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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536508/when-cooperation-was-efficient-or-inefficient-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-evidence
#1
Michela Balconi, Maria E Vanutelli
Cooperation is a construct within social cognition that requires both self-perception and the comprehension of others' actions. In the case of synchronized activities the adoption of common strategies is crucial, but this process can be strongly influenced by those variables. In fact, self-perceived efficacy within the social exchange can affect the motivational components toward the creation of synergic actions. Thus, what happens when our performance is efficient or inefficient during cooperation? This question was answered in the present study where we compared behavioral performance and neural activation across different conditions where subjects received an external feedback assessing a good or a poor outcome during a cooperative game...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533746/intraoperative-frontal-alpha-band-power-correlates-with-preoperative-neurocognitive-function-in-older-adults
#2
Charles M Giattino, Jacob E Gardner, Faris M Sbahi, Kenneth C Roberts, Mary Cooter, Eugene Moretti, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Joseph P Mathew, Marty G Woldorff, Miles Berger
Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, increased 1-year mortality, and long-term cognitive decline. Multiple investigators have thus suggested that anesthesia and surgery place severe stress on the aging brain, and that patients with less ability to withstand this stress will be at increased risk for developing postoperative delirium and POCD...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496402/cortico-striatal-thalamic-loop-circuits-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-promising-therapeutic-targets-in-psychiatric-illness
#3
REVIEW
Peter Fettes, Laura Schulze, Jonathan Downar
Corticostriatal circuits through the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play key roles in complex human behaviors such as evaluation, affect regulation and reward-based decision-making. Importantly, the medial and lateral OFC (mOFC and lOFC) circuits have functionally and anatomically distinct connectivity profiles which differentially contribute to the various aspects of goal-directed behavior. OFC corticostriatal circuits have been consistently implicated across a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and substance use disorders (SUDs)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484377/activity-dependent-synaptic-refinement-new-insights-from-drosophila
#4
REVIEW
Fernando Vonhoff, Haig Keshishian
During development, neurons establish inappropriate connections as they seek out their synaptic partners, resulting in supernumerary synapses that must be pruned away. The removal of miswired synapses usually involves electrical activity, often through a Hebbian spike-timing mechanism. A novel form of activity-dependent refinement is used by Drosophila that may be non-Hebbian, and is critical for generating the precise connectivity observed in that system. In Drosophila, motoneurons use both glutamate and the biogenic amine octopamine for neurotransmission, and the muscle fibers receive multiple synaptic inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484376/information-and-the-origin-of-qualia
#5
Roger Orpwood
This article argues that qualia are a likely outcome of the processing of information in local cortical networks. It uses an information-based approach and makes a distinction between information structures (the physical embodiment of information in the brain, primarily patterns of action potentials), and information messages (the meaning of those structures to the brain, and the basis of qualia). It develops formal relationships between these two kinds of information, showing how information structures can represent messages, and how information messages can be identified from structures...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443004/assessing-somatosensory-utilization-during-unipedal-postural-control
#6
Rahul Goel, Yiri E De Dios, Nichole E Gadd, Erin E Caldwell, Brian T Peters, Millard F Reschke, Jacob J Bloomberg, Lars I E Oddsson, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443003/complementary-modular-microcircuits-of-the-rat-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#7
Saikat Ray, Andrea Burgalossi, Michael Brecht, Robert K Naumann
The parahippocampal region is organized into different areas, with the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), presubiculum and parasubiculum prominent in spatial memory. Here, we also describe a region at the extremity of the MEC and bordering the subicular complex, the medial-most part of the entorhinal cortex. While the subdivisions of hippocampus proper form more or less continuous cell sheets, the superficial layers of the parahippocampal region have a distinct modular architecture. We investigate the spatial distribution, laminar position, and putative connectivity of zinc-positive modules in layer 2 of the MEC of rats and relate them to the calbindin-positive patches previously described in the entorhinal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439230/from-anxious-to-reckless-a-control-systems-approach-unifies-prefrontal-limbic-regulation-across-the-spectrum-of-threat-detection
#8
REVIEW
Lilianne R Mujica-Parodi, Jiook Cha, Jonathan Gao
Here we provide an integrative review of basic control circuits, and introduce techniques by which their regulation can be quantitatively measured using human neuroimaging. We illustrate the utility of the control systems approach using four human neuroimaging threat detection studies (N = 226), to which we applied circuit-wide analyses in order to identify the key mechanism underlying individual variation. In so doing, we build upon the canonical prefrontal-limbic control system to integrate circuit-wide influence from the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428747/editorial-memory-processes-in-medial-temporal-lobe-experimental-theoretical-and-computational-approaches
#9
EDITORIAL
Vassilis Cutsuridis, Motoharu Yoshida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420968/cortical-variability-and-challenges-for-modeling-approaches
#10
Emili Balaguer-Ballester
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408870/homeostatic-changes-in-gaba-and-glutamate-receptors-on-excitatory-cortical-neurons-during-sleep-deprivation-and-recovery
#11
Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Anton Plavski, Lynda Mainville, Barbara E Jones
Neuronal activity is regulated in a homeostatic manner through changes in inhibitory GABA and excitatory glutamate (Glu) AMPA (A) receptors (GluARs). Using immunofluorescent staining, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα)-labeled (+) excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex undergo such homeostatic regulation following enforced waking with associated cortical activation during the day when mice normally sleep the majority of the time. Sleep deprived mice were prevented from falling asleep by unilateral whisker stimulation and sleep recovery (SR) mice allowed to sleep freely following deprivation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392760/accelerated-recovery-of-consciousness-after-general-anesthesia-is-associated-with-increased-functional-brain-connectivity-in-the-high-gamma-bandwidth
#12
Duan Li, Viviane S Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, George A Mashour
Recent data from our laboratory demonstrate that high-frequency gamma connectivity across the cortex is present during consciousness and depressed during unconsciousness. However, these data were derived from static and well-defined states of arousal rather than during transitions that would suggest functional relevance. We also recently found that subanesthetic ketamine administered during isoflurane anesthesia accelerates recovery upon discontinuation of the primary anesthetic and increases gamma power during emergence...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377701/breaking-the-excitation-inhibition-balance-makes-the-cortical-network-s-space-time-dynamics-distinguish-simple-visual-scenes
#13
Per E Roland, Lars H Bonde, Lars E Forsberg, Michael A Harvey
Brain dynamics are often taken to be temporal dynamics of spiking and membrane potentials in a balanced network. Almost all evidence for a balanced network comes from recordings of cell bodies of few single neurons, neglecting more than 99% of the cortical network. We examined the space-time dynamics of excitation and inhibition simultaneously in dendrites and axons over four visual areas of ferrets exposed to visual scenes with stationary and moving objects. The visual stimuli broke the tight balance between excitation and inhibition such that the network exhibited longer episodes of net excitation subsequently balanced by net inhibition, in contrast to a balanced network...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377700/two-types-of-receptive-field-dynamics-in-area-v4-at-the-time-of-eye-movements
#14
Till S Hartmann, Marc Zirnsak, Michael Marquis, Fred H Hamker, Tirin Moore
How we perceive the world as stable despite the frequent disruptions of the retinal image caused by eye movements is one of the fundamental questions in sensory neuroscience. Seemingly convergent evidence points towards a mechanism which dynamically updates representations of visual space in anticipation of a movement (Wurtz, 2008). In particular, receptive fields (RFs) of neurons, predominantly within oculomotor and attention related brain structures (Duhamel et al., 1992; Walker et al., 1995; Umeno and Goldberg, 1997), are thought to "remap" to their future, post-movement location prior to an impending eye movement...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360844/recurrent-network-dynamics-a-link-between-form-and-motion
#15
Jeroen Joukes, Yunguo Yu, Jonathan D Victor, Bart Krekelberg
To discriminate visual features such as corners and contours, the brain must be sensitive to spatial correlations between multiple points in an image. Consistent with this, macaque V2 neurons respond selectively to patterns with well-defined multipoint correlations. Here, we show that a standard feedforward model (a cascade of linear-non-linear filters) does not capture this multipoint selectivity. As an alternative, we developed an artificial neural network model with two hierarchical stages of processing and locally recurrent connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352218/cinematic-operation-of-the-cerebral-cortex-interpreted-via-critical-transitions-in-self-organized-dynamic-systems
#16
Robert Kozma, Walter J Freeman
Measurements of local field potentials over the cortical surface and the scalp of animals and human subjects reveal intermittent bursts of beta and gamma oscillations. During the bursts, narrow-band metastable amplitude modulation (AM) patters emerge for a fraction of a second and ultimately dissolve to the broad-band random background activity. The burst process depends on previously learnt conditioned stimuli (CS), thus different AM patterns may emerge in response to different CS. This observation leads to our cinematic theory of cognition when perception happens in discrete steps manifested in the sequence of AM patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344549/functional-brain-activation-in-response-to-a-clinical-vestibular-test-correlates-with-balance
#17
Fatemeh Noohi, Catherine Kinnaird, Yiri DeDios, Igor S Kofman, Scott Wood, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
The current study characterizes brain fMRI activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: Skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either a vestibulo-spinal reflex [saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)], or an ocular muscle response [utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)]. Research suggests that the skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for subjects than the high decibel tones required to elicit VEMPs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303093/understanding-and-self-organization
#18
Natika W Newton
How do we manage to understand a completely novel state of affairs, such as the sudden effects of an unexpected earthquake, or the arrival of a total stranger instead of the sister we were waiting for? In each case, for a moment we might be stunned, but we are able quite quickly to fit these events into our overall framework for understanding the world. However, terrified and despairing we feel, we know what earthquakes are and this event fits that schema; in the case of the stranger we know that this kind of thing happens, and that we must ask the stranger "Who are you, and where is my sister?" This paper asks about the mechanisms by which we rapidly achieve an understanding of our world, both the unexpected changes we may experience, and the ongoing comfortable familiarity we normally have with our surroundings...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293181/from-anomalies-to-essential-scientific-revolution-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-the-light-of-kuhn-s-philosophy-of-science
#19
REVIEW
Marek Havlík
The first step toward a modern understanding of fMRI resting brain activity was made by Bharat Biswal in 1995. This surprising, and at first rejected, discovery is now associated with many resting state networks, notably the famous default mode network (DMN). Resting state activity and DMN significantly reassessed our traditional beliefs and conventions about the functioning of the brain. For the majority of the twentieth century, neuroscientists assumed that the brain is mainly the "reactive engine" to the environment operating mostly through stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293180/brief-mental-training-reorganizes-large-scale-brain-networks
#20
Yi-Yuan Tang, Yan Tang, Rongxiang Tang, Jarrod A Lewis-Peacock
Emerging evidences have shown that one form of mental training-mindfulness meditation, can improve attention, emotion regulation and cognitive performance through changing brain activity and structural connectivity. However, whether and how the short-term mindfulness meditation alters large-scale brain networks are not well understood. Here, we applied a novel data-driven technique, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data to identify changes in brain activity patterns and assess the neural mechanisms induced by a brief mindfulness training-integrative body-mind training (IBMT), which was previously reported in our series of randomized studies...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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