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Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

Takako Takemiya, Kumiko Fumizawa, Kanato Yamagata, Yoichiro Iwakura, Marumi Kawakami
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is produced by many types of cells, including immune cells in the periphery and glia and neurons in the brain. The type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1r1) is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of IL-1 and mediates several biological functions by binding to either IL-1α or IL-1β. IL-1β activation is associated with hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Although IL-1β impairs spatial memory under certain pathophysiological conditions, IL-1β may be required for the normal physiological regulation of hippocampal plasticity and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Rodger Ll Wood, Andrew Worthington
Objective: This article will address how anomalies of executive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can translate into altered social behavior that has an impact on a person's capacity to live safely and independently in the community. Method: Review of literature on executive and neurobehavioral function linked to cognitive ageing in neurologically healthy populations and late neurocognitive effects of serious TBI. Information was collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the authors' own catalogs...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Dirson J Stein, Mailton F Vasconcelos, Lucas Albrechet-Souza, Keila M M Ceresér, Rosa M M de Almeida
Hyper activation of the neuroimmune system is strongly related to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Psychosocial stress has been postulated to play an important role in triggering anxiety and major depression. In preclinical models, there is mounting evidence that social defeat stress activates microglial cells in the central nervous system. This type of stress could be one of the major factors in the development of these psychopathologies. Here, we reviewed the most recent literature on social defeat and the associated immunological reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Marina Scheumann, Anna S Hasting, Elke Zimmermann, Sonja A Kotz
Darwin (1872) postulated that emotional expressions contain universals that are retained across species. We recently showed that human rating responses were strongly affected by a listener's familiarity with vocalization types, whereas evidence for universal cross-taxa emotion recognition was limited. To disentangle the impact of evolutionarily retained mechanisms (phylogeny) and experience-driven cognitive processes (familiarity), we compared the temporal unfolding of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to agonistic and affiliative vocalizations expressed by humans and three animal species...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Vid Kocijan, Marina Horvat, Gregor Majdic
Sex differences are consistently reported in different visuospatial tasks with men usually performing better in mental rotation tests while women are better on tests for memory of object locations. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in solving jigsaw puzzles in children. In total 22 boys and 24 girls were tested using custom build tablet application representing a jigsaw puzzle consisting of 25 pieces and featuring three different pictures. Girls outperformed boys in solving jigsaw puzzles regardless of the picture...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Andreas J Genewsky, Carsten T Wotjak
Among the hardwired behaviors, fear or survival responses certainly belong to the most evolutionary conserved ones. However, higher animals possess the ability to adapt to certain environments (e.g., novel foraging grounds), and, therefore, those responses need to be plastic. Previous studies revealed a cell-type specific role of the endocannabinoid system in novelty fear, conditioned fear and active vs. passive avoidance in a shuttle box paradigm. In this study we aim to investigate, whether knocking-out the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) on cortical glutamatergic (Glu-CB1(-/-)) or GABAergic (GABA-CB1(-/-)) neurons differentially affects the level of behavioral inhibition, which could ultimately lead to differences in escape behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Xinjian Zhu, Jingde Dong, Bing Han, Rongrong Huang, Aifeng Zhang, Zhengrong Xia, Huanhuan Chang, Jie Chao, Honghong Yao
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which is usually associated with psychiatric comorbidities. Depsression and cognition impairment are considered to be the most common psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients. However, the specific contribution of epilepsy made to these psychiatric comorbidities remains largely unknown. Here we use pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling, a chronic epilepsy model, to identify neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) as a signaling molecule triggering PTZ kindling-induced cognitive impairment and depressive-like behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Javier A Muñiz, José P Prieto, Betina González, Máximo H Sosa, Jean L Cadet, Cecilia Scorza, Francisco J Urbano, Verónica Bisagno
Caffeine is the world's most popular psychostimulant and is frequently used as an active adulterant in many illicit drugs including cocaine. Previous studies have shown that caffeine can potentiate the stimulant effects of cocaine and cocaine-induced drug seeking behavior. However, little is known about the effects of this drug combination on reward-related learning, a key process in the maintenance of addiction and vulnerability to relapse. The goal of the present study was thus to determine caffeine and cocaine combined effects on the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) test and to determine potential differential mRNA expression in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of immediate-early genes (IEGs) as well as dopamine and adenosine receptor subunits...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Achim Schilling, Patrick Krauss, Richard Gerum, Claus Metzner, Konstantin Tziridis, Holger Schulze
Background: An increasingly used behavioral paradigm for the objective assessment of a possible tinnitus percept in animal models has been proposed by Turner and coworkers in 2006. It is based on gap-prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and usually referred to as GPIAS. As it does not require conditioning it became the method of choice to study neuroplastic phenomena associated with the development of tinnitus. Objective: It is still controversial if GPIAS is really appropriate for tinnitus screening, as the hypothesis that a tinnitus percept impairs the gap detection ability ("filling-in interpretation" is still questioned...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Chuanlin Zhu, Xinyun Chen, Jianxin Zhang, Zhiying Liu, Zhen Tang, Yuting Xu, Didi Zhang, Dianzhi Liu
Previous studies have focused on the characteristics of ordinary facial expressions in patients with depression, and have not investigated the processing characteristics of ecological micro-expressions (MEs, i.e., MEs that presented in different background expressions) in these patients. Based on this, adopting the ecological MEs recognition paradigm, this study aimed to comparatively evaluate facial ME recognition in depressed and healthy individuals. The findings of the study are as follows: (1) background expression: the accuracy (ACC) in the neutral background condition tended to be higher than that in the fear background condition, and the reaction time (RT) in the neutral background condition was significantly longer than that in other backgrounds...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Emily F Willis, Perry F Bartlett, Jana Vukovic
Studies on the role of the hippocampus in higher cognitive functions such as spatial learning and memory in rodents are reliant upon robust and objective behavioral tests. This protocol describes one such test-the active place avoidance (APA) task. This behavioral task involves the mouse continuously integrating visual cues to orientate itself within a rotating arena in order to actively avoid a shock zone, the location of which remains constant relative to the room. This protocol details the step-by-step procedures for a novel paradigm of the hippocampal-dependent APA task, measuring acquisition of spatial learning during a single 20-min trial (i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ana M Cunha, Madalena Esteves, Sofia P das Neves, Sónia Borges, Marco R Guimarães, Nuno Sousa, Armando Almeida, Hugo Leite-Almeida
In rodents, dexterity is commonly analyzed in preference paradigms in which animals are given the chance to use either the left or the right front paws to manipulate food. However, paw preference and dexterity at population and individual levels are controversial as results are incongruent across paradigms. We have therefore developed a semi-quantitative method-the pawdeness trait test (PaTRaT)-to evaluate paw preference degree in rats. The PaTRaT consists in a classification system, ranging from +4 to -4 where increasingly positive and negative values reflect the bias for left or right paw use, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Marta C Soares
One of the most notorious examples of cooperation between different species happens in the cleaner-client fish mutualism. The best known cleaner fish species, the bluestreak Indo-Pacific cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus has been a model system to study the evolution of cooperation between unrelated animals and between distinct species during the last couple of decades. Given that the cleanerfish mutualism is well-established for behavioral studies of cooperation, it offered an outstanding opportunity to identify the link between cooperation, social cognition, and to undertake proximate studies, which were severely in need...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Frederike Beyer, Macià Buades-Rotger, Marie Claes, Ulrike M Krämer
Interpersonal provocation presents an approach-avoidance conflict to the provoked person: responding aggressively might yield the joy of retribution, whereas withdrawal can provide safety. Experimental aggression studies typically measure only retaliation intensity, neglecting whether individuals want to confront the provocateur at all. To overcome this shortcoming of previous measures, we developed and validated the Fight-or-Escape paradigm (FOE). The FOE is a competitive reaction time (RT) task in which the winner can choose the volume of a sound blast to be directed at his/her opponent...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Carole S Scherling, Jessica Zakrzewski, Samir Datta, Robert W Levenson, Arthur P Shimamura, Virginia E Sturm, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen
Anosognosia, or lack of awareness of one's deficits, is a core feature of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We hypothesized that this deficit has its origins in failed emotional processing of errors. We studied autonomic and facial emotional reactivity to errors in patients with bvFTD (n = 17), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 20), and healthy controls (HC, n = 35) during performance of a timed two-alternative-choice button press task. Performance-related behavioral responses to errors were quantified using rates of error correction and post-error slowing of reaction times...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yin Wu, Samuele Zilioli, Christoph Eisenegger, Luke Clark, Hong Li
Testosterone has been linked to social status seeking in humans. The present study investigated the effects of testosterone administration on implicit and explicit preferences for status goods in healthy male participants (n = 64), using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. We also investigated the interactive effect between second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D; i.e., a proximal index of prenatal testosterone) and testosterone treatment on status preferences. Results showed that testosterone administration has no discernable influence on self-reported willingness-to-pay (i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mekite Bezu, Jovana Maliković, Martina Kristofova, Ephrem Engidawork, Harald Höger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
The dopaminergic system is known to be involved in working memory processed by several brain regions like prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, striatum. In an earlier study we could show that Levodopa but not Modafinil enhanced working memory in a T-maze only during the early phase of training (day 3), whereas the later phase remained unaffected. Rats treated with a higher dose performed better than low dose treated rats. Here we could more specifically segregate the contributions of dopamine type 1- and 2- like receptors (D1R; D2R) to the training state dependent modulation of spatial working memory by intracerebroventricular (ICV) application of a D1R-like (SKF81297) and D2R-like agonist (Sumanirole) and antagonist (SCH23390, Remoxipride) at a low and high dose through 3 days of training...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
George Lăzăroiu, Aurel Pera, Ramona O Ștefănescu-Mihăilă, Nela Mircică, Octav Negurită
We draw on outstanding research (Sanfey et al., 2006; McCabe, 2008; Bernheim, 2009; Camerer, 2013; Radu and McClure, 2013; Declerck and Boone, 2016) to substantiate that neuroeconomics covers the investigation of the biological microfoundations of economic cognition and economic conduct, attempts to prove that a superior grasp of how choices are made brings about superior expectations regarding which options are selected, preserves the strictness of economic analysis in defining value-based decision, and associates imaging techniques with economic pattern to explain how individuals decide on a strategy taking into account various possible choices...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Xinrui Mao, Yujuan Wang, Yanhong Wu, Chunyan Guo
Directed forgetting (DF) assists in preventing outdated information from interfering with cognitive processing. Previous studies pointed that self-referential items alleviated DF effects due to the elaboration of encoding processes. However, the retrieval mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. Based on the dual-process framework of recognition, the retrieval of self-referential information was involved in familiarity and recollection. Using source memory tasks combined with event-related potential (ERP) recording, our research investigated the retrieval processes of alleviative DF effects elicited by self-referential information...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Manuel Alcaraz-Iborra, Francisco Navarrete, Elisa Rodríguez-Ortega, Leticia de la Fuente, Jorge Manzanares, Inmaculada Cubero
Ethanol (EtOH) research has focused on stages of dependence. It is of paramount importance to more deeply understand the neurobehavioral factors promoting increased risk for EtOH binge drinking during the early stages of the addiction cycle. The first objective of this study was to evaluate whether C57BL/6J mice showing high drinking in the dark (DID) exhibit neurobehavioral traits known to contribute to EtOH binge-drinking disorders. Comparing high vs. low drinkers (HD/LD), we evaluated different types of basal anxiety-like responses, EtOH preference and sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of EtOH, and basal mRNA expression of the OX1/OX2 receptors (OX1r/OX2r) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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