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Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

Thomas Dresler, Stephanie Bugden, Camilo Gouet, Marie Lallier, Darlene G Oliveira, Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Ana C Pires, Yunqi Wang, Camila Zugarramurdi, Janaina Weissheimer
Neuroimaging has undergone enormous progress during the last two and a half decades. The combination of neuroscientific methods and educational practice has become a focus of interdisciplinary research in order to answer more applied questions. In this realm, conditions that hamper learning success and have deleterious effects in the population - such as learning disorders (LD) - could especially profit from neuroimaging findings. At the moment, however, there is an ongoing debate about how far neuroscientific research can go to inform the practical work in educational settings...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Catalin V Buhusi, Marcelo B Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A Oprisan, Mona Buhusi
Motor sequence learning, planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors, and decision making rely on accurate time estimation and production of durations in the seconds-to-minutes range. The pathways involved in planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors include cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry modulated by dopaminergic inputs. A critical feature of interval timing is its scalar property, by which the precision of timing is proportional to the timed duration. We examined the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in timing by evaluating the effect of its reversible inactivation on timing accuracy, timing precision and scalar timing...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Neha P Gothe, Jessica M Hayes, Cindy Temali, Jessica S Damoiseaux
Background: Yoga is a mind-body based physical activity that has demonstrated a variety of physiological, psychological and cognitive health benefits. Although yoga practice has shown to improve cognitive performance, few studies have examined the underlying neurological correlates. Objective: The current study aimed to determine the differences in gray matter volume of the hippocampus, thalamus and caudate nucleus and brain activation during the Sternberg working memory task. Method: Participants were 13 experienced yoga practitioners (mean age = 35...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Georgia O'Callaghan, Alan O'Dowd, Cristina Simões-Franklin, John Stapleton, Fiona N Newell
We investigated the neural underpinnings of texture categorisation using exemplars that were previously learned either within modalities (visual training and visual test) or across modalities (tactile training and visual test). Previous models of learning suggest a decrease in activation in brain regions that are typically involved in cognitive control during task acquisition, but a concomitant increase in activation in brain regions associated with the representation of the acquired information. In our study, participants were required to learn to categorise fabrics of different textures as either natural or synthetic...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Giulia Sprugnoli, Giampaolo Vatti, Simone Rossi, Alfonso Cerase, Alessandra Renieri, Maria A Mencarelli, Federico Zara, Alessandro Rossi, Emiliano Santarnecchi
Laminar heterotopia is a rare condition consisting in an extra layer of gray matter under properly migrated cortex; it configures an atypical presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) or a double cortex (DC) syndrome. We conducted an original functional MRI (fMRI) analysis in a drug-resistant epilepsy patient with "double-cortex"-like malformation to reveal her functional connectivity (FC) as well as a wide genetic analysis to identify possible genetic substrates. Heterotopias were segmented into region of interests (ROIs), whose voxel-wise FC was compared to that of (i) its normally migrated counterpart, (ii) its contralateral homologous, and (iii) those of 30 age-matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Emmanuelle Münger, Augusto J Montiel-Castro, Wolfgang Langhans, Gustavo Pacheco-López
Animals harbor an extensive, dynamic microbial ecosystem in their gut. Gut microbiota (GM) supposedly modulate various host functions including fecundity, metabolism, immunity, cognition and behavior. Starting by analyzing the concept of the holobiont as a unit of selection, we highlight recent findings suggesting an intimate link between GM and animal social behavior. We consider two reciprocal emerging themes: (i) that GM influence host social behavior; and (ii) that social behavior and social structure shape the composition of the GM across individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Xuan-Zheng Shi, You-Min Lin, Shrilakshmi Hegde
Obstructive bowel disorders (OBD) are characterized by lumen distention due to mechanical or functional obstruction in the gut. Abdominal pain is one of the main symptoms in OBD. In this article, we aim to critically review the potential mechanisms for acute and chronic pain in bowel obstruction (BO). While clustered contractions and associated increase of intraluminal pressure may account for colicky pain in simple obstruction, ischemia may be involved in acute pain in severe conditions such as closed loop obstruction...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Luigi Cattaneo, Vania Veroni, Sonia Boria, Giancarlo Tassinari, Luca Turella
Adults exposed to affective facial displays produce specific rapid facial reactions (RFRs) which are of lower intensity in males compared to females. We investigated such sex difference in a population of 60 primary school children (30 F; 30 M), aged 7-10 years. We recorded the surface electromyographic (EMG) signal from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomatici muscles, while children watched affective facial displays. Results showed the expected smiling RFR to smiling faces and the expected frowning RFR to sad faces...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Jess D Greenwald, Keith M Shafritz
Chronic pain can result from many pain syndromes including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), phantom limb pain and chronic low back pain, among others. On a molecular level, chronic pain syndromes arise from hypersensitization within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, a process known as central sensitization. Central sensitization involves an upregulation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) similar to that of long-term potentiation (LTP). Regions of the brain in which LTP occurs, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, are implicated in fear- and memory-related brain circuity...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Shao-Yang Tsai, Satish Jaiswal, Chi-Fu Chang, Wei-Kuang Liang, Neil G Muggleton, Chi-Hung Juan
Prior studies have reported that meditation may improve cognitive functions and those related to attention in particular. Here, the dynamic process of attentional control, which allows subjects to focus attention on their current interests, was investigated. Concentrative meditation aims to cultivate the abilities of continuous focus and redirecting attention from distractions to the object of focus during meditation. However, it remains unclear how meditation may influence attentional reorientation, which involves interaction between both top-down and bottom-up processes...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Daniel Garces, Nicole El Massioui, Charlotte Lamirault, Olaf Riess, Huu P Nguyen, Bruce L Brown, Valérie Doyère
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is accompanied by executive dysfunctions and emotional alteration. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of emotion/stress on on-going highly demanding cognitive tasks, i.e., temporal processing, as a function of age in BACHD rats (a "full length" model of HD). Middle-aged (4-6 months) and old (10-12 months) rats were first trained on a 2 vs. 8-s temporal discrimination task, and then exposed to a series of bisection tests under normal and stressful (10 mild unpredictable foot-shocks) conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Amir H Ghaderi, Masoud N Andevari, Paul F Sowman
Neural network-based investigations of stuttering have begun to provide a possible integrative account for the large number of brain-based anomalies associated with stuttering. Here we used resting-state EEG to investigate functional brain networks in adults who stutter ( AWS ). Participants were 19 AWS and 52 age-, and gender-matched normally fluent speakers. EEGs were recorded and connectivity matrices were generated by LORETA in the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta1 (12-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz) bands...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Aysha Basharat, Meaghan S Adams, William R Staines, Michael Barnett-Cowan
Multisensory integration is required for a number of daily living tasks where the inability to accurately identify simultaneity and temporality of multisensory events results in errors in judgment leading to poor decision-making and dangerous behavior. Previously, our lab discovered that older adults exhibited impaired timing of audiovisual events, particularly when making temporal order judgments (TOJs). Simultaneity judgments (SJs), however, were preserved across the lifespan. Here, we investigate the difference between the TOJ and SJ tasks in younger and older adults to assess neural processing differences between these two tasks and across the lifespan...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Hayden J Peel, Irene Sperandio, Robin Laycock, Philippe A Chouinard
Our understanding of how form, orientation and size are processed within and outside of awareness is limited and requires further investigation. Therefore, we investigated whether or not the visual discrimination of basic object features can be influenced by subliminal processing of stimuli presented beforehand. Visual masking was used to render stimuli perceptually invisible. Three experiments examined if visible and invisible primes could facilitate the subsequent feature discrimination of visible targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Ela I Olivares, Agustín Lage-Castellanos, María A Bobes, Jaime Iglesias
We investigated the neural correlates of the access to and retrieval of face structure information in contrast to those concerning the access to and retrieval of person-related verbal information, triggered by faces. We experimentally induced stimulus familiarity via a systematic learning procedure including faces with and without associated verbal information. Then, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in both intra-domain (face-feature) and cross-domain (face-occupation) matching tasks while N400-like responses were elicited by incorrect eyes-eyebrows completions and occupations, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Federica Rossi, Elisa Montanaro, Claudio de'Sperati
We live almost literally immersed in an artificial visual world, especially motion pictures. In this exploratory study, we asked whether the best speed for reproducing a video is its original, shooting speed. By using adjustment and double staircase methods, we examined speed biases in viewing real-life video clips in three experiments, and assessed their robustness by manipulating visual and auditory factors. With the tested stimuli (short clips of human motion, mixed human-physical motion, physical motion and ego-motion), speed underestimation was the rule rather than the exception, although it depended largely on clip content, ranging on average from 2% (ego-motion) to 32% (physical motion)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Rodrigo Laje, Patricia V Agostino, Diego A Golombek
Environmental cycles on Earth display different periodicities, including daily, tidal or annual time scales. Virtually all living organisms have developed temporal mechanisms to adapt to such changes in environmental conditions. These biological timing structures-ranging from microsecond to seasonal timing-may have intrinsic properties and even different clock machinery. However, interaction among these temporal systems may present evolutionary advantages, for example, when species are exposed to changing climatic conditions or different geographic locations...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Victorita E Ivan, Parker J Banks, Kris Goodfellow, Aaron J Gruber
The propensity of animals to shift choices immediately after unexpectedly poor reinforcement outcomes is a pervasive strategy across species and tasks. We report here on the memory supporting such lose-shift responding in humans, assessed using a binary choice task in which random responding is the optimal strategy. Participants exhibited little lose-shift responding when fully attending to the task, but this increased by 30%-40% in participants that performed with additional cognitive load that is known to tax executive systems...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Carla Caballero, Sejal Mistry, Joe Vero, Elizabeth B Torres
The variability inherently present in biophysical data is partly contributed by disparate sampling resolutions across instrumentations. This poses a potential problem for statistical inference using pooled data in open access repositories. Such repositories combine data collected from multiple research sites using variable sampling resolutions. One example is the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange repository containing thousands of imaging and demographic records from participants in the spectrum of autism and age-matched neurotypical controls...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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