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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson
Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Carolina G Ferroni, Monica Maranesi, Alessandro Livi, Marco Lanzilotto, Luca Bonini
Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) is one of the most widely employed techniques for providing causal evidence of the relationship between neuronal activity and specific motor, perceptual, or even cognitive functions. In recent years, several new types of linear multielectrode silicon probes have been developed, allowing researchers to sample neuronal activity at different depths along the same cortical site simultaneously and with high spatial precision. Nevertheless, silicon multielectrode probes have been rarely employed for ICMS studies and, more importantly, it is unknown whether and to what extent they can be used for combined recording and stimulation experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Thierry Pozzo, Alberto Inuggi, Alejo Keuroghlanian, Stefano Panzeri, Ghislain Saunier, Claudio Campus
The present study verified if the translational component of locomotion modulated cortical activity recorded at action observation. Previous studies focusing on visual processing of biological motion mainly presented point light walker that were fixed on a spot, thus removing the net translation toward a goal that yet remains a critical feature of locomotor behavior. We hypothesized that if biological motion recognition relies on the transformation of seeing in doing and its expected sensory consequences, a significant effect of translation compared to centered displays on sensorimotor cortical activity is expected...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Claire Meyniel, Bahram Bodaghi, Pierre-Yves Robert
Low vision is a condition caused by eye or brain disease, in which visual acuity is 20/70 (3/10 or 6/18) or poorer in the better-seeing eye and cannot be corrected or improved with regular eyeglasses. It impacts personal ability to perform vision-dependent tasks as activities of daily living, walking, reading or using a computer. Rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary training dedicated to improve patients' functional abilities and quality of life. It has to be personalized to every individual situation, whatever the underlying pathology...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Etienne Save, Francesca Sargolini
It is now widely accepted that the entorhinal cortex (EC) plays a pivotal role in the processing of spatial information and episodic memory. The EC is segregated into two sub-regions, the medial EC (MEC) and the lateral EC (LEC) but a comprehensive understanding of their roles across multiple behavioral contexts remains unclear. Considering that it is still useful to investigate the impact of lesions of EC on behavior, we review the contribution of lesion approach to our knowledge of EC functions. We show that the MEC and LEC play different roles in the processing of spatial and non-spatial information...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Yan-Feng Zhang, Stephanie J Cragg
Striatal cholinergic interneurons, the so-called tonically active neurons (TANs), pause their firing in response to sensory cues and rewards during classical conditioning and instrumental tasks. The respective pause responses observed can demonstrate many commonalities, such as constant latency and duration, synchronous occurrence in a population of cells, and coincidence with phasic activities of midbrain dopamine neurons (DANs) that signal reward predictions and errors. Pauses can however also show divergent properties...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Irina T Sinakevitch, Sasha M Daskalova, Brian H Smith
This article describes the cellular sources for tyramine and the cellular targets of tyramine via the Tyramine Receptor 1 (AmTyr1) in the olfactory learning and memory neuropils of the honey bee brain. Clusters of approximately 160 tyramine immunoreactive neurons are the source of tyraminergic fibers with small varicosities in the optic lobes, antennal lobes, lateral protocerebrum, mushroom body (calyces and gamma lobes), tritocerebrum and subesophageal ganglion (SEG). Our tyramine mapping study shows that the primary sources of tyramine in the antennal lobe and calyx of the mushroom body are from at least two Ventral Unpaired Median neurons (VUMmd and VUMmx) with cell bodies in the SEG...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Marsa Taheri, Gregory Handy, Alla Borisyuk, John A White
Astrocytes are a major cell type in the mammalian brain. They are not electrically excitable, but generate prominent Ca(2+) signals related to a wide variety of critical functions. The mechanisms driving these Ca(2+) events remain incompletely understood. In this study, we integrate Ca(2+) imaging, quantitative data analysis, and mechanistic computational modeling to study the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cortical astrocyte Ca(2+) transients evoked by focal application of ATP in mouse brain slices...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Paul S Garcia, Douglas L Rothman, Susan M Fitzpatrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Janna Niens, Fabienne Reh, Büşra Çoban, Karol Cichewicz, Julia Eckardt, Yi-Ting Liu, Jay Hirsh, Thomas D Riemensperger
Parkinson's disease (PD) results from a progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system leading to a decline in movement control, with resting tremor, rigidity and postural instability. Several aspects of PD can be modeled in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, including α-synuclein-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, or dopamine (DA) loss by genetic elimination of neural DA synthesis. Defective behaviors in this latter model can be ameliorated by feeding the DA precursor L-DOPA, analogous to the treatment paradigm for PD...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Ana Domínguez-Bajo, Ankor González-Mayorga, Elisa López-Dolado, María C Serrano
The attractiveness of graphene-derived materials (GDMs) for neural applications has fueled their exploration as components of biomaterial interfaces contacting the brain and the spinal cord. In the last years, an increasing body of work has been published on the ability of these materials to create biocompatible and biofunctional substrates able to promote the growth and activity of neural cells in vitro and positively interact with neural tissues when implanted in vivo. Encouraging results in the central nervous tissue might impulse the study of GDMs towards preclinical arena...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Raihan Uddin, Shiva M Singh
As humans age many suffer from a decrease in normal brain functions including spatial learning impairments. This study aimed to better understand the molecular mechanisms in age-associated spatial learning impairment (ASLI). We used a mathematical modeling approach implemented in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to create and compare gene network models of young (learning unimpaired) and aged (predominantly learning impaired) brains from a set of exploratory datasets in rats in the context of ASLI...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
J Frances Kamhi, Sara Arganda, Corrie S Moreau, James F A Traniello
Neuromodulators are conserved across insect taxa, but how biogenic amines and their receptors in ancestral solitary forms have been co-opted to control behaviors in derived socially complex species is largely unknown. Here we explore patterns associated with the functions of octopamine (OA), serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in solitary ancestral insects and their derived functions in eusocial ants, bees, wasps and termites. Synthesizing current findings that reveal potential ancestral roles of monoamines in insects, we identify physiological processes and conserved behaviors under aminergic control, consider how biogenic amines may have evolved to modulate complex social behavior, and present focal research areas that warrant further study...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Taleen S Der-Ghazarian, Tanessa Call, Samantha N Scott, Kael Dai, Samuel J Brunwasser, Sean N Noudali, Nathan S Pentkowski, Janet L Neisewander
5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) modulate behavioral effects of cocaine. Here we examined the effects of the 5-HT1BR agonist 5-propoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine (CP94253) on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion and on cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice given daily repeated injections of either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) for 20 days. In the locomotor activity experiment, testing occurred both 1 and 20 days after the final injection...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Calvin K Young, Ming Ruan, Neil McNaughton
Algorithms for estimating directed connectivity have become indispensable to further understand the neurodynamics between functionally coupled brain areas. The evaluation of directed connectivity on the propagation of brain activity has largely been based on simulated data or toy models, where various hidden properties of neurophysiological data may not be fully recapitulated. In this study, directionality was unequivocally manipulated in the freely moving rat in a unique dataset, where normal oscillatory interactions between the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) and hippocampus (HPC) were attenuated by temporary medial septal (MS) inactivation, and replaced by electrical stimulation of the fornix to evaluate the performance of several directed connectivity assessment methods...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Rui Zhang, Ann-Kathrin Stock, Anneka Rzepus, Christian Beste
Performing an act of self-regulation such as making decisions has been suggested to deplete a common limited resource, which impairs all subsequent self-regulatory actions (ego depletion theory). It has however remained unclear whether self-referred decisions truly impair behavioral control even in seemingly unrelated cognitive domains, and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by these potential depletion effects. In the current study, we therefore used an inter-individual design to compare two kinds of depletion, namely a self-referred choice-based depletion and a categorization-based switching depletion, to a non-depleted control group...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Stefanie Ryglewski, Carsten Duch, Benjamin Altenhein
The biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate insect motor behavior in an antagonistic manner. OA generally enhances locomotor behaviors such as Drosophila larval crawling and flight, whereas TA decreases locomotor activity. However, the mechanisms and cellular targets of TA modulation of locomotor activity are incompletely understood. This study combines immunocytochemistry, genetics and flight behavioral assays in the Drosophila model system to test the role of a candidate enzyme for TA catabolism, named Nazgul (Naz), in flight motor behavioral control...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Yan M Yufik, Biswa Sengupta, Karl Friston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Christopher R Holdgraf, Jochem W Rieger, Cristiano Micheli, Stephanie Martin, Robert T Knight, Frederic E Theunissen
Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of "Encoding" models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and "Decoding" models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Marian Tsanov
Several cortical and diencephalic limbic brain regions incorporate neurons that fire in correlation with the speed of whole-body motion, also known as linear velocity. Besides the field mapping and head-directional information, the linear velocity is among the major signals that guide animal's spatial navigation. Large neuronal populations in the same limbic regions oscillate with theta rhythm during spatial navigation or attention episodes; and the frequency of theta also correlates with linear velocity. A functional similarity between these brain areas is that their inactivation impairs the ability to form new spatial memories; whereas an anatomical similarity is that they all receive projections from medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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