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Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434541/the-influence-of-early-life-experience-on-visceral-pain
#1
REVIEW
Isabella M Fuentes, Julie A Christianson
Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes) report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434540/perceptual-color-space-representations-in-the-oculomotor-system-are-modulated-by-surround-suppression-and-biased-selection
#2
Devin H Kehoe, Maryam Rahimi, Mazyar Fallah
The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE (x,y) color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379421/octopamine-and-tyramine-contribute-separately-to-the-counter-regulatory-response-to-sugar-deficit-in-drosophila
#3
Christine Damrau, Naoko Toshima, Teiichi Tanimura, Björn Brembs, Julien Colomb
All animals constantly negotiate external with internal demands before and during action selection. Energy homeostasis is a major internal factor biasing action selection. For instance, in addition to physiologically regulating carbohydrate mobilization, starvation-induced sugar shortage also biases action selection toward food-seeking and food consumption behaviors (the counter-regulatory response). Biogenic amines are often involved when such widespread behavioral biases need to be orchestrated. In mammals, norepinephrine (noradrenalin) is involved in the counterregulatory response to starvation-induced drops in glucose levels...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379420/differential-influence-of-early-life-and-adult-stress-on-urogenital-sensitivity-and-function-in-male-mice
#4
Isabella M Fuentes, Angela N Pierce, Elizabeth R Di Silvestro, Molly O Maloney, Julie A Christianson
Experiences of adverse childhood events have been associated with improper output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adulthood, as well as development of comorbid functional pain disorders. Symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome frequently overlap with those of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and symptom severity is often triggered by stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence early life stress and acute adult stress on (1) perigenital sensitivity, (2) micturition, (3) anhedonia, and (4) HPA axis regulation and output in male C56Bl/6 mice...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375329/ventromedial-hypothalamus-and-the-generation-of-aggression
#5
REVIEW
Yoshiko Hashikawa, Koichi Hashikawa, Annegret L Falkner, Dayu Lin
Aggression is a costly behavior, sometimes with severe consequences including death. Yet aggression is prevalent across animal species ranging from insects to humans, demonstrating its essential role in the survival of individuals and groups. The question of how the brain decides when to generate this costly behavior has intrigued neuroscientists for over a century and has led to the identification of relevant neural substrates. Various lesion and electric stimulation experiments have revealed that the hypothalamus, an ancient structure situated deep in the brain, is essential for expressing aggressive behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358909/commentary-the-predictive-processing-paradigm-has-roots-in-kant
#6
COMMENT
Majid D Beni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326562/a-marked-point-process-framework-for-extracellular-electrical-potentials
#7
Carlos A Loza, Michael S Okun, José C Príncipe
Neuromodulations are an important component of extracellular electrical potentials (EEP), such as the Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocorticogram (ECoG) and Local Field Potentials (LFP). This spatially temporal organized multi-frequency transient (phasic) activity reflects the multiscale spatiotemporal synchronization of neuronal populations in response to external stimuli or internal physiological processes. We propose a novel generative statistical model of a single EEP channel, where the collected signal is regarded as the noisy addition of reoccurring, multi-frequency phasic events over time...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326561/neurotechnology-current-developments-and-ethical-issues
#8
Oliver Müller, Stefan Rotter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321732/discrete-serotonin-systems-mediate-memory-enhancement-and-escape-latencies-after-unpredicted-aversive-experience-in-drosophila-place-memory
#9
Divya Sitaraman, Elizabeth F Kramer, Lily Kahsai, Daniela Ostrowski, Troy Zars
Feedback mechanisms in operant learning are critical for animals to increase reward or reduce punishment. However, not all conditions have a behavior that can readily resolve an event. Animals must then try out different behaviors to better their situation through outcome learning. This form of learning allows for novel solutions and with positive experience can lead to unexpected behavioral routines. Learned helplessness, as a type of outcome learning, manifests in part as increases in escape latency in the face of repeated unpredicted shocks...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321731/behavioral-modulation-by-spontaneous-activity-of-dopamine-neurons
#10
REVIEW
Toshiharu Ichinose, Hiromu Tanimoto, Nobuhiro Yamagata
Dopamine modulates a variety of animal behaviors that range from sleep and learning to courtship and aggression. Besides its well-known phasic firing to natural reward, a substantial number of dopamine neurons (DANs) are known to exhibit ongoing intrinsic activity in the absence of an external stimulus. While accumulating evidence points at functional implications for these intrinsic "spontaneous activities" of DANs in cognitive processes, a causal link to behavior and its underlying mechanisms has yet to be elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321730/rhythmic-calcium-events-in-the-lamina-propria-network-of-the-urinary-bladder-of-rat-pups
#11
Thomas J Heppner, Grant W Hennig, Mark T Nelson, Margaret A Vizzard
The lamina propria contains a dense network of cells, including interstitial cells (ICs), that may play a role in bladder function by modulating communication between urothelium, nerve fibers and smooth muscle or acting as pacemakers. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels allow cation influx and may be involved in sensing stretch or chemical irritation in urinary bladder. Urothelium was removed from rats (P0-Adult), cut into strips, and loaded with a Ca2+ fluorescent dye (Fluo-2 AM leak resistant or Cal 520) for 90 min (35-37°C) to measure Ca2+ events...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311858/the-comparative-neurology-of-neocortical-gyration-and-the-quest-for-functional-specialization
#12
Lazaros C Triarhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270113/commentary-localized-vs-systematic-neurodegeneration-a-paradigm-shift-in-understanding-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
COMMENT
Bianca Norrara, Jhulimar G Doerl, Fausto P Guzen, Jose Rodolfo Lopes P Cavalcanti, Marco Aurelio M Freire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255407/pacap-receptor-system-in-urinary-bladder-dysfunction-and-pelvic-pain-following-urinary-bladder-inflammation-or-stress
#14
REVIEW
Beatrice M Girard, Katharine Tooke, Margaret A Vizzard
Complex organization of CNS and PNS pathways is necessary for the coordinated and reciprocal functions of the urinary bladder, urethra and urethral sphincters. Injury, inflammation, psychogenic stress or diseases that affect these nerve pathways and target organs can produce lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems are expressed in the neural pathways of the LUT and non-neural components of the LUT (e.g., urothelium) also express peptides. One such neuropeptide receptor system, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP; Adcyap1) and its cognate receptor, PAC1 (Adcyap1r1), have tissue-specific distributions in the LUT...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238295/audio-visual-integration-in-a-redundant-target-paradigm-a-comparison-between-rhesus-macaque-and-man
#15
Peter Bremen, Rooholla Massoudi, Marc M Van Wanrooij, A J Van Opstal
The mechanisms underlying multi-sensory interactions are still poorly understood despite considerable progress made since the first neurophysiological recordings of multi-sensory neurons. While the majority of single-cell neurophysiology has been performed in anesthetized or passive-awake laboratory animals, the vast majority of behavioral data stems from studies with human subjects. Interpretation of neurophysiological data implicitly assumes that laboratory animals exhibit perceptual phenomena comparable or identical to those observed in human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234277/investigating-the-usability-and-acute-effects-of-a-bedside-video-console-to-prefrontal-cortical-activity-alterations-a-preclinical-study-in-healthy-elderly
#16
Ruud H Knols, Jaap Swanenburg, Dino De Bon, Federico Gennaro, Martin Wolf, Bernard Krüger, Dominique Bettex, Eling D de Bruin
Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON). Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model) were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in-) correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213232/stress-induced-chronic-visceral-pain-of-gastrointestinal-origin
#17
REVIEW
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson
Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187815/comparative-performance-of-linear-multielectrode-probes-and-single-tip-electrodes-for-intracortical-microstimulation-and-single-neuron-recording-in-macaque-monkey
#18
Carolina G Ferroni, Monica Maranesi, Alessandro Livi, Marco Lanzilotto, Luca Bonini
Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) is one of the most widely employed techniques for providing causal evidence of the relationship between neuronal activity and specific motor, perceptual, or even cognitive functions. In recent years, several new types of linear multielectrode silicon probes have been developed, allowing researchers to sample neuronal activity at different depths along the same cortical site simultaneously and with high spatial precision. Nevertheless, silicon multielectrode probes have been rarely employed for ICMS studies and, more importantly, it is unknown whether and to what extent they can be used for combined recording and stimulation experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163078/natural-translating-locomotion-modulates-cortical-activity-at-action-observation
#19
Thierry Pozzo, Alberto Inuggi, Alejo Keuroghlanian, Stefano Panzeri, Ghislain Saunier, Claudio Campus
The present study verified if the translational component of locomotion modulated cortical activity recorded at action observation. Previous studies focusing on visual processing of biological motion mainly presented point light walker that were fixed on a spot, thus removing the net translation toward a goal that yet remains a critical feature of locomotor behavior. We hypothesized that if biological motion recognition relies on the transformation of seeing in doing and its expected sensory consequences, a significant effect of translation compared to centered displays on sensorimotor cortical activity is expected...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163077/revisiting-vision-rehabilitation
#20
REVIEW
Claire Meyniel, Bahram Bodaghi, Pierre-Yves Robert
Low vision is a condition caused by eye or brain disease, in which visual acuity is 20/70 (3/10 or 6/18) or poorer in the better-seeing eye and cannot be corrected or improved with regular eyeglasses. It impacts personal ability to perform vision-dependent tasks as activities of daily living, walking, reading or using a computer. Rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary training dedicated to improve patients' functional abilities and quality of life. It has to be personalized to every individual situation, whatever the underlying pathology...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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