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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#1
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144216/a-tool-for-brain-wide-quantitative-analysis-of-molecular-data-upon-projection-into-a-planar-view-of-choice
#2
Samme Vreysen, Isabelle Scheyltjens, Marie-Eve Laramée, Lutgarde Arckens
Several techniques, allowing the reconstruction and visualization of functional, anatomical or molecular information from tissue and organ slices, have been developed over the years. Yet none allow direct comparison without reprocessing the same slices. Alternative methods using publicly available reference maps like the Allen Brain Atlas lack flexibility with respect to age and species. We propose a new approach to reconstruct a segmented region of interest from serial slices by projecting the optical density values representing a given molecular signal to a plane of view of choice, and to generalize the results into a reference map, which is built from the individual maps of all animals under study...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163674/dendritic-arborization-patterns-of-small-juxtaglomerular-cell-subtypes-within-the-rodent-olfactory-bulb
#3
Wolfgang G Bywalez, Tiffany Ona-Jodar, Michael Lukas, Jovica Ninkovic, Veronica Egger
Within the glomerular layer of the rodent olfactory bulb, numerous subtypes of local interneurons contribute to early processing of incoming sensory information. Here we have investigated dopaminergic and other small local juxtaglomerular cells in rats and mice and characterized their dendritic arborization pattern with respect to individual glomeruli by fluorescent labeling via patching and reconstruction of dendrites and glomerular contours from two-photon imaging data. Dopaminergic neurons were identified in a transgenic mouse line where the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) was labeled with GFP...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154527/in-vivo-exploration-of-the-connectivity-between-the-subthalamic-nucleus-and-the-globus-pallidus-in-the-human-brain-using-multi-fiber-tractography
#4
Sonia Pujol, Ryan Cabeen, Sophie B Sébille, Jérôme Yelnik, Chantal François, Sara Fernandez Vidal, Carine Karachi, Yulong Zhao, G Rees Cosgrove, Pierre Jannin, Ron Kikinis, Eric Bardinet
The basal ganglia is part of a complex system of neuronal circuits that play a key role in the integration and execution of motor, cognitive and emotional function in the human brain. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder of the motor circuit characterized by tremor, rigidity, and slowness of movement. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus pars interna provides an efficient treatment to reduce symptoms and levodopa-induced side effects in Parkinson's disease patients...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119578/perspective-on-the-road-toward-gene-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Bas Blits, Harald Petry
Many therapeutic strategies aimed at relieving symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are currently used for treatment of this disease. With a hallmark of progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, the absence of properly operational dopaminergic circuitry becomes a therapeutic target. Following diagnosis, dopamine replacement can be given in the form of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine). Even though it is recognized as standard of care, this treatment strategy does not prevent the affected neurons from degenerating...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119577/widespread-volumetric-brain-changes-following-tooth-loss-in-female-mice
#6
Limor Avivi-Arber, Ze'ev Seltzer, Miriam Friedel, Jason P Lerch, Massieh Moayedi, Karen D Davis, Barry J Sessle
Tooth loss is associated with altered sensory, motor, cognitive and emotional functions. These changes vary highly in the population and are accompanied by structural and functional changes in brain regions mediating these functions. It is unclear to what extent this variability in behavior and function is caused by genetic and/or environmental determinants and which brain regions undergo structural plasticity that mediates these changes. Thus, the overall goal of our research program is to identify genetic variants that control structural and functional plasticity following tooth loss...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066196/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-cortex-amygdala-transition-zone-in-mice
#7
Bernardita Cádiz-Moretti, María Abellán-Álvaro, Cecília Pardo-Bellver, Fernando Martínez-García, Enrique Lanuza
The transitional zone between the ventral part of the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical nucleus of the amygdala, named the cortex-amygdala transition zone (CxA), shows two differential features that allow its identification as a particular structure. First, it receives dense cholinergic and dopaminergic innervations as compared to the adjacent piriform cortex and amygdala, and second, it receives projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. In this work we have studied the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the CxA, which are mainly unknown, by using the retrograde tracer Fluorogold and the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextranamine...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066195/differential-inputs-to-the-perisomatic-and-distal-dendritic-compartments-of-vip-positive-neurons-in-layer-2-3-of-the-mouse-barrel-cortex
#8
Jaerin Sohn, Shinichiro Okamoto, Naoya Kataoka, Takeshi Kaneko, Kazuhiro Nakamura, Hiroyuki Hioki
The recurrent network composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons is fundamental to neocortical function. Inhibitory neurons in the mammalian neocortex are molecularly diverse, and individual cell types play unique functional roles in the neocortical microcircuit. Recently, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive (VIP+) neurons, comprising a subclass of inhibitory neurons, have attracted particular attention because they can disinhibit pyramidal cells through inhibition of other types of inhibitory neurons, such as parvalbumin- (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SOM+) inhibitory neurons, promoting sensory information processing...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066194/gene-therapy-a-promising-approach-for-neuroprotection-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Pamela Valdés, Bernard L Schneider
With the development of effective systems for gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS), gene therapy has become a therapeutic option for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Gene therapies that are the most advanced in the clinic have been designed to more effectively compensate for the lack of dopamine signaling in the basal ganglia and rescue the cardinal motor symptoms of PD. However, it remains essential to devise novel therapies to prevent neurodegeneration and disease progression. Since gene therapy has been initially proposed for the delivery of neurotrophins to support the survival and function of dopaminergic neurons, our understanding of PD etiology has changed dramatically...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066193/microstructural-abnormalities-were-found-in-brain-gray-matter-from-patients-with-chronic-myofascial-pain
#10
Peng Xie, Bangyong Qin, Ganjun Song, Yi Zhang, Song Cao, Jin Yu, Jianjiang Wu, Jiang Wang, Tijiang Zhang, Xiaoming Zhang, Tian Yu, Hong Zheng
Myofascial pain, presented as myofascial trigger points (MTrPs)-related pain, is a common, chronic disease involving skeletal muscle, but its underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Previous studies have revealed that chronic pain can induce microstructural abnormalities in the cerebral gray matter. However, it remains unclear whether the brain gray matters of patients with chronic MTrPs-related pain undergo alteration. In this study, we employed the Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) technique, which is particularly sensitive to brain microstructural perturbation, to monitor the MTrPs-related microstructural alterations in brain gray matter of patients with chronic pain...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018184/corrigendum-distribution-of-28-kda-calbindin-immunopositive-neurons-in-the-cat-spinal-cord
#11
Natalia Merkulyeva, Aleksandr Veshchitskii, Felix Makarov, Yury Gerasimenko, Pavel Musienko
[This corrects the article on p. 166 in vol. 9, PMID: 26858610.].
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018183/changed-hub-and-corresponding-functional-connectivity-of-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Huawang Wu, Hui Sun, Jinping Xu, Yan Wu, Chao Wang, Jing Xiao, Shenglin She, Jianwei Huang, Wenjin Zou, Hongjun Peng, Xiaobing Lu, Guimao Huang, Tianzi Jiang, Yuping Ning, Jiaojian Wang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders. In the brain, the hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of MDD remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in MDD. First, we constructed the whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map in each subject in 34 MDD patients and 34 gender-, age- and education level-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008311/cloning-of-the-gabab-receptor-subunits-b1-and-b2-and-their-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-adult-sea-lamprey
#13
Daniel Romaus-Sanjurjo, Blanca Fernández-López, Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, María Celina Rodicio
In vertebrates, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory transmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) acting through ionotropic (GABAA) and metabotropic (GABAB) receptors. The GABAB receptor produces a slow inhibition since it activates second messenger systems through the binding and activation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins [G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)]. Lampreys are a key reference to understand molecular evolution in vertebrates. The importance of the GABAB receptor for the modulation of the circuits controlling locomotion and other behaviors has been shown in pharmacological/physiological studies in lampreys...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994542/the-retrograde-connections-and-anatomical-segregation-of-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-nucleus-accumbens
#14
Anders C Meidahl, Dariusz Orlowski, Jens C H Sørensen, Carsten R Bjarkam
Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders such as treatment resistant depression (TRD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and has been an ongoing experimental target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both rats and humans. In order to translate basic scientific results from rodents to the human setting a large animal model is needed to thoroughly study the effect of such therapeutic interventions. The aim of the study was, accordingly, to describe the basic anatomy of the Göttingen minipig NAcc and its retrograde connections...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994541/localization-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-immunoreactivity-in-rat-spinal-cord
#15
Essam M Abdelalim, Jean-Pierre Bellier, Ikuo Tooyama
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exerts its functions through NP receptors. Recently, BNP has been shown to be involved in a wide range of functions. Previous studies reported BNP expression in the sensory afferent fibers in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord. However, BNP expression and function in the neurons of the central nervous system are still controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated BNP expression in the rat spinal cord in detail using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965546/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-dopaminergic-neurons-during-development-in-zebrafish
#16
Yuchen Du, Qiang Guo, Minghui Shan, Yongmei Wu, Sizhou Huang, Haixia Zhao, Huarong Hong, Ming Yang, Xi Yang, Liyi Ren, Jiali Peng, Jing Sun, Hongli Zhou, Shurong Li, Bingyin Su
As one of the model organisms of Parkinson's disease (PD) research, the zebrafish has its advantages, such as the 87% homology with human genome and transparent embryos which make it possible to observe the development of dopaminergic neurons in real time. However, there is no midbrain dopaminergic system in zebrafish when compared with mammals, and the location and projection of the dopaminergic neurons are seldom reported. In this study, Vmat2:GFP transgenic zebrafish was used to observe the development and distribution of dopaminergic neurons in real time...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965545/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-the-rgs7-g%C3%AE-5-r7bp-complex-in-the-cerebellar-cortex
#17
Carolina Aguado, Cesare Orlandi, Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Mercedes Gil-Minguez, Kirill A Martemyanov, Rafael Luján
A member of regulator of G-protein signaling family, RGS7, is an essential modulator of signaling through GABAB receptors. RGS7 functions as a macromolecular complex with type 5 G protein β (Gβ5) and R7 binding protein (R7BP) to control the localization and function of the resultant heterotrimeric complexes. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation, in situ hybridization, histoblot and immunohistochemical techniques at the light and electron microscopic level to advance understanding of RGS7-Gβ5-R7BP complexes in the central nervous system, focusing on distinct neuronal populations in the cerebellar cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932958/the-shark-alar-hypothalamus-molecular-characterization-of-prosomeric-subdivisions-and-evolutionary-trends
#18
Gabriel N Santos-Durán, Susana Ferreiro-Galve, Arnaud Menuet, Idoia Quintana-Urzainqui, Sylvie Mazan, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal
The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917112/reproducibility-and-reliability-of-quantitative-and-weighted-t1-and-t2-%C3%A2-mapping-for-myelin-based-cortical-parcellation-at-7-tesla
#19
Roy A M Haast, Dimo Ivanov, Elia Formisano, Kâmil Uludaǧ
Different magnetic resonance (MR) parameters, such as R1 (=1/T1) or T2(∗), have been used to visualize non-invasively the myelin distribution across the cortical sheet. Myelin contrast is consistently enhanced in the primary sensory and some higher order cortical areas (such as MT or the cingulate cortex), which renders it suitable for subject-specific anatomical cortical parcellation. However, no systematic comparison has been performed between the previously proposed MR parameters, i.e., the longitudinal and transversal relaxation values (or their ratios), for myelin mapping at 7 Tesla...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895556/neurosensory-differentiation-and-innervation-patterning-in-the-human-fetal-vestibular-end-organs-between-the-gestational-weeks-8-12
#20
Lejo Johnson Chacko, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Helga Fritsch, Helge Rask-Andersen, Michael J F Blumer, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert
Balance orientation depends on the precise operation of the vestibular end organs and the vestibular ganglion neurons. Previous research on the assemblage of the neuronal network in the developing fetal vestibular organ has been limited to data from animal models. Insights into the molecular expression profiles and signaling moieties involved in embryological development of the human fetal inner ear have been limited. We present an investigation of the cells of the vestibular end organs with specific focus on the hair cell differentiation and innervation pattern using an uninterrupted series of unique specimens from gestational weeks 8-12...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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