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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

Farrokh Manzouri, Simon Heller, Matthias Dümpelmann, Peter Woias, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
The closed-loop application of electrical stimulation via chronically implanted electrodes is a novel approach to stop seizures in patients with focal-onset epilepsy. To this end, an energy efficient seizure detector that can be implemented in an implantable device is of crucial importance. In this study, we first evaluated the performance of two machine learning algorithms (Random Forest classifier and support vector machine (SVM)) by using selected time and frequency domain features with a limited need of computational resources...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Nikolas A Francis, Wei Zhao, John J Guinan
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are often measured to non-invasively determine activation of medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents in humans. Usually these experiments assume that ear-canal noise remains constant. However, changes in ear-canal noise have been reported in some behavioral experiments. We studied the variability of ear-canal noise in eight subjects who performed a two-interval-forced-choice (2IFC) sound-level-discrimination task on monaural tone pips in masker noise. Ear-canal noise was recorded directly from the unstimulated ear opposite the task ear...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Mikhail A Lebedev, Ioan Opris, Manuel F Casanova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Brittany C Clawson, Jaclyn Durkin, Aneesha K Suresh, Emily J Pickup, Christopher G Broussard, Sara J Aton
Recent studies suggest that sleep differentially alters the activity of cortical neurons based on firing rates during preceding wake-increasing the firing rates of sparsely firing neurons and decreasing those of faster firing neurons. Because sparsely firing cortical neurons may play a specialized role in sensory processing, sleep could facilitate sensory function via selective actions on sparsely firing neurons. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed longitudinal electrophysiological recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons across a novel visual experience which induces V1 plasticity (or a control experience which does not), and a period of subsequent ad lib sleep or partial sleep deprivation...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jingyu Qian, Ibai Diez, Laura Ortiz-Terán, Christian Bonadio, Thomas Liddell, Joaquin Goñi, Jorge Sepulcre
Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) has become instrumental in facilitating research of human brain network organization in terms of coincident interactions between positive and negative synchronizations of large-scale neuronal systems. Although there is a common agreement concerning the interpretation of positive couplings between brain areas, a major debate has been made in disentangling the nature of negative connectivity patterns in terms of its emergence in several methodological approaches and its significance/meaning in specific neuropsychiatric diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Daria Tchessalova, Caitlin Kelly Posillico, Natalie Celia Tronson
Neuroimmune signaling is increasingly identified as a critical component of neuronal processes underlying memory, emotion and cognition. The interactions of microglia and astrocytes with neurons and synapses, and the individual cytokines and immune signaling molecules that mediate these interactions are a current focus of much research. Here, we discuss neuroimmune activation as a mechanism triggering different states that modulate cognitive and affective processes to allow for appropriate behavior during and after illness or injury...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Nina M Hanning, Heiner Deubel
Both eye and hand movements have been shown to selectively interfere with visual working memory. We investigated working memory in the context of simultaneous eye-hand movements to approach the question whether the eye and the hand movement systems independently interact with visual working memory. Participants memorized several locations and performed eye, hand, or simultaneous eye-hand movements during the maintenance interval. Subsequently, we tested spatial working memory at the eye or the hand motor goal, and at action-irrelevant locations...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Janne Grønli, Michelle A Schmidt, Jonathan P Wisor
Despite normal sleep timing and duration, Egr3 -deficient ( Egr3 -/- ) mice exhibit electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of reduced arousal, including elevated slow wave (1-4 Hz) activity during wakefulness. Here we show that these mice exhibit state-dependent instability in the EEG. Intermittent surges in EEG power were found in Egr3 -/- mice during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep, most prominently in the beta (15-35 Hz) range compared to wild type ( Egr3 +/+ ) mice. Such surges did not coincide with sleep onset, as the surges were not associated with cessation of electromyographic tone...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Dror Cohen, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
When analyzing neural data it is important to consider the limitations of the particular experimental setup. An enduring issue in the context of electrophysiology is the presence of common signals. For example a non-silent reference electrode adds a common signal across all recorded data and this adversely affects functional and effective connectivity analysis. To address the common signals problem, a number of methods have been proposed, but relatively few detailed investigations have been carried out. As a result, our understanding of how common signals affect neural connectivity estimation is incomplete...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Lijie Liu, Chuanying Xuan, Pei Shen, Tingting He, Ying Chang, Lijuan Shi, Shan Tao, Zhiping Yu, Richard E Brown, Jian Wang
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) has been demonstrated in many clinical reports as a risk factor that promotes the development of cognitive impairment. However, the underlying neurological mechanisms are not clear. Noise exposure is one of the most common causes of SNHL. Although noise exposure causes relatively less damage to general health as compared with other methods for creating hearing loss (such as ototoxicity), it does impair cognitive function. Many studies have shown that the noise-induced cognitive impairment occur via the oxidative stress induced by the noise...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Domenico Guarino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Helen M Ditz, Jennifer K Kupferman, Andreas Nieder
Lesion studies suggest a role of the avian hippocampus in spatial and episodic memory. However, whether the avian hippocampus is also involved in processing categorical information and non-spatial working memory contents remains unknown. To address this question, we trained two crows in a delayed-match-to-sample test to assess and briefly memorize the number of items in dot displays, i.e., their numerosity. We recorded neuronal activity in hippocampus while crows solved this task. Hardly any hippocampal neurons responded to the category 'numerosity,' during neither sample presentation, nor during the memory delay...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Chantal Milleret, Emmanuel Bui Quoc
Infantile strabismus impairs the perception of all attributes of the visual scene. High spatial frequency components are no longer visible, leading to amblyopia. Binocularity is altered, leading to the loss of stereopsis. Spatial perception is impaired as well as detection of vertical orientation, the fastest movements, directions of movement, the highest contrasts and colors. Infantile strabismus also affects other vision-dependent processes such as control of postural stability. But presently, rehabilitative therapies for infantile strabismus by ophthalmologists, orthoptists and optometrists are restricted to preventing or curing amblyopia of the deviated eye, aligning the eyes and, whenever possible, preserving or restoring binocular vision during the critical period of development, i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Kathleen S Rockland
Multiple mechanisms have been identified as relevant to plasticity, functional stability, and reliable processing across brain states. In the context of stability under "ever-changing conditions" (this Topic), the role of axons has been relatively under-investigated. The highly branched topologies of many axons, however, seem well designed to differentially recruit and regulate distributed postsynaptic groups, possibly in a state-dependent fashion. In this Perspective, I briefly discuss several examples of axon collateralization, and then some of the branch-specific features that might subserve differential recruitment and whole brain activation...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Irina T Sinakevitch, Gabriella H Wolff, Hans-Joachim Pflüger, Brian H Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Gul Yalcin-Cakmakli, Samuel J Rose, Rosa M Villalba, Lagena Williams, Hyder A Jinnah, Ellen J Hess, Yoland Smith
Striatal cholinergic dysfunction is a common phenotype associated with various forms of dystonia in which anti-cholinergic drugs have some therapeutic benefits. However, the underlying substrate of striatal cholinergic defects in dystonia remain poorly understood. In this study, we used a recently developed knock-in mouse model of dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD) with strong symptomatic responses to anti-cholinergic drugs, to assess changes in the prevalence and morphology of striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in a model of generalized dystonia...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Elisa C Walsh, Johanna M Lee, Kristina Terzakis, David W Zhou, Sara Burns, Timothy M Buie, Paul G Firth, Erik S Shank, Timothy T Houle, Emery N Brown, Patrick L Purdon
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often require sedation or general anesthesia. ASD is thought to arise from deficits in GABAergic signaling leading to abnormal neurodevelopment. We sought to investigate differences in how ASD patients respond to the GABAergic drug propofol by comparing the propofol-induced electroencephalogram (EEG) of ASD and neurotypical (NT) patients. This investigation was a prospective observational study. Continuous 4-channel frontal EEG was recorded during routine anesthetic care of patients undergoing endoscopic procedures between July 1, 2014 and May 1, 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Joel D Turtle, Misty M Strain, Joshua A Reynolds, Yung-Jen Huang, Kuan H Lee, Melissa K Henwood, Sandra M Garraway, James W Grau
Pain (nociceptive) input caudal to a spinal contusion injury increases tissue loss and impairs long-term recovery. It was hypothesized that noxious stimulation has this effect because it engages unmyelinated pain (C) fibers that produce a state of over-excitation in central pathways. The present article explored this issue by assessing the effect of capsaicin, which activates C-fibers that express the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1). Rats received a lower thoracic (T11) contusion injury and capsaicin was applied to one hind paw the next day...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
József Haller
This review argues for a central role of the lateral hypothalamus in those deviant forms of aggression, which result from chronic glucocorticoid deficiency. Currently, this nucleus is considered a key region of the mechanisms that control predatory aggression. However, recent findings demonstrate that it is strongly activated by aggression in subjects with a chronically downregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis; moreover, this activation is causally involved in the emergence of violent aggression...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Andrew W Corcoran, Giovanni Pezzulo, Jakob Hohwy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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