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Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773982/training-rats-using-water-rewards-without-water-restriction
#1
Pamela Reinagel
High-throughput behavioral training of rodents has been a transformative development for systems neuroscience. Water or food restriction is typically required to motivate task engagement. We hypothesized a gap between physiological water need and hedonic water satiety that could be leveraged to train rats for water rewards without water restriction. We show that when Citric Acid (CA) is added to water, female rats drink less, yet consume enough to maintain long term health. With 24 h/day access to a visual task with water rewards, rats with ad lib CA water performed 84% ± 18% as many trials as in the same task under water restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773981/editorial-long-term-consequences-of-adolescent-drug-use-evidence-from-pre-clinical-and-clinical-models
#2
EDITORIAL
Alonzo J Whyte, Mary M Torregrossa, Jacqueline M Barker, Shannon L Gourley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770113/aggression-in-women-behavior-brain-and-hormones
#3
REVIEW
Thomas F Denson, Siobhan M O'Dean, Khandis R Blake, Joanne R Beames
We review the literature on aggression in women with an emphasis on laboratory experimentation and hormonal and brain mechanisms. Women tend to engage in more indirect forms of aggression (e.g., spreading rumors) than other types of aggression. In laboratory studies, women are less aggressive than men, but provocation attenuates this difference. In the real world, women are just as likely to aggress against their romantic partner as men are, but men cause more serious physical and psychological harm. A very small minority of women are also sexually violent...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767030/commentary-sleep-deprivation-promotes-habitual-control-over-goal-directed-control-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#4
COMMENT
Yannick Boddez, Eike K Buabang, Ann-Kathrin Zenses, Mathilde Descheemaeker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765310/economic-holobiont-influence-of-parasites-microbiota-and-chemosignals-on-economic-behavior
#5
Petr Houdek
The article is a perspective on utilization of microorganisms and chemosignals in studying human economic behavior. Research in biological roots of economic development has already confirmed that parasitic pressure influenced the creation and development of cultural norms and institutions. However, other effects of microorganisms on human groups and individual decision-making and behavior are heavily understudied. The perspective discusses how parasitic infections, sexually transmitted organisms and microbiota (i...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760654/failure-to-replicate-the-association-between-fractional-anisotropy-and-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-5-httlpr-rs25531
#6
Tim Klucken, Isabell Tapia León, Carlo Blecker, Onno Kruse, Tobias Stalder, Rudolf Stark
Recent work underlines the importance of alterations in white matter (e.g., measured by fractional anisotropy (FA)) as a neural vulnerability marker for psychiatric disorders. In this context, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), which connects the limbic system with prefrontal areas, has repeatedly been linked to psychiatric disorders, fear processing, and anxiety-related traits. Individual differences in FA may partly be genetically determined. Variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region [5-HTTLPR]) is a particularly promising candidate in this context, which has been linked to psychiatric disorders as well as to limbic and prefrontal reactivity...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755331/immediate-early-genes-memory-and-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-c-fos-egr1-and-arc
#7
REVIEW
Francisco T Gallo, Cynthia Katche, Juan F Morici, Jorge H Medina, Noelia V Weisstaub
Many psychiatric disorders, despite their specific characteristics, share deficits in the cognitive domain including executive functions, emotional control and memory. However, memory deficits have been in many cases undervalued compared with other characteristics. The expression of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) such as, c-fos , Egr1 and arc are selectively and promptly upregulated in learning and memory among neuronal subpopulations in regions associated with these processes. Changes in expression in these genes have been observed in recognition, working and fear related memories across the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755330/the-high-costs-of-low-grade-inflammation-persistent-fatigue-as-a-consequence-of-reduced-cellular-energy-availability-and-non-adaptive-energy-expenditure
#8
REVIEW
Tamara E Lacourt, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Gabriel S Chiu, Robert Dantzer, Cobi J Heijnen
Chronic or persistent fatigue is a common, debilitating symptom of several diseases. Persistent fatigue has been associated with low-grade inflammation in several models of fatigue, including cancer-related fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome. However, it is unclear how low-grade inflammation leads to the experience of fatigue. We here propose a model of an imbalance in energy availability and energy expenditure as a consequence of low-grade inflammation. In this narrative review, we discuss how chronic low-grade inflammation can lead to reduced cellular-energy availability...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755329/assessment-of-appetitive-behavior-in-honey-bee-dance-followers
#9
Mariel A Moauro, M Sol Balbuena, Walter M Farina
Honey bees transfer different informational components of the discovered feeding source to their nestmates during the waggle dance. To decode the multicomponent information of this complex behavior, dance followers have to attend to the most relevant signal elements while filtering out less relevant ones. To achieve that, dance followers should present improved abilities to acquire information compared with those bees not engaged in this behavior. Through proboscis extension response assays, sensory and cognitive abilities were tested in follower and non-follower bees...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740293/role-played-by-the-passage-of-time-in-reversal-learning
#10
Estelle H F Goarin, Nura W Lingawi, Vincent Laurent
Reversal learning is thought to involve an extinction-like process that inhibits the expression of the initial learning. However, behavioral evidence for this inhibition remains difficult to interpret as various procedures have been employed to study reversal learning. Here, we used a discrimination task in rats to examine whether the inhibition produced by reversal learning is as sensitive to the passage of time as the inhibition produced by extinction. Experiment 1 showed that when tested immediately after reversal training, rats were able to use the reversed contingencies to solve the discrimination task in an outcome-specific manner...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740292/adolescent-gender-differences-in-cognitive-control-performance-and-functional-connectivity-between-default-mode-and-fronto-parietal-networks-within-a-self-referential-context
#11
Gabriela Alarcón, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Damien A Fair, Bonnie J Nagel
Ineffective reduction of functional connectivity between the default mode network (DMN) and frontoparietal network (FPN) during cognitive control can interfere with performance in healthy individuals-a phenomenon present in psychiatric disorders, such as depression. Here, this mechanism is studied in healthy adolescents by examining gender differences in task-regressed functional connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel task designed to place the DMN-supporting self-referential processing (SRP)-and FPN-supporting cognitive control-into conflict...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740291/varying-social-experiences-in-adulthood-do-not-differentially-affect-anxiety-like-behavior-but-stress-hormone-levels
#12
Niklas Kästner, S Helene Richter, Carina Bodden, Rupert Palme, Sylvia Kaiser, Norbert Sachser
Social experiences can have profound effects on an individual's level of anxiety. While various studies have addressed consequences of experiences of a specific type, e.g., social defeat, a recent study in mice investigated the impact of combinations of adverse and beneficial social experiences. Quite surprisingly, mice exposed to benefits during early life phases followed by escapable adversity in adulthood displayed lowest levels of anxiety, even compared to individuals having experienced throughout beneficial conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740290/goal-achievement-failure-drives-corticospinal-modulation-in-promotion-and-prevention-contexts
#13
Emanuele Lo Gerfo, Alberto Pisoni, Stefania Ottone, Ferruccio Ponzano, Luca Zarri, Alessandra Vergallito, Erica Varoli, Davide Fedeli, Leonor J Romero Lauro
When making decisions, people are typically differently sensitive to gains and losses according to the motivational context in which the choice is performed. As hypothesized by Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT), indeed, goals are supposed to change in relation to the set of possible outcomes. In particular, in a promotion context, the goal is achieving the maximal gain, whereas in a prevention context it turns into avoiding the greatest loss. We explored the neurophysiological counterpart of this phenomenon, by applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and recording the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in participants taking part in an economic game, in which they observed actions conveying different goal attainment levels, framed in different motivational contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720935/brain-oscillatory-and-hemodynamic-activity-in-a-bimanual-coordination-task-following-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-a-combined-eeg-fnirs-study
#14
Alisa Berger, Nils H Pixa, Fabian Steinberg, Michael Doppelmayr
Motor control is associated with synchronized oscillatory activity at alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (12-30 Hz) frequencies in a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network. Previous studies demonstrated that transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is capable of entraining ongoing oscillatory activity while also modulating motor control. However, the modulatory effects of tACS on both motor control and its underlying electro- and neurophysiological mechanisms remain ambiguous. Thus, the purpose of this study was to contribute to gathering neurophysiological knowledge regarding tACS effects by investigating the after-effects of 10 Hz tACS and 20 Hz tACS at parietal brain areas on bimanual coordination and its concurrent oscillatory and hemodynamic activity...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713269/effects-of-subanesthetic-ketamine-administration-on-visual-and-auditory-event-related-potentials-erp-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#15
André Schwertner, Maxciel Zortea, Felipe V Torres, Wolnei Caumo
Ketamine is a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist whose effect in subanesthetic doses has been studied for chronic pain and mood disorders treatment. It has been proposed that ketamine could change the perception of nociceptive stimuli by modulating the cortical connectivity and altering the top-down mechanisms that control conscious pain perception. As this is a strictly central effect, it would be relevant to provide fresh insight into ketamine's effect on cortical response to external stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706874/sensorimotor-and-neurocognitive-dysfunctions-parallel-early-telencephalic-neuropathology-in-fucosidosis-mice
#16
Stijn Stroobants, Heike Wolf, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Thomas Dierks, Torben Lübke, Rudi D'Hooge
Fucosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by lysosomal α-L-fucosidase deficiency. Insufficient α-L-fucosidase activity triggers accumulation of undegraded, fucosylated glycoproteins and glycolipids in various tissues. The human phenotype is heterogeneous, but progressive motor and cognitive impairments represent the most characteristic symptoms. Recently, Fuca1-deficient mice were generated by gene targeting techniques, constituting a novel animal model for human fucosidosis. These mice display widespread LSD pathology, accumulation of secondary storage material and neuroinflammation throughout the brain, as well as progressive loss of Purkinje cells...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692713/sex-differences-in-risk-preference-and-c-fos-expression-in-paraventricular-thalamic-nucleus-of-rats-during-gambling-task
#17
Hironori Ishii, Mariko Onodera, Shinya Ohara, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Toshio Iijima
Different biological requirements between males and females may cause sex differences in decision preference when choosing between taking a risk to get a higher gain or taking a lower but sure gain. Several studies have tested this assumption in rats, however the conclusion remains controversial because the previous real-world like gambling tasks contained a learning component to track a global payoff of probabilistic outcome in addition to risk preference. Therefore, we modified a simple gambling task allowing us to exclude such learning effect, and investigated the sex difference in risk preference of rats and its neural basis...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681804/neurophysiological-effects-of-trait-empathy-in-music-listening
#18
Zachary Wallmark, Choi Deblieck, Marco Iacoboni
The social cognitive basis of music processing has long been noted, and recent research has shown that trait empathy is linked to musical preferences and listening style. Does empathy modulate neural responses to musical sounds? We designed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to address this question. In Experiment 1, subjects listened to brief isolated musical timbres while being scanned. In Experiment 2, subjects listened to excerpts of music in four conditions (familiar liked (FL)/disliked and unfamiliar liked (UL)/disliked)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681803/anger-modulates-influence-hierarchies-within-and-between-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-networks
#19
Yael Jacob, Gadi Gilam, Tamar Lin, Gal Raz, Talma Hendler
Emotion regulation is hypothesized to be mediated by the interactions between emotional reactivity and regulation networks during the dynamic unfolding of the emotional episode. Yet, it remains unclear how to delineate the effective relationships between these networks. In this study, we examined the aforementioned networks' information flow hierarchy during viewing of an anger provoking movie excerpt. Anger regulation is particularly essential for averting individuals from aggression and violence, thus improving prosocial behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670515/impaired-working-memory-updating-for-emotional-stimuli-in-depressed-patients
#20
Dandan Zhang, Hui Xie, Zhenhong He, Zhaoguo Wei, Ruolei Gu
Although two previous studies have demonstrated that depressed individuals showed deficits in working memory (WM) updating of both negative and positive contents, the effects were confounded by shifting dysfunctions and the detailed neural mechanism associated with the failure in N-back task is not clear. Using a 2-back task, the current study examined the WM updating of positive, negative and neutral contents in depressed patients. It is found that depressed patients performed poorer than healthy controls only when updating positive material...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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