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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090060/the-effect-of-common-signals-on-power-coherence-and-granger-causality-theoretical-review-simulations-and-empirical-analysis-of-fruit-fly-lfps-data
#1
Dror Cohen, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
When analyzing neural data it is important to consider the limitations of the particular experimental setup. An enduring issue in the context of electrophysiology is the presence of common signals. For example a non-silent reference electrode adds a common signal across all recorded data and this adversely affects functional and effective connectivity analysis. To address the common signals problem, a number of methods have been proposed, but relatively few detailed investigations have been carried out. As a result, our understanding of how common signals affect neural connectivity estimation is incomplete...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087600/hippocampal-mechanisms-underlying-impairment-in-spatial-learning-long-after-establishment-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss-in-cba-mice
#2
Lijie Liu, Chuanying Xuan, Pei Shen, Tingting He, Ying Chang, Lijuan Shi, Shan Tao, Zhiping Yu, Richard E Brown, Jian Wang
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) has been demonstrated in many clinical reports as a risk factor that promotes the development of cognitive impairment. However, the underlying neurological mechanisms are not clear. Noise exposure is one of the most common causes of SNHL. Although noise exposure causes relatively less damage to general health as compared with other methods for creating hearing loss (such as ototoxicity), it does impair cognitive function. Many studies have shown that the noise-induced cognitive impairment occur via the oxidative stress induced by the noise...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079014/krauzlis-strange-inversion-of-reasoning
#3
Domenico Guarino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072877/neurons-in-the-hippocampus-of-crows-lack-responses-to-non-spatial-abstract-categories
#4
Helen M Ditz, Jennifer K Kupferman, Andreas Nieder
Lesion studies suggest a role of the avian hippocampus in spatial and episodic memory. However, whether the avian hippocampus is also involved in processing categorical information and non-spatial working memory contents remains unknown. To address this question, we trained two crows in a delayed-match-to-sample test to assess and briefly memorize the number of items in dot displays, i.e., their numerosity. We recorded neuronal activity in hippocampus while crows solved this task. Hardly any hippocampal neurons responded to the category 'numerosity,' during neither sample presentation, nor during the memory delay...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072876/beyond-rehabilitation-of-acuity-ocular-alignment-and-binocularity-in-infantile-strabismus
#5
Chantal Milleret, Emmanuel Bui Quoc
Infantile strabismus impairs the perception of all attributes of the visual scene. High spatial frequency components are no longer visible, leading to amblyopia. Binocularity is altered, leading to the loss of stereopsis. Spatial perception is impaired as well as detection of vertical orientation, the fastest movements, directions of movement, the highest contrasts and colors. Infantile strabismus also affects other vision-dependent processes such as control of postural stability. But presently, rehabilitative therapies for infantile strabismus by ophthalmologists, orthoptists and optometrists are restricted to preventing or curing amblyopia of the deviated eye, aligning the eyes and, whenever possible, preserving or restoring binocular vision during the critical period of development, i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065635/axon-collaterals-and-brain-states
#6
Kathleen S Rockland
Multiple mechanisms have been identified as relevant to plasticity, functional stability, and reliable processing across brain states. In the context of stability under "ever-changing conditions" (this Topic), the role of axons has been relatively under-investigated. The highly branched topologies of many axons, however, seem well designed to differentially recruit and regulate distributed postsynaptic groups, possibly in a state-dependent fashion. In this Perspective, I briefly discuss several examples of axon collateralization, and then some of the branch-specific features that might subserve differential recruitment and whole brain activation...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057528/editorial-biogenic-amines-and-neuromodulation-of-animal-behavior
#7
EDITORIAL
Irina T Sinakevitch, Gabriella H Wolff, Hans-Joachim Pflüger, Brian H Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997483/striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-in-a-knock-in-mouse-model-of-l-dopa-responsive-dystonia
#8
Gul Yalcin-Cakmakli, Samuel J Rose, Rosa M Villalba, Lagena Williams, Hyder A Jinnah, Ellen J Hess, Yoland Smith
Striatal cholinergic dysfunction is a common phenotype associated with various forms of dystonia in which anti-cholinergic drugs have some therapeutic benefits. However, the underlying substrate of striatal cholinergic defects in dystonia remain poorly understood. In this study, we used a recently developed knock-in mouse model of dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD) with strong symptomatic responses to anti-cholinergic drugs, to assess changes in the prevalence and morphology of striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in a model of generalized dystonia...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988455/age-dependent-changes-in-the-propofol-induced-electroencephalogram-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Elisa C Walsh, Johanna M Lee, Kristina Terzakis, David W Zhou, Sara Burns, Timothy M Buie, Paul G Firth, Erik S Shank, Timothy T Houle, Emery N Brown, Patrick L Purdon
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often require sedation or general anesthesia. ASD is thought to arise from deficits in GABAergic signaling leading to abnormal neurodevelopment. We sought to investigate differences in how ASD patients respond to the GABAergic drug propofol by comparing the propofol-induced electroencephalogram (EEG) of ASD and neurotypical (NT) patients. This investigation was a prospective observational study. Continuous 4-channel frontal EEG was recorded during routine anesthetic care of patients undergoing endoscopic procedures between July 1, 2014 and May 1, 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977195/pain-input-after-spinal-cord-injury-sci-undermines-long-term-recovery-and-engages-signal-pathways-that-promote-cell-death
#10
Joel D Turtle, Misty M Strain, Joshua A Reynolds, Yung-Jen Huang, Kuan H Lee, Melissa K Henwood, Sandra M Garraway, James W Grau
Pain (nociceptive) input caudal to a spinal contusion injury increases tissue loss and impairs long-term recovery. It was hypothesized that noxious stimulation has this effect because it engages unmyelinated pain (C) fibers that produce a state of over-excitation in central pathways. The present article explored this issue by assessing the effect of capsaicin, which activates C-fibers that express the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1). Rats received a lower thoracic (T11) contusion injury and capsaicin was applied to one hind paw the next day...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937719/the-role-of-the-lateral-hypothalamus-in-violent-intraspecific-aggression-the-glucocorticoid-deficit-hypothesis
#11
REVIEW
József Haller
This review argues for a central role of the lateral hypothalamus in those deviant forms of aggression, which result from chronic glucocorticoid deficiency. Currently, this nucleus is considered a key region of the mechanisms that control predatory aggression. However, recent findings demonstrate that it is strongly activated by aggression in subjects with a chronically downregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis; moreover, this activation is causally involved in the emergence of violent aggression...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937718/commentary-respiration-entrained-brain-rhythms-are-global-but-often-overlooked
#12
COMMENT
Andrew W Corcoran, Giovanni Pezzulo, Jakob Hohwy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915532/engineering-artificial-somatosensation-through-cortical-stimulation-in-humans
#13
Brian Lee, Daniel Kramer, Michelle Armenta Salas, Spencer Kellis, David Brown, Tatyana Dobreva, Christian Klaes, Christi Heck, Charles Liu, Richard A Andersen
Sensory feedback is a critical aspect of motor control rehabilitation following paralysis or amputation. Current human studies have demonstrated the ability to deliver some of this sensory information via brain-machine interfaces, although further testing is needed to understand the stimulation parameters effect on sensation. Here, we report a systematic evaluation of somatosensory restoration in humans, using cortical stimulation with subdural mini-electrocorticography (mini-ECoG) grids. Nine epilepsy patients undergoing implantation of cortical electrodes for seizure localization were also implanted with a subdural 64-channel mini-ECoG grid over the hand area of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1)...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892214/exploratory-study-of-rtms-neuromodulation-effects-on-electrocortical-functional-measures-of-performance-in-an-oddball-test-and-behavioral-symptoms-in-autism
#14
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Allan Tasman, Manuel F Casanova
There is no accepted pathology to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but research suggests the presence of an altered excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) bias in the cerebral cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a non-invasive means of modulating the E/I cortical bias with little in terms of side effects. In this study, 124 high functioning ASD children (IQ > 80, <18 years of age) were recruited and assigned using randomization to either a waitlist group or one of three different number of weekly rTMS sessions (i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887797/multiple-approaches-to-the-investigation-of-cell-assembly-in-memory-research-present-and-future
#15
REVIEW
Yoshio Sakurai, Yuma Osako, Yuta Tanisumi, Eriko Ishihara, Junya Hirokawa, Hiroyuki Manabe
In this review article we focus on research methodologies for detecting the actual activity of cell assemblies, which are populations of functionally connected neurons that encode information in the brain. We introduce and discuss traditional and novel experimental methods and those currently in development and briefly discuss their advantages and disadvantages for the detection of cell-assembly activity. First, we introduce the electrophysiological method, i.e., multineuronal recording, and review former and recent examples of studies showing models of dynamic coding by cell assemblies in behaving rodents and monkeys...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875640/inattentive-delirium-vs-disorganized-thinking-a-new-axis-to-subcategorize-pacu-delirium
#16
Darren F Hight, Jamie Sleigh, Joel D Winders, Logan J Voss, Amy L Gaskell, Amy D Rodriguez, Paul S García
Background: Assessment of patients for delirium in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) is confounded by the residual effects of the varied anesthetic and analgesic regimens employed during surgery and by the physiological consequences of surgery such as pain. Nevertheless, delirium diagnosed at this early stage has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The last decade has seen the emergence of the confusion assessment method-intensive care unit (CAM-ICU) score as a quick practical method of detecting delirium in clinical situations...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869634/commentary-detecting-cortical-spreading-depolarization-with-full-band-scalp-electroencephalography-an-illusion
#17
COMMENT
Jed A Hartings, Laura B Ngwenya, Tomas Watanabe, Brandon Foreman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867383/open-source-tools-for-temporally-controlled-rodent-behavior-suitable-for-electrophysiology-and-optogenetic-manipulations
#18
Nicola Solari, Katalin Sviatkó, Tamás Laszlovszky, Panna Hegedüs, Balázs Hangya
Understanding how the brain controls behavior requires observing and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animals. Neuronal firing is timed at millisecond precision. Therefore, to decipher temporal coding, it is necessary to monitor and control animal behavior at the same level of temporal accuracy. However, it is technically challenging to deliver sensory stimuli and reinforcers as well as to read the behavioral responses they elicit with millisecond precision. Presently available commercial systems often excel in specific aspects of behavior control, but they do not provide a customizable environment allowing flexible experimental design while maintaining high standards for temporal control necessary for interpreting neuronal activity...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867382/potential-of-endocannabinoids-to-control-bladder-pain
#19
REVIEW
Dale E Bjorling, Zun-Yi Wang
Bladder-related pain is one of the most common forms of visceral pain, and visceral pain is among the most common complaints for which patients seek physician consultation. Despite extensive studies of visceral innervation and treatment of visceral pain, opioids remain a mainstay for management of bladder pain. Side effects associated with opioid therapy can profoundly diminish quality of life, and improved options for treatment of bladder pain remain a high priority. Endocannabinoids, primarily anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are endogenously-produced fatty acid ethanolamides with that induce analgesia...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867381/scaling-of-optogenetically-evoked-signaling-in-a-higher-order-corticocortical-pathway-in-the-anesthetized-mouse
#20
Xiaojian Li, Naoki Yamawaki, John M Barrett, Konrad P Körding, Gordon M G Shepherd
Quantitative analysis of corticocortical signaling is needed to understand and model information processing in cerebral networks. However, higher-order pathways, hodologically remote from sensory input, are not amenable to spatiotemporally precise activation by sensory stimuli. Here, we combined parametric channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) photostimulation with multi-unit electrophysiology to study corticocortical driving in a parietofrontal pathway from retrosplenial cortex (RSC) to posterior secondary motor cortex (M2) in mice in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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