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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

Haiyan Jiang, Hyoung F Kim
The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS), is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Takayuki Yamashita, Angeliki Vavladeli, Aurélie Pala, Katia Galan, Sylvain Crochet, Sara S A Petersen, Carl C H Petersen
Excitatory projection neurons of the neocortex are thought to play important roles in perceptual and cognitive functions of the brain by directly connecting diverse cortical and subcortical areas. However, many aspects of the anatomical organization of these inter-areal connections are unknown. Here, we studied long-range axonal projections of excitatory layer 2/3 neurons with cell bodies located in mouse primary somatosensory barrel cortex (wS1). As a population, these neurons densely projected to secondary whisker somatosensory cortex (wS2) and primary/secondary whisker motor cortex (wM1/2), with additional axon in the dysgranular zone surrounding the barrel field, perirhinal temporal association cortex and striatum...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Federico S Lucia, Jesús Pacheco-Torres, Susana González-Granero, Santiago Canals, María-Jesús Obregón, José M García-Verdugo, Pere Berbel
Thyroid hormone deficiency at early postnatal ages affects the cytoarchitecture and function of neocortical and telencephalic limbic areas, leading to impaired associative memory and in a wide spectrum of neurological and mental diseases. Neocortical areas project interhemispheric axons mostly through the corpus callosum and to a lesser extent through the anterior commissure (AC), while limbic areas mostly project through the AC and hippocampal commissures. Functional magnetic resonance data from children with late diagnosed congenital hypothyroidism and abnormal verbal memory processing, suggest altered ipsilateral and contralateral telencephalic connections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Leila Saadatifard, Louise C Abbott, Laura Montier, Jokubas Ziburkus, David Mayerich
High-throughput imaging techniques, such as Knife-Edge Scanning Microscopy (KESM),are capable of acquiring three-dimensional whole-organ images at sub-micrometer resolution. These images are challenging to segment since they can exceed several terabytes (TB) in size, requiring extremely fast and fully automated algorithms. Staining techniques are limited to contrast agents that can be applied to large samples and imaged in a single pass. This requires maximizing the number of structures labeled in a single channel, resulting in images that are densely packed with spatial features...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sebastian Römer, Hannah Bender, Wolfgang Knabe, Elke Zimmermann, Rudolf Rübsamen, Johannes Seeger, Simone A Fietz
The neocortex is the most complex part of the mammalian brain and as such it has undergone tremendous expansion during evolution, especially in primates. The majority of neocortical neurons originate from distinct neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs) located in the ventricular and subventricular zone (SVZ). Previous studies revealed that the SVZ thickness as well as the abundance and distribution of NPCs, especially that of basal radial glia (bRG), differ markedly between the lissencephalic rodent and gyrencephalic primate neocortex...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Chuanqi Sun, Yibao Wang, Run Cui, Chong Wu, Xinguo Li, Yue Bao, Yong Wang
The thalamic-prefrontal peduncle (TPP) is a large bundle connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. The definitive structure and function of the TPP are still controversial. To investigate the connectivity and segmentation patterns of the TPP, we employed diffusion spectrum imaging with generalized q-sampling reconstruction to perform both subject-specific and template-based analyses. Our results confirmed the trajectory and spatial relationship of the TPP in the human brain and identified the connection areas in the prefrontal cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Marian Evangelio, María García-Amado, Francisco Clascá
A key parameter to constrain predictive, bottom-up circuit models of a given brain domain is the number and position of the neuronal populations involved. These include not only the neurons whose bodies reside within the domain, but also the neurons in distant regions that innervate the domain. The mouse visual cortex receives its main subcortical input from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the lateral posterior (LP) complex of the thalamus. The latter consists of three different nuclei: lateral posterior lateral (LPL), lateral posterior medial rostral (LPMR), and lateral posterior medial caudal (LPMC), each exhibiting specific patterns of connections with the various visual cortical areas...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Anna-Maria Maier, Heinz Breer, Jörg Strotmann
The OR37 subsystem is characterized by a variety of unique features. The odorant receptors (ORs) of this subfamily are selectively tuned to specific ligands which are supposed to play a role in social communication. OR37 expressing sensory neurons project their axons to a single receptor specific glomerulus per bulb which have been shown to be unusually stable in size and to possess a distinct repertoire of periglomerular cells. Since the neuronal network surrounding glomeruli is typically modified by the integration of adult born neurons, in this study it was investigated whether the number of adult born cells might be different for OR37 glomeruli compared to other OR-specific glomeruli...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Qian Wu, Charlie W Zhao, Zhe Long, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Epilepsy is a paroxysmal neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. Cognitive dysfunction induced by seizures is a severe comorbidity of epilepsy and epilepsy syndromes and reduces patients' quality of life. Seizures, along with accompanying histopathological and pathophysiological changes, are associated with cognitive comorbidities. Advances in imaging technology and computing allow anatomical and topological changes in neural networks to be visualized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Karen Stanic, Alonso Quiroz, Carmen G Lemus, Ignacio A Wichmann, Alejandro H Corvalán, Gareth I Owen, Juan C Opazo, Miguel L Concha, Julio D Amigo
The Reprimo ( RPRM ) family is composed of highly conserved single-exon genes. The expression pattern of this gene family has been recently described during zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) embryogenesis, and primarily locates in the nervous system. Its most characterized member, RPRM , which duplicated to give rise rprma and rprmb in the fish lineage, is known to act as a tumor-suppressor gene in mammalian models. Here, we describe in detail the spatiotemporal expression of three rprm genes ( rprma, rprmb , and rprm l) within distinct anatomical structures in the developing peripheral and central nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Si-Yuan Song, Li-Cai Zhang
To establish an entirely cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting nucleus-deficient model animal, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CB)- saporin (SAP), which is an analog of CB-HRP that specifically labels the CSF-contacting nucleus, to exclusively damage the nucleus. The effectiveness and specificity of the ablation were evaluated upon days 1-10 after CB-SAP microinjection into the brain ventricular system. The vital status, survival, and common physiological parameters of the model animals were also assessed during the experimental period...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Rogely W Boyce, Hans J G Gundersen
Estimation of total number of a population of cells that are sparsely distributed in an organ or anatomically-defined region of interest represents a challenge for conventional stereological methods. In these situations, classic fractionator approaches that rely on systematic uniform random sampling are highly inefficient and, in many cases, impractical due to the intense sampling of the organ and tissue sections that is required to obtain sufficient counts for an acceptable level of precision. The proportionator, an estimator based on non-uniform sampling theory, marries automated image analysis with stereological principles and is the only estimator that provides a highly efficient and precise method to address these challenging quantification problems...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Qian Sun, Guan-Qun Chen, Xi-Bin Wang, Ying Yu, Yu-Chuan Hu, Lin-Feng Yan, Xin Zhang, Yang Yang, Jin Zhang, Bin Liu, Cong-Cong Wang, Yi Ma, Wen Wang, Ying Han, Guang-Bin Cui
Aims : To investigate the white matter (WM) integrity and hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), respectively. Methods : Twelve T2DM patients without MCI and 24 age, sex and education matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. DTI and rs-fMRI data were subsequently acquired on a 3.0T MR scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) combining region of interests (ROIs) analysis was used to investigate the alterations of DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), λ1 and λ23 ) and FC measurement was performed to calculate hippocampal FC with other brain regions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Melanie Haehnel-Taguchi, António M Fernandes, Margit Böhler, Ina Schmitt, Lena Tittel, Wolfgang Driever
Dopaminergic neurons of the descending diencephalospinal system are located in the posterior tuberculum (PT) in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), and correspond in mammals to the A11 group in hypothalamus and thalamus. In the larval zebrafish, they are likely the only source of central dopaminergic projections to the periphery. Here, we characterized posterior tubercular dopaminergic fibers projecting to peripheral sense organs, with a focus on the lateral line neuromasts. We labeled and identified catecholaminergic neurons and their projections by combining two immunofluorescence techniques, (i) using an antibody against Tyrosine hydroxylase, and (ii) using an antibody against GFP in transgenic zebrafish expressing in catecholaminergic neurons either membrane-anchored GFP to track fibers, or a Synaptophysin-GFP fusion to visualize putative synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Iulia Craciun, Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Jeremy R Corfield, Peter L Hurd, Douglas R Wylie
This study was aimed at mapping the organization of the projections from the inferior olive (IO) to the ventral uvula in pigeons. The uvula is part of the vestibulocerebellum (VbC), which is involved in the processing of optic flow resulting from self-motion. As in other areas of the cerebellum, the uvula is organized into sagittal zones, which is apparent with respect to afferent inputs, the projection patterns of Purkinje cell (PC) efferents, the response properties of PCs and the expression of molecular markers such as zebrin II (ZII)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Gabriel N Santos-Durán, Susana Ferreiro-Galve, Arnaud Menuet, Sylvie Mazan, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal
The hypothalamus is a key integrative center of the vertebrate brain. To better understand its ancestral morphological organization and evolution, we previously analyzed the segmental organization of alar subdivisions in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula , a cartilaginous fish and thus a basal representative of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). With the same aim, we deepen here in the segmental organization of the catshark basal hypothalamus by revisiting previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScNkx2.1, ScShh expression and Shh immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScLhx5, ScEmx2, ScLmx1b, ScPitx2, ScPitx3a, ScFoxa1, ScFoxa2 and ScNeurog2 expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
José-Rodrigo Rodríguez, Marta Turégano-López, Javier DeFelipe, Angel Merchán-Pérez
Semithin sections are commonly used to examine large areas of tissue with an optical microscope, in order to locate and trim the regions that will later be studied with the electron microscope. Ideally, the observation of semithin sections would be from mesoscopic to nanoscopic scales directly, instead of using light microscopy and then electron microscopy (EM). Here we propose a method that makes it possible to obtain high-resolution scanning EM images of large areas of the brain in the millimeter to nanometer range...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Ruth M A Napper
The advantages of using design-based stereology in the collection of quantitative data, have been highlighted, in numerous publications, since the description of the disector method by Sterio (1984). This review article discusses the importance of total number derived with the disector method, as a key variable that must continue to be used to understand the rodent brain and that such data can be used to develop quantitative networks of the brain. The review article will highlight the huge impact total number has had on our understanding of the rodent brain and it will suggest that neuroscientists need to be aware of the increasing number of studies where density, not total number, is the quantitative measure used...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Juan R Martinez-Galan, Ana Verdejo, Elena Caminos
Disturbances in calcium homeostasis due to canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) and/or store-operated calcium (SOC) channels can play a key role in a large number of brain disorders. TRPC channels are plasma membrane cation channels included in the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. The most widely distributed member of the TRPC subfamily in the brain is TRPC1, which is frequently linked to group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and to the components of SOC channels. Proposing TRPC/SOC channels as a therapeutic target in neurological diseases previously requires a detailed knowledge of the distribution of such molecules in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Claudia Laperchia, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Tiziana Cotrufo, Marina Bentivoglio
Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX)/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b .) parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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