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Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

Jasmin Remmes, Carina Bodden, S Helene Richter, Jörg Lesting, Norbert Sachser, Hans-Christian Pape, Thomas Seidenbecher
Behavioral profiles are strongly shaped by an individual's whole life experience. The accumulation of negative experiences over lifetime is thought to promote anxiety-like behavior in adulthood ("allostatic load hypothesis"). In contrast, the "mismatch hypothesis" of psychiatric disease suggests that high levels of anxiety-like behavior are the result of a discrepancy between early and late environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different life histories shape the expression of anxiety-like behavior and modulate fear memory...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Diego A Laplagne, Martín Elías Costa
Acoustic signals have the potential for transmitting information fast across distances. Rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations of two distinct classes: "22-kHz" or "alarm" calls and "50-kHz" calls. The latter comprises brief sounds in the 30-80-kHz range, whose ethological role is not fully understood. We recorded ultrasonic vocalizations from pairs of rats freely behaving in neighboring but separated arenas. 50-kHz vocalizations in this condition were tightly linked to the locomotion of the emitter at the subsecond time scale, their rate sharply increasing and decreasing prior to the onset and offset of movement respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sven Fischer, Kristoffel Grechenig, Nicolas Meier
We run several experiments which allow us to compare cooperation under perfect and imperfect information in a centralized and decentralized punishment regime. Under perfect and extremely noisy information, aggregate behavior does not differ between institutions. Under intermediate noise, punishment escalates in the decentralized peer-to-peer punishment regime which badly affects efficiency while sustaining cooperation for longer. Only decentralized punishment is often directed at cooperators (perverse punishment)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ning Wang, Sheng-Guang Li, Xiao-Xiao Lin, Yuan-Lin Su, Wei-Jing Qi, Jin-Yan Wang, Fei Luo
Although previous studies have suggested that depression may be associated with inhibition of evoked pain but facilitation of spontaneous pain, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are unclear. The present study investigated whether the difference between evoked and spontaneous pain on sensory (descending inhibition) and affective (avoidance motivation) components contributes to the divergent effects of depression on them. Depressive-like behavior was produced in male Wistar rats by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Michael A Rieger, Joseph D Dougherty
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship), as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Gabriela Gan, Rebecca N Preston-Campbell, Scott J Moeller, Joel L Steinberg, Scott D Lane, Thomas Maloney, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
The propensity for reactive aggression (RA) which occurs in response to provocation has been linked to hyperresponsivity of the mesocorticolimbic reward network in healthy adults. Here, we aim to elucidate the role of the mesocorticolimbic network in clinically significant RA for two competing motivated behaviors, reward-seeking vs. retaliation. 18 male participants performed a variant of the Point-Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We examined whether RA participants compared with non-aggressive controls would choose to obtain a monetary reward over the opportunity to retaliate against a fictitious opponent, who provoked the participant by randomly stealing money from his earnings...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Lars Westberg, Susanne Henningsson, Anna Zettergren, Joakim Svärd, Daniel Hovey, Tian Lin, Natalie C Ebner, Håkan Fischer
The ability to recognize faces is crucial for daily social interactions. Recent studies suggest that intranasal oxytocin administration improves social recognition in humans. Oxytocin signaling in the amygdala plays an essential role for social recognition in mice, and oxytocin administration has been shown to influence amygdala activity in humans. It is therefore possible that the effects of oxytocin on human social recognition depend on mechanisms that take place in the amygdala-a central region for memory processing also in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Luis R Jacinto, João J Cerqueira, Nuno Sousa
Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Andrea Alamia, Oleg Solopchuk, Etienne Olivier, Alexandre Zenon
Chunking consists in grouping items of a sequence into small clusters, named chunks, with the assumed goal of lessening working memory load. Despite extensive research, the current methods used to detect chunks, and to identify different chunking strategies, remain discordant and difficult to implement. Here, we propose a simple and reliable method to identify chunks in a sequence and to determine their stability across blocks. This algorithm is based on a ranking method and its major novelty is that it provides concomitantly both the features of individual chunk in a given sequence, and an overall index that quantifies the chunking pattern consistency across sequences...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Woo-Hyun Cho, Jung-Soo Han
Flexibility in using different learning strategies was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 strains. Mice were trained sequentially in two different Morris water maze protocols that tested their ability to switch their learning strategy to complete a new task after first being trained in a different task. Training consisted either of visible platform trials (cued training) followed by subsequent hidden platform trials (place training) or the reverse sequence (place training followed by cued training)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Therese Reber, Marie Dacke, Eric Warrant, Emily Baird
To make a smooth touchdown when landing, an insect must be able to reliably control its approach speed as well as its body and leg position-behaviors that are thought to be regulated primarily by visual information. Bumblebees forage and land under a broad range of light intensities and while their behavior during the final moments of landing has been described in detail in bright light, little is known about how this is affected by decreasing light intensity. Here, we investigate this by characterizing the performance of bumblebees, B...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Paulo E Carneiro de Oliveira, Rodrigo M Leão, Paula C Bianchi, Marcelo T Marin, Cleopatra da Silva Planeta, Fábio C Cruz
While clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that adolescence is a risk period for the development of addiction, the underlying neural mechanisms are largely unknown. Stress during adolescence has a huge influence on drug addiction. However, little is known about the mechanisms related to the interaction among stress, adolescence and addiction. Studies point to ΔFosB as a possible target for this phenomenon. In the present study, adolescent and adult rats (postnatal day 28 and 60, respectively) were restrained for 2 h once a day for 7 days...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Lisa K B Holper, Alekandra Aleksandrowicz, Mario Müller, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Helene Haker, Andreas J Fallgatter, Florence Hagenmuller, Wolfram Kawohl, Wulf Rössler
A psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of clinical detection. The study aimed to investigate whether subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated with deficits in controlling emotional interference, and whether cortical brain and cardiac correlates of these deficits can be detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A data set derived from a community sample was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services. 174 subjects (mean age 29...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yifat Segev, Adva Livne, Meshi Mints, Kobi Rosenblum
Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, evidence indicates that the pathological process begins long before actual cognitive or pathological symptoms are apparent. The long asymptomatic phase and complex integration between genetic, environmental and metabolic factors make it one of the most challenging diseases to understand and cure. In the present study, we asked whether an environmental factor such as high-fat (HF) diet would synergize with a genetic factor to affect the metabolic and cognitive state in the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) mouse model of AD...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Martin Ulrich, Johannes Keller, Georg Grön
Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the experience of flow aligns with a relative increase in activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and relative activation decreases of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and of the amygdala (AMY). In the present study, Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) was used to explore effective connectivity between those brain regions. To test our hypothesis that the DRN causally down-regulates activity of the MPFC and/or of the AMY, 23 healthy male students solved mental arithmetic tasks of varying difficulty during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Stanislav V Rozov, Janneke C Zant, Kestutis Gurevicius, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Pertti Panula
AIM: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
George S Boyan, Yu Liu
The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Raymond C K Chan, Morten L Kringelbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yukihisa Matsumoto, Chihiro S Matsumoto, Toshihumi Takahashi, Makoto Mizunami
Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a common feature and a debilitating phenotype of brain aging in many animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AMI are still largely unknown. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a useful experimental animal for studying age-related changes in learning and memory capability; because the cricket has relatively short life-cycle and a high capability of olfactory learning and memory. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation in crickets have been examined in detail...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Giovanni Hernandez, Marie-Pierre Cossette, Peter Shizgal, Pierre-Paul Rompré
Glutamate stimulates ventral midbrain (VM) N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to initiate dopamine (DA) burst firing activity, a mode of discharge associated with enhanced DA release and reward. Blockade of VM NMDAR, however, enhances brain stimulation reward (BSR), the results can be explained by a reduction in the inhibitory drive on DA neurons that is also under the control of glutamate. In this study, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in anesthetized animals to determine whether this enhancement is associated with a change in phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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