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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

Rahul Chaudhary, V Rema
Focal unilateral injuries to the somatosensory whisker barrel cortex have been shown cause long-lasting deficits in the activity and experience-dependent plasticity of neurons in the intact contralateral barrel cortex. However, the long-term effect of these deficits on behavioral functions of the intact contralesional cortex is not clear. In this study, we used the "Gap-crossing task" a barrel cortex-dependent, whisker-sensitive, tactile behavior to test the hypothesis that unilateral lesions of the somatosensory cortex would affect behavioral functions of the intact somatosensory cortex and degrade the execution of a bilaterally learnt behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Taleen S Der-Ghazarian, Tanessa Call, Samantha N Scott, Kael Dai, Samuel J Brunwasser, Sean N Noudali, Nathan S Pentkowski, Janet L Neisewander
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
F Aura Kullmann, Bronagh M McDonnell, Amanda S Wolf-Johnston, Andrew M Lynn, Daniel Giglio, Samuel E Getchell, Wily G Ruiz, Irina V Zabbarova, Youko Ikeda, Anthony J Kanai, James R Roppolo, Sheldon I Bastacky, Gerard Apodaca, C A Tony Buffington, Lori A Birder
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2018.00013.].
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jens Wilting, Jonas Dehning, Joao Pinheiro Neto, Lucas Rudelt, Michael Wibral, Johannes Zierenberg, Viola Priesemann
Neural circuits are able to perform computations under very diverse conditions and requirements. The required computations impose clear constraints on their fine-tuning: a rapid and maximally informative response to stimuli in general requires decorrelated baseline neural activity. Such network dynamics is known as asynchronous-irregular. In contrast, spatio-temporal integration of information requires maintenance and transfer of stimulus information over extended time periods. This can be realized at criticality, a phase transition where correlations, sensitivity and integration time diverge...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Monica K Chawla, Daniel T Gray, Christie Nguyen, Harshaan Dhaliwal, Marc Zempare, Hiroyuki Okuno, Matthew J Huentelman, Carol A Barnes
Immediate-early genes (IEGs) are rapidly and transiently induced following excitatory neuronal activity including maximal electroconvulsive shock treatment (ECT). The rapid RNA response can be blocked by the sodium channel antagonist tetrodotoxin (TTX), without blocking seizures, indicating a role for electrical stimulation in electroconvulsive shock-induced mRNA responses. In behaving animals, Arc mRNA is selectively transcribed following patterned neuronal activity and rapidly trafficked to dendrites where it preferentially accumulates at active synapses for local translation...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Francisco Cervantes Constantino, Jonathan Z Simon
Sufficiently noisy listening conditions can completely mask the acoustic signal of significant parts of a sentence, and yet listeners may still report the perception of hearing the masked speech. This occurs even when the speech signal is removed entirely, if the gap is filled with stationary noise, a phenomenon known as perceptual restoration. At the neural level, however, it is unclear the extent to which the neural representation of missing extended speech sequences is similar to the dynamic neural representation of ordinary continuous speech...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Shiva Kamkar, Hamid Abrishami Moghaddam, Reza Lashgari
The visual system is constantly bombarded with information originating from the outside world, but it is unable to process all the received information at any given time. In fact, the most salient parts of the visual scene are chosen to be processed involuntarily and immediately after the first glance along with endogenous signals in the brain. Vision scientists have shown that the early visual system, from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and then primary visual cortex, selectively processes the low-level features of the visual scene...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jesse J Langille, Richard E Brown
Trettenbrein (2016) has argued that the concept of the synapse as the locus of memory is outdated and has made six critiques of this concept. In this article, we examine these six critiques and suggest that the current theories of the neurobiology of memory and the empirical data indicate that synaptic activation is the first step in a chain of cellular and biochemical events that lead to memories formed in cell assemblies and neural networks that rely on synaptic modification for their formation. These neural networks and their modified synaptic connections can account for the cognitive basis of learning and memory and for memory deterioration in neurological disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
John W Crabtree
The activity of the GABAergic neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) has long been known to play important roles in modulating the flow of information through the thalamus and in generating changes in thalamic activity during transitions from wakefulness to sleep. Recently, technological advances have considerably expanded our understanding of the functional organization of TRN. These have identified an impressive array of functionally distinct subnetworks in TRN that participate in sensory, motor, and/or cognitive processes through their different functional connections with thalamic projection neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Barak F Caracheo, Jamie J S Grewal, Jeremy K Seamans
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responds to outcomes of a positive or negative valence, but past studies typically focus on one valence or the other, making it difficult to know how opposing valences are disambiguated. We recorded from ACC neurons as rats received tones followed by aversive, appetitive or null outcomes. The responses to the different tones/outcomes were highly inter-mixed at the single neuron level but combined to produce robust valence-specific representations at the ensemble level. The valence-specific patterns far outlasted the tones and outcomes, persisting throughout the long inter-trial intervals (ITIs) and even throughout trial blocks...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Brendon O Watson
Brain states are traditionally recognized via sleep-wake cycles, but modern neuroscience is beginning to identify many sub-states within these larger arousal types. Multiple lines of converging evidence now point to the infraslow oscillation (ISO) as a mediator of brain sub-states, with impacts ranging from the creation of resting state networks (RSNs) in awake subjects to interruptions in neural activity during sleep. This review will explore first the basic characteristics of the ISO in human subjects before reviewing findings in sleep and in animals...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Xiaojian Li, Naoki Yamawaki, John M Barrett, Konrad P Körding, Gordon M G Shepherd
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2018.00016.].
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Umberto Olcese, Matthijs N Oude Lohuis, Cyriel M A Pennartz
Neuronal activity is markedly different across brain states: it varies from desynchronized activity during wakefulness to the synchronous alternation between active and silent states characteristic of deep sleep. Surprisingly, limited attention has been paid to investigating how brain states affect sensory processing. While it was long assumed that the brain was mostly disconnected from external stimuli during sleep, an increasing number of studies indicates that sensory stimuli continue to be processed across all brain states-albeit differently...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Mingwen Dong, David S Vicario
Deviants are stimuli that violate one's prediction about the incoming stimuli. Studying deviance detection helps us understand how nervous system learns temporal patterns between stimuli and forms prediction about the future. Detecting deviant stimuli is also critical for animals' survival in the natural environment filled with complex sounds and patterns. Using natural songbird vocalizations as stimuli, we recorded multi-unit and single-unit activity from the zebra finch auditory forebrain while presenting rare repeated stimuli after regular alternating stimuli (alternating oddball experiment) or rare deviant among multiple different common stimuli (context oddball experiment)...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Sung Eun Kwon
Measurements of population activity in alert animals have demonstrated that the intrinsic response state of the cortex has profound effects on the neuronal representation of sensory inputs, raising the possibility that cortical state could influence the behavioral performance in perceptual learning (PL). PL is a process by which sensory experience leads to gradual and semi-permanent improvements in perceptual judgment, and it is generally agreed that these improvements are modulated by sensory cortical areas...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Farrokh Manzouri, Simon Heller, Matthias Dümpelmann, Peter Woias, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
The closed-loop application of electrical stimulation via chronically implanted electrodes is a novel approach to stop seizures in patients with focal-onset epilepsy. To this end, an energy efficient seizure detector that can be implemented in an implantable device is of crucial importance. In this study, we first evaluated the performance of two machine learning algorithms (Random Forest classifier and support vector machine (SVM)) by using selected time and frequency domain features with a limited need of computational resources...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Nikolas A Francis, Wei Zhao, John J Guinan
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are often measured to non-invasively determine activation of medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents in humans. Usually these experiments assume that ear-canal noise remains constant. However, changes in ear-canal noise have been reported in some behavioral experiments. We studied the variability of ear-canal noise in eight subjects who performed a two-interval-forced-choice (2IFC) sound-level-discrimination task on monaural tone pips in masker noise. Ear-canal noise was recorded directly from the unstimulated ear opposite the task ear...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Mikhail A Lebedev, Ioan Opris, Manuel F Casanova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Brittany C Clawson, Jaclyn Durkin, Aneesha K Suresh, Emily J Pickup, Christopher G Broussard, Sara J Aton
Recent studies suggest that sleep differentially alters the activity of cortical neurons based on firing rates during preceding wake-increasing the firing rates of sparsely firing neurons and decreasing those of faster firing neurons. Because sparsely firing cortical neurons may play a specialized role in sensory processing, sleep could facilitate sensory function via selective actions on sparsely firing neurons. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed longitudinal electrophysiological recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons across a novel visual experience which induces V1 plasticity (or a control experience which does not), and a period of subsequent ad lib sleep or partial sleep deprivation...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jingyu Qian, Ibai Diez, Laura Ortiz-Terán, Christian Bonadio, Thomas Liddell, Joaquin Goñi, Jorge Sepulcre
Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) has become instrumental in facilitating research of human brain network organization in terms of coincident interactions between positive and negative synchronizations of large-scale neuronal systems. Although there is a common agreement concerning the interpretation of positive couplings between brain areas, a major debate has been made in disentangling the nature of negative connectivity patterns in terms of its emergence in several methodological approaches and its significance/meaning in specific neuropsychiatric diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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