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Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

Pablo Brañas-Garza, Antonio M Espín, Benedikt Herrmann, Praveen Kujal, Rosemarie Nagel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
María T Ramírez-López, Rocío Arco, Juan Decara, Mariam Vázquez, Patricia Rivera, Rosario Noemi Blanco, Francisco Alén, Raquel Gómez de Heras, Juan Suárez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Maternal malnutrition causes long-lasting alterations in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in offspring. It is still unknown whether both, the endocannabinoid (eCB) machinery and the lipid metabolism are implicated in long-term adaptive responses to fetal reprogramming caused by maternal undernutrition. We investigated the long-term effects of maternal exposure to a 20% standard diet restriction during preconceptional and gestational periods on the metabolically-relevant tissues hypothalamus, liver, and perirenal fat (PAT) of male and female offspring at adulthood...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Franz R Villaruel, Nadia Chaudhri
Individual differences exist in the attribution of incentive salience to conditioned stimuli associated with food. Here, we investigated whether individual differences also manifested with a Pavlovian alcohol conditioned stimulus (CS). We compiled data from five experiments that used a Pavlovian autoshaping paradigm and tests of conditioned reinforcement. In all experiments, male, Long-Evans rats with unrestricted access to food and water were acclimated to 15% ethanol. Next, rats received Pavlovian autoshaping training, in which a 10 s presentation of a retractable lever served as the CS and 0...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sai Tian, Jing Han, Rong Huang, Wenqing Xia, Jie Sun, Rongrong Cai, Xue Dong, Yanjue Shen, Shaohua Wang
Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the pathogenetic roles of ACE and the genetic predisposition of its insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 210 T2DM patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 116 satisfied the MCI diagnostic criteria and 94 exhibited healthy cognition. The cognitive functions of the patients were extensively assessed...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Benjamin Weiner, Stav Hertz, Nisim Perets, Michael London
Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats, and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding, and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Christophe Bossens, Hans P Op de Beeck
The visual system processes visual input in a hierarchical manner in order to extract relevant features that can be used in tasks such as invariant object recognition. Although typically investigated in primates, recent work has shown that rats can be trained in a variety of visual object and shape recognition tasks. These studies did not pinpoint the complexity of the features used by these animals. Many tasks might be solved by using a combination of relatively simple features which tend to be correlated...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Zsuzsika Sjoerds, Anja Dietrich, Lorenz Deserno, Sanne de Wit, Arno Villringer, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Florian Schlagenhauf, Annette Horstmann
Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Vibeke M Bruinenberg, Els van der Goot, Danique van Vliet, Martijn J de Groot, Priscila N Mazzola, M Rebecca Heiner-Fokkema, Martijn van Faassen, Francjan J van Spronsen, Eddy A van der Zee
To unravel the role of gene mutations in the healthy and the diseased state, countless studies have tried to link genotype with phenotype. However, over the years, it became clear that the strain of mice can influence these results. Nevertheless, identical gene mutations in different strains are often still considered equals. An example of this, is the research done in phenylketonuria (PKU), an inheritable metabolic disorder. In this field, a PKU mouse model (either on a BTBR or C57Bl/6 background) is often used to examine underlying mechanisms of the disease and/or new treatment strategies...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Katiuscia Sacco, Benedetto Sacchetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Virginie Rappeneau, Amanda Blaker, Jeff R Petro, Bryan K Yamamoto, Akiko Shimamoto
Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Uwe Homberg, Monika Müller
The central complex, a group of neuropils spanning the midline of the insect brain, plays a key role in spatial orientation and navigation. In the desert locust and other species, many neurons of the central complex are sensitive to the oscillation plane of polarized light above the animal and are likely involved in the coding of compass directions derived from the polarization pattern of the sky. Polarized light signals enter the locust central complex primarily through two types of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive tangential neurons, termed TL2 and TL3 that innervate specific layers of the lower division of the central body (CBL)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yanhui Lu, Yu An, Jin Guo, Xiaona Zhang, Hui Wang, Hongguo Rong, Rong Xiao
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a pre-clinical stage of Alzheimer's disease afflicting a large number of the elderly throughout the world. However, modifiable risk factors for the onset and progression of MCI remain unclear. A cross-sectional study was performed to explore whether and how daily dietary nutrients intake and lifestyle impacted the risk of MCI in the Chinese elderly. We examined 2,892 elderly subjects, including 768 MCI patients and 2,124 subjects with normal cognition in three different Provinces of China...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
June J Pilcher, Stewart A Bryant
Self-control is an intricate component of decision making and effectively managing day-to-day life. Failing to maintain adequate self-control can have negative effects on many desired goals and social experiences. As such, understanding how different facets of the human experience may affect self-control is an important undertaking. One area that is yet unclear is the possible relationships between social support and self-control. Research suggests that social support can be an effective resource in reducing stress and promoting health and well-being...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ellen Kanitz, Theresa Hameister, Armin Tuchscherer, Margret Tuchscherer, Birger Puppe
The presence of an affiliative conspecific may alleviate an individual's stress response in threatening conditions. However, the mechanisms and neural circuitry underlying the process of social buffering have not yet been elucidated. Using the domestic pig as an animal model, we examined the effect of a 4-h maternal and littermate deprivation on stress hormones and on mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD) types 1 and 2 and the immediate early gene c-fos in various brain regions of 7-, 21- and 35-day old piglets...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Carlota Lorenzo-Romero, María-Del-Carmen Alarcón-Del-Amo, Miguel-Ángel Gómez-Borja
Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e., navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus) versus non-verbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli). Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research consists in analyzing the impact of these web technologies -which constitute the web atmosphere or webmosphere of a website- on shopping human behavior (i...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
António Melo, Hugo Leite-Almeida, Clara Ferreira, Nuno Sousa, José M Pêgo
Introduction: Ketamine is a general anesthetic (GA) that activates several neurotransmitter pathways in various part of the brain. The acute effects as GA are the most well-known and sought-after: to induce loss of responsiveness and to produce immobility during invasive procedures. However, there is a concern that repeated exposure might induce behavioral changes that could outlast their acute effect. Most research in this field describes how GA affects cognition and memory. Our work is to access if general anesthesia with ketamine can disrupt the motivational behavior trait, more specifically measuring impulsive behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Chloé Boitard, Shauna L Parkes, Amandine Cavaroc, Frédéric Tantot, Nathalie Castanon, Sophie Layé, Sophie Tronel, Gustavo Pacheco-Lopez, Etienne Coutureau, Guillaume Ferreira
In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala) and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF) exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yeowool Huh, Jeiwon Cho
Pain serves an important protective role. However, it can also have debilitating adverse effects if dysfunctional, such as in pathological pain conditions. As part of the thalamocortical circuit, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) has been implicated to have important roles in controlling nociceptive signal transmission. However studies on how TRN neurons, especially how TRN neuronal subtypes categorized by temporal bursting firing patterns-typical bursting, atypical bursting and non-bursting TRN neurons-contribute to nociceptive signal modulation is not known...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Frauke Nees, Martin Griebe, Anne Ebert, Michaela Ruttorf, Benjamin Gerber, Oliver T Wolf, Lothar R Schad, Achim Gass, Kristina Szabo
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning-the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Antonia Manduca, Olivier Lassalle, Marja Sepers, Patrizia Campolongo, Vincenzo Cuomo, Giovanni Marsicano, Brigitte Kieffer, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Viviana Trezza, Olivier J J Manzoni
Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological, and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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