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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033799/a-critical-assessment-of-directed-connectivity-estimates-with-artificially-imposed-causality-in-the-supramammillary-septo-hippocampal-circuit
#1
Calvin K Young, Ming Ruan, Neil McNaughton
Algorithms for estimating directed connectivity have become indispensable to further understand the neurodynamics between functionally coupled brain areas. The evaluation of directed connectivity on the propagation of brain activity has largely been based on simulated data or toy models, where various hidden properties of neurophysiological data may not be fully recapitulated. In this study, directionality was unequivocally manipulated in the freely moving rat in a unique dataset, where normal oscillatory interactions between the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) and hippocampus (HPC) were attenuated by temporary medial septal (MS) inactivation, and replaced by electrical stimulation of the fornix to evaluate the performance of several directed connectivity assessment methods...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033798/self-regulatory-capacities-are-depleted-in-a-domain-specific-manner
#2
Rui Zhang, Ann-Kathrin Stock, Anneka Rzepus, Christian Beste
Performing an act of self-regulation such as making decisions has been suggested to deplete a common limited resource, which impairs all subsequent self-regulatory actions (ego depletion theory). It has however remained unclear whether self-referred decisions truly impair behavioral control even in seemingly unrelated cognitive domains, and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by these potential depletion effects. In the current study, we therefore used an inter-individual design to compare two kinds of depletion, namely a self-referred choice-based depletion and a categorization-based switching depletion, to a non-depleted control group...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021745/tyramine-actions-on-drosophila-flight-behavior-are-affected-by-a-glial-dehydrogenase-reductase
#3
Stefanie Ryglewski, Carsten Duch, Benjamin Altenhein
The biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate insect motor behavior in an antagonistic manner. OA generally enhances locomotor behaviors such as Drosophila larval crawling and flight, whereas TA decreases locomotor activity. However, the mechanisms and cellular targets of TA modulation of locomotor activity are incompletely understood. This study combines immunocytochemistry, genetics and flight behavioral assays in the Drosophila model system to test the role of a candidate enzyme for TA catabolism, named Nazgul (Naz), in flight motor behavioral control...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018337/editorial-self-organization-in-the-nervous-system
#4
EDITORIAL
Yan M Yufik, Biswa Sengupta, Karl Friston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018336/encoding-and-decoding-models-in-cognitive-electrophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Christopher R Holdgraf, Jochem W Rieger, Cristiano Micheli, Stephanie Martin, Robert T Knight, Frederic E Theunissen
Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of "Encoding" models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and "Decoding" models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979196/speed-and-oscillations-medial-septum-integration-of-attention-and-navigation
#6
REVIEW
Marian Tsanov
Several cortical and diencephalic limbic brain regions incorporate neurons that fire in correlation with the speed of whole-body motion, also known as linear velocity. Besides the field mapping and head-directional information, the linear velocity is among the major signals that guide animal's spatial navigation. Large neuronal populations in the same limbic regions oscillate with theta rhythm during spatial navigation or attention episodes; and the frequency of theta also correlates with linear velocity. A functional similarity between these brain areas is that their inactivation impairs the ability to form new spatial memories; whereas an anatomical similarity is that they all receive projections from medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959192/brainstem-influence-on-thalamocortical-oscillations-during-anesthesia-emergence
#7
Christopher M Scheib
Theories of mechanisms that impair or prevent consciousness during anesthesia that are related to thalamocortical oscillations have been proposed. Many methods of EEG analysis have been proposed as measures of anesthetic effects but only a few have potential to provide measures of those anesthetic effects that are directly related to thalamocortical oscillations. Some of these methods will be explained and demonstrated with examples chosen to provide evidence for or against two of the proposed mechanisms. The first of the two mechanisms to be addressed is the "traveling peak" (Ching et al...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928640/hdac3-inhibitor-rgfp966-modulates-neuronal-memory-for-vocal-communication-signals-in-a-songbird-model
#8
Mimi L Phan, Mark M Gergues, Shafali Mahidadia, Jorge Jimenez-Castillo, David S Vicario, Kasia M Bieszczad
Epigenetic mechanisms that modify chromatin conformation have recently been under investigation for their contributions to learning and the formation of memory. For example, the role of enzymes involved in histone acetylation are studied in the formation of long-lasting memories because memory consolidation requires gene expression events that are facilitated by an open state of chromatin. We recently proposed that epigenetic events may control the entry of specific sensory features into long-term memory by enabling transcription-mediated neuronal plasticity in sensory brain areas...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912694/from-cortical-blindness-to-conscious-visual-perception-theories-on-neuronal-networks-and-visual-training-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Vanessa Hadid, Franco Lepore
Homonymous hemianopia (HH) is the most common cortical visual impairment leading to blindness in the contralateral hemifield. It is associated with many inconveniences and daily restrictions such as exploration and visual orientation difficulties. However, patients with HH can preserve the remarkable ability to unconsciously perceive visual stimuli presented in their blindfield, a phenomenon known as blindsight. Unfortunately, the nature of this captivating residual ability is still misunderstood and the rehabilitation strategies in terms of visual training have been insufficiently exploited...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912693/octopamine-underlies-the-counter-regulatory-response-to-a-glucose-deficit-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#10
Christina Buckemüller, Oliver Siehler, Josefine Göbel, Richard Zeumer, Anja Ölschläger, Dorothea Eisenhardt
An animal's internal state is a critical parameter required for adaptation to a given environment. An important aspect of an animal's internal state is the energy state that is adjusted to the needs of an animal by energy homeostasis. Glucose is one essential source of energy, especially for the brain. A shortage of glucose therefore triggers a complex response to restore the animal's glucose supply. This counter-regulatory response to a glucose deficit includes metabolic responses like the mobilization of glucose from internal glucose stores and behavioral responses like increased foraging and a rapid intake of food...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878634/localized-vs-systematic-neurodegeneration-a-paradigm-shift-in-understanding-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
Armin Bayati, Taryn Berman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878633/the-role-of-monoaminergic-neurotransmission-for-metabolic-control-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Yong Li, Lasse Tiedemann, Jakob von Frieling, Stella Nolte, Samar El-Kholy, Flora Stephano, Christoph Gelhaus, Iris Bruchhaus, Christine Fink, Thomas Roeder
Hormones control various metabolic traits comprising fat deposition or starvation resistance. Here we show that two invertebrate neurohormones, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) as well as their associated receptors, had a major impact on these metabolic traits. Animals devoid of the monoamine OA develop a severe obesity phenotype. Using flies defective in the expression of receptors for OA and TA, we aimed to decipher the contributions of single receptors for these metabolic phenotypes. Whereas those animals impaired in octß1r, octß2r and tar1 share the obesity phenotype of OA-deficient (tβh-deficient) animals, the octß1r, octß2r deficient flies showed reduced insulin release, which is opposed to the situation found in tβh-deficient animals...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878632/the-influence-of-regional-distribution-and-pharmacologic-specificity-of-gabaar-subtype-expression-on-anesthesia-and-emergence
#13
REVIEW
Iris Speigel, Edyta K Bichler, Paul S García
Anesthetics produce unconsciousness by modulating ion channels that control neuronal excitability. Research has shown that specific GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subtypes in particular regions of the central nervous system contribute to different hyperpolarizing conductances, and behaviorally to distinct components of the anesthetized state. The expression of these receptors on the neuron cell surface, and thus the strength of inhibitory neurotransmission, is dynamically regulated by intracellular trafficking mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860976/revising-the-parallel-pathways-hypothesis-with-time
#14
Albert Tsao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848405/the-effects-of-fat-body-tyramine-level-on-gustatory-responsiveness-of-honeybees-apis-mellifera-differ-between-behavioral-castes
#15
Ricarda Scheiner, Brian V Entler, Andrew B Barron, Christina Scholl, Markus Thamm
Division of labor is a hallmark of social insects. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera) each sterile female worker performs a series of social tasks. The most drastic changes in behavior occur when a nurse bee, who takes care of the brood and the queen in the hive, transitions to foraging behavior. Foragers provision the colony with pollen, nectar or water. Nurse bees and foragers differ in numerous behaviors, including responsiveness to gustatory stimuli. Differences in gustatory responsiveness, in turn, might be involved in regulating division of labor through differential sensory response thresholds...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824388/methodological-caveats-in-the-detection-of-coordinated-replay-between-place-cells-and-grid-cells
#16
John B Trimper, Sean G Trettel, Ernie Hwaun, Laura Lee Colgin
At rest, hippocampal "place cells," neurons with receptive fields corresponding to specific spatial locations, reactivate in a manner that reflects recently traveled trajectories. These "replay" events have been proposed as a mechanism underlying memory consolidation, or the transfer of a memory representation from the hippocampus to neocortical regions associated with the original sensory experience. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that hippocampal replay of a particular experience should be accompanied by simultaneous reactivation of corresponding representations in the neocortex and in the entorhinal cortex, the primary interface between the hippocampus and the neocortex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824387/behavioral-sensitization-to-the-disinhibition-effect-of-ethanol-requires-the-dopamine-ecdysone-receptor-in-drosophila
#17
Gissel P Aranda, Samantha J Hinojos, Paul R Sabandal, Peter D Evans, Kyung-An Han
Male flies under the influence of ethanol display disinhibited courtship, which is augmented with repeated ethanol exposures. We have previously shown that dopamine is important for this type of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we report that DopEcR, an insect G-protein coupled receptor that binds to dopamine and steroid hormone ecdysone, is a major receptor mediating courtship sensitization. Upon daily ethanol administration, dumb and damb mutant males defective in D1 (dDA1/DopR1) and D5 (DAMB/DopR2) dopamine receptors, respectively, showed normal courtship sensitization; however, the DopEcR-deficient der males exhibited greatly diminished sensitization...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790899/sensory-processing-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-the-contribution-of-thalamostriatal-pathways
#18
Kevin D Alloway, Jared B Smith, Todd M Mowery, Glenn D R Watson
The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS) region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS) region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R) associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790898/differences-between-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-in-the-sensitivity-of-tonically-active-neurons-to-rewarding-events
#19
Kevin Marche, Anne-Caroline Martel, Paul Apicella
Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs), represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum), but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790897/regional-specific-evidence-for-memory-load-dependent-activity-in-the-dorsal-subiculum-and-the-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#20
Shih-Pi Ku, Nozomu H Nakamura, Nicolas Maingret, Liv Mahnke, Motoharu Yoshida, Magdalena M Sauvage
The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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