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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

Brian Lee, Daniel Kramer, Michelle Armenta Salas, Spencer Kellis, David Brown, Tatyana Dobreva, Christian Klaes, Christi Heck, Charles Liu, Richard A Andersen
Sensory feedback is a critical aspect of motor control rehabilitation following paralysis or amputation. Current human studies have demonstrated the ability to deliver some of this sensory information via brain-machine interfaces, although further testing is needed to understand the stimulation parameters effect on sensation. Here, we report a systematic evaluation of somatosensory restoration in humans, using cortical stimulation with subdural mini-electrocorticography (mini-ECoG) grids. Nine epilepsy patients undergoing implantation of cortical electrodes for seizure localization were also implanted with a subdural 64-channel mini-ECoG grid over the hand area of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1)...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Allan Tasman, Manuel F Casanova
There is no accepted pathology to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but research suggests the presence of an altered excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) bias in the cerebral cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a non-invasive means of modulating the E/I cortical bias with little in terms of side effects. In this study, 124 high functioning ASD children (IQ > 80, <18 years of age) were recruited and assigned using randomization to either a waitlist group or one of three different number of weekly rTMS sessions (i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Yoshio Sakurai, Yuma Osako, Yuta Tanisumi, Eriko Ishihara, Junya Hirokawa, Hiroyuki Manabe
In this review article we focus on research methodologies for detecting the actual activity of cell assemblies, which are populations of functionally connected neurons that encode information in the brain. We introduce and discuss traditional and novel experimental methods and those currently in development and briefly discuss their advantages and disadvantages for the detection of cell-assembly activity. First, we introduce the electrophysiological method, i.e., multineuronal recording, and review former and recent examples of studies showing models of dynamic coding by cell assemblies in behaving rodents and monkeys...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Darren F Hight, Jamie Sleigh, Joel D Winders, Logan J Voss, Amy L Gaskell, Amy D Rodriguez, Paul S García
Background: Assessment of patients for delirium in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) is confounded by the residual effects of the varied anesthetic and analgesic regimens employed during surgery and by the physiological consequences of surgery such as pain. Nevertheless, delirium diagnosed at this early stage has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The last decade has seen the emergence of the confusion assessment method-intensive care unit (CAM-ICU) score as a quick practical method of detecting delirium in clinical situations...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jed A Hartings, Laura B Ngwenya, Tomas Watanabe, Brandon Foreman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Nicola Solari, Katalin Sviatkó, Tamás Laszlovszky, Panna Hegedüs, Balázs Hangya
Understanding how the brain controls behavior requires observing and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animals. Neuronal firing is timed at millisecond precision. Therefore, to decipher temporal coding, it is necessary to monitor and control animal behavior at the same level of temporal accuracy. However, it is technically challenging to deliver sensory stimuli and reinforcers as well as to read the behavioral responses they elicit with millisecond precision. Presently available commercial systems often excel in specific aspects of behavior control, but they do not provide a customizable environment allowing flexible experimental design while maintaining high standards for temporal control necessary for interpreting neuronal activity...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Dale E Bjorling, Zun-Yi Wang
Bladder-related pain is one of the most common forms of visceral pain, and visceral pain is among the most common complaints for which patients seek physician consultation. Despite extensive studies of visceral innervation and treatment of visceral pain, opioids remain a mainstay for management of bladder pain. Side effects associated with opioid therapy can profoundly diminish quality of life, and improved options for treatment of bladder pain remain a high priority. Endocannabinoids, primarily anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are endogenously-produced fatty acid ethanolamides with that induce analgesia...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Xiaojian Li, Naoki Yamawaki, John M Barrett, Konrad P Körding, Gordon M G Shepherd
Quantitative analysis of corticocortical signaling is needed to understand and model information processing in cerebral networks. However, higher-order pathways, hodologically remote from sensory input, are not amenable to spatiotemporally precise activation by sensory stimuli. Here, we combined parametric channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) photostimulation with multi-unit electrophysiology to study corticocortical driving in a parietofrontal pathway from retrosplenial cortex (RSC) to posterior secondary motor cortex (M2) in mice in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Arshad M Khan, Jose G Perez, Claire E Wells, Olac Fuentes
The rat has arguably the most widely studied brain among all animals, with numerous reference atlases for rat brain having been published since 1946. For example, many neuroscientists have used the atlases of Paxinos and Watson ( PW , first published in 1982) or Swanson ( S , first published in 1992) as guides to probe or map specific rat brain structures and their connections. Despite nearly three decades of contemporaneous publication, no independent attempt has been made to establish a basic framework that allows data mapped in PW to be placed in register with S , or vice versa...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Yehudit Botschko, Merav Yarkoni, Mati Joshua
When animal behavior is studied in a laboratory environment, the animals are often extensively trained to shape their behavior. A crucial question is whether the behavior observed after training is part of the natural repertoire of the animal or represents an outlier in the animal's natural capabilities. This can be investigated by assessing the extent to which the target behavior is manifested during the initial stages of training and the time course of learning. We explored this issue by examining smooth pursuit eye movements in monkeys naïve to smooth pursuit tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Gorica D Petrovich
Converging evidence for an essential function of the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) in the control of feeding behavior has been accumulating since the classic work conducted almost 80 years ago. The LHA is also important in reward and reinforcement processes and behavioral state control. A unifying function for the LHA across these processes has not been fully established. Nonetheless, it is considered to integrate motivation with behavior. More recent work has demonstrated that the LHA is also required when cognitive processes, such as associative learning and memory control feeding behavior, suggesting it may serve as a motivation-cognition interface...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Sergio A Conde-Ocazionez, Christiane Jungen, Thomas Wunderle, David Eriksson, Sergio Neuenschwander, Kerstin E Schmidt
One leading hypothesis on the nature of visual callosal connections (CC) is that they replicate features of intrahemispheric lateral connections. However, CC act also in the central part of the binocular visual field. In agreement, early experiments in cats indicated that they provide the ipsilateral eye part of binocular receptive fields (RFs) at the vertical midline (Berlucchi and Rizzolatti, 1968), and play a key role in stereoscopic function. But until today callosal inputs to receptive fields activated by one or both eyes were never compared simultaneously, because callosal function has been often studied by cutting or lesioning either corpus callosum or optic chiasm not allowing such a comparison...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
F Aura Kullmann, Bronagh M McDonnell, Amanda S Wolf-Johnston, Andrew M Lynn, Samuel E Getchell, Wily G Ruiz, Irina V Zabbarova, Youko Ikeda, Anthony J Kanai, James R Roppolo, Sheldon I Bastacky, Gerard Apodaca, C A Tony Buffington, Lori A Birder
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown etiology. A naturally occurring disease termed feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) reproduces many features of IC/BPS patients. To gain insights into mechanisms underlying IC/BPS, we investigated pathological changes in the lamina propria (LP) of the bladder and proximal urethra in cats with FIC, using histological and molecular methods. Compared to control cat tissue, we found an increased number of de-granulated mast cells, accumulation of leukocytes, increased cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 expression in the bladder LP, and increased COX-2 expression in the urethra LP from cats with FIC...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Mattia Bramini, Giulio Alberini, Elisabetta Colombo, Martina Chiacchiaretta, Mattia L DiFrancesco, José F Maya-Vetencourt, Luca Maragliano, Fabio Benfenati, Fabrizia Cesca
The scientific community has witnessed an exponential increase in the applications of graphene and graphene-based materials in a wide range of fields, from engineering to electronics to biotechnologies and biomedical applications. For what concerns neuroscience, the interest raised by these materials is two-fold. On one side, nanosheets made of graphene or graphene derivatives (graphene oxide, or its reduced form) can be used as carriers for drug delivery. Here, an important aspect is to evaluate their toxicity, which strongly depends on flake composition, chemical functionalization and dimensions...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Mikhail A Lebedev, Alexei Ossadtchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Michael Guo, Phat Chang, Eric Hauke, Beatrice M Girard, Katharine Tooke, Jacqueline Ojala, Susan M Malley, Harrison Hsiang, Margaret A Vizzard
Changes in urinary bladder function and somatic sensation may be mediated, in part, by inflammatory changes in the urinary bladder including the expression of chemokines. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP; 75 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce bladder inflammation (4 h, 48 h, chronic). We characterized the expression of CXC chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11) in the urinary bladder and determined the effects of blockade of their common receptor, CXCR3, at the level urinary bladder on bladder function and somatic (hindpaw and pelvic) sensation...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Amanda J Page, Hui Li
The upper gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in sensing the arrival, amount and chemical composition of a meal. Ingestion of a meal triggers a number of sensory signals in the gastrointestinal tract. These include the response to mechanical stimulation (e.g., gastric distension), from the presence of food in the gut, and the interaction of various dietary nutrients with specific "taste" receptors on specialized enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine culminating in the release of gut hormones...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jun Sun, An Qi Xu, Julia Giraud, Haiko Poppinga, Thomas Riemensperger, André Fiala, Serge Birman
Startle-induced locomotion is commonly used in Drosophila research to monitor locomotor reactivity and its progressive decline with age or under various neuropathological conditions. A widely used paradigm is startle-induced negative geotaxis (SING), in which flies entrapped in a narrow column react to a gentle mechanical shock by climbing rapidly upwards. Here we combined in vivo manipulation of neuronal activity and splitGFP reconstitution across cells to search for brain neurons and putative circuits that regulate this behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Bettina Stocker, Christina Bochow, Christine Damrau, Thomas Mathejczyk, Heike Wolfenberg, Julien Colomb, Claudia Weber, Niraja Ramesh, Carsten Duch, Natalia M Biserova, Stephan Sigrist, Hans-Joachim Pflüger
A comparison between the axon terminals of octopaminergic efferent dorsal or ventral unpaired median neurons in either desert locusts ( Schistocerca gregaria ) or fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ) across skeletal muscles reveals many similarities. In both species the octopaminergic axon forms beaded fibers where the boutons or varicosities form type II terminals in contrast to the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) or type I terminals. These type II terminals are immunopositive for both tyramine and octopamine and, in contrast to the type I terminals, which possess clear synaptic vesicles, only contain dense core vesicles...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Stephanie E Haggerty, W Michael King
The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) works to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movements. However, even subjects who lack a VOR (e.g., vestibulopathic patients) can achieve gaze stability during planned head movements by using pre-programmed eye movements (PPEM). The extent to which PPEM are used by healthy intact subjects and how they interact with the VOR is still unclear. We propose a model of gaze stabilization which makes several claims: (1) the VOR provides ocular stability during unexpected (i.e., passive) head movements; (2) PPEM are used by both healthy and vestibulopathic subjects during planned (i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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