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Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Helen Barbas, Basilis Zikopoulos
The phenotype of neurons and their connections depend on complex genetic and epigenetic processes that regulate the expression of genes in the nucleus during development and throughout life. Here we examined the distribution of nuclear chromatin patters in relation to the epigenetic landscape, phenotype and connections of neurons with a focus on the primate cerebral cortex. We show that nuclear patterns of chromatin in cortical neurons are related to neuron size and cortical connections. Moreover, we point to evidence that reveals an orderly sequence of events during development, linking chromatin and gene expression patterns, neuron morphology, function, and connections across cortical areas and layers...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Robert J Morecraft, Jizhi Ge, Kimberly S Stilwell-Morecraft, Diane L Rotella, Marc A Pizzimenti, Warren G Darling
The ipsilateral corticopontine projection (iCPP) represents a massive descending axon system terminating in the pontine nuclei (PN). In the primate, this projection is well known for its dominant influence on contralateral upper limb movements through the classical cerebrocerebellar circuity system. Although a much weaker contralateral corticopontine projection (cCPP) from motor cortex to the paramedian region has been reported in the non-human primate brain, we provide the first comprehensive description of the cCPP from the lateral motor cortex using high resolution anterograde tract tracing in Macaca mulatta ...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Irene Chaves-Coira, Jesús Martín-Cortecero, Angel Nuñez, Margarita L Rodrigo-Angulo
Recent evidence supports that specific projections between different basal forebrain (BF) nuclei and their cortical targets are necessary to modulate cognitive functions in the cortex. We tested the hypothesis of the existence of specific neuronal populations in the BF linking with specific sensory, motor, and prefrontal cortices in rats. Neuronal tracing techniques were performed using retrograde tracers injected in the primary somatosensory (S1), auditory (A1), and visual (V1) cortical areas, in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as well as in BF nuclei...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Yusha Li, Jianyi Xu, Peng Wan, Tingting Yu, Dan Zhu
Tissue optical clearing techniques provide alternative approaches for imaging large-volume specimens. uDISCO, an organic-solvent-based method, stands out from the enormous array of available optical clearing methods by achieving whole-brain imaging with high transparency, size reduction and fluorescence preservation. In this study, we aimed to modify the uDISCO protocol to achieve better fluorescence preservation and to thereby further improve its optical imaging quality. First, we determined the optimal pH value for optimized uDISCO, termed "a-uDISCO" (alkaline pH-based uDISCO)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Teresa Mann, Karl Zilles, Felix Klawitter, Markus Cremer, Alexander Hawlitschka, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Oliver Schmitt, Andreas Wree
Cholinergic neurotransmission has a pivotal function in the caudate-putamen, and is highly associated with the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigated long-term changes in the densities of the muscarinic receptor subtypes M1 , M2 , M3 (mAchRs) and the nicotinic receptor subtype α4 β2 (nAchRs) in the striatum of the 6-OHDA-induced hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rat model using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Hemi-PD rats exhibited an ipsilateral decrease in striatal mAchR densities between 6 and 16%...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Francisco Carratala-Marco, Patricia Andreo-Lillo, Marta Martinez-Morga, Teresa Escamez-Martínez, Arancha Botella-López, Carlos Bueno, Salvador Martinez
The engrailed homeobox protein (EN) plays an important role in the regionalization of the neural tube. EN distribution regulates the cerebellum and midbrain morphogenesis, as well as retinotectal synaptogenesis. In humans, the EN1 and EN2 genes code for the EN family of transcription factors. Genetic alterations in the expression of EN2 have been related to different neurologic conditions and more particularly to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aimed to study and compare the phenotypes of three series of patients: (1) patients with encephalic structural anomalies (ESA) and abnormalities in the genomic (DNA) and/or transcriptomic (RNAm) of EN2 (EN2-g), (2) ESA patients having other gene mutations (OG-g), and (3) ESA patients free of these mutations (NM-g)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Melquisedec A D Santana, Helder H A Medeiros, Mariana D Leite, Marília A S Barros, Paulo Leonardo Araújo de Góis Morais, Joacil Germano Soares, Fernando V L Ladd, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Judney C Cavalcante, Miriam S M O Costa, Expedito Silva Nascimento
A well-developed visual system can provide significant sensory information to guide motor behavior, especially in fruit-eating bats, which usually use echolocation to navigate at high speed through cluttered environments during foraging. Relatively few studies have been performed to elucidate the organization of the visual system in bats. The present work provides an extensive morphological description of the retinal projections in the subcortical visual nuclei in the flat-faced fruit-eating bat ( Artibeus planirostris ) using anterograde transport of the eye-injected cholera toxin B subunit (CTb), followed by morphometrical and stereological analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Carlos Arturo González-Acosta, Martha Isabel Escobar, Manuel Fernando Casanova, Hernán J Pimienta, Efraín Buriticá
The von Economo neurons (VEN) are characterized by a large soma, spindle-like soma, with little dendritic arborization at both, the basal and apical poles. In humans, VENs have been described in the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampal formation, the anterior cingulate cortex, the rostral portion of the insula and the dorsomedial Brodmann's area 9 (BA9). These cortical regions have been associated with cognitive functions such as social interactions, intuition and emotional processing. Previous studies that searched for the presence of these cells in the lateral frontal poles yielded negative results...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Hanna Zwaka, Ruth Bartels, Bernd Grünewald, Randolf Menzel
In the insect brain, the mushroom body is a higher order brain area that is key to memory formation and sensory processing. Mushroom body (MB) extrinsic neurons leaving the output region of the MB, the lobes and the peduncle, are thought to be especially important in these processes. In the honeybee brain, a distinct class of MB extrinsic neurons, A3 neurons, are implicated in playing a role in learning. Their MB arborisations are either restricted to the lobes and the peduncle, here called A3 lobe connecting neurons, or they provide feedback information from the lobes to the input region of the MB, the calyces, here called A3 feedback neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Roberta Imperatore, Livia D'Angelo, Omid Safari, Hamidreza Ahmadniaye Motlagh, Fabiana Piscitelli, Paolo de Girolamo, Luigia Cristino, Ettore Varricchio, Vincenzo di Marzo, Marina Paolucci
Hypocretins/Orexins neuropeptides are known to regulate numerous physiological functions, such as energy homeostasis, food intake, sleep/wake cycle, arousal and wakefulness, in vertebrates. Previous studies on mice have revealed an intriguing orexins/endocannabinoids (ECs) signaling interaction at both structural and functional levels, with OX-A behaving as a strong enhancer of 2-arachydonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) biosynthesis. In this study, we describe, for the first time in the brain of zebrafish, the anatomical distribution and co-expression of orexin (OX-2R) and endocannabinoid (CB1R) receptors, suggesting a functional interaction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Eric Lewitus
Brain evolution has interested neuroanatomists for over a century. These interests often fall on how free the brain is to evolve independently of the body, how free brain regions are to evolve independently of each other, and how different environmental and ecological factors affect the brain over evolutionary time. But despite major advances in phylogenetic methods, comparative neuroanatomists have tended to limit their macroevolutionary toolbox to regression-based analyses and ignored the scope of evolutionary process-based models at their disposal...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Yoshinori Kawai
To integrate and broadcast neural information, local microcircuits and global macrocircuits interact within certain specific nuclei of the central nervous system. The structural and functional architecture of this interaction was determined for the caudal nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) at the level of the area postrema (AP), a relay station of peripheral viscerosensory information that is processed and conveyed to brain regions concerned with autonomic-affective and other interoceptive reflexive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Anne Jorstad, Jérôme Blanc, Graham Knott
The geometries of axons, dendrites and their synaptic connections provide important information about their functional properties. These can be collected directly from measurements made on serial electron microscopy images. However, manual and automated segmentation methods can also yield large and accurate models of neuronal architecture from which morphometric data can be gathered in 3D space. This technical paper presents a series of software tools, operating in the Blender open source software, for the quantitative analysis of axons and their synaptic connections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Bethany R Isaacs, Birte U Forstmann, Yasin Temel, Max C Keuken
Within the cortico basal ganglia (BG)-thalamic network, the direct and indirect pathways comprise of projections from the cortex to the striatum (STR), whereas the hyperdirect pathway(s) consist of cortical projections toward the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Each pathway possesses a functionally distinct role for action selection. The current study quantified and compared the structural connectivity between 17 distinct cortical areas with the STN and STR using 7 Tesla diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) in healthy young subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Matthew E Larkum, Lucy S Petro, Robert N S Sachdev, Lars Muckli
This review article addresses the function of the layers of the cerebral cortex. We develop the perspective that cortical layering needs to be understood in terms of its functional anatomy, i.e., the terminations of synaptic inputs on distinct cellular compartments and their effect on cortical activity. The cortex is a hierarchical structure in which feed forward and feedback pathways have a layer-specific termination pattern. We take the view that the influence of synaptic inputs arriving at different cortical layers can only be understood in terms of their complex interaction with cellular biophysics and the subsequent computation that occurs at the cellular level...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Anish K Simhal, Belvin Gong, James S Trimmer, Richard J Weinberg, Stephen J Smith, Guillermo Sapiro, Kristina D Micheva
Application-specific validation of antibodies is a critical prerequisite for their successful use. Here we introduce an automated framework for characterization and screening of antibodies against synaptic molecules for high-resolution immunofluorescence array tomography (AT). The proposed Synaptic Antibody Characterization Tool (SACT) is designed to provide an automatic, robust, flexible, and efficient tool for antibody characterization at scale. SACT automatically detects puncta of immunofluorescence labeling from candidate antibodies and determines whether a punctum belongs to a synapse...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Rebecca Wallrafen, Thomas Dresbach
The assembly and function of presynaptic nerve terminals relies on evolutionarily conserved proteins. A small number of presynaptic proteins occurs only in vertebrates. These proteins may add specialized functions to certain synapses, thus increasing synaptic heterogeneity. Here, we show that the vertebrate-specific synaptic vesicle (SV) protein mover is differentially distributed in the forebrain and cerebellum of the adult mouse. Using a quantitative immunofluorescence approach, we compare the expression of mover to the expression of the general SV marker synaptophysin in 16 brain areas...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Laura Fernández-Sánchez, Gema Esquiva, Isabel Pinilla, Pedro Lax, Nicolás Cuenca
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal degenerative diseases involving a progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells. Following the loss of photoreceptors, retinal vascularization tends to decrease, which seems to play a role in the degenerative process of retinal cells. This study reports changes in retinal vascular network architecture in the P23H rat model of RP at different stages of retinal degeneration. Homozygous P23H line-3 rats of ages ranging from 18 days to 16 months were used in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Rafael Franco, Juan A Sánchez-Arias, Gemma Navarro, José L Lanciego
Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. GD is caused by homozygous mutations of the GBA1 gene, which codes for beta-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Although GD primarily affects peripheral tissues, the presence of neurological symptoms has been reported in several GD subtypes. GBA1 mutations have recently deserved increased attention upon the demonstration that both homo- and heterozygous GBA1 mutations represent the most important genetic risk factor for the appearance of synucleinopathies like Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (LBD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Hua-Jun Chen, Yong-Qing Gao, Chun-Hui Che, Hailong Lin, Xin-Lin Ruan
Purpose : The aim of this study was to evaluate microstructural changes of major white matter (WM) tracts in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Method : Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were obtained from 24 subjects with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD), including 13 subjects with VCI-no dementia (VCIND) and 11 subjects with normal cognition (as a control group). A tract-based spatial statistics approach was performed to investigate WM microstructure in VCIND by integrating multiple indices including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), which are intra-voxel metrics, and local diffusion homogeneity (LDH), which is an inter-voxel metric...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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