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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681802/expression-and-function-of-chemokines-cxcl9-11-in-micturition-pathways-in-cyclophosphamide-cyp-induced-cystitis-and-somatic-sensitivity-in-mice
#1
Michael Guo, Phat Chang, Eric Hauke, Beatrice M Girard, Katharine Tooke, Jacqueline Ojala, Susan M Malley, Harrison Hsiang, Margaret A Vizzard
Changes in urinary bladder function and somatic sensation may be mediated, in part, by inflammatory changes in the urinary bladder including the expression of chemokines. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP; 75 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce bladder inflammation (4 h, 48 h, chronic). We characterized the expression of CXC chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11) in the urinary bladder and determined the effects of blockade of their common receptor, CXCR3, at the level urinary bladder on bladder function and somatic (hindpaw and pelvic) sensation...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674959/meal-sensing-signaling-pathways-in-functional-dyspepsia
#2
REVIEW
Amanda J Page, Hui Li
The upper gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in sensing the arrival, amount and chemical composition of a meal. Ingestion of a meal triggers a number of sensory signals in the gastrointestinal tract. These include the response to mechanical stimulation (e.g., gastric distension), from the presence of food in the gut, and the interaction of various dietary nutrients with specific "taste" receptors on specialized enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine culminating in the release of gut hormones...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643770/neural-control-of-startle-induced-locomotion-by-the-mushroom-bodies-and-associated-neurons-in-drosophila
#3
Jun Sun, An Qi Xu, Julia Giraud, Haiko Poppinga, Thomas Riemensperger, André Fiala, Serge Birman
Startle-induced locomotion is commonly used in Drosophila research to monitor locomotor reactivity and its progressive decline with age or under various neuropathological conditions. A widely used paradigm is startle-induced negative geotaxis (SING), in which flies entrapped in a narrow column react to a gentle mechanical shock by climbing rapidly upwards. Here we combined in vivo manipulation of neuronal activity and splitGFP reconstitution across cells to search for brain neurons and putative circuits that regulate this behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615874/structural-and-molecular-properties-of-insect-type-ii-motor-axon-terminals
#4
Bettina Stocker, Christina Bochow, Christine Damrau, Thomas Mathejczyk, Heike Wolfenberg, Julien Colomb, Claudia Weber, Niraja Ramesh, Carsten Duch, Natalia M Biserova, Stephan Sigrist, Hans-Joachim Pflüger
A comparison between the axon terminals of octopaminergic efferent dorsal or ventral unpaired median neurons in either desert locusts ( Schistocerca gregaria ) or fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ) across skeletal muscles reveals many similarities. In both species the octopaminergic axon forms beaded fibers where the boutons or varicosities form type II terminals in contrast to the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) or type I terminals. These type II terminals are immunopositive for both tyramine and octopamine and, in contrast to the type I terminals, which possess clear synaptic vesicles, only contain dense core vesicles...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593506/the-interaction-of-pre-programmed-eye-movements-with-the-vestibulo-ocular-reflex
#5
Stephanie E Haggerty, W Michael King
The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) works to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movements. However, even subjects who lack a VOR (e.g., vestibulopathic patients) can achieve gaze stability during planned head movements by using pre-programmed eye movements (PPEM). The extent to which PPEM are used by healthy intact subjects and how they interact with the VOR is still unclear. We propose a model of gaze stabilization which makes several claims: (1) the VOR provides ocular stability during unexpected (i.e., passive) head movements; (2) PPEM are used by both healthy and vestibulopathic subjects during planned (i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467630/neural-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-active-forgetting
#6
REVIEW
Jorge H Medina
The neurobiology of memory formation attracts much attention in the last five decades. Conversely, the rules that govern and the mechanisms underlying forgetting are less understood. In addition to retroactive interference, retrieval-induced forgetting and passive decay of time, it has been recently demonstrated that the nervous system has a diversity of active and inherent processes involved in forgetting. In Drosophila , some operate mainly at an early stage of memory formation and involves dopamine (DA) neurons, specific postsynaptic DA receptor subtypes, Rac1 activation and induces rapid active forgetting...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434541/the-influence-of-early-life-experience-on-visceral-pain
#7
REVIEW
Isabella M Fuentes, Julie A Christianson
Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes) report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434540/perceptual-color-space-representations-in-the-oculomotor-system-are-modulated-by-surround-suppression-and-biased-selection
#8
Devin H Kehoe, Maryam Rahimi, Mazyar Fallah
The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE (x,y) color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472845/editorial-metastable-dynamics-of-neural-ensembles
#9
EDITORIAL
Emili Balaguer-Ballester, Ruben Moreno-Bote, Gustavo Deco, Daniel Durstewitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379421/octopamine-and-tyramine-contribute-separately-to-the-counter-regulatory-response-to-sugar-deficit-in-drosophila
#10
Christine Damrau, Naoko Toshima, Teiichi Tanimura, Björn Brembs, Julien Colomb
All animals constantly negotiate external with internal demands before and during action selection. Energy homeostasis is a major internal factor biasing action selection. For instance, in addition to physiologically regulating carbohydrate mobilization, starvation-induced sugar shortage also biases action selection toward food-seeking and food consumption behaviors (the counter-regulatory response). Biogenic amines are often involved when such widespread behavioral biases need to be orchestrated. In mammals, norepinephrine (noradrenalin) is involved in the counterregulatory response to starvation-induced drops in glucose levels...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379420/differential-influence-of-early-life-and-adult-stress-on-urogenital-sensitivity-and-function-in-male-mice
#11
Isabella M Fuentes, Angela N Pierce, Elizabeth R Di Silvestro, Molly O Maloney, Julie A Christianson
Experiences of adverse childhood events have been associated with improper output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adulthood, as well as development of comorbid functional pain disorders. Symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome frequently overlap with those of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and symptom severity is often triggered by stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence early life stress and acute adult stress on (1) perigenital sensitivity, (2) micturition, (3) anhedonia, and (4) HPA axis regulation and output in male C56Bl/6 mice...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375329/ventromedial-hypothalamus-and-the-generation-of-aggression
#12
REVIEW
Yoshiko Hashikawa, Koichi Hashikawa, Annegret L Falkner, Dayu Lin
Aggression is a costly behavior, sometimes with severe consequences including death. Yet aggression is prevalent across animal species ranging from insects to humans, demonstrating its essential role in the survival of individuals and groups. The question of how the brain decides when to generate this costly behavior has intrigued neuroscientists for over a century and has led to the identification of relevant neural substrates. Various lesion and electric stimulation experiments have revealed that the hypothalamus, an ancient structure situated deep in the brain, is essential for expressing aggressive behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358909/commentary-the-predictive-processing-paradigm-has-roots-in-kant
#13
COMMENT
Majid D Beni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326562/a-marked-point-process-framework-for-extracellular-electrical-potentials
#14
Carlos A Loza, Michael S Okun, José C Príncipe
Neuromodulations are an important component of extracellular electrical potentials (EEP), such as the Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocorticogram (ECoG) and Local Field Potentials (LFP). This spatially temporal organized multi-frequency transient (phasic) activity reflects the multiscale spatiotemporal synchronization of neuronal populations in response to external stimuli or internal physiological processes. We propose a novel generative statistical model of a single EEP channel, where the collected signal is regarded as the noisy addition of reoccurring, multi-frequency phasic events over time...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326561/neurotechnology-current-developments-and-ethical-issues
#15
Oliver Müller, Stefan Rotter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321732/discrete-serotonin-systems-mediate-memory-enhancement-and-escape-latencies-after-unpredicted-aversive-experience-in-drosophila-place-memory
#16
Divya Sitaraman, Elizabeth F Kramer, Lily Kahsai, Daniela Ostrowski, Troy Zars
Feedback mechanisms in operant learning are critical for animals to increase reward or reduce punishment. However, not all conditions have a behavior that can readily resolve an event. Animals must then try out different behaviors to better their situation through outcome learning. This form of learning allows for novel solutions and with positive experience can lead to unexpected behavioral routines. Learned helplessness, as a type of outcome learning, manifests in part as increases in escape latency in the face of repeated unpredicted shocks...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321731/behavioral-modulation-by-spontaneous-activity-of-dopamine-neurons
#17
REVIEW
Toshiharu Ichinose, Hiromu Tanimoto, Nobuhiro Yamagata
Dopamine modulates a variety of animal behaviors that range from sleep and learning to courtship and aggression. Besides its well-known phasic firing to natural reward, a substantial number of dopamine neurons (DANs) are known to exhibit ongoing intrinsic activity in the absence of an external stimulus. While accumulating evidence points at functional implications for these intrinsic "spontaneous activities" of DANs in cognitive processes, a causal link to behavior and its underlying mechanisms has yet to be elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321730/rhythmic-calcium-events-in-the-lamina-propria-network-of-the-urinary-bladder-of-rat-pups
#18
Thomas J Heppner, Grant W Hennig, Mark T Nelson, Margaret A Vizzard
The lamina propria contains a dense network of cells, including interstitial cells (ICs), that may play a role in bladder function by modulating communication between urothelium, nerve fibers and smooth muscle or acting as pacemakers. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels allow cation influx and may be involved in sensing stretch or chemical irritation in urinary bladder. Urothelium was removed from rats (P0-Adult), cut into strips, and loaded with a Ca2+ fluorescent dye (Fluo-2 AM leak resistant or Cal 520) for 90 min (35-37°C) to measure Ca2+ events...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311858/the-comparative-neurology-of-neocortical-gyration-and-the-quest-for-functional-specialization
#19
Lazaros C Triarhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270113/commentary-localized-vs-systematic-neurodegeneration-a-paradigm-shift-in-understanding-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
COMMENT
Bianca Norrara, Jhulimar G Doerl, Fausto P Guzen, Jose Rodolfo Lopes P Cavalcanti, Marco Aurelio M Freire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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