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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337130/the-brainstem-in-emotion-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Anand Venkatraman, Brian L Edlow, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Emotions depend upon the integrated activity of neural networks that modulate arousal, autonomic function, motor control, and somatosensation. Brainstem nodes play critical roles in each of these networks, but prior studies of the neuroanatomic basis of emotion, particularly in the human neuropsychological literature, have mostly focused on the contributions of cortical rather than subcortical structures. Given the size and complexity of brainstem circuits, elucidating their structural and functional properties involves technical challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326022/brain-mapping-and-synapse-quantification-in-vivo-it-s-time-to-imaging
#2
Angel Acebes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326021/abnormalities-in-structural-covariance-of-cortical-gyrification-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Jinping Xu, Jiuquan Zhang, Jinlei Zhang, Yue Wang, Yanling Zhang, Jian Wang, Guanglin Li, Qingmao Hu, Yuanchao Zhang
Although abnormal cortical morphology and connectivity between brain regions (structural covariance) have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD), the topological organizations of large-scale structural brain networks are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated large-scale structural brain networks in a sample of 37 PD patients and 34 healthy controls (HC) by assessing the structural covariance of cortical gyrification with local gyrification index (lGI). We demonstrated prominent small-world properties of the structural brain networks for both groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326020/pyramidal-neurons-are-not-generalizable-building-blocks-of-cortical-networks
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer I Luebke
A key challenge in cortical neuroscience is to gain a comprehensive understanding of how pyramidal neuron heterogeneity across different areas and species underlies the functional specialization of individual neurons, networks, and areas. Comparative studies have been important in this endeavor, providing data relevant to the question of which of the many inherent properties of individual pyramidal neurons are necessary and sufficient for species-specific network and areal function. In this mini review, the importance of pyramidal neuron structural properties for signaling are outlined, followed by a summary of our recent work comparing the structural features of mouse (C57/BL6 strain) and rhesus monkey layer 3 (L3) pyramidal neurons in primary visual and frontal association cortices and their implications for neuronal and areal function...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321183/early-events-in-retinal-degeneration-caused-by-rhodopsin-mutation-or-pigment-epithelium-malfunction-differences-and-similarities
#5
Johnny Di Pierdomenico, Diego García-Ayuso, Isabel Pinilla, Nicolás Cuenca, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso, María P Villegas-Pérez
To study the course of photoreceptor cell death and macro and microglial reactivity in two rat models of retinal degeneration with different etiologies. Retinas from P23H-1 (rhodopsin mutation) and Royal College of Surgeon (RCS, pigment epithelium malfunction) rats and age-matched control animals (Sprague-Dawley and Pievald Viro Glaxo, respectively) were cross-sectioned at different postnatal ages (from P10 to P60) and rhodopsin, L/M- and S-opsin, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were immunodetected...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293179/disynaptic-subthalamic-input-to-the-posterior-cerebellum-in-rat
#6
Saad Jwair, Patrice Coulon, Tom J H Ruigrok
In the last decade, the interplay between basal ganglia and cerebellar functions has been increasingly advocated to explain their joint operation in both normal and pathological conditions. Yet, insight into the neuroanatomical basis of this interplay between both subcortical structures remains sparse and is mainly derived from work in primates. Here, in rodents, we have studied the existence of a potential disynaptic connection between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the cerebellar cortex as has been demonstrated earlier for the primate...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289379/dichotomous-distribution-of-putative-cholinergic-interneurons-in-mouse-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#7
Sarah Marking, Kurt Krosnowski, Tatsuya Ogura, Weihong Lin
Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280462/the-role-of-glia-in-the-peripheral-and-central-auditory-system-following-noise-overexposure-contribution-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-1%C3%AE-to-the-pathogenesis-of-hearing-loss
#8
Verónica Fuentes-Santamaría, Juan Carlos Alvarado, Pedro Melgar-Rojas, María C Gabaldón-Ull, Josef M Miller, José M Juiz
Repeated noise exposure induces inflammation and cellular adaptations in the peripheral and central auditory system resulting in pathophysiology of hearing loss. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which noise-induced inflammatory-related events in the cochlea activate glial-mediated cellular responses in the cochlear nucleus (CN), the first relay station of the auditory pathway. The auditory function, glial activation, modifications in gene expression and protein levels of inflammatory mediators and ultrastructural changes in glial-neuronal interactions were assessed in rats exposed to broadband noise (0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280461/glutamate-and-opioid-antagonists-modulate-dopamine-levels-evoked-by-innately-attractive-male-chemosignals-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-female-rats
#9
María-José Sánchez-Catalán, Alejandro Orrico, Lucía Hipólito, Teodoro Zornoza, Ana Polache, Enrique Lanuza, Fernando Martínez-García, Luis Granero, Carmen Agustín-Pavón
Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261065/dopaminergic-neurones-in-the-main-olfactory-bulb-an-overview-from-an-electrophysiological-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Angela Pignatelli, Ottorino Belluzzi
The olfactory bulb (OB), the first center processing olfactory information, is characterized by a vigorous life-long activity-dependent plasticity responsible for a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. It hosts the more numerous group of dopaminergic (DA) neurones in the central nervous system, cells strategically positioned at the entry of the bulbar circuitry, directly in contact with the olfactory nerve terminals, which play a key role in odor processing and in the adaptation of the bulbar network to external conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261064/expression-of-sept3-sept5a-and-sept5b-in-the-developing-and-adult-nervous-system-of-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Frederik Helmprobst, Christina Lillesaar, Christian Stigloher
Septins are a highly conserved family of small GTPases that form cytoskeletal filaments. Their cellular functions, especially in the nervous system, still remain largely enigmatic, but there are accumulating lines of evidence that septins play important roles in neuronal physiology and pathology. In order to further dissect septin function in the nervous system a detailed temporal resolved analysis in the genetically well tractable model vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio) is crucially necessary. To close this knowledge gap we here provide a reference dataset describing the expression of selected septins (sept3, sept5a and sept5b) in the zebrafish central nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239341/adeno-associated-viral-vectors-serotype-8-for-cell-specific-delivery-of-therapeutic-genes-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Diego Pignataro, Diego Sucunza, Lucia Vanrell, Esperanza Lopez-Franco, Iria G Dopeso-Reyes, Africa Vales, Mirja Hommel, Alberto J Rico, Jose L Lanciego, Gloria Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become highly promising tools for research and clinical applications in the central nervous system (CNS). However, specific delivery of genes to the cell type of interest is essential for the success of gene therapy and therefore a correct selection of the promoter plays a very important role. Here, AAV8 vectors carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as reporter gene under the transcriptional control of different CNS-specific promoters were used and compared with a strong ubiquitous promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223923/embryonic-and-postnatal-expression-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mrna-in-mouse-brain
#13
Eiki Kimura, Chiharu Tohyama
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor family, plays a critical role in the developing nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates. Dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, avidly binds to this receptor, and maternal exposure to dioxin has been shown to impair higher brain functions and dendritic morphogenesis, possibly via an AhR-dependent mechanism. However, there is little information on AhR expression in the developing mammalian brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220062/anatomical-and-molecular-properties-of-long-descending-propriospinal-neurons-in-mice
#14
Jamie R Flynn, Victoria L Conn, Kieran A Boyle, David I Hughes, Masahiko Watanabe, Tomoko Velasquez, Martyn D Goulding, Robert J Callister, Brett A Graham
Long descending propriospinal neurons (LDPNs) are interneurons that form direct connections between cervical and lumbar spinal circuits. LDPNs are involved in interlimb coordination and are important mediators of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Much of what we know about LDPNs comes from a range of species, however, the increased use of transgenic mouse lines to better define neuronal populations calls for a more complete characterisation of LDPNs in mice. In this study, we examined the cell body location, inhibitory neurotransmitter phenotype, developmental provenance, morphology and synaptic inputs of mouse LDPNs throughout the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#15
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144216/a-tool-for-brain-wide-quantitative-analysis-of-molecular-data-upon-projection-into-a-planar-view-of-choice
#16
Samme Vreysen, Isabelle Scheyltjens, Marie-Eve Laramée, Lutgarde Arckens
Several techniques, allowing the reconstruction and visualization of functional, anatomical or molecular information from tissue and organ slices, have been developed over the years. Yet none allow direct comparison without reprocessing the same slices. Alternative methods using publicly available reference maps like the Allen Brain Atlas lack flexibility with respect to age and species. We propose a new approach to reconstruct a segmented region of interest from serial slices by projecting the optical density values representing a given molecular signal to a plane of view of choice, and to generalize the results into a reference map, which is built from the individual maps of all animals under study...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163674/dendritic-arborization-patterns-of-small-juxtaglomerular-cell-subtypes-within-the-rodent-olfactory-bulb
#17
Wolfgang G Bywalez, Tiffany Ona-Jodar, Michael Lukas, Jovica Ninkovic, Veronica Egger
Within the glomerular layer of the rodent olfactory bulb, numerous subtypes of local interneurons contribute to early processing of incoming sensory information. Here we have investigated dopaminergic and other small local juxtaglomerular cells in rats and mice and characterized their dendritic arborization pattern with respect to individual glomeruli by fluorescent labeling via patching and reconstruction of dendrites and glomerular contours from two-photon imaging data. Dopaminergic neurons were identified in a transgenic mouse line where the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) was labeled with GFP...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154527/in-vivo-exploration-of-the-connectivity-between-the-subthalamic-nucleus-and-the-globus-pallidus-in-the-human-brain-using-multi-fiber-tractography
#18
Sonia Pujol, Ryan Cabeen, Sophie B Sébille, Jérôme Yelnik, Chantal François, Sara Fernandez Vidal, Carine Karachi, Yulong Zhao, G Rees Cosgrove, Pierre Jannin, Ron Kikinis, Eric Bardinet
The basal ganglia is part of a complex system of neuronal circuits that play a key role in the integration and execution of motor, cognitive and emotional function in the human brain. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder of the motor circuit characterized by tremor, rigidity, and slowness of movement. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus pars interna provides an efficient treatment to reduce symptoms and levodopa-induced side effects in Parkinson's disease patients...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119578/perspective-on-the-road-toward-gene-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Bas Blits, Harald Petry
Many therapeutic strategies aimed at relieving symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are currently used for treatment of this disease. With a hallmark of progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, the absence of properly operational dopaminergic circuitry becomes a therapeutic target. Following diagnosis, dopamine replacement can be given in the form of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine). Even though it is recognized as standard of care, this treatment strategy does not prevent the affected neurons from degenerating...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119577/widespread-volumetric-brain-changes-following-tooth-loss-in-female-mice
#20
Limor Avivi-Arber, Ze'ev Seltzer, Miriam Friedel, Jason P Lerch, Massieh Moayedi, Karen D Davis, Barry J Sessle
Tooth loss is associated with altered sensory, motor, cognitive and emotional functions. These changes vary highly in the population and are accompanied by structural and functional changes in brain regions mediating these functions. It is unclear to what extent this variability in behavior and function is caused by genetic and/or environmental determinants and which brain regions undergo structural plasticity that mediates these changes. Thus, the overall goal of our research program is to identify genetic variants that control structural and functional plasticity following tooth loss...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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