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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

Carles Bosch, Albert Martínez, Nuria Masachs, Cátia M Teixeira, Isabel Fernaud, Fausto Ulloa, Esther Pérez-Martínez, Carlos Lois, Joan X Comella, Javier DeFelipe, Angel Merchán-Pérez, Eduardo Soriano
[This corrects the article on p. 60 in vol. 9, PMID: 26052271.].
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Charlene Steinhausen, Lyuba Zehl, Michaela Haas-Rioth, Kerstin Morcinek, Wolfgang Walkowiak, Stefan Huggenberger
The general assumption that brain size differences are an adequate proxy for subtler differences in brain organization turned neurobiologists toward the question why some groups of mammals such as primates, elephants, and whales have such remarkably large brains. In this meta-analysis, an extensive sample of eutherian mammals (115 species distributed in 14 orders) provided data about several different biological traits and measures of brain size such as absolute brain mass (AB), relative brain mass (RB; quotient from AB and body mass), and encephalization quotient (EQ)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Hanna Zwaka, Daniel Münch, Gisela Manz, Randolf Menzel, Jürgen Rybak
In the honeybee brain, two prominent tracts - the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tract - project from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes (ALs), to the central brain, the mushroom bodies (MBs), and the protocerebral lobe (PL). Intracellularly stained uniglomerular projection neurons were reconstructed, registered to the 3D honeybee standard brain atlas, and then used to derive the spatial properties and quantitative morphology of the neurons of both tracts. We evaluated putative synaptic contacts of projection neurons (PNs) using confocal microscopy...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Karen Stanic, Natalia Saldivia, Benjamín Förstera, Marcela Torrejón, Hernán Montecinos, Teresa Caprile
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are pivotal for central nervous system (CNS) development, facilitating cell migration, axonal growth, myelination, dendritic spine formation, and synaptic plasticity, among other processes. During axon guidance, the ECM not only acts as a permissive or non-permissive substrate for navigating axons, but also modulates the effects of classical guidance cues, such as netrin or Eph/ephrin family members. Despite being highly important, little is known about the expression of ECM molecules during CNS development...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Jidan Zhong, David Q Chen, Matthew Walker, Adam Waspe, Thomas Looi, Karolina Piorkowska, James M Drake, Mojgan Hodaie
An increasing number of applications use the postnatal piglet model in neuroimaging studies, however, these are based primarily on T1 weighted image templates. There is a growing need for a multimodal structural brain template for a comprehensive depiction of the piglet brain, particularly given the growing applications of diffusion weighted imaging for characterizing tissue microstructures and white matter organization. In this study, we present the first multimodal piglet structural brain template which includes a T1 weighted image with tissue segmentation probability maps, diffusion weighted metric templates with multiple diffusivity maps, and population-based whole-brain fiber tracts for postnatal piglets...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Yupeng Wu, Dandan Sun, Yong Wang, Yibao Wang
The definitive structure and functional role of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) are still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the connectivity, asymmetry, and segmentation patterns of this bundle. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) analysis was performed on 10 healthy adults and a 90-subject DSI template (NTU-90 Atlas). In addition, a new tractography approach based on the anatomic subregions and two regions of interest (ROI) was evaluated for the fiber reconstructions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz, Ibrahim González-Marrero, Luis G Hernández-Abad, Emilia M Carmona-Calero, Gundela Meyer, Agustín Castañeyra-Perdomo
The choroid plexuses (ChP) are highly vascularized tissues suspended from each of the cerebral ventricles. Their main function is to secret cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces, forming a crucial system for the development and maintenance of the CNS. However, despite the essential role of the ChP-CSF system to regulate the CNS in a global manner, it still remains one of the most understudied areas in neurobiology. Here we define by immunohistochemistry the expression of different proteins involved in the maturation and functionality of the ChP from the late embryological period to maturity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Yupeng Wu, Dandan Sun, Yong Wang, Yibao Wang, Shaowu Ou
The cingulum bundle (CB) is a critical white matter fiber tract in the brain, which forms connections between the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and temporal lobe. In non-human primates, the CB is actually divided into distinct subcomponents on the basis of corticocortical connections. However, at present, no study has verified similar distinct subdivisions in the human brain. In this study, we reconstructed these distinct subdivisions in the human brain, and determined their exact cortical connections using high definition fiber tracking (HDFT) technique on 10 healthy adults and a 488-subject template from the Human Connectome Project (HCP-488)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Carolina Aguado, Sebastián García-Madrona, Mercedes Gil-Minguez, Rafael Luján
T-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channels play a central role in regulating membrane excitability in the brain. Although the contributions of T-type current to neuron output is often proposed to reflect a differential distribution of T-type channel subtypes to somato-dendritic compartments, their precise subcellular distributions in central neurons are not fully determined. Using histoblot and high-resolution immunoelectron microscopic techniques, we have investigated the expression, regional distribution and subcellular localization of T-type Cav3...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Emmanuel Márquez-Legorreta, José de Anchieta C Horta-Júnior, Albert S Berrebi, Enrique Saldaña
The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Lena Robra, Vatsala Thirumalai
The dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein of apparent molecular weight 32 kDa (Darpp-32) is an inhibitory subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1). Darpp-32 activity is regulated by multiple ligand-activated G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). This protein is coded for by the protein phosphatase-1 regulatory subunit 1b (ppp1r1b) gene. Here, we provide experimental evidence for the presence of multiple isoforms of ppp1r1b in zebrafish. We show that these isoforms are differentially expressed during development with the full-length isoform being maternally deposited...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Isabell Schumann, Lars Hering, Georg Mayer
Opsins are light-sensitive proteins that play a key role in animal vision and are related to the ancient photoreceptive molecule rhodopsin found in unicellular organisms. In general, opsins involved in vision comprise two major groups: the rhabdomeric (r-opsins) and the ciliary opsins (c-opsins). The functionality of opsins, which is dependent on their protein structure, may have changed during evolution. In arthropods, typically r-opsins are responsible for vision, whereas in vertebrates c-opsins are components of visual photoreceptors...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Paola Lenzi, Gloria Lazzeri, Francesca Biagioni, Carla L Busceti, Stefano Gambardella, Alessandra Salvetti, Francesco Fornai
Protein clearing pathways named autophagy (ATG) and ubiquitin proteasome (UP) control homeostasis within eukaryotic cells, while their dysfunction produces neurodegeneration. These pathways are viewed as distinct biochemical cascades occurring within specific cytosolic compartments owing pathway-specific enzymatic activity. Recent data strongly challenged the concept of two morphologically distinct and functionally segregated compartments. In fact, preliminary evidence suggests the convergence of these pathways to form a novel organelle named autophagoproteasome...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Toru Takahata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Henrik Boije, Shahrzad Shirazi Fard, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Finn Hallböök
Thorough investigation of a neuronal population can help reveal key aspects regarding the nervous system and its development. The retinal horizontal cells have several extraordinary features making them particularly interesting for addressing questions regarding fate assignment and subtype specification. In this review we discuss and summarize data concerning the formation and diversity of horizontal cells, how morphology is correlated to molecular markers, and how fate assignment separates the horizontal lineage from the lineages of other retinal cell types...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
András Jakab, Beat Werner, Marco Piccirelli, Kázmér Kovács, Ernst Martin, John S Thornton, Tarek Yousry, Gabor Szekely, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura
Functional stereotactic neurosurgery by means of deep brain stimulation or ablation provides an effective treatment for movement disorders, but the outcome of surgical interventions depends on the accuracy by which the target structures are reached. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based probabilistic tractography of deep brain structures that are commonly used for pre- and perioperative targeting for functional neurosurgery. Three targets were reconstructed based on their significance as intervention sites or as a no-go area to avoid adverse side effects: the connections propagating from the thalamus to (1) primary and supplementary motor areas, (2) to somatosensory areas and the cerebello-thalamic tract (CTT)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Michael Fauth, Christian Tetzlaff
The connectivity of the brain is continuously adjusted to new environmental influences by several activity-dependent adaptive processes. The most investigated adaptive mechanism is activity-dependent functional or synaptic plasticity regulating the transmission efficacy of existing synapses. Another important but less prominently discussed adaptive process is structural plasticity, which changes the connectivity by the formation and deletion of synapses. In this review, we show, based on experimental evidence, that structural plasticity can be classified similar to synaptic plasticity into two categories: (i) Hebbian structural plasticity, which leads to an increase (decrease) of the number of synapses during phases of high (low) neuronal activity and (ii) homeostatic structural plasticity, which balances these changes by removing and adding synapses...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sorin Hostiuc, Eduard Drima, Octavian Buda
James Parkinson, in his "Essay on the Shaking Palsy" from 1817 described for the first time the disease that later on carried his name. Its anatomical substrate remained controversial for over 100 years. The first case that suggested the association between Parkinson's disease and substantia nigra was published in 1893 Blocq and Marinesco, two scientists who worked at Salpêtrière. The article described a 38 years-old man, with tuberculosis, who was admitted to the Charcot's neurological ward because he also showed signs of unilateral Parkinsonism...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Clara Ortega-de San Luis, Alberto Pascual
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is proposed as a therapeutic tool in Parkinson's disease, addiction-related disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions affecting motor neurons (MNs). Despite the high amount of work about GDNF therapeutic application, the neuronal circuits requiring GDNF trophic support in the brain and spinal cord (SC) are poorly characterized. Here, we defined GDNF and GDNF family receptor-α 1 (GFRα1) expression pattern in the brain and SC of newborn and adult mice. We performed systematic and simultaneous detection of EGFP and LacZ expressing alleles in reporter mice and asked whether modifications of this signaling pathway lead to a significant central nervous system (CNS) alteration...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Jing Yang, Jing Chen, Guohong Cai, Rui Lu, Tingting Sun, Tingting Luo, Shengxi Wu, Shucai Ling
Sevoflurane is widely used in adult and pediatric patients during clinical surgeries. Although studies have shown that exposure to sevoflurane impairs solfactory memory after an operation, the neuropathological changes underlying this effect are not clear. This study detected the effect of sevoflurane exposure on the development of calcium-binding proteins-expressing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We exposed neonatal mice to 2% sevoflurane at two different developmental time points and found that exposing mice to sevoflurane at postnatal day (PD) 7 significantly decreased the expression of GAD67 and parvalbumin (PV) in the olfactory bulb (OB) but did not alter the expression of calretinin (CR) or calbindin D28k (CB)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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