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Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225571/heterogenic-distribution-of-aromatic-l-amino-acid-decarboxylase-neurons-in-the-rat-spinal-cord
#1
Li-Qun Ren, Meng Chen, Hans Hultborn, Sen Guo, Yifan Zhang, Mengliang Zhang
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin, dopamine, and certain trace amines and is present in a variety of organs including the brain and spinal cord. It is previously reported that in mammalian spinal cord AADC cells (called D-cells) were largely confined to a region around the central canal and that they do not produce monoamines. To date, there has not been a detailed description of their distribution and morphology in mammals. In the present study this issue is systematically investigated using immunohistochemistry...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170633/editorial-the-clinical-and-ethical-practice-of-neuromodulation-deep-brain-stimulation-and-beyond
#2
EDITORIAL
Markus Christen, Sabine Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109681/tenascins-in-retinal-and-optic-nerve-neurodegeneration
#3
REVIEW
Jacqueline Reinhard, Lars Roll, Andreas Faissner
Tenascins represent key constituents of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with major impact on central nervous system (CNS) development. In this regard, several studies indicate that they play a crucial role in axonal growth and guidance, synaptogenesis and boundary formation. These functions are not only important during development, but also for regeneration under several pathological conditions. Additionally, tenascin-C (Tnc) represents a key modulator of the immune system and inflammatory processes. In the present review article, we focus on the function of Tnc and tenascin-R (Tnr) in the diseased CNS, specifically after retinal and optic nerve damage and degeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097987/multisensory-rehabilitation-training-improves-spatial-perception-in-totally-but-not-partially-visually-deprived-children
#4
Giulia Cappagli, Sara Finocchietti, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Elena Cocchi, Monica Gori
Since it has been shown that spatial development can be delayed in blind children, focused sensorimotor trainings that associate auditory and motor information might be used to prevent the risk of spatial-related developmental delays or impairments from an early age. With this aim, we proposed a new technological device based on the implicit link between action and perception: ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction) is an audio bracelet that produces a sound when a movement occurs by allowing the substitution of the visuo-motor association with a new audio-motor association...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089873/exploiting-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-in-human-neurogenesis-controlling-lineage-specification-and-fate
#5
REVIEW
Chieh Yu, Lyn R Griffiths, Larisa M Haupt
Unspecialized, self-renewing stem cells have extraordinary application to regenerative medicine due to their multilineage differentiation potential. Stem cell therapies through replenishing damaged or lost cells in the injured area is an attractive treatment of brain trauma and neurodegenerative neurological disorders. Several stem cell types have neurogenic potential including neural stem cells (NSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Currently, effective use of these cells is limited by our lack of understanding and ability to direct lineage commitment and differentiation of neural lineages...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089872/role-for-the-ventral-posterior-medial-posterior-lateral-thalamus-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-affective-motivation-pain-induced-by-varicella-zoster-virus
#6
Phillip R Kramer, Jennifer Strand, Crystal Stinson, Larry L Bellinger, Paul R Kinchington, Michael B Yee, Mikhail Umorin, Yuan B Peng
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infects the face and can result in chronic, debilitating pain. The mechanism for this pain is unknown and current treatment is often not effective, thus investigations into the pain pathway become vital. Pain itself is multidimensional, consisting of sensory and affective experiences. One of the primary brain substrates for transmitting sensory signals in the face is the ventral posterior medial/posterior lateral thalamus (VPM/VPL). In addition, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been shown to be vital in the affective experience of pain, so investigating both of these areas in freely behaving animals was completed to address the role of the brain in VZV-induced pain...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033800/stimulation-of-cortico-subthalamic-projections-amplifies-resting-motor-circuit-activity-and-leads-to-increased-locomotion-in-dopamine-depleted-mice
#7
Teresa H Sanders
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN-DBS enables similar improved motor function, including increased movement speed (reduced bradykinesia), in the 6-OHDA dopamine-depletion mouse model of PD. Previous analyses of electrophysiological recordings from STN and motor cortex (M1) have explored signaling changes that correspond to PD and amelioration of PD symptoms. The most common results show an increase in beta frequency power during 'off' states and a reduction in beta during 'on' states...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021747/hyperbaric-oxygen-environment-can-enhance-brain-activity-and-multitasking-performance
#8
Dor Vadas, Leonid Kalichman, Amir Hadanny, Shai Efrati
Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, <10% of the brain is active at any given time, it utilizes almost all the oxygen delivered. In order to perform complex tasks or more than one task (multitasking), the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021746/lever-insertion-as-a-salient-stimulus-promoting-insensitivity-to-outcome-devaluation
#9
Youna Vandaele, Heather J Pribut, Patricia H Janak
Flexible and efficient decision-making in complex environments can be achieved through constant interactions between the goal-directed and habitual systems. While goal-directed behavior is considered dependent upon Response-Outcome (R-O) associations, habits instead rely on Stimulus-Response (S-R) associations. However, the stimuli that support the S-R association underlying habitual responding in typical instrumental procedures are poorly defined. To resolve this issue, we designed a discrete-trials procedure, in which rats must wait for lever insertion and complete a sequence of five lever presses to obtain a reward (20% sucrose or grain-based pellets)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943842/when-non-dominant-is-better-than-dominant-kinesiotape-modulates-asymmetries-in-timed-performance-during-a-synchronization-continuation-task
#10
Riccardo Bravi, Erez J Cohen, Alessio Martinelli, Anna Gottard, Diego Minciacchi
There is a growing consensus regarding the specialization of the non-dominant limb (NDL)/hemisphere system to employ proprioceptive feedback when executing motor actions. In a wide variety of rhythmic tasks the dominant limb (DL) has advantages in speed and timing consistency over the NDL. Recently, we demonstrated that the application of Kinesio(®) Tex (KT) tape, an elastic therapeutic device used for treating athletic injuries, improves significantly the timing consistency of isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs) of the DL...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912695/region-and-cell-specific-expression-of-transmembrane-collagens-in-mouse-brain
#11
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Courtney N Knill, Ubadah Sabbagh, Jianmin Su, Michael A Fox
Unconventional collagens are nonfribrillar proteins that not only contribute to the structure of extracellular matrices but exhibit unique bio-activities. Although roles for unconventional collagens have been well-established in the development and function of non-neural tissues, only recently have studies identified roles for these proteins in brain development, and more specifically, in the formation and refinement of synaptic connections between neurons. Still, our understanding of the full cohort of unconventional collagens that are generated in the mammalian brain remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890690/a-cohesive-framework-for-motor-stereotypy-in-typical-and-atypical-development-the-role-of-sensorimotor-integration
#12
Robin L Shafer, Karl M Newell, Mark H Lewis, James W Bodfish
Stereotyped motor behavior manifests as rhythmic, repetitive movements. It is common in several neurologic and psychiatric disorders where it is considered maladaptive. However, it also occurs early in typical development where it serves an adaptive function in the development of complex, controlled motor behavior. Currently, no framework accounts for both adaptive and maladaptive forms of motor stereotypy. We propose a conceptual model that implicates sensorimotor mechanisms in the phenomenology of adaptive and maladaptive stereotypy...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890689/integration-between-glycolysis-and-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-flux-may-explain-preferential-glycolytic-increase-during-brain-activation-requiring-glutamate
#13
REVIEW
Leif Hertz, Ye Chen
The 1988 observation by Fox et al. (1988) that brief intense brain activation increases glycolysis (pyruvate formation from glucose) much more than oxidative metabolism has been abundantly confirmed. Specifically glycolytic increase was unexpected because the amount of ATP it generates is much smaller than that formed by subsequent oxidative metabolism of pyruvate. The present article shows that preferential glycolysis can be explained by metabolic processes associated with activation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860977/damaged-neocortical-perineuronal-nets-due-to-experimental-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice-rats-and-sheep
#14
Wolfgang Härtig, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Björn Nitzsche, Stephan Altmann, Henryk Barthel, Martin Krueger, Dominik Michalski
As part of the extracellular matrix (ECM), perineuronal nets (PNs) are polyanionic, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG)-rich coatings of certain neurons, known to be affected in various neural diseases. Although these structures are considered as important parts of the neurovascular unit (NVU), their role during evolution of acute ischemic stroke and subsequent tissue damage is poorly understood and only a few preclinical studies analyzed PNs after acute ischemic stroke. By employing three models of experimental focal cerebral ischemia, this study was focused on histopathological alterations of PNs and concomitant vascular, glial and neuronal changes according to the NVU concept...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848406/the-time-is-up-compression-of-visual-time-interval-estimations-of-bimodal-aperiodic-patterns
#15
Fabiola Duarte, Luis Lemus
The ability to estimate time intervals subserves many of our behaviors and perceptual experiences. However, it is not clear how aperiodic (AP) stimuli affect our perception of time intervals across sensory modalities. To address this question, we evaluated the human capacity to discriminate between two acoustic (A), visual (V) or audiovisual (AV) time intervals of trains of scattered pulses. We first measured the periodicity of those stimuli and then sought for correlations with the accuracy and reaction times (RTs) of the subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824389/impaired-fear-extinction-due-to-a-deficit-in-ca-2-influx-through-l-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-in-mice-deficient-for-tenascin-c
#16
Fabio Morellini, Aleksey Malyshev, Maxim Volgushev, Marina Chistiakova, Giorgi Papashvili, Laetitia Fellini, Ralf Kleene, Melitta Schachner, Alexander Dityatev
Mice deficient in the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C (TNC(-/-)) express a deficit in specific forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which involve the L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (L-VGCCs). The mechanisms underlying this deficit and its functional implications for learning and memory have not been investigated. In line with previous findings, we report on impairment in theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in TNC(-/-) mice in the CA1 hippocampal region and its rescue by the L-VGCC activator Bay K-8644...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785209/sensory-disturbances-but-not-motor-disturbances-induced-by-sensorimotor-conflicts-are-increased-in-the-presence-of-acute-pain
#17
Clémentine Brun, Martin Gagné, Candida S McCabe, Catherine Mercier
Incongruence between our motor intention and the sensory feedback of the action (sensorimotor conflict) induces abnormalities in sensory perception in various chronic pain populations, and to a lesser extent in pain-free individuals. The aim of this study was to simultaneously investigate sensory and motor disturbances evoked by sensorimotor conflicts, as well as to assess how they are influenced by the presence of acute pain. It was hypothesized that both sensory and motor disturbances would be increased in presence of pain, which would suggest that pain makes body representations less robust...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744204/differences-in-social-decision-making-between-proposers-and-responders-during-the-ultimatum-game-an-eeg-study
#18
Sibylle K Horat, Anne Prévot, Jonas Richiardi, François R Herrmann, Grégoire Favre, Marco C G Merlo, Pascal Missonnier
The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a typical paradigm to investigate social decision-making. Although the behavior of humans in this task is already well established, the underlying brain processes remain poorly understood. Previous investigations using event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed three major components related to cognitive processes in participants engaged in the responder condition, the early ERP component P2, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and a late positive wave (late positive component, LPC)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642691/mri-overestimates-excitotoxic-amygdala-lesion-damage-in-rhesus-monkeys
#19
Benjamin M Basile, Chloe L Karaskiewicz, Emily C Fiuzat, Ludise Malkova, Elisabeth A Murray
Selective, fiber-sparing excitotoxic lesions are a state-of-the-art tool for determining the causal contributions of different brain areas to behavior. For nonhuman primates especially, it is advantageous to keep subjects with high-quality lesions alive and contributing to science for many years. However, this requires the ability to estimate lesion extent accurately. Previous research has shown that in vivo T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accurately estimates damage following selective ibotenic acid lesions of the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642690/autonomy-in-depressive-patients-undergoing-dbs-treatment-informed-consent-freedom-of-will-and-dbs-potential-to-restore-it
#20
Timo Beeker, Thomas E Schlaepfer, Volker A Coenen
According to the World Health Organization, depression is one of the most common and most disabling psychiatric disorders, affecting at any given time approximately 325 million people worldwide. As there is strong evidence that depressive disorders are associated with a dynamic dysregulation of neural circuits involved in emotional processing, recently several attempts have been made to intervene directly in these circuits via deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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