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Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928643/how-situational-context-impacts-empathic-responses-and-brain-activation-patterns
#1
Yawei Cheng, Chenyi Chen, Jean Decety
Clinical empathy, which is defined as the ability to understand the patient's experience and feelings from the patient's perspective, is acknowledged to be an important aspect of quality healthcare. However, how work experience modulates the empathic responses and brain activation patterns in medical professions remains elusive. This fMRI study recruited one hundred female nurses, who varied the length of work experience, and examined how their neural response, functional connectivity, and subjective evaluations of valence and arousal to perceiving another individual in physical pain are modulated by the situational context in which they occur (i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928642/key-odorants-regulate-food-attraction-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Thomas Giang, Jianzheng He, Safaa Belaidi, Henrike Scholz
In insects, the search for food is highly dependent on olfactory sensory input. Here, we investigated whether a single key odorant within an odor blend or the complexity of the odor blend influences the attraction of Drosophila melanogaster to a food source. A key odorant is defined as an odorant that elicits a difference in the behavioral response when two similar complex odor blends are offered. To validate that the observed behavioral responses were elicited by olfactory stimuli, we used olfactory co-receptor Orco mutants...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928641/comparison-of-navigation-related-brain-regions-in-migratory-versus-non-migratory-noctuid-moths
#3
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912697/brains-in-competition-improved-cognitive-performance-and-inter-brain-coupling-by-hyperscanning-paradigm-with-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#4
Michela Balconi, Maria E Vanutelli
Hyperscanning brain paradigm was applied to competitive task for couples of subjects. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) and cognitive performance were considered to test inter-brain and cognitive strategy similarities between subjects (14 couples) during a joint-action. We supposed increased brain-to-brain coupling and improved cognitive outcomes due to joint-action and the competition. As supposed, the direct interaction between the subjects and the observed external feedback of their performance (an experimentally induced fictitious feedback) affected the cognitive performance with decreased Error Rates (ERs), and Response Times (RTs)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912696/swing-boat-inducing-and-recording-locomotor-activity-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Johannes Berlandi, Fang-Ju Lin, Oliver Ambrée, Dirk Rieger, Werner Paulus, Astrid Jeibmann
Recent studies indicate that physical activity can slow down progression of neurodegeneration in humans. To date, automated ways to induce activity have been predominantly described in rodent models. To study the impact of activity on behavior and survival in adult Drosophila melanogaster, we aimed to develop a rotating tube device "swing boat" which is capable of monitoring activity and sleep patterns as well as survival rates of flies. For the purpose of a first application, we tested our device on a transgenic fly model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900390/genetically-driven-enhancement-of-dopaminergic-transmission-affects-moral-acceptability-in-females-but-not-in-males-a-pilot-study
#6
Silvia Pellegrini, Sara Palumbo, Caterina Iofrida, Erika Melissari, Giuseppina Rota, Veronica Mariotti, Teresa Anastasio, Andrea Manfrinati, Rino Rumiati, Lorella Lotto, Michela Sarlo, Pietro Pietrini
Moral behavior has been a key topic of debate for philosophy and psychology for a long time. In recent years, thanks to the development of novel methodologies in cognitive sciences, the question of how we make moral choices has expanded to the study of neurobiological correlates that subtend the mental processes involved in moral behavior. For instance, in vivo brain imaging studies have shown that distinct patterns of brain neural activity, associated with emotional response and cognitive processes, are involved in moral judgment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890691/predicting-intentions-of-a-familiar-significant-other-beyond-the-mirror-neuron-system
#7
Stephanie Cacioppo, Elsa Juan, George Monteleone
Inferring intentions of others is one of the most intriguing issues in interpersonal interaction. Theories of embodied cognition and simulation suggest that this mechanism takes place through a direct and automatic matching process that occurs between an observed action and past actions. This process occurs via the reactivation of past self-related sensorimotor experiences within the inferior frontoparietal network (including the mirror neuron system, MNS). The working model is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established, shared representations between the observer and the actor...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878637/corrigendum-the-australian-bogong-moth-agrotis-infusa-a-long-distance-nocturnal-navigator
#8
Eric Warrant, Barrie Frost, Ken Green, Henrik Mouritsen, David Dreyer, Andrea Adden, Kristina Brauburger, Stanley Heinze
[This corrects the article on p. 77 in vol. 10, PMID: 27147998.].
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878636/do-insects-have-emotions-some-insights-from-bumble-bees
#9
David Baracchi, Mathieu Lihoreau, Martin Giurfa
While our conceptual understanding of emotions is largely based on human subjective experiences, research in comparative cognition has shown growing interest in the existence and identification of "emotion-like" states in non-human animals. There is still ongoing debate about the nature of emotions in animals (especially invertebrates), and certainly their existence and the existence of certain expressive behaviors displaying internal emotional states raise a number of exciting and challenging questions. Interestingly, at least superficially, insects (bees and flies) seem to fulfill the basic requirements of emotional behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878635/alcohol-intake-increases-in-adolescent-c57bl-6j-mice-during-intermittent-cycles-of-phase-delayed-long-light-conditions
#10
Joshua J Gamsby, Abby M Pribish, Korey D Stevanovic, Amara Yunus, Danielle Gulick
Adolescents naturally go to bed and awaken late, but are forced to awaken early for school and work. This leads to "social jetlag", a state of circadian desynchrony (CD), in which internal biological rhythms are out of sync with behavioral rhythms. CD is associated with increased alcohol intake in adults, but has been less well-studied in adolescents. The goal of this study was to model adolescent alcohol intake during similar CD conditions in male C57BL/6J mice. Free access alcohol intake, water intake and wheel-running activity were measured during a normal 12HR photoperiod or during alternating photoperiod (Experiment 1: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 18 h light for 3 days, with dark (activity onset) delayed 9 h during the 18HR photoperiod; Experiment 2: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 6 h light for 3 days, with dark onset delayed 3 h during the 6HR photoperiod)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867995/does-spatial-navigation-have-a-blind-spot-visiocentrism-is-not-enough-to-explain-the-navigational-behavior-comprehensively
#11
Mateusz Hohol, Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Jacek Francikowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860980/chronic-nicotine-exposure-initiated-in-adolescence-and-unpaired-to-behavioral-context-fails-to-enhance-sweetened-ethanol-seeking
#12
Aric C Madayag, Kyle S Czarnecki, Lynde M Wangler, Donita L Robinson
Nicotine use in adolescence is pervasive in the United States and, according to the Gateway Hypothesis, may lead to progression towards other addictive substances. Given the prevalence of nicotine and ethanol comorbidity, it is difficult to ascertain if nicotine is a gateway drug for ethanol. Our study investigated the relationship between adolescent exposure to nicotine and whether this exposure alters subsequent alcohol seeking behavior. We hypothesized that rats exposed to nicotine beginning in adolescence would exhibit greater alcohol seeking behavior than non-exposed siblings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860979/childhood-trauma-associated-with-enhanced-high-frequency-band-powers-and-induced-subjective-inattention-of-adults
#13
Seung-Hwan Lee, Yeonsoo Park, Min Jin Jin, Yeon Jeong Lee, Sang Woo Hahn
Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG) powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860978/motor-timing-and-covariation-with-time-perception-investigating-the-role-of-handedness
#14
Louise O'Regan, Michiel M Spapé, Deborah J Serrien
Time is a fundamental dimension of our behavior and enables us to guide our actions and to experience time such as predicting collisions or listening to music. In this study, we investigate the regulation and covariation of motor timing and time perception functions in left- and right-handers who are characterized by distinct brain processing mechanisms for cognitive-motor control. To this purpose, we use a combination of tasks that assess the timed responses during movements and the perception of time intervals...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855864/persistent-decreases-in-adult-subventricular-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-adolescent-intermittent-ethanol-exposure
#15
Wen Liu, Fulton T Crews
Neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone (SVZ) matures during adolescence to adult levels. Binge drinking is prevalent in adolescent humans, and could alter brain neurogenesis and maturation in a manner that persists into adulthood. To determine the impact of adolescent binge drinking on adult neurogenesis, Wistar rats received adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (5.0 g/kg/day, i.g., 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day, P25-P54) and sacrificed on P57 or P95. Neural progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and maturation using immunohistochemistry was determined in the DG and SVZ...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848412/commentary-activation-of-pedunculopontine-glutamate-neurons-is-reinforcing
#16
COMMENT
Mahsa Mayeli, Farzaneh Rahmani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848411/individual-differences-in-the-speed-of-facial-emotion-recognition-show-little-specificity-but-are-strongly-related-with-general-mental-speed-psychometric-neural-and-genetic-evidence
#17
Xinyang Liu, Andrea Hildebrandt, Guillermo Recio, Werner Sommer, Xinxia Cai, Oliver Wilhelm
Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848410/behavioral-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-the-effects-of-subchronic-and-chronic-exposure-to-glyphosate-in-mice
#18
Yassine Ait Bali, Saadia Ba-Mhamed, Mohamed Bennis
Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH) exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848409/effect-of-levodopa-on-reward-and-impulsivity-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Miguel M Carvalho, Filipa L Campos, Mariana Marques, Carina Soares-Cunha, Nikolaos Kokras, Christina Dalla, Hugo Leite-Almeida, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado
The use of dopamine replacement therapies (DRT) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) can lead to the development of dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) and impulse control disorders (ICD), behavioral disturbances characterized by compulsive DRT self-medication and development of impulsive behaviors. However, the mechanisms behind these disturbances are poorly understood. In animal models of PD, the assessment of the rewarding properties of levodopa (LD), one of the most common drugs used in PD, has produced conflicting results, and its ability to promote increased impulsivity is still understudied...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848408/networks-of-vta-neurons-encode-real-time-information-about-uncertain-numbers-of-actions-executed-to-earn-a-reward
#20
Jesse Wood, Nicholas W Simon, F Spencer Koerner, Robert E Kass, Bita Moghaddam
Multiple and unpredictable numbers of actions are often required to achieve a goal. In order to organize behavior and allocate effort so that optimal behavioral policies can be selected, it is necessary to continually monitor ongoing actions. Real-time processing of information related to actions and outcomes is typically assigned to the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, but also depends on midbrain regions, especially the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We were interested in how individual VTA neurons, as well as networks within the VTA, encode salient events when an unpredictable number of serial actions are required to obtain a reward...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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