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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620284/electrophysiological-measurements-of-peripheral-vestibular-function-a-review-of-electrovestibulography
#2
REVIEW
Daniel J Brown, Christopher J Pastras, Ian S Curthoys
Electrocochleography (EcochG), incorporating the Cochlear Microphonic (CM), the Summating Potential (SP), and the cochlear Compound Action Potential (CAP), has been used to study cochlear function in humans and experimental animals since the 1930s, providing a simple objective tool to assess both hair cell (HC) and nerve sensitivity. The vestibular equivalent of ECochG, termed here Electrovestibulography (EVestG), incorporates responses of the vestibular HCs and nerve. Few research groups have utilized EVestG to study vestibular function...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611603/inactivation-of-the-lateral-entorhinal-area-increases-the-influence-of-visual-cues-on-hippocampal-place-cell-activity
#3
Kristin M Scaplen, Rohan N Ramesh, Negin Nadvar, Omar J Ahmed, Rebecca D Burwell
The hippocampus is important for both navigation and associative learning. We previously showed that the hippocampus processes two-dimensional (2D) landmarks and objects differently. Our findings suggested that landmarks are more likely to be used for orientation and navigation, whereas objects are more likely to be used for associative learning. The process by which cues are recognized as relevant for navigation or associative learning, however, is an open question. Presumably both spatial and nonspatial information are necessary for classifying cues as landmarks or objects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611602/brain-mechanisms-during-course-of-anesthesia-what-we-know-from-eeg-changes-during-induction-and-recovery
#4
Satoshi Hagihira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611601/lack-of-responsiveness-during-the-onset-and-offset-of-sevoflurane-anesthesia-is-associated-with-decreased-awake-alpha-oscillation-power
#5
Kara J Pavone, Lijuan Su, Lei Gao, Ersne Eromo, Rafael Vazquez, James Rhee, Lauren E Hobbs, Reine Ibala, Gizem Demircioglu, Patrick L Purdon, Emery N Brown, Oluwaseun Akeju
Anesthetic drugs are typically administered to induce altered states of arousal that range from sedation to general anesthesia (GA). Systems neuroscience studies are currently being used to investigate the neural circuit mechanisms of anesthesia-induced altered arousal states. These studies suggest that by disrupting the oscillatory dynamics that are associated with arousal states, anesthesia-induced oscillations are a putative mechanism through which anesthetic drugs produce altered states of arousal. However, an empirical clinical observation is that even at relatively stable anesthetic doses, patients are sometimes intermittently responsive to verbal commands during states of light sedation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611600/changes-in-alpha-frequency-and-power-of-the-electroencephalogram-during-volatile-based-general-anesthesia
#6
Darren Hight, Logan J Voss, Paul S Garcia, Jamie Sleigh
Oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) at the alpha frequency (8-12 Hz) are thought to be ubiquitous during surgical anesthesia, but the details of how this oscillation responds to ongoing changes in volatile anesthetic concentration have not been well characterized. It is not known how often alpha oscillations are absent in the clinical context, how sensitively alpha frequency and power respond to changes in anesthetic concentration, and what effect increased age has on alpha frequency. Bipolar EEG was recorded frontally from 305 patients undergoing surgery with sevoflurane or desflurane providing general anesthesia...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611599/the-melanin-concentrating-hormone-as-an-integrative-peptide-driving-motivated-behaviors
#7
REVIEW
Giovanne B Diniz, Jackson C Bittencourt
The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an important peptide implicated in the control of motivated behaviors. History, however, made this peptide first known for its participation in the control of skin pigmentation, from which its name derives. In addition to this peripheral role, MCH is strongly implicated in motivated behaviors, such as feeding, drinking, mating and, more recently, maternal behavior. It is suggested that MCH acts as an integrative peptide, converging sensory information and contributing to a general arousal of the organism...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588457/sensitivity-to-an-illusion-of-sound-location-in-human-auditory-cortex
#8
Nathan C Higgins, Susan A McLaughlin, Sandra Da Costa, G Christopher Stecker
Human listeners place greater weight on the beginning of a sound compared to the middle or end when determining sound location, creating an auditory illusion known as the Franssen effect. Here, we exploited that effect to test whether human auditory cortex (AC) represents the physical vs. perceived spatial features of a sound. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure AC responses to sounds that varied in perceived location due to interaural level differences (ILD) applied to sound onsets or to the full sound duration...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579948/modulation-of-low-voltage-activated-inward-current-permeable-to-sodium-and-calcium-by-darpp-32-drives-spontaneous-firing-of-insect-octopaminergic-neurosecretory-cells
#9
Bruno Lapied, Antoine Defaix, Maria Stankiewicz, Eléonore Moreau, Valérie Raymond
Identification of the different intracellular pathways that control phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process of ionic channels represents an exciting alternative approach for studying the ionic mechanisms underlying neuronal pacemaker activity. In the central nervous system of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, octopaminergic neurons, called dorsal unpaired median (DUM; DUM neurons), generate spontaneous repetitive action potentials. Short-term cultured adult DUM neurons isolated from the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) of the nerve cord were used to study the regulation of a tetrodotoxin-sensitive low-voltage-activated (LVA) channel permeable to sodium and calcium (Na/Ca), under whole cell voltage- and current-clamp conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567006/lateral-entorhinal-cortex-lesions-impair-local-spatial-frameworks
#10
Maneesh V Kuruvilla, James A Ainge
A prominent theory in the neurobiology of memory processing is that episodic memory is supported by contextually gated spatial representations in the hippocampus formed by combining spatial information from medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) with non-spatial information from lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC). However, there is a growing body of evidence from lesion and single-unit recording studies in rodents suggesting that LEC might have a role in encoding space, particularly the current and previous locations of objects within the local environment...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553208/childhood-trauma-and-functional-connectivity-between-amygdala-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-dynamic-functional-connectivity-and-large-scale-network-perspective
#11
Josh M Cisler
Altered functional connectivity (FC) between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala is widely implicated as a neural mechanism explaining risk for psychopathology among those exposed to early life trauma. Nonetheless, contemporary neuroimaging research has shifted toward large-scale network models of brain function, and it is not clear how this common bi-nodal finding fits into larger-scale network models. Here, using dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) approaches combined with large-scale network analyses, the larger role of bi-nodal FC between mPFC and amygdala among a sample of adolescent girls is investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553207/dm5-ht2b-pharmacological-characterization-of-the-fifth-serotonin-receptor-subtype-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Wolfgang Blenau, Stöppler Daniel, Sabine Balfanz, Markus Thamm, Arnd Baumann
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important regulator of physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes (e.g., insects) and deuterostomes (e.g., mammals). In insects, serotonin has been found to modulate the heart rate and to control secretory processes, development, circadian rhythms, aggressive behavior, as well as to contribute to learning and memory. Serotonin exerts its activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors. The clear majority of these receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553206/a-toolbox-for-optophysiological-experiments-in-freely-moving-rats
#13
Stefanie Hardung, Mansour Alyahyay, David Eriksson, Ilka Diester
Simultaneous recordings and manipulations of neural circuits that control the behavior of animals is one of the key techniques in modern neuroscience. Rapid advances in optogenetics have led to a variety of probes combining multichannel readout and optogenetic write in. Given the complexity of the brain, it comes as no surprise that the choice of the device is constrained by several factors such as the animal model, the structure and location of the brain area of interest, as well as the behavioral read out...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536508/when-cooperation-was-efficient-or-inefficient-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-evidence
#14
Michela Balconi, Maria E Vanutelli
Cooperation is a construct within social cognition that requires both self-perception and the comprehension of others' actions. In the case of synchronized activities the adoption of common strategies is crucial, but this process can be strongly influenced by those variables. In fact, self-perceived efficacy within the social exchange can affect the motivational components toward the creation of synergic actions. Thus, what happens when our performance is efficient or inefficient during cooperation? This question was answered in the present study where we compared behavioral performance and neural activation across different conditions where subjects received an external feedback assessing a good or a poor outcome during a cooperative game...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533746/intraoperative-frontal-alpha-band-power-correlates-with-preoperative-neurocognitive-function-in-older-adults
#15
Charles M Giattino, Jacob E Gardner, Faris M Sbahi, Kenneth C Roberts, Mary Cooter, Eugene Moretti, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Joseph P Mathew, Marty G Woldorff, Miles Berger
Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, increased 1-year mortality, and long-term cognitive decline. Multiple investigators have thus suggested that anesthesia and surgery place severe stress on the aging brain, and that patients with less ability to withstand this stress will be at increased risk for developing postoperative delirium and POCD...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496402/cortico-striatal-thalamic-loop-circuits-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-promising-therapeutic-targets-in-psychiatric-illness
#16
REVIEW
Peter Fettes, Laura Schulze, Jonathan Downar
Corticostriatal circuits through the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play key roles in complex human behaviors such as evaluation, affect regulation and reward-based decision-making. Importantly, the medial and lateral OFC (mOFC and lOFC) circuits have functionally and anatomically distinct connectivity profiles which differentially contribute to the various aspects of goal-directed behavior. OFC corticostriatal circuits have been consistently implicated across a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and substance use disorders (SUDs)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484377/activity-dependent-synaptic-refinement-new-insights-from-drosophila
#17
REVIEW
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
During development, neurons establish inappropriate connections as they seek out their synaptic partners, resulting in supernumerary synapses that must be pruned away. The removal of miswired synapses usually involves electrical activity, often through a Hebbian spike-timing mechanism. A novel form of activity-dependent refinement is used by Drosophila that may be non-Hebbian, and is critical for generating the precise connectivity observed in that system. In Drosophila, motoneurons use both glutamate and the biogenic amine octopamine for neurotransmission, and the muscle fibers receive multiple synaptic inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484376/information-and-the-origin-of-qualia
#18
Roger Orpwood
This article argues that qualia are a likely outcome of the processing of information in local cortical networks. It uses an information-based approach and makes a distinction between information structures (the physical embodiment of information in the brain, primarily patterns of action potentials), and information messages (the meaning of those structures to the brain, and the basis of qualia). It develops formal relationships between these two kinds of information, showing how information structures can represent messages, and how information messages can be identified from structures...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443004/assessing-somatosensory-utilization-during-unipedal-postural-control
#19
Rahul Goel, Yiri E De Dios, Nichole E Gadd, Erin E Caldwell, Brian T Peters, Millard F Reschke, Jacob J Bloomberg, Lars I E Oddsson, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443003/complementary-modular-microcircuits-of-the-rat-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#20
Saikat Ray, Andrea Burgalossi, Michael Brecht, Robert K Naumann
The parahippocampal region is organized into different areas, with the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), presubiculum and parasubiculum prominent in spatial memory. Here, we also describe a region at the extremity of the MEC and bordering the subicular complex, the medial-most part of the entorhinal cortex. While the subdivisions of hippocampus proper form more or less continuous cell sheets, the superficial layers of the parahippocampal region have a distinct modular architecture. We investigate the spatial distribution, laminar position, and putative connectivity of zinc-positive modules in layer 2 of the MEC of rats and relate them to the calbindin-positive patches previously described in the entorhinal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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