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Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

Carrie R Jonak, Jonathan W Lovelace, Iryna M Ethell, Khaleel A Razak, Devin K Binder
Translational comparison of rodent models of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases to human electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers in these conditions will require multisite rodent EEG on the skull surface, rather than local area electrocorticography (ECoG) or multisite local field potential (LFP) recording. We have developed a technique for planar multielectrode array (MEA) implantation on the mouse skull surface, which enables multisite EEG in awake and freely moving mice and reusability of the MEA probes...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Nicole N Scheff, Aditi Bhattacharya, Edward Dowse, Richard X Dang, John C Dolan, Susanna Wang, Hyesung Kim, Donna G Albertson, Brian L Schmidt
The incidence of oral cancer in the United States is increasing, especially in young people and women. Patients with oral cancer report severe functional pain. Using a patient cohort accrued through the New York University Oral Cancer Center and immune-competent mouse models, we identify a sex difference in the prevalence and severity of oral cancer pain. A neutrophil-mediated endogenous analgesic mechanism is present in male mice with oral cancer. Local naloxone treatment potentiates cancer mediator-induced orofacial nociceptive behavior in male mice only...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Ethan B Russo
Neurological therapeutics have been hampered by its inability to advance beyond symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disorders into the realm of actual palliation, arrest or reversal of the attendant pathological processes. While cannabis-based medicines have demonstrated safety, efficacy and consistency sufficient for regulatory approval in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS), and in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes (LGS), many therapeutic challenges remain. This review will examine the intriguing promise that recent discoveries regarding cannabis-based medicines offer to neurological therapeutics by incorporating the neutral phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabis terpenoids in the putative treatment of five syndromes, currently labeled recalcitrant to therapeutic success, and wherein improved pharmacological intervention is required: intractable epilepsy, brain tumors, Parkinson disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Milos Dordevic, Robert Schrader, Marco Taubert, Patrick Müller, Anita Hökelmann, Notger G Müller
Background and Objective: Life-long balance training has been shown to affect brain structure, including the hippocampus. Data are missing in this respect on professional ballet dancers of both genders. It is also unknown whether transfer effects exist on general balancing as well as spatial orientation abilities, a function mainly supported by the hippocampus. We aimed to assess differences in gray matter (GM) structure, general balancing skills, and spatial orientation skills between professional ballet dancers and non-dancers...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Abdoreza Asadpour, Ali Alavi, Mehran Jahed, Saeid Mahmoudian
About 20 percent of people above 60 years old suffer from tinnitus though no definitive treatment has been found for it. Evaluation of electrical brain activity using Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) is one of the methods to investigate the underlying reasons of tinnitus perception. Previous studies using ERPs suggest that the precognitive memory in tinnitus groups is negatively affected in comparison to the normal hearing groups. In this study, cognitive memory has been assessed using visual and auditory P300 response with oddball paradigm...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Phillip Kramer, Mahesh Rao, Crystal Stinson, Larry L Bellinger, Paul R Kinchington, Michael B Yee
Herpes zoster or shingles is the result of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and often results in chronic pain that lasts for months after visible symptoms subside. Testosterone often attenuates pain in males. Previous work demonstrates ovarian estrogen effects γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling in the thalamus, reducing pain but the role of testosterone within the thalamus is currently unknown. Because aromatase affects pain and is present in the thalamus we tested a hypothesis that testosterone converted to estrogen in the thalamus attenuates herpes zoster induced pain...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Gregory Dussor, Jacob T Boyd, Armen N Akopian
Clinical and basic research on regulation of pituitary hormones, extra-pituitary release of these hormones, distribution of their receptors and cell signaling pathways recruited upon receptor binding suggests that pituitary hormones can regulate mechanisms of nociceptive transmission in multiple orofacial pain conditions. Moreover, many pituitary hormones either regulate glands that produce gonadal hormones (GnH) or are regulated by GnH. This implies that pituitary hormones may be involved in sex-dependent mechanisms of orofacial pain and could help explain why certain orofacial pain conditions are more prevalent in women than men...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Joman Y Natsheh, Michael W Shiflett
Aside from its clinical symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, patients with Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) display reward and motivational impairments. These impairments may reflect a deficit in action control, that is, an inability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing consequences. We previously showed that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an inbred rodent model of ADHD, show impairments in goal-directed action control, and instead are predominated by habits. In this study, we examined the effects of specific dopamine receptor sub-type (D1 and D2) agonists and antagonists on goal-directed behavior in SHR and the normotensive inbred control strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Olga I Dadalko, Brittany G Travers
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects one in 59 children in the United States. Although there is a mounting body of knowledge of cortical and cerebellar contributions to ASD, our knowledge about the early developing brainstem in ASD is only beginning to accumulate. Understanding how brainstem neurotransmission is implicated in ASD is important because many of this condition's sensory and motor symptoms are consistent with brainstem pathology. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to integrate epidemiological, behavioral, histological, neuroimaging, and animal evidence of brainstem contributions to ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Eugene A Kiyatkin
The goal of this work is to consider physiological fluctuations in brain oxygen levels and its changes induced by opioid drugs. This review article presents, as a comprehensive story, the most important findings obtained in our laboratory by using high-speed amperometry with oxygen sensors in awake, freely moving rats; most of these findings were separately published elsewhere. First, we show that oxygen levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) phasically increase following exposure to natural arousing stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Ian M McDonough, Jonathan T Siegel
Brain structure has been proposed to facilitate as well as constrain functional interactions within brain networks. Simulation models suggest that integrity of white matter (WM) microstructure should be positively related to the complexity of BOLD signal - a measure of network interactions. Using 121 young adults from the Human Connectome Project, we empirically tested whether greater WM integrity would be associated with greater complexity of the BOLD signal during rest via multiscale entropy. Multiscale entropy measures the lack of predictability within a given time series across varying time scales, thus being able to estimate fluctuating signal dynamics within brain networks...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Brendan M Hasz, A David Redish
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2018.00030.].
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Darren J Edwards, Hayley Young, Ross Johnston
Background: There is paucity in the literature regarding the role of the interoceptive pathway through the insular cortex (IC), as well as heart rate variability (HRV) in relation to Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy (OMT) and deep-touch. Aims: The present study investigated whether both OMT treatment and deep-touch (a newly hypothesized treatment option) was effective at altering the interoceptive pathway and HRV, whilst OMT was only expected to be effective for increasing Range of Motion (ROM). Methods: Thirty-five healthy volunteers were randomly allocated into three conditions in a repeated measures crossover design; a control (laying supine on a plinth); deep-touch (head cradling); and an osteopathic mobilization therapeutic technique on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Thomas Parr, David A Benrimoh, Peter Vincent, Karl J Friston
Accurate perceptual inference fundamentally depends upon accurate beliefs about the reliability of sensory data. In this paper, we describe a Bayes optimal and biologically plausible scheme that refines these beliefs through a gradient descent on variational free energy. To illustrate this, we simulate belief updating during visual foraging and show that changes in estimated sensory precision (i.e., confidence in visual data) are highly sensitive to prior beliefs about the contents of a visual scene. In brief, confident prior beliefs induce an increase in estimated precision when consistent with sensory evidence, but a decrease when they conflict...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Abdoreza Asadpour, Mehran Jahed, Saeid Mahmoudian
Management and treatment of subjective tinnitus is an ongoing focus of research activities. One of the most viable assessments of such treatment is the evaluation of brain activity in addition to patient response and clinical assessment. This study focuses on sound therapy and evaluation of patients' electroencephalogram (EEG) in order to verify the potency of this approach. Broadband sound therapy was applied to nineteen participants aging from 25 to 64 and suffering from chronic subjective tinnitus to study the difference of brain activity, a) before fake treatment, b) after fake treatment and c) after the main treatment, using EEG and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for evaluating Residual Inhibition (RI)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Shan Liang, Xiaoli Wu, Feng Jin
Mental disorders and neurological diseases are becoming a rapidly increasing medical burden. Although extensive studies have been conducted, the progress in developing effective therapies for these diseases has still been slow. The current dilemma reminds us that the human being is a superorganism. Only when we take the human self and its partner microbiota into consideration at the same time, can we better understand these diseases. Over the last few centuries, the partner microbiota has experienced tremendous change, much more than human genes, because of the modern transformations in diet, lifestyle, medical care, and so on, parallel to the modern epidemiological transition...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Anna Vera Cuppone, Giulia Cappagli, Monica Gori
In the last years, the positive impact of sensorimotor rehabilitation training on spatial abilities has been taken into account, e.g., providing evidence that combined multimodal compared to unimodal feedback improves responsiveness to spatial stimuli. To date, it still remains unclear to which extent spatial learning is influenced by training conditions. Here we investigated the effects of active and passive audio-motor training on spatial perception in the auditory and proprioceptive domains on 36 healthy young adults...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Valentina F Kitchigina
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are the most common forms of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the loss of cells and progressive irreversible alteration of cognitive functions, such as attention and memory. AD may be an important cause of epilepsy in the elderly. Early diagnosis of diseases is very important for their successful treatment. Many efforts have been done for defining new biomarkers of these diseases. Significant advances have been made in the searching of some AD and TLE reliable biomarkers, including cerebrospinal fluid and plasma measurements and glucose positron emission tomography...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Anja Meyer, Anne Gläser, Anja U Bräuer, Andreas Wree, Jörg Strotmann, Arndt Rolfs, Martin Witt
Background: Neurodegenerative diseases are often accompanied by olfactory deficits. Here we use a rare neurovisceral lipid storage disorder, Niemann-Pick disease C1 (NPC1), to illustrate disease-specific dynamics of olfactory dysfunction and its reaction upon therapy. Previous findings in a transgenic mouse model ( NPC1-/- ) showed severe morphological and electrophysiological alterations of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB) that ameliorated under therapy with combined 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD)/allopregnanolone/miglustat or HPßCD alone...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Jieun Kim, Dohoung Kim, Min Whan Jung
The frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuit plays an important role in interval timing. We examined neuronal discharges in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum (DMS and DLS) in rats performing a temporal categorization task and compared them with previously recorded neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). All three structures conveyed significant temporal information, but striatal neurons seldom showed the prolonged, full-interval spanning ramping activity frequently observed in the mPFC...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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