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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428747/editorial-memory-processes-in-medial-temporal-lobe-experimental-theoretical-and-computational-approaches
#1
EDITORIAL
Vassilis Cutsuridis, Motoharu Yoshida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420968/cortical-variability-and-challenges-for-modeling-approaches
#2
Emili Balaguer-Ballester
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408870/homeostatic-changes-in-gaba-and-glutamate-receptors-on-excitatory-cortical-neurons-during-sleep-deprivation-and-recovery
#3
Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Anton Plavski, Lynda Mainville, Barbara E Jones
Neuronal activity is regulated in a homeostatic manner through changes in inhibitory GABA and excitatory glutamate (Glu) AMPA (A) receptors (GluARs). Using immunofluorescent staining, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα)-labeled (+) excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex undergo such homeostatic regulation following enforced waking with associated cortical activation during the day when mice normally sleep the majority of the time. Sleep deprived mice were prevented from falling asleep by unilateral whisker stimulation and sleep recovery (SR) mice allowed to sleep freely following deprivation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392760/accelerated-recovery-of-consciousness-after-general-anesthesia-is-associated-with-increased-functional-brain-connectivity-in-the-high-gamma-bandwidth
#4
Duan Li, Viviane S Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, George A Mashour
Recent data from our laboratory demonstrate that high-frequency gamma connectivity across the cortex is present during consciousness and depressed during unconsciousness. However, these data were derived from static and well-defined states of arousal rather than during transitions that would suggest functional relevance. We also recently found that subanesthetic ketamine administered during isoflurane anesthesia accelerates recovery upon discontinuation of the primary anesthetic and increases gamma power during emergence...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377701/breaking-the-excitation-inhibition-balance-makes-the-cortical-network-s-space-time-dynamics-distinguish-simple-visual-scenes
#5
Per E Roland, Lars H Bonde, Lars E Forsberg, Michael A Harvey
Brain dynamics are often taken to be temporal dynamics of spiking and membrane potentials in a balanced network. Almost all evidence for a balanced network comes from recordings of cell bodies of few single neurons, neglecting more than 99% of the cortical network. We examined the space-time dynamics of excitation and inhibition simultaneously in dendrites and axons over four visual areas of ferrets exposed to visual scenes with stationary and moving objects. The visual stimuli broke the tight balance between excitation and inhibition such that the network exhibited longer episodes of net excitation subsequently balanced by net inhibition, in contrast to a balanced network...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377700/two-types-of-receptive-field-dynamics-in-area-v4-at-the-time-of-eye-movements
#6
Till S Hartmann, Marc Zirnsak, Michael Marquis, Fred H Hamker, Tirin Moore
How we perceive the world as stable despite the frequent disruptions of the retinal image caused by eye movements is one of the fundamental questions in sensory neuroscience. Seemingly convergent evidence points towards a mechanism which dynamically updates representations of visual space in anticipation of a movement (Wurtz, 2008). In particular, receptive fields (RFs) of neurons, predominantly within oculomotor and attention related brain structures (Duhamel et al., 1992; Walker et al., 1995; Umeno and Goldberg, 1997), are thought to "remap" to their future, post-movement location prior to an impending eye movement...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360844/recurrent-network-dynamics-a-link-between-form-and-motion
#7
Jeroen Joukes, Yunguo Yu, Jonathan D Victor, Bart Krekelberg
To discriminate visual features such as corners and contours, the brain must be sensitive to spatial correlations between multiple points in an image. Consistent with this, macaque V2 neurons respond selectively to patterns with well-defined multipoint correlations. Here, we show that a standard feedforward model (a cascade of linear-non-linear filters) does not capture this multipoint selectivity. As an alternative, we developed an artificial neural network model with two hierarchical stages of processing and locally recurrent connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352218/cinematic-operation-of-the-cerebral-cortex-interpreted-via-critical-transitions-in-self-organized-dynamic-systems
#8
Robert Kozma, Walter J Freeman
Measurements of local field potentials over the cortical surface and the scalp of animals and human subjects reveal intermittent bursts of beta and gamma oscillations. During the bursts, narrow-band metastable amplitude modulation (AM) patters emerge for a fraction of a second and ultimately dissolve to the broad-band random background activity. The burst process depends on previously learnt conditioned stimuli (CS), thus different AM patterns may emerge in response to different CS. This observation leads to our cinematic theory of cognition when perception happens in discrete steps manifested in the sequence of AM patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344549/functional-brain-activation-in-response-to-a-clinical-vestibular-test-correlates-with-balance
#9
Fatemeh Noohi, Catherine Kinnaird, Yiri DeDios, Igor S Kofman, Scott Wood, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
The current study characterizes brain fMRI activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: Skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either a vestibulo-spinal reflex [saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)], or an ocular muscle response [utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)]. Research suggests that the skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for subjects than the high decibel tones required to elicit VEMPs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303093/understanding-and-self-organization
#10
Natika W Newton
How do we manage to understand a completely novel state of affairs, such as the sudden effects of an unexpected earthquake, or the arrival of a total stranger instead of the sister we were waiting for? In each case, for a moment we might be stunned, but we are able quite quickly to fit these events into our overall framework for understanding the world. However, terrified and despairing we feel, we know what earthquakes are and this event fits that schema; in the case of the stranger we know that this kind of thing happens, and that we must ask the stranger "Who are you, and where is my sister?" This paper asks about the mechanisms by which we rapidly achieve an understanding of our world, both the unexpected changes we may experience, and the ongoing comfortable familiarity we normally have with our surroundings...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293181/from-anomalies-to-essential-scientific-revolution-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-the-light-of-kuhn-s-philosophy-of-science
#11
REVIEW
Marek Havlík
The first step toward a modern understanding of fMRI resting brain activity was made by Bharat Biswal in 1995. This surprising, and at first rejected, discovery is now associated with many resting state networks, notably the famous default mode network (DMN). Resting state activity and DMN significantly reassessed our traditional beliefs and conventions about the functioning of the brain. For the majority of the twentieth century, neuroscientists assumed that the brain is mainly the "reactive engine" to the environment operating mostly through stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293180/brief-mental-training-reorganizes-large-scale-brain-networks
#12
Yi-Yuan Tang, Yan Tang, Rongxiang Tang, Jarrod A Lewis-Peacock
Emerging evidences have shown that one form of mental training-mindfulness meditation, can improve attention, emotion regulation and cognitive performance through changing brain activity and structural connectivity. However, whether and how the short-term mindfulness meditation alters large-scale brain networks are not well understood. Here, we applied a novel data-driven technique, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data to identify changes in brain activity patterns and assess the neural mechanisms induced by a brief mindfulness training-integrative body-mind training (IBMT), which was previously reported in our series of randomized studies...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286472/deafferentation-of-the-superior-colliculus-abolishes-spatial-summation-of-redundant-visual-signals
#13
Martijn van Koningsbruggen, Kristin Koller, Robert D Rafal
Two visual signals appearing simultaneously are detected more rapidly than either signal appearing alone. Part of this redundant target effect (RTE) can be attributed to neural summation that has been proposed to occur in the superior colliculus (SC). We report direct evidence in two neurological patients for neural summation in the SC, and that it is mediated by afferent visual information transmitted through its brachium. The RTE was abolished in one patient with a hemorrhage involving the right posterior thalamus that damaged part of the SC and that disrupted its brachium; and in another patient in whom the SC appeared intact but deafferented due to traumatic avulsion of its brachium...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239342/informative-cues-facilitate-saccadic-localization-in-blindsight-monkeys
#14
Masatoshi Yoshida, Ziad M Hafed, Tadashi Isa
Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232791/matching-pursuit-analysis-of-auditory-receptive-fields-spectro-temporal-properties
#15
Jörg-Hendrik Bach, Birger Kollmeier, Jörn Anemüller
Gabor filters have long been proposed as models for spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs), with their specific spectral and temporal rate of modulation qualitatively replicating characteristics of STRF filters estimated from responses to auditory stimuli in physiological data. The present study builds on the Gabor-STRF model by proposing a methodology to quantitatively decompose STRFs into a set of optimally matched Gabor filters through matching pursuit, and by quantitatively evaluating spectral and temporal characteristics of STRFs in terms of the derived optimal Gabor-parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228719/plasticity-of-visual-pathways-and-function-in-the-developing-brain-is-the-pulvinar-a-crucial-player
#16
REVIEW
James A Bourne, Maria Concetta Morrone
The pulvinar is the largest of the thalamic nuclei in the primates, including humans. In the primates, two of the three major subdivisions, the lateral and inferior pulvinar, are heavily interconnected with a significant proportion of the visual association cortex. However, while we now have a better understanding of the bidirectional connectivity of these pulvinar subdivisions, its functions remain somewhat of an enigma. Over the past few years, researchers have started to tackle this problem by addressing it from the angle of development and visual cortical lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174524/ups-and-downs-in-75-years-of-electrocochleography
#17
REVIEW
Jos J Eggermont
Before 1964, electrocochleography (ECochG) was a surgical procedure carried out in the operating theatre. Currently, the newest application is also an intra-operative one, often carried out in conjunction with cochlear implant surgery. Starting in 1967, the recording methods became either minimal- or not-invasive, i.e., trans-tympanic (TT) or extra tympanic (ET), and included extensive studies of the arguments pro and con. I will review several valuable applications of ECochG, from a historical point of view, but covering all 75 years if applicable...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154528/editorial-the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-visual-working-memory
#18
EDITORIAL
Zsuzsa Kaldy, Natasha Sigala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127278/models-of-neuronal-stimulus-response-functions-elaboration-estimation-and-evaluation
#19
REVIEW
Arne F Meyer, Ross S Williamson, Jennifer F Linden, Maneesh Sahani
Rich, dynamic, and dense sensory stimuli are encoded within the nervous system by the time-varying activity of many individual neurons. A fundamental approach to understanding the nature of the encoded representation is to characterize the function that relates the moment-by-moment firing of a neuron to the recent history of a complex sensory input. This review provides a unifying and critical survey of the techniques that have been brought to bear on this effort thus far-ranging from the classical linear receptive field model to modern approaches incorporating normalization and other nonlinearities...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111543/the-elephant-in-the-mirror-bridging-the-brain-s-explanatory-gap-of-consciousness
#20
Jasmine A Berry, Alice C Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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