongruent with the viewer's own body and which are not part of the existing body representation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522967/sources-of-phoneme-errors-in-repetition-perseverative-neologistic-and-lesion-patterns-in-jargon-aphasia
#2
Emma Pilkington, James Keidel, Luke T Kendrick, James D Saddy, Karen Sage, Holly Robson
This study examined patterns of neologistic and perseverative errors during word repetition in fluent Jargon aphasia. The principal hypotheses accounting for Jargon production indicate that poor activation of a target stimulus leads to weakly activated target phoneme segments, which are outcompeted at the phonological encoding level. Voxel-lesion symptom mapping studies of word repetition errors suggest a breakdown in the translation from auditory-phonological analysis to motor activation. Behavioral analyses of repetition data were used to analyse the target relatedness (Phonological Overlap Index: POI) of neologistic errors and patterns of perseveration in 25 individuals with Jargon aphasia...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522966/barratt-impulsivity-in-healthy-adults-is-associated-with-higher-gray-matter-concentration-in-the-parietal-occipital-cortex-that-represents-peripheral-visual-field
#3
Jaime S Ide, Hsiang C Tung, Cheng-Ta Yang, Yuan-Chi Tseng, Chiang-Shan R Li
Impulsivity is a personality trait of clinical importance. Extant research focuses on fronto-striatal mechanisms of impulsivity and how executive functions are compromised in impulsive individuals. Imaging studies employing voxel based morphometry highlighted impulsivity-related changes in gray matter concentrations in a wide array of cerebral structures. In particular, whereas prefrontal cortical areas appear to show structural alterations in individuals with a neuropsychiatric condition, the findings are less than consistent in the healthy population...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515687/effects-of-passive-finger-movement-on-cortical-excitability
#4
Masaki Nakagawa, Ryoki Sasaki, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Hideaki Onishi
This study examined the effects of joint angle and passive movement direction on corticospinal excitability. The subjects were 14 healthy adults from whom consent could be obtained. We performed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, F-wave and M-wave at 0° and 20° adduction during adduction or abduction movement, in the range of movement from 10° abduction to 30° adduction. In Experiment 2, MEPs were measured at static 0° and 20° adduction during passive adduction from 10° adduction to 30° adduction and static 20° adduction...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515686/innate-and-cultural-spatial-time-a-developmental-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Barbara Magnani, Alessandro Musetti
We reviewed literature to understand when a spatial map for time is available in the brain. We carefully defined the concepts of metrical map of time and of conceptual representation of time as the mental time line (MTL) in order to formulate our position. It is that both metrical map and conceptual representation of time are spatial in nature. The former should be innate, related to motor/implicit timing, it should represent all magnitudes with an analogic and bi-dimensional structure. The latter MTL should be learned, available at about 8-10 years-old and related to cognitive/explicit time...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515685/pupillary-response-to-negative-emotional-stimuli-is-differentially-affected-in-meditation-practitioners
#6
Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati, Enzo P Brunetti, Carmen Cordero, Pedro E Maldonado
Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP) and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM)) differ, reflecting different emotional processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512401/increased-gamma-connectivity-in-the-human-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-bereitschaftspotential
#7
Kisun Kim, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung
The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is a slow negative cortical potential preceding voluntary movement. Since movement preparation is dependent upon the synchronous activity of a variety of neurons, BP may develop through the exchange of information among motor-related neurons. However, the relationship between BP and information flow is not yet well-known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how the connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) changes during the occurrence of BP. Electrocorticography (ECoG) was recorded in five patients with epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503144/rigid-ankle-foot-orthosis-deteriorates-mediolateral-balance-control-and-vertical-braking-during-gait-initiation
#8
Arnaud Delafontaine, Olivier Gagey, Silvia Colnaghi, Manh-Cuong Do, Jean-Louis Honeine
Rigid ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are commonly used for impeding foot drop during the swing phase of gait. They also reduce pain and improve gait kinematics in patients with weakness or loss of integrity of ankle-foot complex structures due to various pathological conditions. However, this comes at the price of constraining ankle joint mobility, which might affect propulsive force generation and balance control. The present study examined the effects of wearing an AFO on biomechanical variables and electromyographic activity of tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during gait initiation (GI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503143/impairments-of-motor-function-while-multitasking-in-hiv
#9
Sharif I Kronemer, Jordan A Mandel, Ned C Sacktor, Cherie L Marvel
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503142/brain-gray-matter-atrophy-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#10
Qian Chen, Weimin Zheng, Xin Chen, Lu Wan, Wen Qin, Zhigang Qi, Nan Chen, Kuncheng Li
The aim of this study was to explore possible changes in whole brain gray matter volume (GMV) after spinal cord injury (SCI) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and to study their associations with the injury duration, severity, and clinical variables. In total, 21 patients with SCI (10 with complete and 11 with incomplete SCI) and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The 3D high-resolution T1-weighted structural images of all subjects were obtained using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Disease duration and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Scale scores were also obtained from each patient...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503141/addiction-as-an-attachment-disorder-white-matter-impairment-is-linked-to-increased-negative-affective-states-in-poly-drug-use
#11
Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, Michaela Hiebler-Ragger, Karl Koschutnig, Jürgen Fuchshuber, Sebastian Tscheschner, Maria Url, Jolana Wagner-Skacel, Eva Z Reininghaus, Ilona Papousek, Elisabeth M Weiss, Andreas Fink
Substance use disorders (SUD) have been shown to be linked to various neuronal and behavioral impairments. In this study, we investigate whether there is a connection between the integrity of white matter (WM) and attachment styles as well as different affective states including spirituality in a group of patients diagnosed for poly-drug use disorder (PUD) in comparison to non-clinical controls. A total sample of 59 right-handed men, comprising the groups of patients with PUD (n = 19), recreational drug-using individuals (RUC; n = 20) as well as non-drug using controls were recruited (NUC; n = 20)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503140/gravity-as-a-strong-prior-implications-for-perception-and-action
#12
Björn Jörges, Joan López-Moliner
In the future, humans are likely to be exposed to environments with altered gravity conditions, be it only visually (Virtual and Augmented Reality), or visually and bodily (space travel). As visually and bodily perceived gravity as well as an interiorized representation of earth gravity are involved in a series of tasks, such as catching, grasping, body orientation estimation and spatial inferences, humans will need to adapt to these new gravity conditions. Performance under earth gravity discrepant conditions has been shown to be relatively poor, and few studies conducted in gravity adaptation are rather discouraging...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503139/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-brain-rhythms-and-entropy-during-self-paced-finger-movement-using-the-epoc-helmet
#13
Florian C A A Bodranghien, Margot Langlois Mahe, Serge Clément, Mario U Manto
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the cerebellum is emerging as a novel non-invasive tool to modulate the activity of the cerebellar circuitry. In a single blinded study, we applied anodal tDCS (atDCS) of the cerebellum to assess its effects on brain entropy and brain rhythms during self-paced sequential finger movements in a group of healthy volunteers. Although wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) systems cannot compete with traditional clinical/laboratory set-ups in terms of accuracy and channel density, they have now reached a sufficient maturity to envision daily life applications...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503138/enhanced-feedback-related-negativity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Eri Nitta, Keiichi Onoda, Fuminori Ishitobi, Ryota Okazaki, Seiji Mishima, Atsushi Nagai, Shuhei Yamaguchi
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, results in the impairment of executive function, including that of performance monitoring. Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is an electrophysiological measure reflecting the activity of this monitoring system via feedback signals, and is generated from the anterior cingulate cortex. However, there have been no reports on FRN in AD. Based on prior aging studies, we hypothesized that FRN would decrease in AD patients. To assess this, FRN was measured in healthy individuals and those with AD during a simple gambling task involving positive and negative feedback stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496405/temporal-dynamics-of-proactive-and-reactive-motor-inhibition
#15
Matthias Liebrand, Inga Pein, Elinor Tzvi, Ulrike M Krämer
Proactive motor inhibition refers to endogenous preparatory mechanisms facilitating action inhibition, whereas reactive motor inhibition is considered to be a sudden stopping process triggered by external signals. Previous studies were inconclusive about the temporal dynamics of involved neurocognitive processes during proactive and reactive motor control. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated the time-course of proactive and reactive inhibition, measuring event-related oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496404/gaba-concentrations-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-are-associated-with-fear-network-function-and-fear-recovery-in-humans
#16
Nina Levar, Judith M C van Leeuwen, Nicolaas A J Puts, Damiaan Denys, Guido A van Wingen
Relapse of fear after successful treatment is a common phenomenon in patients with anxiety disorders. Animal research suggests that the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the maintenance of extinguished fear. Here, we combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the role of GABA in fear recovery in 70 healthy male participants. We associated baseline GABA levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) to indices of fear recovery as defined by changes in skin conductance responses (SCRs), blood oxygen level dependent responses, and functional connectivity from fear extinction to fear retrieval...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496403/hysteresis-in-center-of-mass-velocity-control-during-the-stance-phase-of-treadmill-walking
#17
Kyoung-Hyun Lee, Raymond K Chong
Achieving a soft landing during walking can be quantified by analyzing changes in the vertical velocity of the body center of mass (CoM) just prior to the landing of the swing limb. Previous research suggests that walking speed and step length may predictably influence the extent of this CoM control. Here we ask how stable this control is. We altered treadmill walking speed by systematically increasing or decreasing it at fixed intervals. We then reversed direction. We hypothesized that the control of the CoM vertical velocity during the late stance of the walking gait may serve as an order parameter which has an attribute of hysteresis...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491030/the-encephalophone-a-novel-musical-biofeedback-device-using-conscious-control-of-electroencephalogram-eeg
#18
Thomas A Deuel, Juan Pampin, Jacob Sundstrom, Felix Darvas
A novel musical instrument and biofeedback device was created using electroencephalogram (EEG) posterior dominant rhythm (PDR) or mu rhythm to control a synthesized piano, which we call the Encephalophone. Alpha-frequency (8-12 Hz) signal power from PDR in the visual cortex or from mu rhythm in the motor cortex was used to create a power scale which was then converted into a musical scale, which could be manipulated by the individual in real time. Subjects could then generate different notes of the scale by activation (event-related synchronization) or de-activation (event-related desynchronization) of the PDR or mu rhythms in visual or motor cortex, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491029/sample-entropy-univariate-and-multivariate-multi-scale-entropy-in-comparison-with-classical-postural-sway-parameters-in-young-healthy-adults
#19
Clint Hansen, Qin Wei, Jiann-Shing Shieh, Paul Fourcade, Brice Isableu, Lina Majed
The present study aimed to compare various entropy measures to assess the dynamics and complexity of center of pressure (COP) displacements. Perturbing balance tests are often used in healthy subjects to imitate either pathological conditions or to test the sensitivity of postural analysis techniques. Eleven healthy adult subjects were asked to stand in normal stance in three experimental conditions while the visuo-kinesthetic input was altered. COP displacement was recorded using a force plate. Three entropy measures [Sample Entropy (SE), Multi-Scale Entropy (MSE), and Multivariate Multi Scale Entropy (MMSE)] describing COP regularity at different scales were compared to traditional measures of COP variability...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491028/resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-network-analysis-of-cerebellum-with-respect-to-crystallized-iq-and-gender
#20
Vasileios C Pezoulas, Michalis Zervakis, Sifis Michelogiannis, Manousos A Klados
During the last years, it has been established that the prefrontal and posterior parietal brain lobes, which are mostly related to intelligence, have many connections to cerebellum. However, there is a limited research investigating cerebellum's relationship with cognitive processes. In this study, the network of cerebellum was analyzed in order to investigate its overall organization in individuals with low and high crystallized Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were selected from 136 subjects in resting-state from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database and were further separated into two IQ groups composed of 69 low-IQ and 67 high-IQ subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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