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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#1
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899884/the-inverse-relationship-between-the-microstructural-variability-of-amygdala-prefrontal-pathways-and-trait-anxiety-is-moderated-by-sex
#2
M Justin Kim, Annemarie C Brown, Alison M Mattek, Samantha J Chavez, James M Taylor, Amy L Palmer, Yu-Chien Wu, Paul J Whalen
Anxiety impacts the quality of everyday life and may facilitate the development of affective disorders, possibly through concurrent alterations in neural circuitry. Findings from multimodal neuroimaging studies suggest that trait-anxious individuals may have a reduced capacity for efficient communication between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC). A diffusion-weighted imaging protocol with 61 directions was used to identify lateral and medial amygdala-vPFC white matter pathways. The structural integrity of both pathways was inversely correlated with self-reported levels of trait anxiety...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895562/brain-computation-is-organized-via-power-of-two-based-permutation-logic
#3
Kun Xie, Grace E Fox, Jun Liu, Cheng Lyu, Jason C Lee, Hui Kuang, Stephanie Jacobs, Meng Li, Tianming Liu, Sen Song, Joe Z Tsien
There is considerable scientific interest in understanding how cell assemblies-the long-presumed computational motif-are organized so that the brain can generate intelligent cognition and flexible behavior. The Theory of Connectivity proposes that the origin of intelligence is rooted in a power-of-two-based permutation logic (N = 2 (i) -1), producing specific-to-general cell-assembly architecture capable of generating specific perceptions and memories, as well as generalized knowledge and flexible actions. We show that this power-of-two-based permutation logic is widely used in cortical and subcortical circuits across animal species and is conserved for the processing of a variety of cognitive modalities including appetitive, emotional and social information...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895561/evidence-of-a-role-for-the-lateral-hypothalamic-area-juxtadorsomedial-region-lhajd-in-defensive-behaviors-associated-with-social-defeat
#4
Miguel J Rangel, Marcus V C Baldo, Newton S Canteras, Joel D Hahn
Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd) in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895560/neurobiology-as-information-physics
#5
REVIEW
Sterling Street
This article reviews thermodynamic relationships in the brain in an attempt to consolidate current research in systems neuroscience. The present synthesis supports proposals that thermodynamic information in the brain can be quantified to an appreciable degree of objectivity, that many qualitative properties of information in systems of the brain can be inferred by observing changes in thermodynamic quantities, and that many features of the brain's anatomy and architecture illustrate relatively simple information-energy relationships...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#6
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895558/physics-of-the-mind
#7
Leonid I Perlovsky
Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895557/a-framework-for-combining-rtms-with-behavioral-therapy
#8
K Zoe Tsagaris, Douglas R Labar, Dylan J Edwards
Upon its inception, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was delivered at rest, without regard to the potential impact of activity occurring during or around the time of stimulation. rTMS was considered an experimental intervention imposed on the brain; therefore, the myriad features that might suppress or enhance its desired effects had not yet been explored. The field of rTMS has since grown substantially and therapeutic benefits have been reported, albeit with modest and inconsistent improvements...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891082/reward-and-behavioral-factors-contributing-to-the-tonic-activity-of-monkey-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-neurons-during-saccade-tasks
#9
Ken-Ichi Okada, Yasushi Kobayashi
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in the brainstem plays a role in controlling reinforcement learning and executing conditioned behavior. We previously examined the activity of PPTg neurons in monkeys during a reward-conditioned, visually guided saccade task, and reported that a population of these neurons exhibited tonic responses throughout the task period. These tonic responses might depend on prediction of the upcoming reward, successful execution of the task, or both. Here, we sought to further distinguish these factors and to investigate how each contributes to the tonic neuronal activity of the PPTg...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881954/editorial-structural-and-functional-organisation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex
#10
EDITORIAL
Chris J Tinsley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877116/are-supramodality-and-cross-modal-plasticity-the-yin-and-yang-of-brain-development-from-blindness-to-rehabilitation
#11
Luca Cecchetti, Ron Kupers, Maurice Ptito, Pietro Pietrini, Emiliano Ricciardi
Research in blind individuals has primarily focused for a long time on the brain plastic reorganization that occurs in early visual areas. Only more recently, scientists have developed innovative strategies to understand to what extent vision is truly a mandatory prerequisite for the brain's fine morphological architecture to develop and function. As a whole, the studies conducted to date in sighted and congenitally blind individuals have provided ample evidence that several "visual" cortical areas develop independently from visual experience and do process information content regardless of the sensory modality through which a particular stimulus is conveyed: a property named supramodality...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877115/insights-into-brain-architectures-from-the-homological-scaffolds-of-functional-connectivity-networks
#12
Louis-David Lord, Paul Expert, Henrique M Fernandes, Giovanni Petri, Tim J Van Hartevelt, Francesco Vaccarino, Gustavo Deco, Federico Turkheimer, Morten L Kringelbach
In recent years, the application of network analysis to neuroimaging data has provided useful insights about the brain's functional and structural organization in both health and disease. This has proven a significant paradigm shift from the study of individual brain regions in isolation. Graph-based models of the brain consist of vertices, which represent distinct brain areas, and edges which encode the presence (or absence) of a structural or functional relationship between each pair of vertices. By definition, any graph metric will be defined upon this dyadic representation of the brain activity...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843432/corrigendum-auditory-and-cognitive-factors-underlying-individual-differences-in-aided-speech-understanding-among-older-adults
#13
Larry E Humes, Gary R Kidd, Jennifer J Lentz
[This corrects the article on p. 55 in vol. 7, PMID: 24098273.].
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833535/early-cortical-changes-in-gamma-oscillations-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Alexandra S Klein, José R Donoso, Richard Kempter, Dietmar Schmitz, Prateep Beed
The entorhinal cortices in the temporal lobe of the brain are key structures relaying memory related information between the neocortex and the hippocampus. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) routes spatial information, whereas the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) routes predominantly olfactory information to the hippocampus. Gamma oscillations are known to coordinate information transfer between brain regions by precisely timing population activity of neuronal ensembles. Here, we studied the organization of in vitro gamma oscillations in the MEC and LEC of the transgenic (tg) amyloid precursor protein (APP)-presenilin 1 (PS1) mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) at 4-5 months of age...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781035/decoding-the-semantic-content-of-natural-movies-from-human-brain-activity
#15
Alexander G Huth, Tyler Lee, Shinji Nishimoto, Natalia Y Bilenko, An T Vu, Jack L Gallant
One crucial test for any quantitative model of the brain is to show that the model can be used to accurately decode information from evoked brain activity. Several recent neuroimaging studies have decoded the structure or semantic content of static visual images from human brain activity. Here we present a decoding algorithm that makes it possible to decode detailed information about the object and action categories present in natural movies from human brain activity signals measured by functional MRI. Decoding is accomplished using a hierarchical logistic regression (HLR) model that is based on labels that were manually assigned from the WordNet semantic taxonomy...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777555/the-predictive-processing-paradigm-has-roots-in-kant
#16
Link R Swanson
Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761109/saccadic-and-postsaccadic-disconjugacy-in-zebrafish-larvae-suggests-independent-eye-movement-control
#17
Chien-Cheng Chen, Christopher J Bockisch, Dominik Straumann, Melody Ying-Yu Huang
Spontaneous eye movements of zebrafish larvae in the dark consist of centrifugal saccades that move the eyes from a central to an eccentric position and postsaccadic centripetal drifts. In a previous study, we showed that the fitted single-exponential time constants of the postsaccadic drifts are longer in the temporal-to-nasal (T->N) direction than in the nasal-to-temporal (N->T) direction. In the present study, we further report that saccadic peak velocities are higher and saccadic amplitudes are larger in the N->T direction than in the T->N direction...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757076/contextual-interactions-in-grating-plaid-configurations-are-explained-by-natural-image-statistics-and-neural-modeling
#18
Udo A Ernst, Alina Schiffer, Malte Persike, Günter Meinhardt
Processing natural scenes requires the visual system to integrate local features into global object descriptions. To achieve coherent representations, the human brain uses statistical dependencies to guide weighting of local feature conjunctions. Pairwise interactions among feature detectors in early visual areas may form the early substrate of these local feature bindings. To investigate local interaction structures in visual cortex, we combined psychophysical experiments with computational modeling and natural scene analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721746/extended-neural-metastability-in-an-embodied-model-of-sensorimotor-coupling
#19
Miguel Aguilera, Manuel G Bedia, Xabier E Barandiaran
The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioral metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioral preference task...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708564/commentary-perception-and-reality-why-a-wholly-empirical-paradigm-is-needed-to-understand-vision
#20
COMMENT
Luis H Favela
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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