journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114208/classification-of-mouse-retinal-bipolar-cells-type-specific-connectivity-with-special-reference-to-rod-driven-aii-amacrine-pathways
#1
Yoshihiko Tsukamoto, Naoko Omi
We confirmed the classification of 15 morphological types of mouse bipolar cells by serial section transmission electron microscopy and characterized each type by identifying chemical synapses and gap junctions at axon terminals. Although whether the previous type 5 cells consist of two or three types was uncertain, they are here clustered into three types based on the vertical distribution of axonal ribbons. Next, while two groups of rod bipolar (RB) cells, RB1, and RB2, were previously proposed, we clarify that a half of RB1 cells have the intermediate characteristics, suggesting that these two groups comprise a single RB type...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081739/cell-type-specific-structural-organization-of-the-six-layers-in-rat-barrel-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Rajeevan T Narayanan, Daniel Udvary, Marcel Oberlaender
The cytoarchitectonic subdivision of the neocortex into six layers is often used to describe the organization of the cortical circuitry, sensory-evoked signal flow or cortical functions. However, each layer comprises neuronal cell types that have different genetic, functional and/or structural properties. Here, we reanalyze structural data from some of our recent work in the posterior-medial barrel-subfield of the vibrissal part of rat primary somatosensory cortex (vS1). We quantify the degree to which somata, dendrites and axons of the 10 major excitatory cell types of the cortex are distributed with respect to the cytoarchitectonic organization of vS1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081738/interlimb-dynamic-after-unilateral-focal-lesion-of-the-cervical-dorsal-corticospinal-tract-with-endothelin-1
#3
Walther A Carvalho, Carlomagno P Bahia, Jéssica C Teixeira, Walace Gomes-Leal, Antonio Pereira
Handedness is one of the most recognized lateralized behavior in humans. Usually, it is associated with manual superiority regarding performance proficiency. For instance, more than 90% of the human population is considered more skilled with the right hand, which is controlled by the left hemisphere, than with the left. However, during the performance of bimanual tasks, the two hands usually assume asymmetric roles, with one hand acting on objects while the other provides support, stabilizing the object. Traditionally, the role of the two hands is viewed as fixed...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075183/the-role-of-functional-neuroanatomy-of-the-lumbar-spinal-cord-in-effect-of-epidural-stimulation
#4
Carlos A Cuellar, Aldo A Mendez, Riazul Islam, Jonathan S Calvert, Peter J Grahn, Bruce Knudsen, Tuan Pham, Kendall H Lee, Igor A Lavrov
In this study, the neuroanatomy of the swine lumbar spinal cord, particularly the spatial orientation of dorsal roots was correlated to the anatomical landmarks of the lumbar spine and to the magnitude of motor evoked potentials during epidural electrical stimulation (EES). We found that the proximity of the stimulating electrode to the dorsal roots entry zone across spinal segments was a critical factor to evoke higher peak-to-peak motor responses. Positioning the electrode close to the dorsal roots produced a significantly higher impact on motor evoked responses than rostro-caudal shift of electrode from segment to segment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066956/cell-type-specific-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-binding-protein-in-gabaergic-interneurons-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Kyle D Ketchesin, Nicholas S Huang, Audrey F Seasholtz
Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP) is a secreted glycoprotein that binds CRH with very high affinity to modulate CRH receptor activity. CRH-BP is widely expressed throughout the brain, with particularly high expression in regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Recent studies suggest a role for CRH-BP in stress-related psychiatric disorders and addiction, with the PFC being a potential site of interest. However, the molecular phenotype of CRH-BP-expressing cells in this region has not been well-characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046629/cerebellar-vermis-and-midbrain-hypoplasia-upon-conditional-deletion-of-chd7-from-the-embryonic-mid-hindbrain-region
#6
Alex P A Donovan, Tian Yu, Jacob Ellegood, Kimberley L H Riegman, Christa de Geus, Conny van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Cathy Fernandes, Jason P Lerch, M Albert Basson
Reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling from the mid-hindbrain or isthmus organizer (IsO) during early embryonic development results in hypoplasia of the midbrain and cerebellar vermis. We previously reported evidence for reduced Fgf8 expression and FGF signaling in the mid-hindbrain region of embryos heterozygous for Chd7, the gene mutated in CHARGE (Coloboma, Heart defects, choanal Atresia, Retarded growth and development, Genitourinary anomalies and Ear defects) syndrome. However, Chd7(+/-) animals only exhibit mild cerebellar vermis anomalies...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046628/the-human-periallocortex-layer-pattern-in-presubiculum-parasubiculum-and-entorhinal-cortex-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Ricardo Insausti, Mónica Muñoz-López, Ana M Insausti, Emilio Artacho-Pérula
The cortical mantle is not homogeneous, so that three types of cortex can be distinguished: allocortex, periallocortex and isocortex. The main distinction among those three types is based on morphological differences, in particular the number of layers, overall organization, appearance, etc., as well as its connectivity. Additionally, in the phylogenetic scale, this classification is conserved among different mammals. The most primitive and simple cortex is the allocortex, which is characterized by the presence of three layers, with one cellular main layer; it is continued by the periallocortex, which presents six layers, although with enough differences in the layer pattern to separate three different fields: presubiculum (PrS), parasubiculum (PaS), and entorhinal cortex (EC)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033797/white-matter-abnormalities-in-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure
#8
Marcin Jankiewicz, Martha J Holmes, Paul A Taylor, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Background: Due to changes in guidelines and access to treatment, more children start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infancy. With few studies examining the long-term effects of perinatal HIV infection and early ART on neurodevelopment, much is still unknown about brain maturation in the presence of HIV and ART. Follow-up studies of HIV infected (HIV+) children are important for monitoring brain development in the presence of HIV infection and ART. Methods: We use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter (WM) in 65 HIV+ and 46 control (HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV unexposed uninfected (HU)) 7-year-old children...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033796/laminar-and-cellular-distribution-of-monoamine-receptors-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#9
REVIEW
Noemí Santana, Francesc Artigas
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deeply involved in higher brain functions, many of which are altered in psychiatric conditions. The PFC exerts a top-down control of most cortical and subcortical areas through descending pathways and is densely innervated by axons emerging from the brainstem monoamine cell groups, namely, the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively), the ventral tegmental area and the locus coeruleus (LC). In turn, the activity of these cell groups is tightly controlled by afferent pathways arising from layer V PFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018335/a-connectomic-analysis-of-the-human-basal-ganglia-network
#10
Alberto Cacciola, Alessandro Calamuneri, Demetrio Milardi, Enricomaria Mormina, Gaetana Chillemi, Silvia Marino, Antonino Naro, Giuseppina Rizzo, Giuseppe Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone
The current model of basal ganglia circuits has been introduced almost two decades ago and has settled the basis for our understanding of basal ganglia physiology and movement disorders. Although many questions are yet to be answered, several efforts have been recently made to shed new light on basal ganglia function. The traditional concept of "direct" and "indirect" pathways, obtained from axonal tracing studies in non-human primates and post-mortem fiber dissection in the human brain, still retains a remarkable appeal but is somehow obsolete...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018334/cornu-ammonis-regions-antecedents-of-cortical-layers
#11
REVIEW
Audrey Mercer, Alex M Thomson
Studying neocortex and hippocampus in parallel, we are struck by the similarities. All three to four layered allocortices and the six layered mammalian neocortex arise in the pallium. All receive and integrate multiple cortical and subcortical inputs, provide multiple outputs and include an array of neuronal classes. During development, each cell positions itself to sample appropriate local and distant inputs and to innervate appropriate targets. Simpler cortices had already solved the need to transform multiple coincident inputs into serviceable outputs before neocortex appeared in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974927/egas-moniz-90-years-1927-2017-from-cerebral-angiography
#12
Marco Artico, Marialuisa Spoletini, Lorenzo Fumagalli, Francesca Biagioni, Larisa Ryskalin, Francesco Fornai, Maurizio Salvati, Alessandro Frati, Francesco Saverio Pastore, Samanta Taurone
In June 2017 we celebrate the 90th anniversary of the pioneer discovery of cerebral angiography, the seminal imaging technique used for visualizing cerebral blood vessels and vascular alterations as well as other intracranial disorders. Egas Moniz (1874-1955) was the first to describe the use of this revolutionary technique which, until 1975 (when computed tomography, CT, scan was introduced in the clinical practice), was the sole diagnostic tool to provide an imaging of cerebral vessels and therefore alterations due to intracranial pathology...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974926/the-neuroanatomy-of-the-reticular-nucleus-locus-coeruleus-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Filippo S Giorgi, Larisa Ryskalin, Riccardo Ruffoli, Francesca Biagioni, Fiona Limanaqi, Michela Ferrucci, Carla L Busceti, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Francesco Fornai
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) features the accumulation of β-amyloid and Tau aggregates, which deposit as extracellular plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), respectively. Neuronal Tau aggregates may appear early in life, in the absence of clinical symptoms. This occurs in the brainstem reticular formation and mostly within Locus Coeruleus (LC), which is consistently affected during AD. LC is the main source of forebrain norepinephrine (NE) and it modulates a variety of functions including sleep-waking cycle, alertness, synaptic plasticity, and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970785/multiple-transmitter-receptors-in-regions-and-layers-of-the-human-cerebral-cortex
#14
Karl Zilles, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
We measured the densities (fmol/mg protein) of 15 different receptors of various transmitter systems in the supragranular, granular and infragranular strata of 44 areas of visual, somatosensory, auditory and multimodal association systems of the human cerebral cortex. Receptor densities were obtained after labeling of the receptors using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography in human postmortem brains. The mean density of each receptor type over all cortical layers and of each of the three major strata varies between cortical regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966579/medial-septum-modulates-cellular-response-induced-in-hippocampus-on-microinjection-of-cholinergic-agonists-into-hypothalamic-lateral-supramammillary-nucleus
#15
Mohammed Z Ariffin, Chian-Ming Low, Sanjay Khanna
Cholinergic mechanisms in supramammillary nucleus (SuM), especially the lateral SuM (lSuM) modulates septo-hippocampal neural activity. The lSuM, as compared to the contiguous medial SuM (mSuM) has relatively dense projections to hippocampus and cingulate cortex (Cg). In the present study, we have investigated whether the effects of cholinergic activation of SuM on hippocampal and cortical neural activities involve a cooperative interaction with the medial septum (MS). Microinjection of the broad-spectrum cholinergic agonist, carbachol, or the cholinergic-nicotinic receptor agonist, nicotine, into the lSuM and the mSuM in urethane anesthetized rat evoked a similar pattern of hippocampal theta rhythm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932188/is-there-evidence-for-myelin-modeling-by-astrocytes-in-the-normal-adult-brain
#16
Alfredo Varela-Echevarría, Víctor Vargas-Barroso, Carlos Lozano-Flores, Jorge Larriva-Sahd
A set of astrocytic process associated with altered myelinated axons is described in the forebrain of normal adult rodents with confocal, electron microscopy, and 3D reconstructions. Each process consists of a protuberance that contains secretory organelles including numerous lysosomes which polarize and open next to disrupted myelinated axons. Because of the distinctive asymmetric organelle distribution and ubiquity throughout the forebrain neuropil, this enlargement is named paraxial process (PAP). The myelin envelope contiguous to the PAP displays focal disruption or disintegration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928639/microglia-polarization-with-m1-m2-phenotype-changes-in-rd1-mouse-model-of-retinal-degeneration
#17
Tian Zhou, Zijing Huang, Xiaowei Sun, Xiaowei Zhu, Lingli Zhou, Mei Li, Bing Cheng, Xialin Liu, Chang He
Microglia activation is recognized as the hallmark of neuroinflammation. However, the activation profile and phenotype changes of microglia during the process of retinal degeneration are poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the time-spatial pattern of microglia distribution and characterize the polarized phenotype of activated microglia during retinal neuroinflammation and degeneration in rd1 (Pde6β(rd1/rd1)) mice, the classic model of inherited retinal degeneration. Retinae of rd1 mice at different postnatal days (P7, P14, P21, P28, P56, and P180) were prepared for further analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928638/affective-circuitry-alterations-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#18
Dave J Hayes, David Q Chen, Jidan Zhong, Ariel Lin, Brendan Behan, Matthew Walker, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe chronic neuropathic facial pain disorder. Affect-related behavioral and structural brain changes have been noted across chronic pain disorders, but have not been well-studied in TN. We examined the potential impact of TN (37 patients: 23 with right-sided TN, 14 with left-sided TN), compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, on three major white matter tracts responsible for carrying affect-related signals-i.e., cingulum, fornix, and medial forebrain bundle. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), deterministic multi-tensor tractography for tract modeling, and a model-driven region-of-interest approach was used...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912692/calsyntenins-are-expressed-in-a-dynamic-and-partially-overlapping-manner-during-neural-development
#19
Gemma de Ramon Francàs, Tobias Alther, Esther T Stoeckli
Calsyntenins form a family of linker proteins between distinct populations of vesicles and kinesin motors for axonal transport. They were implicated in synapse formation and synaptic plasticity by findings in worms, mice and humans. These findings were in accordance with the postsynaptic localization of the Calsyntenins in the adult brain. However, they also affect the formation of neural circuits, as loss of Calsyntenin-1 (Clstn1) was shown to interfere with axonal branching and axon guidance. Despite the fact that Calsyntenins were discovered originally in embryonic chicken motoneurons, their distribution in the developing nervous system has not been analyzed in detail so far...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912691/the-brain-of-the-black-diceros-bicornis-and-white-ceratotherium-simum-african-rhinoceroses-morphology-and-volumetrics-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Adhil Bhagwandin, Mark Haagensen, Paul R Manger
The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI) to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
journal
journal
42048
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"