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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620283/octopus-cells-in-the-posteroventral-cochlear-nucleus-provide-the-main-excitatory-input-to-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus
#1
Richard A Felix Ii, Boris Gourévitch, Marcelo Gómez-Álvarez, Sara C M Leijon, Enrique Saldaña, Anna K Magnusson
Auditory streaming enables perception and interpretation of complex acoustic environments that contain competing sound sources. At early stages of central processing, sounds are segregated into separate streams representing attributes that later merge into acoustic objects. Streaming of temporal cues is critical for perceiving vocal communication, such as human speech, but our understanding of circuits that underlie this process is lacking, particularly at subcortical levels. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent group of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian brainstem, has been implicated in processing temporal information needed for the segmentation of ongoing complex sounds into discrete events...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588455/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-in-bipolar-disorder
#2
Anton J M Loonen, Ralph W Kupka, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model, the motivation for appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) re-entry circuits that include the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, control the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579946/corrigendum-reconsidering-tonotopic-maps-in-the-auditory-cortex-and-lemniscal-auditory-thalamus-in-mice
#3
Hiroaki Tsukano, Masao Horie, Shinpei Ohga, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Yamato Kubota, Ryuichi Hishida, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsuei Shibuki
[This corrects the article on p. 14 in vol. 11, PMID: 28293178.].
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579945/lfp-oscillations-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-during-voluntary-locomotion
#4
Brian R Noga, Francisco J Sanchez, Luz M Villamil, Christopher O'Toole, Stefan Kasicki, Maciej Olszewski, Anna M Cabaj, Henryk Majczyński, Urszula Sławińska, Larry M Jordan
Oscillatory rhythms in local field potentials (LFPs) are thought to coherently bind cooperating neuronal ensembles to produce behaviors, including locomotion. LFPs recorded from sites that trigger locomotion have been used as a basis for identification of appropriate targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to enhance locomotor recovery in patients with gait disorders. Theta band activity (6-12 Hz) is associated with locomotor activity in locomotion-inducing sites in the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus, but the LFPs that occur in the functionally defined mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) during locomotion have not been determined...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567005/the-long-journey-of-pontine-nuclei-neurons-from-rhombic-lip-to-cortico-ponto-cerebellar-circuitry
#5
REVIEW
Claudius F Kratochwil, Upasana Maheshwari, Filippo M Rijli
The pontine nuclei (PN) are the largest of the precerebellar nuclei, neuronal assemblies in the hindbrain providing principal input to the cerebellum. The PN are predominantly innervated by the cerebral cortex and project as mossy fibers to the cerebellar hemispheres. Here, we comprehensively review the development of the PN from specification to migration, nucleogenesis and circuit formation. PN neurons originate at the posterior rhombic lip and migrate tangentially crossing several rhombomere derived territories to reach their final position in ventral part of the pons...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536507/dopamine-modulates-delta-gamma-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-behaving-rats
#6
Victoria Andino-Pavlovsky, Annie C Souza, Robson Scheffer-Teixeira, Adriano B L Tort, Roberto Etchenique, Sidarta Ribeiro
Dopamine release and phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC) have independently been implicated in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. To causally investigate whether dopamine release affects phase-amplitude comodulation between different frequencies in local field potentials (LFP) recorded from the medial PFC (mPFC) of behaving rats, we used RuBiDopa, a light-sensitive caged compound that releases the neurotransmitter dopamine when irradiated with visible light. LFP power did not change in any frequency band after the application of light-uncaged dopamine, but significantly strengthened phase-amplitude comodulation between delta and gamma oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529476/two-parallel-olfactory-pathways-for-processing-general-odors-in-a-cockroach
#7
Hidehiro Watanabe, Hiroshi Nishino, Makoto Mizunami, Fumio Yokohari
In animals, sensory processing via parallel pathways, including the olfactory system, is a common design. However, the mechanisms that parallel pathways use to encode highly complex and dynamic odor signals remain unclear. In the current study, we examined the anatomical and physiological features of parallel olfactory pathways in an evolutionally basal insect, the cockroach Periplaneta americana. In this insect, the entire system for processing general odors, from olfactory sensory neurons to higher brain centers, is anatomically segregated into two parallel pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515683/a-population-of-projection-neurons-that-inhibits-the-lateral-horn-but-excites-the-antennal-lobe-through-chemical-synapses-in-drosophila
#8
Kazumichi Shimizu, Mark Stopfer
In the insect olfactory system, odor information is transferred from the antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain areas by projection neurons (PNs) in multiple AL tracts (ALTs). In several species, one of the ALTs, the mediolateral ALT (mlALT), contains some GABAergic PNs; in the Drosophila brain, the great majority of ventral PNs (vPNs) are GABAergic and project through this tract to the lateral horn (LH). Most excitatory PNs (ePNs), project through the medial ALT (mALT) to the mushroom body (MB) and the LH. Recent studies have shown that GABAergic vPNs play inhibitory roles at their axon terminals in the LH...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496401/monitoring-the-right-collection-the-central-cholinergic-neurons-as-an-instructive-example
#9
Katalin Sviatkó, Balázs Hangya
Some neurons are more equal than others: neuroscience relies heavily on the notion that there is a division of labor among different subtypes of brain cells. Therefore, it is important to recognize groups of neurons that participate in the same computation or share similar tasks. However, what the best ways are to identify such collections is not yet clear. Here, we argue that monitoring the activity of genetically defined cell types will lead to new insights about neural mechanisms and improve our understanding of disease vulnerability...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487637/silencing-top-down-cortical-signals-affects-spike-responses-of-neurons-in-cat-s-intermediate-visual-cortex
#10
Jin Y Huang, Chun Wang, Bogdan Dreher
We examined the effects of reversible inactivation of a higher-order, pattern/form-processing, postero-temporal visual (PTV) cortex on the background activities and spike-responses of single neurons in the ipsilateral cytoarchitectonic area 19 (putative area V3) of anesthetized domestic cats. Very occasionally (2/28), silencing recurrent "feedback" signals from PTV, resulted in significant and reversible reduction in background activity of area 19 neurons. By contrast, in large proportions of area 19 neurons, PTV inactivation resulted in: (i) significant reversible changes in the peak magnitude of their responses to visual stimuli (35...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484375/mechanistic-resolution-required-to-mediate-operant-learned-behaviors-insights-from-neuronal-ensemble-specific-inactivation
#11
Brandon L Warren, Nobuyoshi Suto, Bruce T Hope
Many learned behaviors are directed by complex sets of highly specific stimuli or cues. The neural mechanisms mediating learned associations in these behaviors must be capable of storing complex cue information and distinguishing among different learned associations-we call this general concept "mechanistic resolution". For many years, our understanding of the circuitry of these learned behaviors has been based primarily on inactivation of specific cell types or whole brain areas regardless of which neurons were activated during the cue-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469563/the-role-of-associative-cortices-and-hippocampus-during-movement-perturbations
#12
Matthew S D Kerr, Pierre Sacré, Kevin Kahn, Hyun-Joo Park, Mathew Johnson, James Lee, Susan Thompson, Juan Bulacio, Jaes Jones, Jorge González-Martínez, Catherine Liégeois-Chauvel, Sridevi V Sarma, John T Gale
Although motor control has been extensively studied, most research involving neural recordings has focused on primary motor cortex, pre-motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum. These regions are involved during normal movements, however, associative cortices and hippocampus are also likely involved during perturbed movements as one must detect the unexpected disturbance, inhibit the previous motor plan, and create a new plan to compensate. Minimal data is available on these brain regions during such "robust" movements...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469562/cellular-and-molecular-underpinnings-of-neuronal-assembly-in-the-central-auditory-system-during-mouse-development
#13
REVIEW
Maria Di Bonito, Michèle Studer
During development, the organization of the auditory system into distinct functional subcircuits depends on the spatially and temporally ordered sequence of neuronal specification, differentiation, migration and connectivity. Regional patterning along the antero-posterior axis and neuronal subtype specification along the dorso-ventral axis intersect to determine proper neuronal fate and assembly of rhombomere-specific auditory subcircuits. By taking advantage of the increasing number of transgenic mouse lines, recent studies have expanded the knowledge of developmental mechanisms involved in the formation and refinement of the auditory system...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450830/spiral-ganglion-neuron-projection-development-to-the-hindbrain-in-mice-lacking-peripheral-and-or-central-target-differentiation
#14
Karen L Elliott, Jennifer Kersigo, Ning Pan, Israt Jahan, Bernd Fritzsch
We investigate the importance of the degree of peripheral or central target differentiation for mouse auditory afferent navigation to the organ of Corti and auditory nuclei in three different mouse models: first, a mouse in which the differentiation of hair cells, but not central auditory nuclei neurons is compromised (Atoh1-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ); second, a mouse in which hair cell defects are combined with a delayed defect in central auditory nuclei neurons (Pax2-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ), and third, a mouse in which both hair cells and central auditory nuclei are absent (Atoh1(-/-))...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442997/high-spatiotemporal-resolution-ecog-recording-of-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-with-flexible-micro-electrode-arrays
#15
Taro Kaiju, Keiichi Doi, Masashi Yokota, Kei Watanabe, Masato Inoue, Hiroshi Ando, Kazutaka Takahashi, Fumiaki Yoshida, Masayuki Hirata, Takafumi Suzuki
Electrocorticogram (ECoG) has great potential as a source signal, especially for clinical BMI. Until recently, ECoG electrodes were commonly used for identifying epileptogenic foci in clinical situations, and such electrodes were low-density and large. Increasing the number and density of recording channels could enable the collection of richer motor/sensory information, and may enhance the precision of decoding and increase opportunities for controlling external devices. Several reports have aimed to increase the number and density of channels...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439229/locomotion-related-population-cortical-ca-2-transients-in-freely-behaving-mice
#16
Quanchao Zhang, Jiwei Yao, Yu Guang, Shanshan Liang, Jiangheng Guan, Han Qin, Xiang Liao, Wenjun Jin, Jianxiong Zhang, Junxia Pan, Hongbo Jia, Junan Yan, Zhengzhi Feng, Weibing Li, Xiaowei Chen
Locomotion involves complex neural activity throughout different cortical and subcortical networks. The primary motor cortex (M1) receives a variety of projections from different brain regions and is responsible for executing movements. The primary visual cortex (V1) receives external visual stimuli and plays an important role in guiding locomotion. Understanding how exactly the M1 and the V1 are involved in locomotion requires recording the neural activities in these areas in freely moving animals. Here, we used an optical fiber-based method for the real-time monitoring of neuronal population activities in freely moving mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439228/from-engrams-to-pathologies-of-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
Christine A Denny, Evan Lebois, Steve Ramirez
Memories are the experiential threads that tie our past to the present. The biological realization of a memory is termed an engram-the enduring biochemical and physiological processes that enable learning and retrieval. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of engram research that suggests we are closing in on boundary conditions for what qualifies as the physical manifestation of memory. In this review, we provide a brief history of engram research, followed by an overview of the many rodent models available to probe memory with intersectional strategies that have yielded unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution over defined sets of cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408869/rapid-long-range-disynaptic-inhibition-explains-the-formation-of-cortical-orientation-maps
#18
Ján Antolík
Competitive interactions are believed to underlie many types of cortical processing, ranging from memory formation, attention and development of cortical functional organization (e.g., development of orientation maps in primary visual cortex). In the latter case, the competitive interactions happen along the cortical surface, with local populations of neurons reinforcing each other, while competing with those displaced more distally. This specific configuration of lateral interactions is however in stark contrast with the known properties of the anatomical substrate, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405186/color-representation-is-retinotopically-biased-but-locally-intermingled-in-mouse-v1
#19
Shuhei Aihara, Takashi Yoshida, Takayuki Hashimoto, Kenichi Ohki
Dichromatic vision is common in many mammals. However, color processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) of dichromatic mammals is relatively unknown compared to the trichromatic primates. In this study, we investigated the functional organization of color processing in mouse V1. The mouse retina has a graded expression pattern of two opsins along its dorsoventral axis. However, it is not clear whether and how this expression pattern is reflected in the cortical representation at local (several hundred microns) and areal (V1) level...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386219/ncam-regulates-inhibition-and-excitability-in-layer-2-3-pyramidal-cells-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#20
Xuying Zhang, Chelsea S Sullivan, Megan B Kratz, Michael R Kasten, Patricia F Maness, Paul B Manis
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), has been shown to be an obligate regulator of synaptic stability and pruning during critical periods of cortical maturation. However, the functional consequences of NCAM deletion on the organization of inhibitory circuits in cortex are not known. In vesicular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) transgenic mice, NCAM is expressed postnatally at perisomatic synaptic puncta of EYFP-labeled parvalbumin, somatostatin and calretinin-positive interneurons, and in the neuropil in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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