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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

Pawel Kudela, Dana Boatman-Reich, David Beeman, William Stanley Anderson
Neural responses recorded from auditory cortex exhibit adaptation, a stimulus-specific decrease that occurs when the same sound is presented repeatedly. Stimulus-specific adaptation is thought to facilitate perception in noisy environments. Although adaptation is assumed to arise independently from cortex, this has been difficult to validate directly in vivo . In this study, we used a neural network model of auditory cortex with multicompartmental cell modeling to investigate cortical adaptation. We found that repetitive, non-adapted inputs to layer IV neurons in the model elicited frequency-specific decreases in simulated single neuron, population-level and local field potential (LFP) activity, consistent with stimulus-specific cortical adaptation...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Eric Drebitz, Marcus Haag, Iris Grothe, Sunita Mandon, Andreas K Kreiter
The need for fast and dynamic processing of relevant information imposes high demands onto the flexibility and efficiency of the nervous system. A good example for such flexibility is the attention-dependent selection of relevant sensory information. Studies investigating attentional modulations of neuronal responses to simultaneously arriving input showed that neurons respond, as if only the attended stimulus would be present within their receptive fields (RF). However, attention also improves neuronal representation and behavioral performance, when only one stimulus is present...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
José Luis Pérez-López, Rubén Contreras-López, Josué O Ramírez-Jarquín, Fatuel Tecuapetla
The dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been identified with the ability to co-release dopamine and glutamate. This ability was first documented in the nucleus accumbens but showed to be absent in the dorsal striatum. Recently the ability to release glutamate from a subpopulation of the VTA dopaminergic neurons has been shown to control the prefrontal cortex (PFC) excitation through the exclusive innervation of GABAergic fast spiking interneurons. Here, using an optogenetic approach, we expand this view by presenting that the VTA dopaminergic neurons do not only innervate interneurons but also pyramidal PFC neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Masayuki Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Masahiko Takada
The frontal eye field (FEF) and superior colliculus (SC) are major and well-studied components of the oculomotor system. The FEF sends strong projections to the SC directly, and neurons in these brain regions transmit a variety of signals related to saccadic eye movements. Electrical microstimulation and pharmacological manipulation targeting the FEF or SC affect saccadic eye movements. These data suggest the causal contribution of each region to saccade generation. To understand how the brain generates behavior, however, it is critical not only to identify the structures and functions of individual regions, but also to elucidate how they interact with each other...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Veronica C Galvin, Amy F T Arnsten, Min Wang
This review contrasts the neuromodulatory influences of acetylcholine (ACh) on the relatively conserved primary visual cortex (V1), compared to the newly evolved dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex (dlPFC). ACh is critical both for proper circuit development and organization, and for optimal functioning of mature systems in both cortical regions. ACh acts through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, which show very different expression profiles in V1 vs. dlPFC, and differing effects on neuronal firing...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Maria Papathanou, Meaghan Creed, Matthijs C Dorst, Zisis Bimpisidis, Sylvie Dumas, Hanna Pettersson, Camilla Bellone, Gilad Silberberg, Christian Lüscher, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie
Expression of the Vglut2/Slc17a6 gene encoding the Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) in midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons enables these neurons to co-release glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a feature of putative importance to drug addiction. For example, it has been shown that conditional deletion of Vglut2 gene expression within developing DA neurons in mice causes altered locomotor sensitization to addictive drugs, such as amphetamine and cocaine, in adulthood. Alterations in DA neurotransmission in the mesoaccumbal pathway has been proposed to contribute to these behavioral alterations but the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Andrew Jo, Jian Xu, Sercan Deniz, Suraj Cherian, Steven H DeVries, Yongling Zhu
The mammalian retina harbors over 100 different cell types. To understand how retinal circuits work, it is essential to systematically access each type. A widely used approach for achieving targeted transgene expression exploits promoter-driven Cre lines. However, Cre expression in a given transgenic line in the retina and elsewhere in the brain is rarely confined to a single cell type, contributing ambiguity to the interpretation of results from broadly applied manipulations. To obtain unambiguous information about retinal processing, it is desirable to have strategies for further restricting transgene expression to a few or even to a single cell type...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Tony Ye, Mitchell J Bartlett, Matthew B Schmit, Scott J Sherman, Torsten Falk, Stephen L Cowen
Introduction: Treatment-resistant depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic pain, and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease are characterized by hypersynchronous neural oscillations. Sub-anesthetic ketamine is effective at treating these conditions, and this may relate to ketamine's capacity to reorganize oscillatory activity throughout the brain. For example, a single ketamine injection increases gamma (∼40 Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (HFOs, 120-160 Hz) in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ana F Oliveira, Keisuke Yonehara
The mouse superior colliculus (SC) is a laminar midbrain structure involved in processing and transforming multimodal sensory stimuli into ethologically relevant behaviors such as escape, defense, and orienting movements. The SC is unique in that the sensory (visual, auditory, and somatosensory) and motor maps are overlaid. In the mouse, the SC receives inputs from more retinal ganglion cells than any other visual area. This makes the mouse SC an ideal model system for understanding how visual signals processed by retinal circuits are used to mediate visually guided behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Daniel Avesar, Emily K Stephens, Allan T Gulledge
Neuromodulatory transmitters, such as serotonin (5-HT), selectively regulate the excitability of subpopulations of cortical projection neurons to gate cortical output to specific target regions. For instance, in the mouse prelimbic cortex, 5-HT selectively excites commissurally projecting (COM) intratelencephalic neurons via activation of 5-HT2A (2A) receptors, while simultaneously inhibiting, via 5-HT1A (1A) receptors, corticofugally projecting pyramidal neurons targeting the pons. Here we characterize the physiology, morphology, and serotonergic regulation of corticoamygdalar (CAm) projection neurons in the mouse prelimbic cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Andrew D McClellan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Benjamin Titze, Christel Genoud, Rainer W Friedrich
We present SBEMimage , an open-source Python-based application to operate serial block-face electron microscopy (SBEM) systems. SBEMimage is designed for complex, challenging acquisition tasks, such as large-scale volume imaging of neuronal tissue or other biological ultrastructure. Advanced monitoring, process control, and error handling capabilities improve reliability, speed, and quality of acquisitions. Debris detection, autofocus, real-time image inspection, and various other quality control features minimize the risk of data loss during long-term acquisitions...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Wulfram Gerstner, Marco Lehmann, Vasiliki Liakoni, Dane Corneil, Johanni Brea
Most elementary behaviors such as moving the arm to grasp an object or walking into the next room to explore a museum evolve on the time scale of seconds; in contrast, neuronal action potentials occur on the time scale of a few milliseconds. Learning rules of the brain must therefore bridge the gap between these two different time scales. Modern theories of synaptic plasticity have postulated that the co-activation of pre- and postsynaptic neurons sets a flag at the synapse, called an eligibility trace, that leads to a weight change only if an additional factor is present while the flag is set...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ben Sagot, Li Li, Fu-Ming Zhou
Dopamine (DA) profoundly stimulates motor function as demonstrated by the hypokinetic motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and by the hyperkinetic motor side effects during dopaminergic treatment of PD. Dopamine (DA) receptor-bypassing, optogenetics- and chemogenetics-induced spike firing of striatal DA D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing, direct pathway medium spiny neurons (dSPNs or dMSNs) promotes movements. However, the endogenous D1R-mediated effects, let alone those of DA replacement, on dSPN spike activity in freely-moving animals is not established...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Imran S Sheikh, Kathleen M Keefe, Noelle A Sterling, Ian P Junker, Chidubem I Eneanya, Yingpeng Liu, Xiao-Qing Tang, George M Smith
Retrograde tracing is a key facet of neuroanatomical studies involving long distance projection neurons. Previous groups have utilized a variety of tools ranging from classical chemical tracers to newer methods employing viruses for gene delivery. Here, we highlight the usage of a lentivirus that permits highly efficient retrograde transport (HiRet) from synaptic terminals within the cervical and lumbar enlargements of the spinal cord. By injecting HiRet, we can clearly identify supraspinal and propriospinal circuits innervating motor neuron pools relating to forelimb and hindlimb function...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Chih-Yang Chen, Ziad M Hafed
The primate superior colliculus is traditionally studied from the perspectives of gaze control, target selection, and selective attention. However, this structure is also visually responsive, and it is the primary visual structure in several species. Thus, understanding the visual tuning properties of the primate superior colliculus is important, especially given that the superior colliculus is part of an alternative visual pathway running in parallel to the predominant geniculo-cortical pathway. In recent previous studies, we have characterized receptive field organization and spatial frequency tuning properties in the primate (rhesus macaque) superior colliculus...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Fei Peng, Hamish Innes-Brown, Colette M McKay, James B Fallon, Yi Zhou, Xing Wang, Ning Hu, Wensheng Hou
Accurate perception of time-variant pitch is important for speech recognition, particularly for tonal languages with different lexical tones such as Mandarin, in which different tones convey different semantic information. Previous studies reported that the auditory nerve and cochlear nucleus can encode different pitches through phase-locked neural activities. However, little is known about how the inferior colliculus (IC) encodes the time-variant periodicity pitch of natural speech. In this study, the Mandarin syllable /ba/ pronounced with four lexical tones (flat, rising, falling then rising and falling) were used as stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Cynthia X He, Erica D Arroyo, Daniel A Cantu, Anubhuti Goel, Carlos Portera-Cailliau
The first three postnatal weeks in rodents are a time when sensory experience drives the maturation of brain circuits, an important process that is not yet well understood. Alterations in this critical period of experience-dependent circuit assembly and plasticity contribute to several neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Therefore, techniques for recording network activity and tracing neuronal connectivity over this time period are necessary for delineating circuit refinement in typical development and how it deviates in disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Alexa Riehle, Thomas Brochier, Martin Nawrot, Sonja Grün
Variability of spiking activity is ubiquitous throughout the brain but little is known about its contextual dependance. Trial-to-trial spike count variability, estimated by the Fano Factor (FF), and within-trial spike time irregularity, quantified by the coefficient of variation (CV), reflect variability on long and short time scales, respectively. We co-analyzed FF and the local coefficient of variation (CV2) in monkey motor cortex comparing two behavioral contexts, movement preparation ( wait ) and execution ( movement )...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Simon N Jacob, Hendrikje Nienborg
All neuronal circuits are subject to neuromodulation. Modulatory effects on neuronal processing and resulting behavioral changes are most commonly reported for higher order cognitive brain functions. Comparatively little is known about how neuromodulators shape processing in sensory brain areas that provide the signals for downstream regions to operate on. In this article, we review the current knowledge about how the monoamine neuromodulators serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline influence the representation of sensory stimuli in the mammalian sensory system...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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