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Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

Hong Zeng, Dequan Su, Pengfei Wang, Mengcheng Wang, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Qi Chen, Haosheng Ye
Drug related cue-induced reactivity plays a significant role in maintaining drug use and relapse in addicted individuals. The activation of Dorsolateral striatum-Sensorimotor system (DLS-SM) has been suggested as an important route through which drug cues may induce automatic drug using behavior. The current study used fMRI to investigate the reactivity of heroin abstinent individuals to different types of cues, to clarify the characteristics of the cues that induce the activation of the sensorimotor area. Forty heroin-dependent abstinent individuals and 29 healthy subjects were recruited to perform the heroin cue-reactivity task during fMRI...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Natalie S Dailey, Ryan Smith, Sahil Bajaj, Anna Alkozei, Melissa K Gottschlich, Adam C Raikes, Brieann C Satterfield, William D S Killgore
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) remains the most commonly reported head injury in the United States, and is associated with a wide range of post-concussive symptoms including physical, cognitive and affective impairments. Elevated aggression has been documented in mTBI; however, the neural mechanisms associated with aggression at the chronic stage of recovery remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the association between white matter integrity and aggression in mTBI using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Samantha M Keller, Tiffany S Doherty, Tania L Roth
Exposure to adversity early in development alters brain and behavioral trajectories. Data continue to accumulate that epigenetic mechanisms are a mediating factor between early-life adversity and adult behavioral phenotypes. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that female Long-Evans rats exposed to maltreatment during infancy display both aberrant forced swim behavior and patterns of brain DNA methylation in adulthood. Therefore, we examined the possibility of rescuing the aberrant forced swim behavior in maltreated-adult females by administering an epigenome-modifying drug (zebularine) at a dose previously shown to normalize DNA methylation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Andrew J Shepherd, Megan E Cloud, Yu-Qing Cao, Durga P Mohapatra
Burrowing, or the removal of material from an enclosed tube, is emerging as a prominent means of testing changes in a voluntary behavior in rodent models of various pain states. Here, we report no significant differences between male and female mice in terms of burrowing performance, in a substantially shorter time frame than previous reports. We found that the color of the burrow tube affects the variability of burrowing performance when tested in a lit room, suggesting that light aversion is at least a partial driver of this behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Rany Abend, Mascha van 't Wout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Leon R Sütfeld, Richard Gast, Peter König, Gordon Pipa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Stefan Frey, Anna Eichler, Valeska Stonawski, Jennifer Kriebel, Simone Wahl, Sabina Gallati, Tamme W Goecke, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Oliver Kratz, Gunther H Moll, Hartmut Heinrich, Johannes Kornhuber, Yulia Golub
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is known to elicit a broad range of systemic effects, including neurophysiological alterations that result in adverse behavioral and cognitive outcomes. However, molecular pathways underlying these long-term intrauterine effects remain to be investigated. Here, we tested a hypothesis that PAE may lead to epigenetic alterations to the DNA resulting in attentional and cognitive alterations of the children. We report the results of the study that included 156 primary school children of the Franconian Cognition and Emotion Studies (FRANCES) cohort which were tested for an objective marker of PAE, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium at birth...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jasmin Pfeifer, Silke Hamann
In this article, we report the first documented case of congenital amusia in dizygotic twins. The female twin pair was 27 years old at the time of testing, with normal hearing and above average intelligence. Both had formal music lesson from the age of 8-12 and were exposed to music in their childhood. Using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (Peretz et al., 2003), one twin was diagnosed as amusic, with a pitch perception as well as a rhythm perception deficit, while the other twin had normal pitch and rhythm perception...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yuexin Cai, Dong Huang, Yanhong Chen, Haidi Yang, Chang-Dong Wang, Fei Zhao, Jiahao Liu, Yingfeng Sun, Guisheng Chen, Xiaoting Chen, Hao Xiong, Yiqing Zheng
Given the importance of central reorganization and tinnitus, we undertook the current study to investigate changes to electroencephalogram (EEG) microstates and their association with the clinical symptoms in tinnitus. High-density (128 channel) EEG was used to explore changes in microstate features in 15 subjects with subjective tinnitus and 17 age-matched controls. Correlations between microstate parameters and subjective tinnitus symptoms were also analyzed. An increased presence of class A microstate and decreased presence of class D microstate were found in coverage and lifespan of microstate parameters in the tinnitus patients...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Dilushi Chandrakumar, Daniel Feuerriegel, Stefan Bode, Megan Grech, Hannah A D Keage
Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to investigate neural mechanisms underlying risk-related decisions over the last 16 years. We aimed to systematically evaluate associations between risk-taking and ERP components elicited during decisions and following feedback. A total of 79 articles identified from PsychINFO and PubMed databases met the inclusion criteria. Selected articles assessed early ERP components (feedback-related negativity/FRN, error-related negativity/ERN, and medial frontal negativity/MFN) and the mid-latency P3 component, all using gambling paradigms that involved selecting between choices of varying risk (e...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
James M Otis, Michael K Fitzgerald, Hanna Yousuf, Jake L Burkard, Matthew Drake, Devin Mueller
Presentation of drug-associated cues provokes craving and drug seeking, and elimination of these associative memories would facilitate recovery from addiction. Emotionally salient memories are maintained during retrieval, as particular pharmacologic or optogenetic perturbations of memory circuits during retrieval, but not after, can induce long-lasting memory impairments. For example, in rats, inhibition of noradrenergic beta-receptors, which control intrinsic neuronal excitability, in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL-mPFC) can cause long-term memory impairments that prevent subsequent cocaine-induced reinstatement...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sara Palumbo, Veronica Mariotti, Caterina Iofrida, Silvia Pellegrini
Over the last two decades, the study of the relationship between nature and nurture in shaping human behavior has encountered a renewed interest. Behavioral genetics showed that distinct polymorphisms of genes that code for proteins that control neurotransmitter metabolic and synaptic function are associated with individual vulnerability to aversive experiences, such as stressful and traumatic life events, and may result in an increased risk of developing psychopathologies associated with violence. On the other hand, recent studies indicate that experiencing aversive events modulates gene expression by introducing stable changes to DNA without modifying its sequence, a mechanism known as "epigenetics"...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yuan Zhou, Hao-Kang Zhang, Fei Liu, Gang Lei, Peng Liu, Tong Jiao, Yong-Hui Dang
In recent years, the environmental impact of artificial light at night has been a rapidly growing global problem, affecting 99% of the population in the US and Europe, and 62% of the world population. The present study utilized a mouse model exposed to long-term artificial light and light deprivation to explore the impact of these conditions on emotion and cognition. Based on the potential links between histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) and mood disorders, we also examined the expression of HINT1 and related apoptosis factors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus (Hip)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Relish Shah, Emmanuelle Courtiol, Francisco X Castellanos, Catia M Teixeira
Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the best-studied modulatory neurotransmitters with ubiquitous presynaptic release and postsynaptic reception. 5-HT has been implicated in a wide variety of brain functions, ranging from autonomic regulation, sensory perception, feeding and motor function to emotional regulation and cognition. The role of this neuromodulator in neuropsychiatric diseases is unquestionable with important neuropsychiatric medications, e.g., most antidepressants, targeting this system. Importantly, 5-HT modulates neurodevelopment and changes in its levels during development can have life-long consequences...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Maria E L Gold, Mark A Norell, Michael Budassi, Paul Vaska, Daniela Schulz
Brain-behavior studies using 18 F-FDG PET aim to reveal brain regions that become active during behavior. In standard protocols, 18 F-FDG is injected, the behavior is executed during 30-60 min of tracer uptake, and then the animal is anesthetized and scanned. Hence, the uptake of 18 F-FDG is not itself observed and could, in fact, be complete in very little time. This has implications for behavioral studies because uptake is assumed to reflect concurrent behavior. Here, we utilized a new, miniature PET scanner termed RatCAP to measure uptake simultaneously with behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Friederike Barbara Haslbeck, Dirk Bassler
Human and animal studies demonstrate that early auditory experiences influence brain development. The findings are particularly crucial following preterm birth as the plasticity of auditory regions, and cortex development are heavily dependent on the quality of auditory stimulation. Brain maturation in preterm infants may be affected among other things by the overwhelming auditory environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Conversely, auditory deprivation, (e.g., the lack of the regular intrauterine rhythms of the maternal heartbeat and the maternal voice) may also have an impact on brain maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mikhail A Lebedev, Alexey Pimashkin, Alexei Ossadtchi
According to the currently prevailing theory, hippocampal formation constructs and maintains cognitive spatial maps. Most of the experimental evidence for this theory comes from the studies on navigation in laboratory rats and mice, typically male animals. While these animals exhibit a rich repertoire of behaviors associated with navigation, including locomotion, head movements, whisking, sniffing, raring and scent marking, the contribution of these behavioral patterns to the hippocampal spatially-selective activity has not been sufficiently studied...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Natalie Dittert, Sandrina Hüttner, Thomas Polak, Martin J Herrmann
Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; DSM-V 309.82) and anxiety disorders (DSM-V 300.xx) are widely spread mental disorders, the effectiveness of their therapy is still unsatisfying. Non-invasive brain-stimulation techniques like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) might be an option to improve extinction learning, which is a main functional factor of exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders. To examine this hypothesis, we used a fear conditioning paradigm with female faces as conditioned stimuli (CS) and a 95-dB female scream as unconditioned stimulus (UCS)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
David Nguyen, Yasika Nesarajah, Suzanne Erb, Rutsuko Ito
Drug addiction is a disorder in which drug seeking persists despite aversive consequences. While it is well documented in animal models of drug sensitization that repeated drug exposure enhances positive incentive motivation for drug and natural reinforcers, its effect on negative incentive motivation, defined here as the motivation to avoid a cued aversive outcome, remains an open question. In the present study, we designed a novel active avoidance (AA) runway paradigm to assess the effects of repeated cocaine exposure on the motivation to avoid an aversive outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jack De Havas, Sho Ito, Patrick Haggard, Hiroaki Gomi
The Kohnstamm phenomenon is a prolonged involuntary aftercontraction following a sustained voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The control principles of the Kohnstamm have been investigated using mechanical perturbations, but previous studies could not dissociate sensorimotor responses to perturbation from effects of gravity. We induced a horizontal, gravity-independent Kohnstamm movement around the shoulder joint, and applied resistive or assistive torques of 0.5 Nm after 20° angular displacement. A No perturbation control condition was included...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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