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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

Kazuo Imaizumi, Yuchio Yanagawa, Guoping Feng, Charles C Lee
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is the main source of inhibition to the somatosensory thalamus (ventrobasal nucleus, VB) in mice. However, the functional topography and development of these projections with respect to the VB barreloids has been largely unexplored. In this respect, to assist in the study of these projections, we have utilized a vesicular gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-Venus transgenic mouse line to develop a brain slice preparation that enables the rapid identification of inhibitory neurons and projections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Bruna Valério-Gomes, Daniel M Guimarães, Diego Szczupak, Roberto Lent
The central nervous system is a highly complex network composed of various cell types, each one with different subpopulations. Each cell type has distinct roles for the functional operation of circuits, and ultimately, for brain physiology in general. Since the absolute number of each cell type is considered a proxy of its functional complexity, one approach to better understand how the brain works is to unravel its absolute cellularity and the quantitative relations between cell populations; in other words, how one population of cells is quantitatively structured, in relation to another...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Hiroshi Abe, Toshiki Tani, Hiromi Mashiko, Naohito Kitamura, Taku Hayami, Satoshi Watanabe, Kazuhisa Sakai, Wataru Suzuki, Hiroaki Mizukami, Akiya Watakabe, Tetsuo Yamamori, Noritaka Ichinohe
Neural activity in the middle temporal (MT) area is modulated by the direction and speed of motion of visual stimuli. The area is buried in a sulcus in the macaque, but exposed to the cortical surface in the marmoset, making the marmoset an ideal animal model for studying MT function. To better understand the details of the roles of this area in cognition, underlying anatomical connections need to be clarified. Because most anatomical tracing studies in marmosets have used retrograde tracers, the axonal projections remain uncharacterized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Hui-Min Lin, Jian-Xia Kuang, Pei Sun, Ning Li, Xiaohua Lv, Yu-Hui Zhang
The secondary motor cortex (MOs) plays crucial roles in cognitive and executive processes and has reciprocal connections with numerous cortices in rodents. However, descriptions of the neuronal morphologies and projection patterns of the MOs at the level of a single neuron are lacking, severely hindering the comprehensive understanding of the wiring diagram of the MOs. Herein, we used a Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus (AAV) to fluorescently label ~80 pyramidal neurons nearby or in the MOs and acquired an uninterrupted whole-brain 3D dataset at a voxel resolution of 0...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Anna Kreutz, Nicole Barger
With the promise of greater reliability and replicability of estimates, stereological techniques have revolutionized data collection in the neurosciences. At the same time, improvements in immunohistochemistry and fluorescence imaging technologies have facilitated easy application of immunofluorescence protocols, allowing for isolation of multiple target proteins in one tissue sample. Combining multiple immunofluorescence labeling with stereological data collection can provide a powerful tool to maximize explanatory power and efficiency, while minimizing tissue use...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Daniel Keller, Csaba Erö, Henry Markram
The mouse brain is the most extensively studied brain of all species. We performed an exhaustive review of the literature to establish our current state of knowledge on cell numbers in mouse brain regions, arguably the most fundamental property to measure when attempting to understand a brain. The synthesized information, collected in one place, can be used by both theorists and experimentalists. Although for commonly-studied regions cell densities could be obtained for principal cell types, overall we know very little about how many cells are present in most brain regions and even less about cell-type specific densities...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Tina Ghelani, Stephan J Sigrist
Information processing in our brains depends on the exact timing of calcium (Ca2+ )-activated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs) from unique release sites embedded within the presynaptic active zones (AZs). While AZ scaffolding proteins obviously provide an efficient environment for release site function, the molecular design creating such release sites had remained unknown for a long time. Recent advances in visualizing the ultrastructure and topology of presynaptic protein architectures have started to elucidate how scaffold proteins establish "nanodomains" that connect voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) physically and functionally with release-ready SVs...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Kathleen S Rockland, Javier DeFelipe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Miriam Prume, Astrid Rollenhagen, Joachim H R Lübke
The reeler mouse has been widely used to study various aspects of cortico- and synaptogenesis, but also as a model for several neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to development, comparably little is known about the neuronal composition and synaptic organization of the adult reeler mouse neocortex, in particular at the fine-scale electron microscopic level, which was investigated here and compared with wild type (WT) mice. In this study, the "barrel field" of the adult reeler and WT mouse somatosensory neocortex is used as a model system...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Malou Zeymer, Gerhard von der Emde, Mario F Wullimann
The African weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii is capable of cross-modal object recognition using its electric sense or vision. Thus, object features stored in the brain are accessible by multiple senses, either through connections between unisensory brain regions or because of multimodal representations in multisensory areas. Primary electrosensory information is processed in the medullary electrosensory lateral line lobe, which projects topographically to the lateral nucleus of the torus semicircularis (NL)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Christel Genoud, Benjamin Titze, Alexandra Graff-Meyer, Rainer W Friedrich
Fixation and staining of large tissue samples are critical for the acquisition of volumetric electron microscopic image datasets and the subsequent reconstruction of neuronal circuits. Efficient protocols exist for the staining of small samples, but uniform contrast is often difficult to achieve when the sample diameter exceeds a few hundred micrometers. Recently, a protocol (BROPA, brain-wide reduced-osmium staining with pyrogallol-mediated amplification) was developed that achieves homogeneous staining of the entire mouse brain but requires very long sample preparation times...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Daniel Schmitz, Sascha E A Muenzing, Martin Schober, Nicole Schubert, Martina Minnerop, Thomas Lippert, Katrin Amunts, Markus Axer
3D-Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI) enables high-resolution three-dimensional mapping of the nerve fiber architecture in unstained histological brain sections based on the intrinsic birefringence of myelinated nerve fibers. The interpretation of the measured birefringent signals comes with conjointly measured information about the local fiber birefringence strength and the fiber orientation. In this study, we present a novel approach to disentangle both parameters from each other based on a weighted least squares routine (ROFL) applied to oblique polarimetric 3D-PLI measurements...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Guillaume Herbet, Ilyess Zemmoura, Hugues Duffau
The inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) is a long-range, associative white matter pathway that connects the occipital and temporal-occipital areas of the brain to the anterior temporal areas. In view of the ILF's anatomic connections, it has been suggested that this pathway has a major role in a relatively large array of brain functions. Until recently, however, the literature data on these potential functions were scarce. Here, we review the key findings of recent anatomic, neuromodulation, and neuropsychological studies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Jae H Jung, Joseph A Szule, Kylee Stouder, Robert M Marshall, Uel J McMahan
Active zone material is an organelle that is common to active zones along the presynaptic membrane of chemical synapses. Electron tomography on active zones at frog neuromuscular junctions has provided evidence that active zone material directs the docking of synaptic vesicles (SVs) on the presynaptic membrane at this synapse. Certain active zone material macromolecules connect to stereotypically arranged macromolecules in the membrane of undocked SVs, stably orienting a predetermined fusion domain of the vesicle membrane toward the presynaptic membrane while bringing and holding the two membranes together...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Luca Bragina, Fiorenzo Conti
Neurofilaments (NFs) are neuron-specific heteropolymers that have long been considered as structural proteins. However, it has recently been documented that they may play a functional role at synapses. Indeed, the four NF subunits-NFL, NFM, NFH and α-internexin-are integral components of synapses in the striatum and hippocampus, since their elimination disrupts synaptic plasticity and impairs social memory, an observation that might have important implications for some neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we studied NFs localization in VGLUT1-, VGLUT2-, VGAT-, PSD-95- and gephyrin-positive (+) puncta, and in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in the cerebral cortex of adult rats...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Tao Lin, Chaofeng Li, Jiali Liu, Brian H Smith, Hong Lei, Xinnian Zeng
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive pests of horticultural crops in tropical and subtropical Asia. The insect relies heavily on its olfactory system to select suitable hosts for development and reproduction. To understand the neural basis of its odor-driven behaviors, it is fundamental to characterize the anatomy of its olfactory system. In this study, we investigated the anatomical organization of the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory center, in B. dorsalis , and constructed a 3D glomerular atlas of the AL based on synaptic antibody staining combined with computerized 3D reconstruction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Helen Barbas, Basilis Zikopoulos
The phenotype of neurons and their connections depend on complex genetic and epigenetic processes that regulate the expression of genes in the nucleus during development and throughout life. Here we examined the distribution of nuclear chromatin patters in relation to the epigenetic landscape, phenotype and connections of neurons with a focus on the primate cerebral cortex. We show that nuclear patterns of chromatin in cortical neurons are related to neuron size and cortical connections. Moreover, we point to evidence that reveals an orderly sequence of events during development, linking chromatin and gene expression patterns, neuron morphology, function, and connections across cortical areas and layers...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Robert J Morecraft, Jizhi Ge, Kimberly S Stilwell-Morecraft, Diane L Rotella, Marc A Pizzimenti, Warren G Darling
The ipsilateral corticopontine projection (iCPP) represents a massive descending axon system terminating in the pontine nuclei (PN). In the primate, this projection is well known for its dominant influence on contralateral upper limb movements through the classical cerebrocerebellar circuity system. Although a much weaker contralateral corticopontine projection (cCPP) from motor cortex to the paramedian region has been reported in the non-human primate brain, we provide the first comprehensive description of the cCPP from the lateral motor cortex using high resolution anterograde tract tracing in Macaca mulatta ...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Irene Chaves-Coira, Jesús Martín-Cortecero, Angel Nuñez, Margarita L Rodrigo-Angulo
Recent evidence supports that specific projections between different basal forebrain (BF) nuclei and their cortical targets are necessary to modulate cognitive functions in the cortex. We tested the hypothesis of the existence of specific neuronal populations in the BF linking with specific sensory, motor, and prefrontal cortices in rats. Neuronal tracing techniques were performed using retrograde tracers injected in the primary somatosensory (S1), auditory (A1), and visual (V1) cortical areas, in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as well as in BF nuclei...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Yusha Li, Jianyi Xu, Peng Wan, Tingting Yu, Dan Zhu
Tissue optical clearing techniques provide alternative approaches for imaging large-volume specimens. uDISCO, an organic-solvent-based method, stands out from the enormous array of available optical clearing methods by achieving whole-brain imaging with high transparency, size reduction and fluorescence preservation. In this study, we aimed to modify the uDISCO protocol to achieve better fluorescence preservation and to thereby further improve its optical imaging quality. First, we determined the optimal pH value for optimized uDISCO, termed "a-uDISCO" (alkaline pH-based uDISCO)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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