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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066196/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-cortex-amygdala-transition-zone-in-mice
#1
Bernardita Cádiz-Moretti, María Abellán-Álvaro, Cecília Pardo-Bellver, Fernando Martínez-García, Enrique Lanuza
The transitional zone between the ventral part of the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical nucleus of the amygdala, named the cortex-amygdala transition zone (CxA), shows two differential features that allow its identification as a particular structure. First, it receives dense cholinergic and dopaminergic innervations as compared to the adjacent piriform cortex and amygdala, and second, it receives projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. In this work we have studied the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the CxA, which are mainly unknown, by using the retrograde tracer Fluorogold and the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextranamine...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066195/differential-inputs-to-the-perisomatic-and-distal-dendritic-compartments-of-vip-positive-neurons-in-layer-2-3-of-the-mouse-barrel-cortex
#2
Jaerin Sohn, Shinichiro Okamoto, Naoya Kataoka, Takeshi Kaneko, Kazuhiro Nakamura, Hiroyuki Hioki
The recurrent network composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons is fundamental to neocortical function. Inhibitory neurons in the mammalian neocortex are molecularly diverse, and individual cell types play unique functional roles in the neocortical microcircuit. Recently, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive (VIP+) neurons, comprising a subclass of inhibitory neurons, have attracted particular attention because they can disinhibit pyramidal cells through inhibition of other types of inhibitory neurons, such as parvalbumin- (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SOM+) inhibitory neurons, promoting sensory information processing...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066194/gene-therapy-a-promising-approach-for-neuroprotection-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Pamela Valdés, Bernard L Schneider
With the development of effective systems for gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS), gene therapy has become a therapeutic option for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Gene therapies that are the most advanced in the clinic have been designed to more effectively compensate for the lack of dopamine signaling in the basal ganglia and rescue the cardinal motor symptoms of PD. However, it remains essential to devise novel therapies to prevent neurodegeneration and disease progression. Since gene therapy has been initially proposed for the delivery of neurotrophins to support the survival and function of dopaminergic neurons, our understanding of PD etiology has changed dramatically...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066193/microstructural-abnormalities-were-found-in-brain-gray-matter-from-patients-with-chronic-myofascial-pain
#4
Peng Xie, Bangyong Qin, Ganjun Song, Yi Zhang, Song Cao, Jin Yu, Jianjiang Wu, Jiang Wang, Tijiang Zhang, Xiaoming Zhang, Tian Yu, Hong Zheng
Myofascial pain, presented as myofascial trigger points (MTrPs)-related pain, is a common, chronic disease involving skeletal muscle, but its underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Previous studies have revealed that chronic pain can induce microstructural abnormalities in the cerebral gray matter. However, it remains unclear whether the brain gray matters of patients with chronic MTrPs-related pain undergo alteration. In this study, we employed the Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) technique, which is particularly sensitive to brain microstructural perturbation, to monitor the MTrPs-related microstructural alterations in brain gray matter of patients with chronic pain...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018184/corrigendum-distribution-of-28-kda-calbindin-immunopositive-neurons-in-the-cat-spinal-cord
#5
Natalia Merkulyeva, Aleksandr Veshchitskii, Felix Makarov, Yury Gerasimenko, Pavel Musienko
[This corrects the article on p. 166 in vol. 9, PMID: 26858610.].
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018183/changed-hub-and-corresponding-functional-connectivity-of-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Huawang Wu, Hui Sun, Jinping Xu, Yan Wu, Chao Wang, Jing Xiao, Shenglin She, Jianwei Huang, Wenjin Zou, Hongjun Peng, Xiaobing Lu, Guimao Huang, Tianzi Jiang, Yuping Ning, Jiaojian Wang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders. In the brain, the hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of MDD remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in MDD. First, we constructed the whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map in each subject in 34 MDD patients and 34 gender-, age- and education level-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008311/cloning-of-the-gabab-receptor-subunits-b1-and-b2-and-their-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-adult-sea-lamprey
#7
Daniel Romaus-Sanjurjo, Blanca Fernández-López, Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, María Celina Rodicio
In vertebrates, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory transmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) acting through ionotropic (GABAA) and metabotropic (GABAB) receptors. The GABAB receptor produces a slow inhibition since it activates second messenger systems through the binding and activation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins [G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)]. Lampreys are a key reference to understand molecular evolution in vertebrates. The importance of the GABAB receptor for the modulation of the circuits controlling locomotion and other behaviors has been shown in pharmacological/physiological studies in lampreys...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994542/the-retrograde-connections-and-anatomical-segregation-of-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-nucleus-accumbens
#8
Anders C Meidahl, Dariusz Orlowski, Jens C H Sørensen, Carsten R Bjarkam
Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders such as treatment resistant depression (TRD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and has been an ongoing experimental target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both rats and humans. In order to translate basic scientific results from rodents to the human setting a large animal model is needed to thoroughly study the effect of such therapeutic interventions. The aim of the study was, accordingly, to describe the basic anatomy of the Göttingen minipig NAcc and its retrograde connections...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994541/localization-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-immunoreactivity-in-rat-spinal-cord
#9
Essam M Abdelalim, Jean-Pierre Bellier, Ikuo Tooyama
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exerts its functions through NP receptors. Recently, BNP has been shown to be involved in a wide range of functions. Previous studies reported BNP expression in the sensory afferent fibers in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord. However, BNP expression and function in the neurons of the central nervous system are still controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated BNP expression in the rat spinal cord in detail using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965546/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-dopaminergic-neurons-during-development-in-zebrafish
#10
Yuchen Du, Qiang Guo, Minghui Shan, Yongmei Wu, Sizhou Huang, Haixia Zhao, Huarong Hong, Ming Yang, Xi Yang, Liyi Ren, Jiali Peng, Jing Sun, Hongli Zhou, Shurong Li, Bingyin Su
As one of the model organisms of Parkinson's disease (PD) research, the zebrafish has its advantages, such as the 87% homology with human genome and transparent embryos which make it possible to observe the development of dopaminergic neurons in real time. However, there is no midbrain dopaminergic system in zebrafish when compared with mammals, and the location and projection of the dopaminergic neurons are seldom reported. In this study, Vmat2:GFP transgenic zebrafish was used to observe the development and distribution of dopaminergic neurons in real time...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965545/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-the-rgs7-g%C3%AE-5-r7bp-complex-in-the-cerebellar-cortex
#11
Carolina Aguado, Cesare Orlandi, Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Mercedes Gil-Minguez, Kirill A Martemyanov, Rafael Luján
A member of regulator of G-protein signaling family, RGS7, is an essential modulator of signaling through GABAB receptors. RGS7 functions as a macromolecular complex with type 5 G protein β (Gβ5) and R7 binding protein (R7BP) to control the localization and function of the resultant heterotrimeric complexes. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation, in situ hybridization, histoblot and immunohistochemical techniques at the light and electron microscopic level to advance understanding of RGS7-Gβ5-R7BP complexes in the central nervous system, focusing on distinct neuronal populations in the cerebellar cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932958/the-shark-alar-hypothalamus-molecular-characterization-of-prosomeric-subdivisions-and-evolutionary-trends
#12
Gabriel N Santos-Durán, Susana Ferreiro-Galve, Arnaud Menuet, Idoia Quintana-Urzainqui, Sylvie Mazan, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal
The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917112/reproducibility-and-reliability-of-quantitative-and-weighted-t1-and-t2-%C3%A2-mapping-for-myelin-based-cortical-parcellation-at-7-tesla
#13
Roy A M Haast, Dimo Ivanov, Elia Formisano, Kâmil Uludaǧ
Different magnetic resonance (MR) parameters, such as R1 (=1/T1) or T2(∗), have been used to visualize non-invasively the myelin distribution across the cortical sheet. Myelin contrast is consistently enhanced in the primary sensory and some higher order cortical areas (such as MT or the cingulate cortex), which renders it suitable for subject-specific anatomical cortical parcellation. However, no systematic comparison has been performed between the previously proposed MR parameters, i.e., the longitudinal and transversal relaxation values (or their ratios), for myelin mapping at 7 Tesla...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895556/neurosensory-differentiation-and-innervation-patterning-in-the-human-fetal-vestibular-end-organs-between-the-gestational-weeks-8-12
#14
Lejo Johnson Chacko, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Helga Fritsch, Helge Rask-Andersen, Michael J F Blumer, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert
Balance orientation depends on the precise operation of the vestibular end organs and the vestibular ganglion neurons. Previous research on the assemblage of the neuronal network in the developing fetal vestibular organ has been limited to data from animal models. Insights into the molecular expression profiles and signaling moieties involved in embryological development of the human fetal inner ear have been limited. We present an investigation of the cells of the vestibular end organs with specific focus on the hair cell differentiation and innervation pattern using an uninterrupted series of unique specimens from gestational weeks 8-12...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891081/the-brain-of-the-archerfish-toxotes-chatareus-a-nissl-based-neuroanatomical-atlas-and-catecholaminergic-cholinergic-systems
#15
Naomi Karoubi, Ronen Segev, Mario F Wullimann
Over recent years, the seven-spot archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) has emerged as a new model for studies in visual and behavioral neuroscience thanks to its unique hunting strategy. Its natural ability to spit at insects outside of water can be used in the laboratory for well controlled behavioral experiments where the fish is trained to aim at targets on a screen. The need for a documentation of the neuroanatomy of this animal became critical as more research groups use it as a model. Here we present an atlas of adult T...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881953/connectomic-analysis-of-brain-networks-novel-techniques-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
J Leonie Cazemier, Francisco Clascá, Paul H E Tiesinga
Brain networks, localized or brain-wide, exist only at the cellular level, i.e., between specific pre- and post-synaptic neurons, which are connected through functionally diverse synapses located at specific points of their cell membranes. "Connectomics" is the emerging subfield of neuroanatomy explicitly aimed at elucidating the wiring of brain networks with cellular resolution and a quantified accuracy. Such data are indispensable for realistic modeling of brain circuitry and function. A connectomic analysis, therefore, needs to identify and measure the soma, dendrites, axonal path, and branching patterns together with the synapses and gap junctions of the neurons involved in any given brain circuit or network...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872585/the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-as-a-motor-and-cognitive-interface-between-the-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#17
REVIEW
Fumika Mori, Ken-Ichi Okada, Taishin Nomura, Yasushi Kobayashi
As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition), and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872584/editorial-anatomy-and-plasticity-in-large-scale-brain-models
#18
EDITORIAL
Markus Butz, Wolfram Schenck, Arjen van Ooyen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847469/distinction-of-neurons-glia-and-endothelial-cells-in-the-cerebral-cortex-an-algorithm-based-on-cytological-features
#19
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Yohan J John, Helen Barbas, Basilis Zikopoulos
The estimation of the number or density of neurons and types of glial cells and their relative proportions in different brain areas are at the core of rigorous quantitative neuroanatomical studies. Unfortunately, the lack of detailed, updated, systematic and well-illustrated descriptions of the cytology of neurons and glial cell types, especially in the primate brain, makes such studies especially demanding, often limiting their scope and broad use. Here, following an extensive analysis of histological materials and the review of current and classical literature, we compile a list of precise morphological criteria that can facilitate and standardize identification of cells in stained sections examined under the microscope...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847468/synaptic-organization-of-microglomerular-clusters-in-the-lateral-and-medial-bulbs-of-the-honeybee-brain
#20
Theo Mota, Sabine Kreissl, Ana Carrasco Durán, Damien Lefer, Giovanni Galizia, Martin Giurfa
The honeybee Apis mellifera is an established model for the study of visual orientation. Yet, research on this topic has focused on behavioral aspects and has neglected the investigation of the underlying neural architectures in the bee brain. In other insects, the anterior optic tubercle (AOTU), the lateral (LX) and the central complex (CX) are important brain regions for visuospatial performances. In the central brain of the honeybee, a prominent group of neurons connecting the AOTU with conspicuous microglomerular synaptic structures in the LX has been recently identified, but their neural organization and ultrastructure have not been investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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