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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

Rafael Franco, Juan A Sánchez-Arias, Gemma Navarro, José L Lanciego
Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. GD is caused by homozygous mutations of the GBA1 gene, which codes for beta-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Although GD primarily affects peripheral tissues, the presence of neurological symptoms has been reported in several GD subtypes. GBA1 mutations have recently deserved increased attention upon the demonstration that both homo- and heterozygous GBA1 mutations represent the most important genetic risk factor for the appearance of synucleinopathies like Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (LBD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Hua-Jun Chen, Yong-Qing Gao, Chun-Hui Che, Hailong Lin, Xin-Lin Ruan
Purpose : The aim of this study was to evaluate microstructural changes of major white matter (WM) tracts in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Method : Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were obtained from 24 subjects with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD), including 13 subjects with VCI-no dementia (VCIND) and 11 subjects with normal cognition (as a control group). A tract-based spatial statistics approach was performed to investigate WM microstructure in VCIND by integrating multiple indices including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), which are intra-voxel metrics, and local diffusion homogeneity (LDH), which is an inter-voxel metric...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Brett A Johnson, Ron D Frostig
Employing wide-field optical imaging techniques supported by electrophysiological recordings, previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of a spatially restricted area (point) in the sensory periphery results in a large evoked neuronal activity spread in mammalian primary cortices. In rats' primary cortices, such large evoked spreads extend diffusely in multiple directions, cross cortical cytoarchitectural borders and can trespass into other unimodal sensory areas. These point spreads are supported by a spatially matching, diffuse set of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter that extend in multiple directions and cross borders to interconnect different cortical areas...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Anja K E Horn, Annie Horng, Norbert Buresch, Ahmed Messoudi, Wolfgang Härtig
The abducens nucleus (nVI) contains several functional cell groups: motoneurons of the singly-innervated twitch muscle fibers (SIF) and those of the multiply-innervated muscle fibers (MIF) of the lateral rectus muscle (LR), internuclear neurons (INTs) projecting to the contralateral oculomotor nucleus (nIII) and paramedian tract-neurons (PMT) that receive input from premotor neurons of the oculomotor system and project to the floccular region. In monkey, these cell populations can be delineated by their chemical signature...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Mark J West
The space ball probe was fully described in the literature 15 years ago by Mouton et al. (2002). Since then, it has been used in a number of studies in the nervous system that focus on axon, dendrite, and capillary length. The length of structural parameters in tissues reflect functional aspects of the tissues. Here, some of the various applications of this methodology will be presented, along with a review of the salient features of the methodology that has resulted in new wave of quantitative morphological studies of length in the nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Chang-Lu Tao, Yun-Tao Liu, Z Hong Zhou, Pak-Ming Lau, Guo-Qiang Bi
The morphology and function of neuronal synapses are regulated by neural activity, as manifested in activity-dependent synapse maturation and various forms of synaptic plasticity. Here we employed cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize synaptic ultrastructure in cultured hippocampal neurons and investigated changes in subcellular features in response to chronic inactivity, a paradigm often used for the induction of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We observed a more than 2-fold increase in the mean number of dense core vesicles (DCVs) in the presynaptic compartment of excitatory synapses and an almost 20-fold increase in the number of DCVs in the presynaptic compartment of inhibitory synapses after 2 days treatment with the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sandip S Panesar, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Timothée Jacquesson, William Hula, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
The human inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) is a ventral, temporo-occipital association tract. Though described in early neuroanatomical works, its existence was later questioned. Application of in vivo tractography to the neuroanatomical study of the ILF has generally confirmed its existence, however, consensus is lacking regarding its subdivision, laterality and connectivity. Further, there is a paucity of detailed neuroanatomic data pertaining to the exact anatomy of the ILF. Generalized Q-Sampling imaging (GQI) is a non-tensor tractographic modality permitting high resolution imaging of white-matter structures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Pedro Baptista, José P Andrade
The formation of new neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as one of the major findings in neuroanatomical research. The hippocampal formation (HF), one of the main targets of these investigations, holds a neurogenic niche widely recognized among several mammalian species and whose existence in the human brain has sparked controversy and extensive debate. Many cellular features from this region emphasize that hippocampal neurogenesis suffers changes with normal aging and, among regulatory factors, physical exercise and chronic stress provoke opposite effects on cell proliferation, maturation and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Nina Berggaard, Mohsen Seifi, Johannes J L van der Want, Jerome D Swinny
GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons provide powerful inhibitory modulation of grid cells in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC LII). However, the molecular machinery through which PV+ cells regulate grid cell activity is poorly defined. PV+ interneurons impart inhibitory modulation primarily via GABA-A receptors (GABAA Rs). GABAA Rs are pentameric ion channels assembled from a repertoire of 19 subunits. Multiple subunit combinations result in a variety of receptor subtypes mediating functionally diverse postsynaptic inhibitory currents...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Peng Peng, Min Li, Han Liu, Ya-Ru Tian, Shui-Lian Chu, Nicholas Van Halm-Lutterodt, Bin Jing, Tao Jiang
The main purpose of this study is to examine the lifetime tobacco consumption and the degree of nicotine dependence related gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in young adult-male smokers. Fifty-three long-term male smokers and 53 well-matched male healthy non-smokers participated in the study, and the smokers were respectively categorized into light and heavy tobacco consumption subgroups by pack-years and into moderate and severe nicotine dependence subgroups using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Gherardo Varando, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Alberto Muñoz, Asta Kastanauskaite, Concha Bielza, Pedro Larrañaga, Javier DeFelipe
The development of 3D visualization and reconstruction methods to analyse microscopic structures at different levels of resolutions is of great importance to define brain microorganization and connectivity. MultiMap is a new tool that allows the visualization, 3D segmentation and quantification of fluorescent structures selectively in the neuropil from large stacks of confocal microscopy images. The major contribution of this tool is the posibility to easily navigate and create regions of interest of any shape and size within a large brain area that will be automatically 3D segmented and quantified to determine the density of puncta in the neuropil...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Thomas van den Boogert, Marc van Hoof, Stephan Handschuh, Rudolf Glueckert, Nils Guinand, Jean-Philippe Guyot, Herman Kingma, Angelica Perez-Fornos, Bart Seppen, Lejo Johnson Chacko, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Raymond van de Berg
Introduction: Knowledge of the neuro-anatomical architecture of the inner ear contributes to the improvement and development of cochlear and vestibular implants. The present knowledge is mainly based on two-dimensional images (histology) or derived models that simplify the complexity of this architecture. This study investigated the feasibility of visualizing relevant neuro-anatomical structures of the inner ear in a dynamic three-dimensional reproduction, using a combination of staining, micro-CT imaging and an image processing algorithm...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Nerea Moreno, Jesús M López, Ruth Morona, Daniel Lozano, Sara Jiménez, Agustín González
Expression patterns of Nkx2.1 and Islet-1 (Isl1), which encode transcription factors that are key in the regionalization of the forebrain, were analyzed by combined immunohistochemical methods in young adult specimens of two lungfishes ( Neoceratodus forsteri and Protopterus dolloi ) and a urodele amphibian (Pleurodeles waltl) . We aimed to get insights into the possible organization of the forebrain in the common ancestor of all tetrapods because of the pivotal phylogenetic significance of these two groups, being lungfishes the closest living relatives of tetrapods, and representing urodeles a model of simple brain organization with most shared features with amniotes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Maura Ferrer-Ferrer, Alexander Dityatev
Accumulating data support the importance of interactions between pre- and postsynaptic neuronal elements with astroglial processes and extracellular matrix (ECM) for formation and plasticity of chemical synapses, and thus validate the concept of a tetrapartite synapse. Here we outline the major mechanisms driving: (i) synaptogenesis by secreted extracellular scaffolding molecules, like thrombospondins (TSPs), neuronal pentraxins (NPs) and cerebellins, which respectively promote presynaptic, postsynaptic differentiation or both; (ii) maturation of synapses via reelin and integrin ligands-mediated signaling; and (iii) regulation of synaptic plasticity by ECM-dependent control of induction and consolidation of new synaptic configurations...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Darren W Roddy, Elena Roman, Shane Rooney, Sinaoife Andrews, Chloe Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Kirk J Levins, Leonardo Tozzi, Paul Tierney, Denis Barry, Thomas Frodl, Veronica O'Keane, Erik O'Hanlon
The Stria medullaris (SM) Thalami is a discrete white matter tract that directly connects frontolimbic areas to the habenula, allowing the forebrain to influence midbrain monoaminergic output. Habenular dysfunction has been shown in various neuropsychiatric conditions. However, there exists a paucity of research into the habenula's principal afferent tract, the SM. Diffusion-weighted tractography may provide insights into the properties of the SM in vivo , opening up investigation of this tract in conditions of monoamine dysregulation such as depression, schizophrenia, addiction and pain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Dave Gagnon, Lara Eid, Dymka Coudé, Carl Whissel, Thérèse Di Paolo, André Parent, Martin Parent
This light and electron microscopie immunohistochemical quantitative study aimed at determining the state of the dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) innervations of the internal (GPi) and external (GPe) segments of the pallidum in cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis ) rendered parkinsonian by systemic injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In contrast to the prominent DA denervation of striatum, the GPi in MPTP monkeys was found to be markedly enriched in DA (TH+) axon varicosities...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Nelyane N M Santana, Marília A S Barros, Helder H A Medeiros, Melquisedec A D Santana, Lara L Silva, Paulo L A G Morais, Fernando V L Ladd, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Ruthnaldo R M Lima, Judney C Cavalcante, Miriam S M O Costa, Rovena C J G Engelberth, Expedito S Nascimento
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) are the main components of the circadian timing system. The SCN, classically known as the master circadian clock, generates rhythms and synchronizes them to environmental cues. The IGL is a key structure that modulates SCN activity. Strategies on the use of time by animals can provide important clues about how some species are adapted to competitive process in nature. Few studies have provided information about temporal niche in bats with special attention on the neural substrate underlies circadian rhythms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Olalekan M Ogundele, Joaquin Pardo, Joseph Francis, Rodolfo G Goya, Charles C Lee
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling regulates the activity and phosphorylation of downstream kinases linked to inflammation, neurodevelopment, aging and synaptic function. In addition to the control of Ca2+ currents, IGF-1R signaling modulates the activity of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase 2 alpha (CaMKIIα) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/ErK) through multiple signaling pathways. These proteins (CaMKIIα and MAPK) regulate Ca2+ movement and long-term potentiation (LTP)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Esther Luquin, Ibone Huerta, María S Aymerich, Elisa Mengual
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are functionally associated brainstem structures implicated in behavioral state control and sensorimotor integration. The PPN is also involved in gait and posture, while the LDT plays a role in reward. Both nuclei comprise characteristic cholinergic neurons intermingled with glutamatergic and GABAergic cells whose absolute numbers in the rat have been only partly established. Here we sought to determine the complete phenotypical profile of each nucleus to investigate potential differences between them...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Laurel R Yohe, Simone Hoffmann, Abigail Curtis
The degree to which molecular and morphological loss of function occurs synchronously during the vestigialization of traits is not well understood. The mammalian vomeronasal system, a sense critical for mediating many social and reproductive behaviors, is highly conserved across mammals. New World Leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are under strong selection to maintain a functional vomeronasal system such that most phyllostomids possess a distinct vomeronasal organ and an intact TRPC2, a gene encoding a protein primarily involved in vomeronasal sensory neuron signal transduction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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