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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303093/understanding-and-self-organization
#1
Natika W Newton
How do we manage to understand a completely novel state of affairs, such as the sudden effects of an unexpected earthquake, or the arrival of a total stranger instead of the sister we were waiting for? In each case, for a moment we might be stunned, but we are able quite quickly to fit these events into our overall framework for understanding the world. However, terrified and despairing we feel, we know what earthquakes are and this event fits that schema; in the case of the stranger we know that this kind of thing happens, and that we must ask the stranger "Who are you, and where is my sister?" This paper asks about the mechanisms by which we rapidly achieve an understanding of our world, both the unexpected changes we may experience, and the ongoing comfortable familiarity we normally have with our surroundings...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293181/from-anomalies-to-essential-scientific-revolution-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-the-light-of-kuhn-s-philosophy-of-science
#2
REVIEW
Marek Havlík
The first step toward a modern understanding of fMRI resting brain activity was made by Bharat Biswal in 1995. This surprising, and at first rejected, discovery is now associated with many resting state networks, notably the famous default mode network (DMN). Resting state activity and DMN significantly reassessed our traditional beliefs and conventions about the functioning of the brain. For the majority of the twentieth century, neuroscientists assumed that the brain is mainly the "reactive engine" to the environment operating mostly through stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293180/brief-mental-training-reorganizes-large-scale-brain-networks
#3
Yi-Yuan Tang, Yan Tang, Rongxiang Tang, Jarrod A Lewis-Peacock
Emerging evidences have shown that one form of mental training-mindfulness meditation, can improve attention, emotion regulation and cognitive performance through changing brain activity and structural connectivity. However, whether and how the short-term mindfulness meditation alters large-scale brain networks are not well understood. Here, we applied a novel data-driven technique, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data to identify changes in brain activity patterns and assess the neural mechanisms induced by a brief mindfulness training-integrative body-mind training (IBMT), which was previously reported in our series of randomized studies...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286472/deafferentation-of-the-superior-colliculus-abolishes-spatial-summation-of-redundant-visual-signals
#4
Martijn van Koningsbruggen, Kristin Koller, Robert D Rafal
Two visual signals appearing simultaneously are detected more rapidly than either signal appearing alone. Part of this redundant target effect (RTE) can be attributed to neural summation that has been proposed to occur in the superior colliculus (SC). We report direct evidence in two neurological patients for neural summation in the SC, and that it is mediated by afferent visual information transmitted through its brachium. The RTE was abolished in one patient with a hemorrhage involving the right posterior thalamus that damaged part of the SC and that disrupted its brachium; and in another patient in whom the SC appeared intact but deafferented due to traumatic avulsion of its brachium...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239342/informative-cues-facilitate-saccadic-localization-in-blindsight-monkeys
#5
Masatoshi Yoshida, Ziad M Hafed, Tadashi Isa
Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232791/matching-pursuit-analysis-of-auditory-receptive-fields-spectro-temporal-properties
#6
Jörg-Hendrik Bach, Birger Kollmeier, Jörn Anemüller
Gabor filters have long been proposed as models for spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs), with their specific spectral and temporal rate of modulation qualitatively replicating characteristics of STRF filters estimated from responses to auditory stimuli in physiological data. The present study builds on the Gabor-STRF model by proposing a methodology to quantitatively decompose STRFs into a set of optimally matched Gabor filters through matching pursuit, and by quantitatively evaluating spectral and temporal characteristics of STRFs in terms of the derived optimal Gabor-parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228719/plasticity-of-visual-pathways-and-function-in-the-developing-brain-is-the-pulvinar-a-crucial-player
#7
REVIEW
James A Bourne, Maria Concetta Morrone
The pulvinar is the largest of the thalamic nuclei in the primates, including humans. In the primates, two of the three major subdivisions, the lateral and inferior pulvinar, are heavily interconnected with a significant proportion of the visual association cortex. However, while we now have a better understanding of the bidirectional connectivity of these pulvinar subdivisions, its functions remain somewhat of an enigma. Over the past few years, researchers have started to tackle this problem by addressing it from the angle of development and visual cortical lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174524/ups-and-downs-in-75-years-of-electrocochleography
#8
REVIEW
Jos J Eggermont
Before 1964, electrocochleography (ECochG) was a surgical procedure carried out in the operating theatre. Currently, the newest application is also an intra-operative one, often carried out in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery. Starting in 1967, the recording methods became either minimal- or not-invasive, i.e., trans-tympanic (TT) or extra tympanic (ET), and included extensive studies of the arguments pro and con. I will review several valuable applications of ECochG, from a historical point of view, but covering all 75 years if applicable...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154528/editorial-the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-visual-working-memory
#9
EDITORIAL
Zsuzsa Kaldy, Natasha Sigala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127278/models-of-neuronal-stimulus-response-functions-elaboration-estimation-and-evaluation
#10
REVIEW
Arne F Meyer, Ross S Williamson, Jennifer F Linden, Maneesh Sahani
Rich, dynamic, and dense sensory stimuli are encoded within the nervous system by the time-varying activity of many individual neurons. A fundamental approach to understanding the nature of the encoded representation is to characterize the function that relates the moment-by-moment firing of a neuron to the recent history of a complex sensory input. This review provides a unifying and critical survey of the techniques that have been brought to bear on this effort thus far-ranging from the classical linear receptive field model to modern approaches incorporating normalization and other nonlinearities...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111543/the-elephant-in-the-mirror-bridging-the-brain-s-explanatory-gap-of-consciousness
#11
Jasmine A Berry, Alice C Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105007/rebuilding-the-missing-part-a-review-on-photoreceptor-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Tiago F Santos-Ferreira, Oliver Borsch, Marius Ader
Vision represents one of the main senses for humans to interact with their environment. Our sight relies on the presence of fully functional light sensitive cells - rod and cone photoreceptors - allowing us to see under dim (rods) and bright (cones) light conditions. Photoreceptor degeneration is one of the major causes for vision impairment in industrialized countries and it is highly predominant in the population above the age of 50. Thus, with the continuous increase in life expectancy it will make retinal degeneration reach an epidemic proportion...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082876/rehabilitation-approaches-in-macular-degeneration-patients
#13
REVIEW
Marcello Maniglia, Benoit R Cottereau, Vincent Soler, Yves Trotter
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a visual disease that affects elderly population. It entails a progressive loss of central vision whose consequences are dramatic for the patient's quality of life. Current rehabilitation programs are restricted to technical aids based on visual devices. They only temporarily improve specific visual functions such as reading skills. Considering the rapid increase of the aging population worldwide, it is crucial to intensify clinical research on AMD in order to develop simple and efficient methods that improve the patient's visual performances in many different contexts...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082875/differential-functionality-of-right-and-left-parietal-activity-in-controlling-a-motor-vehicle
#14
Justin R Brooks, Javier O Garcia, Scott E Kerick, Jean M Vettel
Driving a motor vehicle is an inherently complex task that requires robust control to avoid catastrophic accidents. Drivers must maintain their vehicle in the middle of the travel lane to avoid high speed collisions with other traffic. Interestingly, while a vehicle's lane deviation (LD) is critical, studies have demonstrated that heading error (HE) is one of the primary variables drivers use to determine a steering response, which directly controls the position of the vehicle in the lane. In this study, we examined how the brain represents the dichotomy between control/response parameters (heading, reaction time (RT), and steering wheel corrections) and task-critical parameters (LD)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082874/cortico-striatal-thalamic-loop-circuits-of-the-salience-network-a-central-pathway-in-psychiatric-disease-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Sarah K Peters, Katharine Dunlop, Jonathan Downar
The salience network (SN) plays a central role in cognitive control by integrating sensory input to guide attention, attend to motivationally salient stimuli and recruit appropriate functional brain-behavior networks to modulate behavior. Mounting evidence suggests that disturbances in SN function underlie abnormalities in cognitive control and may be a common etiology underlying many psychiatric disorders. Such functional and anatomical abnormalities have been recently apparent in studies and meta-analyses of psychiatric illness using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082873/interhemispheric-connections-between-the-primary-visual-cortical-areas-via-the-anterior-commissure-in-human-callosal-agenesis
#16
Nathalie van Meer, Anne C Houtman, Peter Van Schuerbeek, Tim Vanderhasselt, Chantal Milleret, Marcel P Ten Tusscher
Aim: In humans, images in the median plane of the head either fall on both nasal hemi-retinas or on both temporal hemi-retinas. Interhemispheric connections allow cortical cells to have receptive fields on opposite sides. The major interhemispheric connection, the corpus callosum, is implicated in central stereopsis and disparity detection in front of the fixation plane. Yet individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum may show normal stereopsis and disparity vergence. We set out to study a possible interhemispheric connection between primary visual cortical areas via the anterior commissure to explain this inconsistency because of the major role of these cortical areas in elaborating 3D visual perception...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066197/the-processing-of-somatosensory-information-shifts-from-an-early-parallel-into-a-serial-processing-mode-a-combined-fmri-meg-study
#17
Carsten M Klingner, Stefan Brodoehl, Ralph Huonker, Otto W Witte
The question regarding whether somatosensory inputs are processed in parallel or in series has not been clearly answered. Several studies that have applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to fMRI data have arrived at seemingly divergent conclusions. However, these divergent results could be explained by the hypothesis that the processing route of somatosensory information changes with time. Specifically, we suggest that somatosensory stimuli are processed in parallel only during the early stage, whereas the processing is later dominated by serial processing...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018188/cholinergic-interneurons-amplify-corticostriatal-synaptic-responses-in-the-q175-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#18
Asami Tanimura, Sean Austin O Lim, Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Joshua A Goldberg, D James Surmeier
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in movement control that are widely viewed as stemming from pathophysiological changes in the striatum. Giant, aspiny cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) are key elements in the striatal circuitry controlling movement, but whether their physiological properties are intact in the HD brain is unclear. To address this issue, the synaptic properties of ChIs were examined using optogenetic approaches in the Q175 mouse model of HD. In ex vivo brain slices, synaptic facilitation at thalamostriatal synapses onto ChIs was reduced in Q175 mice...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018187/editorial-traumatic-brain-injury-as-a-systems-neuroscience-problem
#19
EDITORIAL
Han-Chiao I Chen, John F Burke, Akiva S Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018186/comparative-overview-of-visuospatial-working-memory-in-monkeys-and-rats
#20
REVIEW
Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Kei Oyama, Shinya Nakamura, Toshio Iijima
Neural mechanisms of working memory, particularly its visuospatial aspect, have long been studied in non-human primates. On the other hand, rodents are becoming more important in systems neuroscience, as many of the innovative research methods have become available for them. There has been a question on whether primates and rodents have similar neural backgrounds for working memory. In this article, we carried out a comparative overview of the neural mechanisms of visuospatial working memory in monkeys and rats...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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