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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790899/sensory-processing-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-the-contribution-of-thalamostriatal-pathways
#1
Kevin D Alloway, Jared B Smith, Todd M Mowery, Glenn D R Watson
The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS) region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS) region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R) associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790898/differences-between-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-in-the-sensitivity-of-tonically-active-neurons-to-rewarding-events
#2
Kevin Marche, Anne-Caroline Martel, Paul Apicella
Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs), represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum), but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790897/regional-specific-evidence-for-memory-load-dependent-activity-in-the-dorsal-subiculum-and-the-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#3
Shih-Pi Ku, Nozomu H Nakamura, Nicolas Maingret, Liv Mahnke, Motoharu Yoshida, Magdalena M Sauvage
The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740466/a-tyrosine-hydroxylase-characterization-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#4
Stevanus R Tedjakumala, Jacques Rouquette, Marie-Laure Boizeau, Karen A Mesce, Lucie Hotier, Isabelle Massou, Martin Giurfa
Dopamine (DA) plays a fundamental role in insect behavior as it acts both as a general modulator of behavior and as a value system in associative learning where it mediates the reinforcing properties of unconditioned stimuli (US). Here we aimed at characterizing the dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the honey bee, an insect that serves as an established model for the study of learning and memory. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (ir) to ensure that the neurons detected synthesize DA endogenously...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729827/lateral-hypothalamic-control-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-reward-evaluation-and-the-driving-of-motivated-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Susan M Tyree, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays an important role in many motivated behaviors, sleep-wake states, food intake, drug-seeking, energy balance, etc. It is also home to a heterogeneous population of neurons that express and co-express multiple neuropeptides including hypocretin (Hcrt), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and neurotensin (NT). These neurons project widely throughout the brain to areas such as the locus coeruleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713251/age-related-changes-in-lateral-entorhinal-and-ca3-neuron-allocation-predict-poor-performance-on-object-discrimination
#6
Andrew P Maurer, Sarah A Johnson, Abbi R Hernandez, Jordan Reasor, Daniela M Cossio, Kaeli E Fertal, Jack M Mizell, Katelyn N Lubke, Benjamin J Clark, Sara N Burke
Age-related memory deficits correlate with dysfunction in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, which includes both hyperactivity and overly rigid activity patterns. While changes in intrinsic membrane currents and interneuron alterations are involved in this process, it is not known whether alterations in afferent input to CA3 also contribute. Neurons in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) project directly to CA3 through the perforant path, but no data are available regarding the effects of advanced age on LEC activity and whether these activity patterns update in response to environmental change...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713250/impaired-in-vivo-gamma-oscillations-in-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex-of-knock-in-alzheimer-model
#7
Tomoaki Nakazono, Travis N Lam, Ayushi Y Patel, Masashi Kitazawa, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C Saido, Kei M Igarashi
The entorhinal cortex (EC) has bidirectional connections with the hippocampus and plays a critical role in memory formation and retrieval. EC is one of the most vulnerable regions in the brain in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease with progressive memory impairments. Accumulating evidence from healthy behaving animals indicates gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) as critical for mediating interactions in the circuit between EC and hippocampus. However, it is still unclear whether gamma oscillations have causal relationship with memory impairment in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701931/architecture-of-the-entorhinal-cortex-a-review-of-entorhinal-anatomy-in-rodents-with-some-comparative-notes
#8
REVIEW
Menno P Witter, Thanh P Doan, Bente Jacobsen, Eirik S Nilssen, Shinya Ohara
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the major input and output structure of the hippocampal formation, forming the nodal point in cortico-hippocampal circuits. Different division schemes including two or many more subdivisions have been proposed, but here we will argue that subdividing EC into two components, the lateral EC (LEC) and medial EC (MEC) might suffice to describe the functional architecture of EC. This subdivision then leads to an anatomical interpretation of the different phenotypes of LEC and MEC. First, we will briefly summarize the cytoarchitectonic differences and differences in hippocampal projection patterns on which the subdivision between LEC and MEC traditionally is based and provide a short comparative perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701930/biogenic-amines-in-insect-antennae
#9
REVIEW
Marianna I Zhukovskaya, Andrey D Polyanovsky
Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA) and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA) affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA) modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690501/cortical-activation-during-landmark-centered-vs-gaze-centered-memory-of-saccade-targets-in-the-human-an-fmri-study
#10
Ying Chen, J D Crawford
A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered). In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered) for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663726/neural-cross-frequency-coupling-functions
#11
Tomislav Stankovski, Valentina Ticcinelli, Peter V E McClintock, Aneta Stefanovska
Although neural interactions are usually characterized only by their coupling strength and directionality, there is often a need to go beyond this by establishing the functional mechanisms of the interaction. We introduce the use of dynamical Bayesian inference for estimation of the coupling functions of neural oscillations in the presence of noise. By grouping the partial functional contributions, the coupling is decomposed into its functional components and its most important characteristics-strength and form-are quantified...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659770/evaluation-of-azd1446-as-a-therapeutic-in-dyt1-dystonia
#12
Chelsea N Zimmerman, Karen L Eskow Jaunarajs, Maria Meringolo, Francesca R Rizzo, Massimo Santoro, David G Standaert, Antonio Pisani
DYT1 dystonia is an early-onset, hyperkinetic movement disorder caused by a deletion in the gene TOR1A, which encodes the protein torsinA. Several lines of evidence show that in animal models of DTY1 dystonia, there is impaired basal dopamine (DA) release and enhanced acetylcholine tone. Clinically, anticholinergic drugs are the most effective pharmacological treatment for DYT1 dystonia, but the currently used agents are non-selective muscarinic antagonists and associated with side effects. We used a DYT1 ∆GAG knock-in mouse model (DYT1 KI) to investigate whether nicotine and/or a non-desensitizing nicotinic agonist, AZD1446, would increase DA output in DYT1 dystonia...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659769/propofol-sevoflurane-and-ketamine-induce-a-reversible-increase-in-delta-gamma-and-theta-gamma-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-frontal-cortex-of-rat
#13
Dinesh Pal, Brian H Silverstein, Lana Sharba, Duan Li, Viviane S Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Anthony G Hudetz, George A Mashour
Studies from human and non-human species have demonstrated a breakdown of functional corticocortical connectivity during general anesthesia induced by anesthetics with diverse molecular, neurophysiological, and pharmacological profiles. Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in long-range neural communication, and by corollary, functional connectivity, might be influenced by cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between the phase of slow oscillations and the amplitude of local fast oscillations. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between slow oscillations and alpha rhythm during general anesthesia reveal distinct patterns depending on the anesthetic...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659768/neuroelectric-tuning-of-cortical-oscillations-by-apical-dendrites-in-loop-circuits
#14
David LaBerge, Ray S Kasevich
Bundles of relatively long apical dendrites dominate the neurons that make up the thickness of the cerebral cortex. It is proposed that a major function of the apical dendrite is to produce sustained oscillations at a specific frequency that can serve as a common timing unit for the processing of information in circuits connected to that apical dendrite. Many layer 5 and 6 pyramidal neurons are connected to thalamic neurons in loop circuits. A model of the apical dendrites of these pyramidal neurons has been used to simulate the electric activity of the apical dendrite...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#15
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620284/electrophysiological-measurements-of-peripheral-vestibular-function-a-review-of-electrovestibulography
#16
REVIEW
Daniel J Brown, Christopher J Pastras, Ian S Curthoys
Electrocochleography (EcochG), incorporating the Cochlear Microphonic (CM), the Summating Potential (SP), and the cochlear Compound Action Potential (CAP), has been used to study cochlear function in humans and experimental animals since the 1930s, providing a simple objective tool to assess both hair cell (HC) and nerve sensitivity. The vestibular equivalent of ECochG, termed here Electrovestibulography (EVestG), incorporates responses of the vestibular HCs and nerve. Few research groups have utilized EVestG to study vestibular function...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611603/inactivation-of-the-lateral-entorhinal-area-increases-the-influence-of-visual-cues-on-hippocampal-place-cell-activity
#17
Kristin M Scaplen, Rohan N Ramesh, Negin Nadvar, Omar J Ahmed, Rebecca D Burwell
The hippocampus is important for both navigation and associative learning. We previously showed that the hippocampus processes two-dimensional (2D) landmarks and objects differently. Our findings suggested that landmarks are more likely to be used for orientation and navigation, whereas objects are more likely to be used for associative learning. The process by which cues are recognized as relevant for navigation or associative learning, however, is an open question. Presumably both spatial and nonspatial information are necessary for classifying cues as landmarks or objects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611602/brain-mechanisms-during-course-of-anesthesia-what-we-know-from-eeg-changes-during-induction-and-recovery
#18
Satoshi Hagihira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611601/lack-of-responsiveness-during-the-onset-and-offset-of-sevoflurane-anesthesia-is-associated-with-decreased-awake-alpha-oscillation-power
#19
Kara J Pavone, Lijuan Su, Lei Gao, Ersne Eromo, Rafael Vazquez, James Rhee, Lauren E Hobbs, Reine Ibala, Gizem Demircioglu, Patrick L Purdon, Emery N Brown, Oluwaseun Akeju
Anesthetic drugs are typically administered to induce altered states of arousal that range from sedation to general anesthesia (GA). Systems neuroscience studies are currently being used to investigate the neural circuit mechanisms of anesthesia-induced altered arousal states. These studies suggest that by disrupting the oscillatory dynamics that are associated with arousal states, anesthesia-induced oscillations are a putative mechanism through which anesthetic drugs produce altered states of arousal. However, an empirical clinical observation is that even at relatively stable anesthetic doses, patients are sometimes intermittently responsive to verbal commands during states of light sedation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611600/changes-in-alpha-frequency-and-power-of-the-electroencephalogram-during-volatile-based-general-anesthesia
#20
Darren Hight, Logan J Voss, Paul S Garcia, Jamie Sleigh
Oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) at the alpha frequency (8-12 Hz) are thought to be ubiquitous during surgical anesthesia, but the details of how this oscillation responds to ongoing changes in volatile anesthetic concentration have not been well characterized. It is not known how often alpha oscillations are absent in the clinical context, how sensitively alpha frequency and power respond to changes in anesthetic concentration, and what effect increased age has on alpha frequency. Bipolar EEG was recorded frontally from 305 patients undergoing surgery with sevoflurane or desflurane providing general anesthesia...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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