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Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy J Minshew, Yoram S Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Dov Sagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
He Cui
While remarkable progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) over the past two decades, it is still difficult to utilize neural signals to drive artificial actuators to produce predictive movements in response to dynamic stimuli. In contrast to naturalistic limb movements largely based on forward planning, brain-controlled neuroprosthetics mainly rely on feedback without prior trajectory formation. As an important sensorimotor interface integrating multisensory inputs and efference copy, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might play a proactive role in predictive motor control...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Marie-Hélène Grosbras
A vast literature indicates that small and large saccades, respectively, subserve different perceptual and cognitive strategies and may rely on different programming modes. While it is well-established that in monkeys' main oculomotor brain regions small and large eye movements are controlled by segregated neuronal populations, the representation of saccade amplitude in the human brain remains unclear. To address this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan participants while they performed saccades toward targets at either short (4°) or large (30°) eccentricity...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
François Daniel, Aurélien Morize, Dominique Brémond-Gignac, Zoï Kapoula
We hypothesize that binocular coordination of saccades is based on continuous neuroplasticity involving interactions of saccades and vergence. To test this hypothesis we study reading saccades in young students who were diagnosed for vergence disorders before and after vergence rehabilitation. Following orthoptic evaluation and symptomatology screening, 5 weekly sessions of vergence rehabilitation were applied with the REMOBI vergence double step protocole (see Kapoula et al., 2016). Using the Eyeseecam videoculography device we measured vergence as well as saccades and fixations during a reading test four times: at the beginning and at the end of the first and of the fifth vergence rehabilitation session...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Leif Hertz, Ye Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Joshua J Gnanasegaram, William J Parkes, Sharon L Cushing, Carmen L McKnight, Blake C Papsin, Karen A Gordon
Vestibular end organ impairment is highly prevalent in children who have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) rehabilitated with cochlear implants (CIs). As a result, spatial perception is likely to be impacted in this population. Of particular interest is the perception of visual vertical because it reflects a perceptual tilt in the roll axis and is sensitive to an imbalance in otolith function. The objectives of the present study were thus to identify abnormalities in perception of the vertical plane in children with SNHL and determine whether such abnormalities could be resolved with stimulation from the CI...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Frank Bremmer, Andre Kaminiarz, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Jan Churan
Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP)...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Sara M Scharoun, Pamela J Bryden
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Penelope Hannant, Sarah Cassidy, Teresa Tavassoli, Francesca Mann
Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behavior and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviors in children with ASC. Thirty-six children participated: 18 (13 male, 5 female) with ASC (ages 7-16: mean age = 9...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Philippe Vindras, Annabelle Blangero, Hisaaki Ota, Karen T Reilly, Yves Rossetti, Laure Pisella
Interaction with visual objects in the environment requires an accurate correspondence between visual space and its internal representation within the brain. Many clinical conditions involve some impairment in visuo-motor control and the errors created by the lesion of a specific brain region are neither random nor uninformative. Modern approaches to studying the neuropsychology of action require powerful data-driven analyses and error modeling in order to understand the function of the lesioned areas. In the present paper we carried out mixed-effect analyses of the pointing errors of seven optic ataxia patients and seven control subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Juan A Orellana, Mauricio A Retamal, Rodrigo Moraga-Amaro, Jimmy Stehberg
Under physiological conditions, astroglial hemichannels and pannexons allow the release of gliotransmitters from astrocytes. These gliotransmitters are critical in modulating synaptic transmission, plasticity and memory. However, recent evidence suggests that under pathological conditions, they may be central in the development of various neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review current literature on the role of astroglial hemichannels and pannexons in memory, stress and the development of neurodegenerative diseases, and propose that they are not only crucial for normal brain function, including memory, but also a potential target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Takuji Hayashi, Daichi Nozaki
When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat), we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm). Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training (UT) improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of three different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Seth D König, Elizabeth A Buffalo
There is a growing interest in studying biological systems in natural settings, in which experimental stimuli are less artificial and behavior is less controlled. In primate vision research, free viewing of complex images has elucidated novel neural responses, and free viewing in humans has helped discover attentional and behavioral impairments in patients with neurological disorders. In order to fully interpret data collected from free viewing of complex scenes, it is critical to better understand what aspects of the stimuli guide viewing behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Elizabeth B Torres, Jillian Nguyen, Sejal Mistry, Caroline Whyatt, Vilelmini Kalampratsidou, Alexander Kolevzon
BACKGROUND: There is a critical need for precision phenotyping across neurodevelopmental disorders, especially in individuals who receive a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Phelan-McDermid deletion syndrome (PMS) is one such example, as it has a high penetrance of ASD. At present, no biometric characterization of the behavioral phenotype within PMS exists. METHODS: We introduce a data-type and statistical framework that permits the personalized profiling of naturalistic behaviors...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Hussain Y Khdour, Oday M Abushalbaq, Ibrahim T Mughrabi, Aya F Imam, Mark A Gluck, Mohammad M Herzallah, Ahmed A Moustafa
Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Masakazu Ide, Makoto Wada
In a rubber hand illusion (RHI) task, synchronous brush stroking of a rubber hand and a participant's hidden hand induces body ownership of the rubber hand. The effects of spatial distances and temporal lags on the RHI have been extensively examined; however, the effect of periodicity of the stimuli on illusory body ownership has not been examined. Meanwhile, the occurrence of RHI tends to be weak in individuals with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) and high autistic traits. Preference for stimulus having regularity of tempo is generally observed in individuals with ASD, and thus, periodic stimulation might be more effective to elicit the body ownership illusion in individuals with high autistic traits...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Keita Mitani, Makio Kashino
The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument). Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Eduardo Mercado, Barbara A Church, Amanda M Seccia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Zvi N Roth
Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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