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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

Katerina Kalemaki, Xanthippi Konstantoudaki, Simona Tivodar, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Domna Karagogeos
GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid) neurons are inhibitory neurons and protect neural tissue from excessive excitation. Cortical GABAergic neurons play a pivotal role for the generation of synchronized cortical network oscillations. Imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms underlies many neuropsychiatric disorders and is correlated with abnormalities in oscillatory activity, especially in the gamma frequency range (30-80 Hz). We investigated the functional changes in cortical network activity in response to developmentally reduced inhibition in the adult mouse barrel cortex (BC)...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Julien Bacqué-Cazenave, Gilles Courtand, Mathieu Beraneck, François M Lambert, Denis Combes
In larval xenopus, locomotor-induced oculomotor behavior produces gaze-stabilizing eye movements to counteract the disruptive effects of tail undulation during swimming. While neuronal circuitries responsible for feed-forward intrinsic spino-extraocular signaling have recently been described, the resulting oculomotor behavior remains poorly understood. Conveying locomotor CPG efference copy, the spino-extraocular motor command coordinates the multi-segmental rostrocaudal spinal rhythmic activity with the extraocular motor activity...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Gary B Huang, Louis K Scheffer, Stephen M Plaza
Extracting a connectome from an electron microscopy (EM) data set requires identification of neurons and determination of connections (synapses) between neurons. As manual extraction of this information is very time-consuming, there has been extensive research efforts to automatically segment the neurons to help guide and eventually replace manual tracing. Until recently, there has been comparatively little research on automatic detection of the actual synapses between neurons. This discrepancy can, in part, be attributed to several factors: obtaining neuronal shapes is a prerequisite for the first step in extracting a connectome, manual tracing is much more time-consuming than annotating synapses, and neuronal contact area can be used as a proxy for synapses in determining connections...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Tristan A Chaplin, Marcello G P Rosa, Leo L Lui
The ability of animals to detect motion is critical for survival, and errors or even delays in motion perception may prove costly. In the natural world, moving objects in the visual field often produce concurrent sounds. Thus, it can highly advantageous to detect motion elicited from sensory signals of either modality, and to integrate them to produce more reliable motion perception. A great deal of progress has been made in understanding how visual motion perception is governed by the activity of single neurons in the primate cerebral cortex, but far less progress has been made in understanding both auditory motion and audiovisual motion integration...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ayako Yamaguchi, Diana J Woller, Paulo Rodrigues
The central vocal pathway of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis , is a powerful vertebrate model to understand mechanisms underlying central pattern generation. However, fast and efficient methods of introducing exogenous genes into the neurons of adult X. laevis are currently not available. Here, we systematically tested methods of transgene delivery into adult X. laevis neurons. Although successfully used for tadpole neurons for over a decade, electroporation was not efficient in transfecting adult neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Adrian A Wanner, Ashwin Vishwanathan
For a mechanistic understanding of neuronal circuits in the brain, a detailed description of information flow is necessary. Thereby it is crucial to link neuron function to the underlying circuit structure. Multiphoton calcium imaging is the standard technique to record the activity of hundreds of neurons simultaneously. Similarly, recent advances in high-throughput electron microscopy techniques allow for the reconstruction of synaptic resolution wiring diagrams. These two methods can be combined to study both function and structure in the same specimen...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Catherine Elorette, Patrick A Forcelli, Richard C Saunders, Ludise Malkova
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have suggested the presence of a fast, subcortical route for the processing of emotionally-salient visual information in the primate brain. This putative pathway consists of the superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar and amygdala. While the presence of such a pathway has been confirmed in sub-primate species, it has yet to be documented in the primate brain using conventional anatomical methods. We injected retrograde tracers into the amygdala and anterograde tracers into the colliculus, and examined regions of colocalization of these signals within the pulvinar of the macaque...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Morteza Sadeh, Amirsaman Sajad, Hongying Wang, Xiaogang Yan, John Douglas Crawford
The memory-delay saccade task is often used to separate visual and motor responses in oculomotor structures such as the superior colliculus (SC), with the assumption that these same responses would sum with a short delay during immediate "reactive" saccades to visual stimuli. However, it is also possible that additional signals (suppression, delay) alter visual and/or motor response in the memory delay task. Here, we compared the spatiotemporal properties of visual and motor responses of the same SC neurons recorded during both the reactive and memory-delay tasks in two head-unrestrained monkeys...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Daniel R Berger, H Sebastian Seung, Jeff W Lichtman
Recent developments in serial-section electron microscopy allow the efficient generation of very large image data sets but analyzing such data poses challenges for software tools. Here we introduce Volume Annotation and Segmentation Tool (VAST), a freely available utility program for generating and editing annotations and segmentations of large volumetric image (voxel) data sets. It provides a simple yet powerful user interface for real-time exploration and analysis of large data sets even in the Petabyte range...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Angela Jacques, Alison Wright, Nicholas Chaaya, Anne Overell, Hadley C Bergstrom, Craig McDonald, Andrew R Battle, Luke R Johnson
In order to understand the relationship between neuronal organization and behavior, precise methods that identify and quantify functional cellular ensembles are required. This is especially true in the quest to understand the mechanisms of memory. Brain structures involved in memory formation and storage, as well as the molecular determinates of memory are well-known, however, the microanatomy of functional neuronal networks remain largely unidentified. We developed a novel approach to statistically map molecular markers in neuronal networks through quantitative topographic measurement...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Louis K Scheffer
New reconstruction techniques are generating connectomes of unprecedented size. These must be analyzed to generate human comprehensible results. The analyses being used fall into three general categories. The first is interactive tools used during reconstruction, to help guide the effort, look for possible errors, identify potential cell classes, and answer other preliminary questions. The second type of analysis is support for formal documents such as papers and theses. Scientific norms here require that the data be archived and accessible, and the analysis reproducible...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Benjamin E Reese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kathrin Koblinger, Céline Jean-Xavier, Sandeep Sharma, Tamás Füzesi, Leanne Young, Shane E A Eaton, Charlie Hong Ting Kwok, Jaideep Singh Bains, Patrick J Whelan
Limbic brain regions drive goal-directed behaviors. These behaviors often require dynamic motor responses, but the functional connectome of limbic structures in the diencephalon that control locomotion is not well known. The A11 region, within the posterior diencephalon has been postulated to contribute to motor function and control of pain. Here we show that the A11 region initiates movement. Photostimulation of channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) transfected neurons in A11 slice preparations showed that neurons could follow stimulation at frequencies of 20 Hz...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Lauren N Miterko, Elizabeth P Lackey, Detlef H Heck, Roy V Sillitoe
The brain contains a large diversity of unique cell types that use specific genetic programs to control development and instruct the intricate wiring of sensory, motor, and cognitive brain regions. In addition to their cellular diversity and specialized connectivity maps, each region's dedicated function is also expressed in their characteristic gross external morphologies. The folds on the surface of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are classic examples. But, to what extent does structure relate to function and at what spatial scale? We discuss the mechanisms that sculpt functional brain maps and external morphologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Srikanth Ramaswamy, Cristina Colangelo, Henry Markram
Neuromodulators, such as acetylcholine (ACh), control information processing in neural microcircuits by regulating neuronal and synaptic physiology. Computational models and simulations enable predictions on the potential role of ACh in reconfiguring network activity. As a prelude into investigating how the cellular and synaptic effects of ACh collectively influence emergent network dynamics, we developed a data-driven framework incorporating phenomenological models of the physiology of cholinergic modulation of neocortical cells and synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, Antônio-Carlos Guimarães de Almeida, Nancy N Ortiz-Villatoro, Fulvio A Scorza, Esper A Cavalheiro, Carla A Scorza
Background : Diverse forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) have been described, but one of the most investigated is encountered in the glutamatergic synapses of the hippocampal cornu Ammonis (CA1) subfield. However, little is known about synaptic plasticity in wildlife populations. Laboratory animals are extremely inbred populations that have been disconnected from their natural environment and so their essential ecological aspects are entirely absent. Proechimys are small rodents from Brazil's Amazon rainforest and their nervous systems have evolved to carry out specific tasks of their unique ecological environment...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Elizabeth C Cropper, Jian Jing, Ferdinand S Vilim, Klaudiusz R Weiss
Neurons can contain both neuropeptides and "classic" small molecule transmitters. Much progress has been made in studies designed to determine the functional significance of this arrangement in experiments conducted in invertebrates and in the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. In this review article, we describe some of this research. In particular, we review early studies that related peptide release to physiological firing patterns of neurons. Additionally, we discuss more recent experiments informed by this early work that have sought to determine the functional significance of peptide cotransmission in the situation where peptides are released from neurons that are part of (i...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Olena G Filatova, Yuan Yang, Julius P A Dewald, Runfeng Tian, Pablo Maceira-Elvira, Yusuke Takeda, Gert Kwakkel, Okito Yamashita, Frans C T van der Helm
In hemiparetic stroke, functional recovery of paretic limb may occur with the reorganization of neural networks in the brain. Neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have a high spatial resolution which can be used to reveal anatomical changes in the brain following a stroke. However, low temporal resolution of MRI provides less insight of dynamic changes of brain activity. In contrast, electro-neurophysiological techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG), have an excellent temporal resolution to measure such transient events, however are hindered by its low spatial resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Roel de Haan, Judith Lim, Sven A van der Burg, Anton W Pieneman, Vinod Nigade, Huibert D Mansvelder, Christiaan P J de Kock
Selecting behavioral outputs in a dynamic environment is the outcome of integrating multiple information streams and weighing possible action outcomes with their value. Integration depends on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but how mPFC neurons encode information necessary for appropriate behavioral adaptation is poorly understood. To identify spiking patterns of mPFC during learned behavior, we extracellularly recorded neuronal action potential firing in the mPFC of rats performing a whisker-based "Go"/"No-go" object localization task...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Maciej Kaminski, Katarzyna J Blinowska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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