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Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

Amir H Ghaderi, Masoud N Andevari, Paul F Sowman
Neural network-based investigations of stuttering have begun to provide a possible integrative account for the large number of brain-based anomalies associated with stuttering. Here we used resting-state EEG to investigate functional brain networks in adults who stutter ( AWS ). Participants were 19 AWS and 52 age-, and gender-matched normally fluent speakers. EEGs were recorded and connectivity matrices were generated by LORETA in the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta1 (12-20 Hz), and beta2 (20-30 Hz) bands...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Aysha Basharat, Meaghan S Adams, William R Staines, Michael Barnett-Cowan
Multisensory integration is required for a number of daily living tasks where the inability to accurately identify simultaneity and temporality of multisensory events results in errors in judgment leading to poor decision-making and dangerous behavior. Previously, our lab discovered that older adults exhibited impaired timing of audiovisual events, particularly when making temporal order judgments (TOJs). Simultaneity judgments (SJs), however, were preserved across the lifespan. Here, we investigate the difference between the TOJ and SJ tasks in younger and older adults to assess neural processing differences between these two tasks and across the lifespan...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Hayden J Peel, Irene Sperandio, Robin Laycock, Philippe A Chouinard
Our understanding of how form, orientation and size are processed within and outside of awareness is limited and requires further investigation. Therefore, we investigated whether or not the visual discrimination of basic object features can be influenced by subliminal processing of stimuli presented beforehand. Visual masking was used to render stimuli perceptually invisible. Three experiments examined if visible and invisible primes could facilitate the subsequent feature discrimination of visible targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Ela I Olivares, Agustín Lage-Castellanos, María A Bobes, Jaime Iglesias
We investigated the neural correlates of the access to and retrieval of face structure information in contrast to those concerning the access to and retrieval of person-related verbal information, triggered by faces. We experimentally induced stimulus familiarity via a systematic learning procedure including faces with and without associated verbal information. Then, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in both intra-domain (face-feature) and cross-domain (face-occupation) matching tasks while N400-like responses were elicited by incorrect eyes-eyebrows completions and occupations, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Federica Rossi, Elisa Montanaro, Claudio de'Sperati
We live almost literally immersed in an artificial visual world, especially motion pictures. In this exploratory study, we asked whether the best speed for reproducing a video is its original, shooting speed. By using adjustment and double staircase methods, we examined speed biases in viewing real-life video clips in three experiments, and assessed their robustness by manipulating visual and auditory factors. With the tested stimuli (short clips of human motion, mixed human-physical motion, physical motion and ego-motion), speed underestimation was the rule rather than the exception, although it depended largely on clip content, ranging on average from 2% (ego-motion) to 32% (physical motion)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Rodrigo Laje, Patricia V Agostino, Diego A Golombek
Environmental cycles on Earth display different periodicities, including daily, tidal or annual time scales. Virtually all living organisms have developed temporal mechanisms to adapt to such changes in environmental conditions. These biological timing structures-ranging from microsecond to seasonal timing-may have intrinsic properties and even different clock machinery. However, interaction among these temporal systems may present evolutionary advantages, for example, when species are exposed to changing climatic conditions or different geographic locations...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Victorita E Ivan, Parker J Banks, Kris Goodfellow, Aaron J Gruber
The propensity of animals to shift choices immediately after unexpectedly poor reinforcement outcomes is a pervasive strategy across species and tasks. We report here on the memory supporting such lose-shift responding in humans, assessed using a binary choice task in which random responding is the optimal strategy. Participants exhibited little lose-shift responding when fully attending to the task, but this increased by 30%-40% in participants that performed with additional cognitive load that is known to tax executive systems...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Carla Caballero, Sejal Mistry, Joe Vero, Elizabeth B Torres
The variability inherently present in biophysical data is partly contributed by disparate sampling resolutions across instrumentations. This poses a potential problem for statistical inference using pooled data in open access repositories. Such repositories combine data collected from multiple research sites using variable sampling resolutions. One example is the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange repository containing thousands of imaging and demographic records from participants in the spectrum of autism and age-matched neurotypical controls...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Jeff A Beeler, Devry Mourra
Five years ago, we introduced the thrift hypothesis of dopamine (DA), suggesting that the primary role of DA in adaptive behavior is regulating behavioral energy expenditure to match the prevailing economic conditions of the environment. Here we elaborate that hypothesis with several new ideas. First, we introduce the concept of affordability, suggesting that costs must necessarily be evaluated with respect to the availability of resources to the organism, which computes a value not only for the potential reward opportunity, but also the value of resources expended...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Jennifer J DeBerry, Vijay K Samineni, Bryan A Copits, Christopher J Sullivan, Sherri K Vogt, Kathryn M Albers, Brian M Davis, Robert W Gereau Iv
Bladder-innervating primary sensory neurons mediate reflex-driven bladder function under normal conditions, and contribute to debilitating bladder pain and/or overactivity in pathological states. The goal of this study was to examine the respective roles of defined subtypes of afferent neurons in bladder sensation and function in vivo via direct optogenetic activation. To accomplish this goal, we generated transgenic lines that express a Channelrhodopsin-2-eYFP fusion protein (ChR2-eYFP) in two distinct populations of sensory neurons: TRPV1-lineage neurons ( Trpv1 Cre ;Ai32, the majority of nociceptors) and Nav 1...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Shinji Miyata, Satomi Nadanaka, Michihiro Igarashi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Aggrecan, a chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan, forms lattice-like extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Neocortical PNNs primarily ensheath parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (parvalbumin, PV cells) late in brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that PNNs promote the maturation of PV cells by enhancing the incorporation of homeobox protein Otx2 and regulating experience-dependent neural plasticity. Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific plant lectin, binds to the CS chains of aggrecan and has been widely used to visualize PNNs...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Russell Cohen Hoffing, Povilas Karvelis, Samuel Rupprechter, Peggy Seriès, Aaron R Seitz
Task-switching is an important cognitive skill that facilitates our ability to choose appropriate behavior in a varied and changing environment. Task-switching training studies have sought to improve this ability by practicing switching between multiple tasks. However, an efficacious training paradigm has been difficult to develop in part due to findings that small differences in task parameters influence switching behavior in a non-trivial manner. Here, for the first time we employ the Drift Diffusion Model (DDM) to understand the influence of feedback on task-switching and investigate how drift diffusion parameters change over the course of task switch training...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Stanislava Knyazeva, Elena Selezneva, Alexander Gorkin, Nikolaos C Aggelopoulos, Michael Brosch
This study finds a neuronal correlate of auditory perceptual streaming in the primary auditory cortex for sequences of tone complexes that have the same amplitude spectrum but a different phase spectrum. Our finding is based on microelectrode recordings of multiunit activity from 270 cortical sites in three awake macaque monkeys. The monkeys were presented with repeated sequences of a tone triplet that consisted of an A tone, a B tone, another A tone and then a pause. The A and B tones were composed of unresolved harmonics formed by adding the harmonics in cosine phase, in alternating phase, or in random phase...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Leandro Casiraghi, Gustavo Faigenbaum, Alejandro Chehtman, Mariano Sigman
In all domains, from informal to formal, there are conflicts about property and ownership which resolution demands consideration of alleged claims from more than one party. In this work we asked adults ( N = 359) to judge cases in which a character held a property claim over an item, but is challenged by a second character who holds a different, subsequent claim over it. The specific goal of this work is to investigate how the resolution of such conflicts depends on the social endorsement of ownership claims...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Bruno Oliveira Ferreira Souza, Mira Abou Rjeili, Clémentine Quintana, Jean M Beaulieu, Christian Casanova
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter implicated in several brain functions, including vision. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of the lack of D2 dopamine receptors on the structure and function of the primary visual cortex (V1) of D2-KO mice using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Retinotopic maps were generated in order to measure anatomo-functional parameters such as V1 shape, cortical magnification factor, scatter, and ocular dominance. Contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency selectivity (SF) functions were computed from responses to drifting gratings...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Eva C Bach, John W Vaughan, Barry E Stein, Benjamin A Rowland
Neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) integrate cross-modal inputs to generate responses that are more robust than to either input alone, and are frequently greater than their sum (superadditive enhancement). Previously, the principles of a real-time multisensory transform were identified and used to accurately predict a neuron's responses to combinations of brief flashes and noise bursts. However, environmental stimuli frequently have more complex temporal structures that elicit very different response dynamics than previously examined...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Ryo Ishibashi, Tatsuya Mima, Hidenao Fukuyama, Gorana Pobric
Using a variety of tools is a common and essential component of modern human life. Patients with brain damage or neurological disorders frequently have cognitive deficits in their recognition and manipulation of tools. In this study, we focused on improving tool-related cognition using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence from neuropsychology, neuroimaging and non- invasive brain stimulation has identified the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) as brain regions supporting action semantics...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Elena Aggius-Vella, Claudio Campus, Sara Finocchietti, Monica Gori
Spatial representation is developed thanks to the integration of visual signals with the other senses. It has been shown that the lack of vision compromises the development of some spatial representations. In this study we tested the effect of a new rehabilitation device called ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction) to improve space representation. ABBI produces an audio feedback linked to body movement. Previous studies from our group showed that this device improves the spatial representation of space in early blind adults around the upper part of the body...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Mickael L D Deroche, Don L Nguyen, Vincent L Gracco
The inferior parietal lobe (IPL) is a region of the cortex believed to participate in speech motor learning. In this study, we investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the IPL could influence the extent to which healthy adults (1) adapted to a sensory alteration of their own auditory feedback, and (2) changed their perceptual representation. Seventy subjects completed three tasks: a baseline perceptual task that located the phonetic boundary between the vowels /e/ and /a/; a sensorimotor adaptation task in which subjects produced the word "head" under conditions of altered or unaltered feedback; and a post-adaptation perceptual task identical to the first...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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