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Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

Shinji Miyata, Satomi Nadanaka, Michihiro Igarashi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Aggrecan, a chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan, forms lattice-like extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Neocortical PNNs primarily ensheath parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (parvalbumin, PV cells) late in brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that PNNs promote the maturation of PV cells by enhancing the incorporation of homeobox protein Otx2 and regulating experience-dependent neural plasticity. Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific plant lectin, binds to the CS chains of aggrecan and has been widely used to visualize PNNs...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Russell Cohen Hoffing, Povilas Karvelis, Samuel Rupprechter, Peggy Seriès, Aaron R Seitz
Task-switching is an important cognitive skill that facilitates our ability to choose appropriate behavior in a varied and changing environment. Task-switching training studies have sought to improve this ability by practicing switching between multiple tasks. However, an efficacious training paradigm has been difficult to develop in part due to findings that small differences in task parameters influence switching behavior in a non-trivial manner. Here, for the first time we employ the Drift Diffusion Model (DDM) to understand the influence of feedback on task-switching and investigate how drift diffusion parameters change over the course of task switch training...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Stanislava Knyazeva, Elena Selezneva, Alexander Gorkin, Nikolaos C Aggelopoulos, Michael Brosch
This study finds a neuronal correlate of auditory perceptual streaming in the primary auditory cortex for sequences of tone complexes that have the same amplitude spectrum but a different phase spectrum. Our finding is based on microelectrode recordings of multiunit activity from 270 cortical sites in three awake macaque monkeys. The monkeys were presented with repeated sequences of a tone triplet that consisted of an A tone, a B tone, another A tone and then a pause. The A and B tones were composed of unresolved harmonics formed by adding the harmonics in cosine phase, in alternating phase, or in random phase...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Leandro Casiraghi, Gustavo Faigenbaum, Alejandro Chehtman, Mariano Sigman
In all domains, from informal to formal, there are conflicts about property and ownership which resolution demands consideration of alleged claims from more than one party. In this work we asked adults ( N = 359) to judge cases in which a character held a property claim over an item, but is challenged by a second character who holds a different, subsequent claim over it. The specific goal of this work is to investigate how the resolution of such conflicts depends on the social endorsement of ownership claims...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Bruno Oliveira Ferreira Souza, Mira Abou Rjeili, Clémentine Quintana, Jean M Beaulieu, Christian Casanova
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter implicated in several brain functions, including vision. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of the lack of D2 dopamine receptors on the structure and function of the primary visual cortex (V1) of D2-KO mice using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Retinotopic maps were generated in order to measure anatomo-functional parameters such as V1 shape, cortical magnification factor, scatter, and ocular dominance. Contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency selectivity (SF) functions were computed from responses to drifting gratings...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Eva C Bach, John W Vaughan, Barry E Stein, Benjamin A Rowland
Neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) integrate cross-modal inputs to generate responses that are more robust than to either input alone, and are frequently greater than their sum (superadditive enhancement). Previously, the principles of a real-time multisensory transform were identified and used to accurately predict a neuron's responses to combinations of brief flashes and noise bursts. However, environmental stimuli frequently have more complex temporal structures that elicit very different response dynamics than previously examined...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Ryo Ishibashi, Tatsuya Mima, Hidenao Fukuyama, Gorana Pobric
Using a variety of tools is a common and essential component of modern human life. Patients with brain damage or neurological disorders frequently have cognitive deficits in their recognition and manipulation of tools. In this study, we focused on improving tool-related cognition using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence from neuropsychology, neuroimaging and non- invasive brain stimulation has identified the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) as brain regions supporting action semantics...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Elena Aggius-Vella, Claudio Campus, Sara Finocchietti, Monica Gori
Spatial representation is developed thanks to the integration of visual signals with the other senses. It has been shown that the lack of vision compromises the development of some spatial representations. In this study we tested the effect of a new rehabilitation device called ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction) to improve space representation. ABBI produces an audio feedback linked to body movement. Previous studies from our group showed that this device improves the spatial representation of space in early blind adults around the upper part of the body...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Mickael L D Deroche, Don L Nguyen, Vincent L Gracco
The inferior parietal lobe (IPL) is a region of the cortex believed to participate in speech motor learning. In this study, we investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the IPL could influence the extent to which healthy adults (1) adapted to a sensory alteration of their own auditory feedback, and (2) changed their perceptual representation. Seventy subjects completed three tasks: a baseline perceptual task that located the phonetic boundary between the vowels /e/ and /a/; a sensorimotor adaptation task in which subjects produced the word "head" under conditions of altered or unaltered feedback; and a post-adaptation perceptual task identical to the first...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Mattia Giuliani, Riccardo M Martoni, Regina Gregori Grgič, Sofia A Crespi, Maria C Cavallini, Claudio de'Sperati
The sense of agency (SoA) is a multifaceted construct, which can be defined as the ability to understand the causal relationships between our actions and sensory events. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients with checking compulsions often report a "lack of action completion" sensations, which has been conceptualized in the so-called "Not Just Right Experiences" construct. An intriguing explanation of this phenomenon comes from Belayachi and Van der Linden (2009, 2010), who suggest that OCD-checking patients are more prone to specify their action in a relatively molecular and inflexible way...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Leonie Oostwoud Wijdenes, W Pieter Medendorp
Humans are highly skilled in controlling their reaching movements, making fast and task-dependent movement corrections to unforeseen perturbations. To guide these corrections, the neural control system requires a continuous, instantaneous estimate of the current state of the arm and body in the world. According to Optimal Feedback Control theory, this estimate is multimodal and constructed based on the integration of forward motor predictions and sensory feedback, such as proprioceptive, visual and vestibular information, modulated by context, and shaped by past experience...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Leonardo Christov-Moore, Paul Conway, Marco Iacoboni
The dual process model of moral decision-making suggests that decisions to reject causing harm on moral dilemmas (where causing harm saves lives) reflect concern for others. Recently, some theorists have suggested such decisions actually reflect self-focused concern about causing harm, rather than witnessing others suffering. We examined brain activity while participants witnessed needles pierce another person's hand, versus similar non-painful stimuli. More than a month later, participants completed moral dilemmas where causing harm either did or did not maximize outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Heleen M van 't Spijker, Jessica C F Kwok
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are mesh-like structures, composed of a hierarchical assembly of extracellular matrix molecules in the central nervous system (CNS), ensheathing neurons and regulating plasticity. The mechanism of interactions between PNNs and neurons remain uncharacterized. In this review, we pose the question: how do PNNs regulate communication to and from neurons? We provide an overview of the current knowledge on PNNs with a focus on the cellular interactions. PNNs ensheath a subset of the neuronal population with distinct molecular aspects in different areas of the CNS...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Li-Qun Ren, Meng Chen, Hans Hultborn, Sen Guo, Yifan Zhang, Mengliang Zhang
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin, dopamine, and certain trace amines and is present in a variety of organs including the brain and spinal cord. It is previously reported that in mammalian spinal cord AADC cells (called D-cells) were largely confined to a region around the central canal and that they do not produce monoamines. To date, there has not been a detailed description of their distribution and morphology in mammals. In the present study this issue is systematically investigated using immunohistochemistry...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Markus Christen, Sabine Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Jacqueline Reinhard, Lars Roll, Andreas Faissner
Tenascins represent key constituents of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with major impact on central nervous system (CNS) development. In this regard, several studies indicate that they play a crucial role in axonal growth and guidance, synaptogenesis and boundary formation. These functions are not only important during development, but also for regeneration under several pathological conditions. Additionally, tenascin-C (Tnc) represents a key modulator of the immune system and inflammatory processes. In the present review article, we focus on the function of Tnc and tenascin-R (Tnr) in the diseased CNS, specifically after retinal and optic nerve damage and degeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Giulia Cappagli, Sara Finocchietti, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Elena Cocchi, Monica Gori
Since it has been shown that spatial development can be delayed in blind children, focused sensorimotor trainings that associate auditory and motor information might be used to prevent the risk of spatial-related developmental delays or impairments from an early age. With this aim, we proposed a new technological device based on the implicit link between action and perception: ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction) is an audio bracelet that produces a sound when a movement occurs by allowing the substitution of the visuo-motor association with a new audio-motor association...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Chieh Yu, Lyn R Griffiths, Larisa M Haupt
Unspecialized, self-renewing stem cells have extraordinary application to regenerative medicine due to their multilineage differentiation potential. Stem cell therapies through replenishing damaged or lost cells in the injured area is an attractive treatment of brain trauma and neurodegenerative neurological disorders. Several stem cell types have neurogenic potential including neural stem cells (NSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Currently, effective use of these cells is limited by our lack of understanding and ability to direct lineage commitment and differentiation of neural lineages...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Phillip R Kramer, Jennifer Strand, Crystal Stinson, Larry L Bellinger, Paul R Kinchington, Michael B Yee, Mikhail Umorin, Yuan B Peng
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infects the face and can result in chronic, debilitating pain. The mechanism for this pain is unknown and current treatment is often not effective, thus investigations into the pain pathway become vital. Pain itself is multidimensional, consisting of sensory and affective experiences. One of the primary brain substrates for transmitting sensory signals in the face is the ventral posterior medial/posterior lateral thalamus (VPM/VPL). In addition, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been shown to be vital in the affective experience of pain, so investigating both of these areas in freely behaving animals was completed to address the role of the brain in VZV-induced pain...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Teresa H Sanders
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN-DBS enables similar improved motor function, including increased movement speed (reduced bradykinesia), in the 6-OHDA dopamine-depletion mouse model of PD. Previous analyses of electrophysiological recordings from STN and motor cortex (M1) have explored signaling changes that correspond to PD and amelioration of PD symptoms. The most common results show an increase in beta frequency power during 'off' states and a reduction in beta during 'on' states...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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