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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642688/lower-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-is-related-to-negative-affect-and-clinical-manifestations-of-fibromyalgia
#1
Marie-Andrée Coulombe, Keith St Lawrence, Dwight E Moulin, Patricia Morley-Forster, Mahsa Shokouhi, Warren R Nielson, Karen D Davis
Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is characterized by chronic widespread pain, muscle tenderness and emotional distress. Previous studies found reduced endogenous pain modulation in FM. This deficiency of pain modulation may be related to the attributes of chronic pain and other clinical symptoms experienced in patients with FM. Thus, we tested whether there is a link between the clinical symptoms of FM and functional connectivity (FC) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a key node of pain modulation. We acquired resting state 3T functional MRI (rsfMRI) data from 23 female patients with FM and 16 age- and sex- matched healthy controls (HC) and assessed FM symptoms with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638323/sortilin-fragments-deposit-at-senile-plaques-in-human-cerebrum
#2
Xia Hu, Zhao-Lan Hu, Zheng Li, Chun-Sheng Ruan, Wen-Ying Qiu, Aihua Pan, Chang-Qi Li, Yan Cai, Lu Shen, Yaping Chu, Bei-Sha Tang, Huaibin Cai, Xin-Fu Zhou, Chao Ma, Xiao-Xin Yan
Genetic variations in the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we demonstrate deposition of fragments from the Vps10p member sortilin at senile plaques (SPs) in aged and AD human cerebrum. Sortilin changes were characterized in postmortem brains with antibodies against the extracellular and intracellular C-terminal domains. The two antibodies exhibited identical labeling in normal human cerebrum, occurring in the somata and dendrites of cortical and hippocampal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611598/early-paradoxical-increase-of-dopamine-a-neurochemical-study-of-olfactory-bulb-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-mptp-treated-monkeys
#3
Christian Pifl, Harald Reither, Natalia Lopez-Gonzalez Del Rey, Carmen Cavada, Jose A Obeso, Javier Blesa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with both motor and non-motor manifestations. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms, which can precede motor symptoms by several years. The relationship between hyposmia and PD remains elusive. Olfactory bulb (OB) pathology shows an increased number of olfactory dopaminergic cells, protein aggregates and dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems. In this study we examined tissue levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and their metabolites, of noradrenaline (NA) and of the amino acid neurotransmitters aspartate, glutamate, taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid in OBs of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated Macaca fascicularis in different stages, including monkeys who were always asymptomatic, monkeys who recovered from mild parkinsonian signs, and monkeys with stable moderate or severe parkinsonism...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588456/activity-dependent-modulation-of-granule-cell-survival-in-the-accessory-olfactory-bulb-at-puberty
#4
Livio Oboti, Sara Trova, Roberta Schellino, Marilena Marraudino, Natalie R Harris, Olubukola M Abiona, Mojca Stampar, Weihong Lin, Paolo Peretto
The vomeronasal system (VNS) is specialized in the detection of salient chemical cues triggering social and neuroendocrine responses. Such responses are not always stereotyped, instead, they vary depending on age, sex, and reproductive state, yet the mechanisms underlying this variability are unclear. Here, by analyzing neuronal survival in the first processing nucleus of the VNS, namely the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), through multiple bromodeoxyuridine birthdating protocols, we show that exposure of female mice to male soiled bedding material affects the integration of newborn granule interneurons mainly after puberty...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579947/commentary-gene-therapy-a-promising-approach-for-neuroprotection-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
COMMENT
Juan Segura-Aguilar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559801/parsing-heterogeneous-striatal-activity
#6
REVIEW
Kae Nakamura, Long Ding
The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553205/dopamine-and-serotonin-induced-modulation-of-gabaergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-striatum-and-basal-forebrain
#7
REVIEW
Toshihiko Momiyama, Takuma Nishijo
Catecholamine receptor-mediated modulation of glutamatergic or GABAergic transmission in the striatum as well as basal forebrain (BF) has been intensively studied during these two decades. In the striatum, activation of dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in GABAergic terminals inhibits GABA release onto cholinergic interneurons by selective blockade of N-type calcium channels. In the BF, glutamatergic transmission onto cholinergic projection neurons is inhibited via DA D1-like receptors by selective blockade of P/Q-type calcium channels...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539874/juvenile-hippocampal-ca2-region-expresses-aggrecan
#8
Asako Noguchi, Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Shota Morikawa, Hideki Tamura, Yuji Ikegaya
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are distributed primarily around inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons. PNNs are also present around excitatory neurons in some brain regions and prevent plasticity in these neurons. A recent study demonstrated that PNNs also exist around mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are the principle type of excitatory neurons, in the CA2 subregion and modulate the excitability and plasticity of these neurons. However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529477/prox1-is-a-marker-for-aii-amacrine-cells-in-the-mouse-retina
#9
Luis Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Shaghauyegh S Azar, Janira de Los Santos, Nicholas C Brecha
The transcription factor Prox1 is expressed in multiple cells in the retina during eye development. This study has focused on neuronal Prox1 expression in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the adult mouse retina. Prox1 immunostaining was evaluated in vertical retinal sections and whole mount preparations using a specific antibody directed to the C-terminus of Prox1. Strong immunostaining was observed in numerous amacrine cell bodies and in all horizontal cell bodies in the proximal and distal INL, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507511/distribution-of-elovl4-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-brain
#10
David M Sherry, Blake R Hopiavuori, Megan A Stiles, Negar S Rahman, Kathryn G Ozan, Ferenc Deak, Martin-Paul Agbaga, Robert E Anderson
ELOngation of Very Long chain fatty acids (ELOVL)-4 is essential for the synthesis of very long chain-fatty acids (fatty acids with chain lengths ≥ 28 carbons). The functions of ELOVL4 and its very long-chain fatty acid products are poorly understood at present. However, mutations in ELOVL4 cause neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases that vary according to the mutation and inheritance pattern. Heterozygous inheritance of different ELOVL4 mutations causes Stargardt-like Macular Dystrophy or Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 34...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503136/a-quantitative-golgi-study-of-dendritic-morphology-in-the-mice-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons
#11
Ivana Bicanic, Ana Hladnik, Zdravko Petanjek
In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit) impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487639/reticular-formation-connections-underlying-horizontal-gaze-the-central-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-cmrf-as-a-conduit-for-the-collicular-saccade-signal
#12
Niping Wang, Eddie Perkins, Lan Zhou, Susan Warren, Paul J May
The central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF) occupies much of the core of the midbrain tegmentum. Physiological studies indicate that it is involved in controlling gaze changes, particularly horizontal saccades. Anatomically, it receives input from the ipsilateral superior colliculus (SC) and it has downstream projections to the brainstem, including the horizontal gaze center located in the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). Consequently, it has been hypothesized that the cMRF plays a role in the spatiotemporal transformation needed to convert spatially coded collicular saccade signals into the temporally coded signals utilized by the premotor neurons of the horizontal gaze center...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487638/construction-of-individual-morphological-brain-networks-with-multiple-morphometric-features
#13
Wan Li, Chunlan Yang, Feng Shi, Shuicai Wu, Qun Wang, Yingnan Nie, Xin Zhang
In recent years, researchers have increased attentions to the morphological brain network, which is generally constructed by measuring the mathematical correlation across regions using a certain morphometric feature, such as regional cortical thickness and voxel intensity. However, cerebral structure can be characterized by various factors, such as regional volume, surface area, and curvature. Moreover, most of the morphological brain networks are population-based, which has limitations in the investigations of individual difference and clinical applications...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443002/to-wait-or-not-to-wait-separate-mechanisms-in-the-oculomotor-circuit-of-basal-ganglia
#14
Masaharu Yasuda, Okihide Hikosaka
We reach a goal immediately after detecting the target, or later by withholding the immediate action. Each time, we choose one of these actions by suppressing the other. How does the brain control these antagonistic actions? We hypothesized that the output of basal ganglia (BG), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), suppresses antagonistic oculomotor signals by sending strong inhibitory output to superior colliculus (SC). To test this hypothesis, we trained monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade task: Immediate (visually guided) and delayed (visually-withheld but memory-guided) saccade tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443001/functional-sub-circuits-of-the-olfactory-system-viewed-from-the-olfactory-bulb-and-the-olfactory-tubercle
#15
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamaguchi
Understanding of the olfactory neural circuits has progressed beyond analysis of how odor information from the external environment is processed in the brain. While spatially-organized sub-circuits were found to exist up to the olfactory bulb (OB), the arrangement in the olfactory cortex (OC), especially in its representative piriform cortex (PC), appears diffuse and dispersed. An emerging view is that the activity of OC neurons may not simply encode odor identity but rather encode plastic odor information such as odor value...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443000/the-olfactory-system-revealed-non-invasive-mapping-by-using-constrained-spherical-deconvolution-tractography-in-healthy-humans
#16
Demetrio Milardi, Alberto Cacciola, Alessandro Calamuneri, Maria F Ghilardi, Fabrizia Caminiti, Filippo Cascio, Veronica Andronaco, Giuseppe Anastasi, Enricomaria Mormina, Alessandro Arrigo, Daniele Bruschetta, Angelo Quartarone
Although the olfactory sense has always been considered with less interest than the visual, auditive or somatic senses, it does plays a major role in our ordinary life, with important implication in dangerous situations or in social and emotional behaviors. Traditional Diffusion Tensor signal model and related tractography have been used in the past years to reconstruct the cranial nerves, including the olfactory nerve (ON). However, no supplementary information with regard to the pathways of the olfactory network have been provided...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442999/roles-of-multiple-globus-pallidus-territories-of-monkeys-and-humans-in-motivation-cognition-and-action-an-anatomical-physiological-and-pathophysiological-review
#17
REVIEW
Yosuke Saga, Eiji Hoshi, Léon Tremblay
The globus pallidus (GP) communicates with widespread cortical areas that support various functions, including motivation, cognition and action. Anatomical tract-tracing studies revealed that the anteroventral GP communicates with the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, which are involved in motivational control; the anterodorsal GP communicates with the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is involved in cognitive control; and the posterior GP communicates with the frontal motor cortex, which is involved in action control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442998/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-delivery-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-delicate-balance-between-neuroprotection-trophic-effects-and-unwanted-compensatory-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Liliane Tenenbaum, Marie Humbert-Claude
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and Neurturin (NRTN) bind to a receptor complex consisting of a member of the GDNF family receptor (GFR)-α and the Ret tyrosine kinase. Both factors were shown to protect nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons and reduce motor symptoms when applied terminally in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, clinical trials based on intraputaminal GDNF protein administration or recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated NRTN gene delivery have been disappointing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428746/expression-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-dao-daao-and-d-amino-acid-oxidase-activator-daoa-g72-during-development-and-aging-in-the-human-post-mortem-brain
#19
Vinita Jagannath, Zoya Marinova, Camelia-Maria Monoranu, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
In the brain, D-amino acid oxidase (DAO/DAAO) mainly oxidizes D-serine, a co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Thus, DAO can regulate the function of NMDA receptors via D-serine breakdown. Furthermore, DAO activator (DAOA)/G72 has been reported as both DAOA and repressor. The co-expression of DAO and DAOA genes and proteins in the human brain is not yet elucidated. The aim of this study was to understand the regional and age span distribution of DAO and DAOA (mRNA and protein) in a concomitant manner...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424595/gray-matter-atrophy-is-primarily-related-to-demyelination-of-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mri-study
#20
Eszter Tóth, Nikoletta Szabó, Gergõ Csete, András Király, Péter Faragó, Tamás Spisák, Krisztina Bencsik, László Vécsei, Zsigmond T Kincses
Objective: Cortical pathology, periventricular demyelination, and lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) are related (Hypothesis 1). Factors in the cerebrospinal fluid close to these compartments could possibly drive the parallel processes. Alternatively, the cortical atrophy could be caused by remote axonal transection (Hypothesis 2). Since MRI can differentiate between demyelination and axon loss, we used this imaging modality to investigate the correlation between the pattern of diffusion parameter changes in the periventricular- and deep white matter and the gray matter atrophy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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