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Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

Gadi Gilam, Adi Maron-Katz, Efrat Kliper, Tamar Lin, Eyal Fruchter, Ron Shamir, Talma Hendler
Uncontrolled anger may lead to aggression and is common in various clinical conditions, including post traumatic stress disorder. Emotion regulation strategies may vary with some more adaptive and efficient than others in reducing angry feelings. However, such feelings tend to linger after anger provocation, extending the challenge of coping with anger beyond provocation. Task-independent resting-state (rs) fMRI may be a particularly useful paradigm to reveal neural processes of spontaneous recovery from a preceding negative emotional experience...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Laura Kaltwasser, Una Mikac, Vesna Buško, Andrea Hildebrandt
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial width-to-height ratio (WHR) are supposedly static indicators of testosterone exposition during prenatal and pubertal lifetime, respectively. Both measures have been linked to aggressive and assertive behavior in laboratory economic games, as well as in real world scenarios. Most of the research-often limited to male subjects-considers the associations between these behaviors, traits, and hormonal markers separately for 2D:4D and WHR. Reported associations are weak and volatile...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Zhixin Xie, Lionel Page, Ben Hardy
There is a significant gender imbalance on financial trading floors. This motivated us to investigate gender differences in financial risk taking under pressure. We used a well-established approach from behavior economics to analyze a series of risky monetary choices by male and female participants with and without time pressure. We also used second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and face width-to-height ratio (fWHR) as correlates of pre-natal exposure to testosterone. We constructed a structural model and estimated the participants' risk attitudes and probability perceptions via maximum likelihood estimation under both expected utility (EU) and rank-dependent utility (RDU) models...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Terra D Barnes, Michael A Rieger, Joseph D Dougherty, Timothy E Holy
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in a variety of social situations, and USVs have been leveraged to study many neurological diseases including verbal dyspraxia, depression, autism and stuttering. Pups produce isolation calls, a common USV, spontaneously when they are isolated from their mother during the first 2 weeks of life. Several genetic manipulations affect (and often reduce) pup isolation calls in mice. To facilitate the use of this assay as a means of testing whether significant functional differences in genotypes exist instead of contextual differences, we test the variability inherent in many commons measures of mouse vocalizations...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Xinfeng Chen, Haohong Li
Studying animal behavior in the lab requires reliable delivering stimulations and monitoring responses. We constructed a comprehensive behavioral platform (ArControl: Arduino Control Platform) that was an affordable, easy-to-use, high-performance solution combined software and hardware components. The hardware component was consisted of an Arduino UNO board and a simple drive circuit. As for software, the ArControl provided a stand-alone and intuitive GUI (graphical user interface) application that did not require users to master scripts...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Andrea de Bartolomeis, Elisabetta F Buonaguro, Gianmarco Latte, Rodolfo Rossi, Federica Marmo, Felice Iasevoli, Carmine Tomasetti
An increasing amount of research aims at recognizing the molecular mechanisms involved in long-lasting brain architectural changes induced by antipsychotic treatments. Although both structural and functional modifications have been identified following acute antipsychotic administration in humans, currently there is scarce knowledge on the enduring consequences of these acute changes. New insights in immediate-early genes (IEGs) modulation following acute or chronic antipsychotic administration may help to fill the gap between primary molecular response and putative long-term changes...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Isabelle Brocas, Juan D Carrillo, Ryan Kendall
In this paper, we study how stress affects risk taking in three tasks: individual lotteries, Stag Hunt (coordination) games, and Hawk-Dove (anti-coordination) games. Both control and stressed subjects take more risks in all three tasks when the value of the safe option is decreased and in lotteries when the expected gain is increased. Also, subjects take longer to take decisions when stakes are high, when the safe option is less attractive and in the conceptually more difficult Hawk-Dove game. Stress (weakly) increases reaction times in those cases...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Lina Koppel, David Andersson, India Morrison, Daniel Västfjäll, Gustav Tinghög
Pleasant touch is thought to increase the release of oxytocin. Oxytocin, in turn, has been extensively studied with regards to its effects on trust and prosocial behavior, but results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of touch on economic decision making. Participants (n = 120) were stroked on their left arm using a soft brush (touch condition) or not at all (control condition; varied within subjects), while they performed a series of decision tasks assessing betrayal aversion (the Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task), altruism (donating money to a charitable organization), and risk taking (the Balloon Analog Risk Task)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jan Duchoslav
Climate change has not only led to a sustained rise in mean global temperature over the past decades, but also increased the frequency of extreme weather events. This paper explores the effect of temperature shocks in utero on later-life taste for cooperation. Using historical climate data combined with data on child and adult behavior in public goods games, I show that abnormally high ambient temperatures during gestation are associated with decreased individual contributions to the public good in a statistically and economically significant way...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Linde C M van Dongen, Ellen Wingbermühle, Wouter Oomens, Anja G Bos-Roubos, Charlotte W Ockeloen, Tjitske Kleefstra, Jos I M Egger
KBG syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) caused by loss-of-function of the ANKRD11 gene. The core phenotype comprises developmental delay (DD)/ intellectual disability (ID) and several specific facial dysmorphisms. In addition, both ADHD- and ASD-related symptoms have been mentioned. For the correct understanding of these developmental and behavioral characteristics however, it is of great importance to apply objective measures, which seldom has been done in patients with KBG syndrome. In this study, intelligence profiles of patients with KBG syndrome (n = 18) were compared with a control group comprising patients with NDD caused by various other genetic defects (n = 17), by means of the Wechsler scales...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Matthew T Sutherland, Diana H Fishbein
Higher trait levels of psychopathy have been associated with both a tendency to maintain disadvantageous decision-making strategies and aberrant cortico-limbic neural activity. To explore the neural mechanisms associated with the psychopathy-related propensity to continue selecting risky choices, a non-forensic sample of participants completed a self-report psychopathy questionnaire and two runs of a risky decision-making task during H215O positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. In this secondary data analysis study, we leveraged data previously collected to examine the impact of previous drug use on risky decision-making to explore the relations between self-reported psychopathy and behavioral and brain metrics during performance of the Cambridge Decision-Making Task (CDMT), in which volunteers chose between small/likely or large/unlikely potential reward outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Daina Crafa, Colin Hawco, Mathieu B Brodeur
Context sometimes helps make objects more recognizable. Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have examined regional neural activity when objects have strong or weak associations with their contexts. Such studies have demonstrated that activity in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) generally corresponds with strong associations between objects and their spatial contexts while retrosplenial cortex (RSC) activity is linked with episodic memory. However these studies investigated objects viewed in associated contexts, but the direct influence of scene on the perception of visual objects has not been widely investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Robert L Gabrys, Kaylyn Dixon, Hymie Anisman
Cognitive flexibility plays an important role in an individual's ability to adapt to a continuously changing environment and is considered central to goal-oriented behavior. Accordingly, increasing attention has been devoted to understanding the factors, including genetic and early life experiences, which might contribute to individual differences in this ability. In the present investigation, we examined the contribution of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism to cognitive flexibility, as assessed by set-shifting ability on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), and whether this polymorphism moderated the relation between trauma experiences (including type and timing of trauma occurrence) and cognitive flexibility...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Werner Bönte, Vivien D Procher, Diemo Urbig, Martin Voracek
The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE), with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Elizabeth T Barfield, Shannon L Gourley
Early-life trauma can increase the risk for, and severity of, several psychiatric illnesses. These include drug use disorders, and some correlations appear to be stronger in women. Understanding the long-term consequences of developmental stressor or stress hormone exposure and possible sex differences is critically important. So-called "reversal learning" tasks are commonly used in rodents to model cognitive deficits in stress- and addiction-related illnesses in humans. Here, we exposed mice to the primary stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) during early adolescence (postnatal days 31-42), then tested behavioral flexibility in adulthood using an instrumental reversal learning task...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Dahee Jung, Yu J Hwang, Hoon Ryu, Masanobu Kano, Kenji Sakimura, Jeiwon Cho
[This corrects the article on p. 214 in vol. 10, PMID: 27857685.].
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Munazah F Qureshi, Sushil K Jha
The conditioning tasks have been widely used to model fear and anxiety and to study their association with sleep. Many reports suggest that sleep plays a vital role in the consolidation of fear memory. Studies have also demonstrated that fear-conditioning influences sleep differently in mice strains having a low or high anxiety level. It is, therefore, necessary to know, how sleep influences fear-conditioning and how fear-conditioning induces changes in sleep architecture in moderate anxious strains. We have used Swiss mice, a moderate anxious strain, to study the effects of: (i) sleep deprivation on contextual fear conditioned memory, and also (ii) contextual fear conditioning on sleep architecture...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jing-Na Jin, Xin Wang, Ying Li, Fang Jin, Zhi-Peng Liu, Tao Yin
It has recently been reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with motor training (rTMS-MT) could improve motor function in post-stroke patients. However, the effects of rTMS-MT on cortical function using functional connectivity and graph theoretical analysis remain unclear. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to receive rTMS immediately before application of MT. Low frequency rTMS was delivered to the dominant hemisphere and non-dominant hand performed MT over 14 days. The reaction time of Nine-Hole Peg Test and electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed were recorded before and after rTMS-MT...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Eva M Marco, Sara Peñasco, María-Donina Hernández, Anabel Gil, Erika Borcel, Marta Moya, Elena Giné, José Antonio López-Moreno, Consuelo Guerri, Meritxell López-Gallardo, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking-known as binge-drinking-has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd) 28-52...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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