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Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

Anna Vera Cuppone, Giulia Cappagli, Monica Gori
In the last years, the positive impact of sensorimotor rehabilitation training on spatial abilities has been taken into account, e.g., providing evidence that combined multimodal compared to unimodal feedback improves responsiveness to spatial stimuli. To date, it still remains unclear to which extent spatial learning is influenced by training conditions. Here we investigated the effects of active and passive audio-motor training on spatial perception in the auditory and proprioceptive domains on 36 healthy young adults...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Valentina F Kitchigina
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are the most common forms of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the loss of cells and progressive irreversible alteration of cognitive functions, such as attention and memory. AD may be an important cause of epilepsy in the elderly. Early diagnosis of diseases is very important for their successful treatment. Many efforts have been done for defining new biomarkers of these diseases. Significant advances have been made in the searching of some AD and TLE reliable biomarkers, including cerebrospinal fluid and plasma measurements and glucose positron emission tomography...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Anja Meyer, Anne Gläser, Anja U Bräuer, Andreas Wree, Jörg Strotmann, Arndt Rolfs, Martin Witt
Background: Neurodegenerative diseases are often accompanied by olfactory deficits. Here we use a rare neurovisceral lipid storage disorder, Niemann-Pick disease C1 (NPC1), to illustrate disease-specific dynamics of olfactory dysfunction and its reaction upon therapy. Previous findings in a transgenic mouse model ( NPC1-/- ) showed severe morphological and electrophysiological alterations of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB) that ameliorated under therapy with combined 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD)/allopregnanolone/miglustat or HPßCD alone...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Jieun Kim, Dohoung Kim, Min Whan Jung
The frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuit plays an important role in interval timing. We examined neuronal discharges in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum (DMS and DLS) in rats performing a temporal categorization task and compared them with previously recorded neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). All three structures conveyed significant temporal information, but striatal neurons seldom showed the prolonged, full-interval spanning ramping activity frequently observed in the mPFC...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Kate B Herr, Graziella L Mann, Leszek Kubin
In both nocturnal and diurnal mammals, sleep and wake states differentially aggregate during the rest and active phases of circadian cycle. Closely associated with this rhythm are prominent changes in motor activity. Here, we quantified the magnitudes of electromyographic activity (EMG) measured separately during different sleep-wake states across the rest-activity cycle, thereby separating amplitude measurements from the known dependance of the timing of wake and sleep on the phase of circadian rest-activity cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Christos Constantinidis, Xue-Lian Qi
The primate prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for executive functions including working memory, task switching and response selection. The functional organization of this area has been a matter of debate over a period of decades. Early models proposed segregation of spatial and object information represented in working memory in the dorsal and ventral PFC, respectively. Other models emphasized the integrative ability of the entire PFC depending on task demands, not necessarily tied to working memory. An anterior-posterior hierarchy of specialization has also been speculated, in which progressively more abstract information is represented more anteriorly...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Brendan M Hasz, A David Redish
Current theories suggest that decision-making arises from multiple, competing action-selection systems. Rodent studies dissociate deliberation and procedural behavior, and find a transition from procedural to deliberative behavior with experience. However, it remains unknown how this transition from deliberative to procedural control evolves within single trials, or within blocks of repeated choices. We adapted for rats a two-step task which has been used to dissociate model-based from model-free decisions in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Marissa Sobolewski, Garima Singh, Jay S Schneider, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
While it is clear that behavioral experience modulates epigenetic profiles, it is less evident how the nature of that experience influences outcomes and whether epigenetic/genetic "biomarkers" could be extracted to classify different types of behavioral experience. To begin to address this question, male and female mice were subjected to either a Fixed Interval (FI) schedule of food reward, or a single episode of forced swim followed by restraint stress, or no explicit behavioral experience after which global expression levels of two activating (H3K9ac and H3K4me3) and two repressive (H3K9me2 and H3k27me3) post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs), were measured in hippocampus (HIPP) and frontal cortex (FC)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Camilo Gouet, César A Gutiérrez Silva, Bruno Guedes, Marcela Peña
Recent studies with children and adults have shown that the abilities of the Approximate Number System (ANS), which operates from early infancy and allows estimating the number of elements in a set without symbols, are trainable and transferable to symbolic arithmetic abilities. Here we investigated the brain correlates of these training effects, which are currently unknown. We trained two Groups of first grade children, one in performing nonsymbolic additions with dot arrays (Addition-Group) and another one in performing color comparisons of the same arrays (Color-Group)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
J Bernardo Barahona-Corrêa, Ana Velosa, Ana Chainho, Ricardo Lopes, Albino J Oliveira-Maia
Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting as lifelong deficits in social communication and interaction, as well as restricted repetitive behaviors, interests and activities. While there are no specific pharmacological or other physical treatments for autism, in recent years repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), a technique for non-invasive neuromodulation, has attracted interest due to potential therapeutic value. Here we report the results of a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the use of rTMS to treat ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Thomas Dresler, Stephanie Bugden, Camilo Gouet, Marie Lallier, Darlene G Oliveira, Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Ana C Pires, Yunqi Wang, Camila Zugarramurdi, Janaina Weissheimer
Neuroimaging has undergone enormous progress during the last two and a half decades. The combination of neuroscientific methods and educational practice has become a focus of interdisciplinary research in order to answer more applied questions. In this realm, conditions that hamper learning success and have deleterious effects in the population - such as learning disorders (LD) - could especially profit from neuroimaging findings. At the moment, however, there is an ongoing debate about how far neuroscientific research can go to inform the practical work in educational settings...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Catalin V Buhusi, Marcelo B Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A Oprisan, Mona Buhusi
Motor sequence learning, planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors, and decision making rely on accurate time estimation and production of durations in the seconds-to-minutes range. The pathways involved in planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors include cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry modulated by dopaminergic inputs. A critical feature of interval timing is its scalar property, by which the precision of timing is proportional to the timed duration. We examined the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in timing by evaluating the effect of its reversible inactivation on timing accuracy, timing precision and scalar timing...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Neha P Gothe, Jessica M Hayes, Cindy Temali, Jessica S Damoiseaux
Background: Yoga is a mind-body based physical activity that has demonstrated a variety of physiological, psychological and cognitive health benefits. Although yoga practice has shown to improve cognitive performance, few studies have examined the underlying neurological correlates. Objective: The current study aimed to determine the differences in gray matter volume of the hippocampus, thalamus and caudate nucleus and brain activation during the Sternberg working memory task. Method: Participants were 13 experienced yoga practitioners (mean age = 35...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Georgia O'Callaghan, Alan O'Dowd, Cristina Simões-Franklin, John Stapleton, Fiona N Newell
We investigated the neural underpinnings of texture categorisation using exemplars that were previously learned either within modalities (visual training and visual test) or across modalities (tactile training and visual test). Previous models of learning suggest a decrease in activation in brain regions that are typically involved in cognitive control during task acquisition, but a concomitant increase in activation in brain regions associated with the representation of the acquired information. In our study, participants were required to learn to categorise fabrics of different textures as either natural or synthetic...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Giulia Sprugnoli, Giampaolo Vatti, Simone Rossi, Alfonso Cerase, Alessandra Renieri, Maria A Mencarelli, Federico Zara, Alessandro Rossi, Emiliano Santarnecchi
Laminar heterotopia is a rare condition consisting in an extra layer of gray matter under properly migrated cortex; it configures an atypical presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) or a double cortex (DC) syndrome. We conducted an original functional MRI (fMRI) analysis in a drug-resistant epilepsy patient with "double-cortex"-like malformation to reveal her functional connectivity (FC) as well as a wide genetic analysis to identify possible genetic substrates. Heterotopias were segmented into region of interests (ROIs), whose voxel-wise FC was compared to that of (i) its normally migrated counterpart, (ii) its contralateral homologous, and (iii) those of 30 age-matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Emmanuelle Münger, Augusto J Montiel-Castro, Wolfgang Langhans, Gustavo Pacheco-López
Animals harbor an extensive, dynamic microbial ecosystem in their gut. Gut microbiota (GM) supposedly modulate various host functions including fecundity, metabolism, immunity, cognition and behavior. Starting by analyzing the concept of the holobiont as a unit of selection, we highlight recent findings suggesting an intimate link between GM and animal social behavior. We consider two reciprocal emerging themes: (i) that GM influence host social behavior; and (ii) that social behavior and social structure shape the composition of the GM across individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Xuan-Zheng Shi, You-Min Lin, Shrilakshmi Hegde
Obstructive bowel disorders (OBD) are characterized by lumen distention due to mechanical or functional obstruction in the gut. Abdominal pain is one of the main symptoms in OBD. In this article, we aim to critically review the potential mechanisms for acute and chronic pain in bowel obstruction (BO). While clustered contractions and associated increase of intraluminal pressure may account for colicky pain in simple obstruction, ischemia may be involved in acute pain in severe conditions such as closed loop obstruction...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Luigi Cattaneo, Vania Veroni, Sonia Boria, Giancarlo Tassinari, Luca Turella
Adults exposed to affective facial displays produce specific rapid facial reactions (RFRs) which are of lower intensity in males compared to females. We investigated such sex difference in a population of 60 primary school children (30 F; 30 M), aged 7-10 years. We recorded the surface electromyographic (EMG) signal from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomatici muscles, while children watched affective facial displays. Results showed the expected smiling RFR to smiling faces and the expected frowning RFR to sad faces...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Jess D Greenwald, Keith M Shafritz
Chronic pain can result from many pain syndromes including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), phantom limb pain and chronic low back pain, among others. On a molecular level, chronic pain syndromes arise from hypersensitization within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, a process known as central sensitization. Central sensitization involves an upregulation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) similar to that of long-term potentiation (LTP). Regions of the brain in which LTP occurs, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, are implicated in fear- and memory-related brain circuity...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Shao-Yang Tsai, Satish Jaiswal, Chi-Fu Chang, Wei-Kuang Liang, Neil G Muggleton, Chi-Hung Juan
Prior studies have reported that meditation may improve cognitive functions and those related to attention in particular. Here, the dynamic process of attentional control, which allows subjects to focus attention on their current interests, was investigated. Concentrative meditation aims to cultivate the abilities of continuous focus and redirecting attention from distractions to the object of focus during meditation. However, it remains unclear how meditation may influence attentional reorientation, which involves interaction between both top-down and bottom-up processes...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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