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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442997/high-spatiotemporal-resolution-ecog-recording-of-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-with-flexible-micro-electrode-arrays
#1
Taro Kaiju, Keiichi Doi, Masashi Yokota, Kei Watanabe, Masato Inoue, Hiroshi Ando, Kazutaka Takahashi, Fumiaki Yoshida, Masayuki Hirata, Takafumi Suzuki
Electrocorticogram (ECoG) has great potential as a source signal, especially for clinical BMI. Until recently, ECoG electrodes were commonly used for identifying epileptogenic foci in clinical situations, and such electrodes were low-density and large. Increasing the number and density of recording channels could enable the collection of richer motor/sensory information, and may enhance the precision of decoding and increase opportunities for controlling external devices. Several reports have aimed to increase the number and density of channels...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439229/locomotion-related-population-cortical-ca-2-transients-in-freely-behaving-mice
#2
Quanchao Zhang, Jiwei Yao, Yu Guang, Shanshan Liang, Jiangheng Guan, Han Qin, Xiang Liao, Wenjun Jin, Jianxiong Zhang, Junxia Pan, Hongbo Jia, Junan Yan, Zhengzhi Feng, Weibing Li, Xiaowei Chen
Locomotion involves complex neural activity throughout different cortical and subcortical networks. The primary motor cortex (M1) receives a variety of projections from different brain regions and is responsible for executing movements. The primary visual cortex (V1) receives external visual stimuli and plays an important role in guiding locomotion. Understanding how exactly the M1 and the V1 are involved in locomotion requires recording the neural activities in these areas in freely moving animals. Here, we used an optical fiber-based method for the real-time monitoring of neuronal population activities in freely moving mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439228/from-engrams-to-pathologies-of-the-brain
#3
REVIEW
Christine A Denny, Evan Lebois, Steve Ramirez
Memories are the experiential threads that tie our past to the present. The biological realization of a memory is termed an engram-the enduring biochemical and physiological processes that enable learning and retrieval. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of engram research that suggests we are closing in on boundary conditions for what qualifies as the physical manifestation of memory. In this review, we provide a brief history of engram research, followed by an overview of the many rodent models available to probe memory with intersectional strategies that have yielded unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution over defined sets of cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408869/rapid-long-range-disynaptic-inhibition-explains-the-formation-of-cortical-orientation-maps
#4
Ján Antolík
Competitive interactions are believed to underlie many types of cortical processing, ranging from memory formation, attention and development of cortical functional organization (e.g., development of orientation maps in primary visual cortex). In the latter case, the competitive interactions happen along the cortical surface, with local populations of neurons reinforcing each other, while competing with those displaced more distally. This specific configuration of lateral interactions is however in stark contrast with the known properties of the anatomical substrate, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405186/color-representation-is-retinotopically-biased-but-locally-intermingled-in-mouse-v1
#5
Shuhei Aihara, Takashi Yoshida, Takayuki Hashimoto, Kenichi Ohki
Dichromatic vision is common in many mammals. However, color processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) of dichromatic mammals is relatively unknown compared to the trichromatic primates. In this study, we investigated the functional organization of color processing in mouse V1. The mouse retina has a graded expression pattern of two opsins along its dorsoventral axis. However, it is not clear whether and how this expression pattern is reflected in the cortical representation at local (several hundred microns) and areal (V1) level...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386219/ncam-regulates-inhibition-and-excitability-in-layer-2-3-pyramidal-cells-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#6
Xuying Zhang, Chelsea S Sullivan, Megan B Kratz, Michael R Kasten, Patricia F Maness, Paul B Manis
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), has been shown to be an obligate regulator of synaptic stability and pruning during critical periods of cortical maturation. However, the functional consequences of NCAM deletion on the organization of inhibitory circuits in cortex are not known. In vesicular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) transgenic mice, NCAM is expressed postnatally at perisomatic synaptic puncta of EYFP-labeled parvalbumin, somatostatin and calretinin-positive interneurons, and in the neuropil in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381991/astrocyte-calcium-responses-to-sensory-input-influence-of-circuit-organization-and-experimental-factors
#7
Mónica López-Hidalgo, Vered Kellner, James Schummers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367117/representation-of-glossy-material-surface-in-ventral-superior-temporal-sulcal-area-of-common-marmosets
#8
Naohisa Miyakawa, Taku Banno, Hiroshi Abe, Toshiki Tani, Wataru Suzuki, Noritaka Ichinohe
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360843/magr-alone-is-insufficient-to-confer-cellular-calcium-responses-to-magnetic-stimulation
#9
Keliang Pang, He You, Yanbo Chen, Pengcheng Chu, Meiqin Hu, Jianying Shen, Wei Guo, Can Xie, Bai Lu
Magnetic manipulation of cell activity offers advantages over optical manipulation but an ideal tool remains elusive. The MagR protein was found through its interaction with cryptochrome (Cry) and the protein in solution appeared to respond to magnetic stimulation (MS). After we initiated an investigation on the specific role of MagR in cellular response to MS, a subsequent study claimed that MagR expression alone could achieve cellular activation by MS. Here we report that despite systematically testing different ways of measuring intracellular calcium and different MS protocols, it was not possible to detect any cellular or neuronal responses to MS in MagR-expressing HEK cells or primary neurons from the dorsal root ganglion and the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337129/novel-neuromodulation-techniques-to-assess-interhemispheric-communication-in-neural-injury-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Samuel S Shin, Galit Pelled
Interhemispheric interaction has a major role in various neurobehavioral functions. Its disruption is a major contributor to the pathological changes in the setting of brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, peripheral nerve injury, and stroke, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Because interhemispheric interaction has a crucial role in functional consequence in these neuropathological states, a review of noninvasive and state-of-the-art molecular based neuromodulation methods that focus on or have the potential to elucidate interhemispheric interaction have been performed...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321182/sparse-and-specific-coding-during-information-transmission-between-co-cultured-dentate-gyrus-and-ca3-hippocampal-networks
#11
Daniele Poli, Srikanth Thiagarajan, Thomas B DeMarse, Bruce C Wheeler, Gregory J Brewer
To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303092/synaptic-ensemble-underlying-the-selection-and-consolidation-of-neuronal-circuits-during-learning
#12
REVIEW
Yoshio Hoshiba, Takeyoshi Wada, Akiko Hayashi-Takagi
Memories are crucial to the cognitive essence of who we are as human beings. Accumulating evidence has suggested that memories are stored as a subset of neurons that probably fire together in the same ensemble. Such formation of cell ensembles must meet contradictory requirements of being plastic and responsive during learning, but also stable in order to maintain the memory. Although synaptic potentiation is presumed to be the cellular substrate for this process, the link between the two remains correlational...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298887/automated-operant-conditioning-in-the-mouse-home-cage
#13
Nikolas A Francis, Patrick O Kanold
Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have made mice an advantageous animal model for studying the neurophysiology of sensation, cognition, and locomotion. A key benefit of mice is that they provide a large population of test subjects for behavioral screening. Reflex-based assays of hearing in mice, such as the widely used acoustic startle response, are less accurate than operant conditioning in measuring auditory processing. To date, however, there are few cost-effective options for scalable operant conditioning systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298886/mapping-and-analysis-of-the-connectome-of-sympathetic-premotor-neurons-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-of-the-rat-using-a-volumetric-brain-atlas
#14
Bowen Dempsey, Sheng Le, Anita Turner, Phil Bokiniec, Radhika Ramadas, Jan G Bjaalie, Clement Menuet, Rachael Neve, Andrew M Allen, Ann K Goodchild, Simon McMullan
Spinally projecting neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation of vasomotor sympathetic tone and are thought to receive convergent input from neurons at every level of the neuraxis; the factors that determine their ongoing activity remain unresolved. In this study we use a genetically restricted viral tracing strategy to definitively map their spatially diffuse connectome. We infected bulbospinal RVLM neurons with a recombinant rabies variant that drives reporter expression in monosynaptically connected input neurons and mapped their distribution using an MRI-based volumetric atlas and a novel image alignment and visualization tool that efficiently translates the positions of neurons captured in conventional photomicrographs to Cartesian coordinates...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293178/reconsidering-tonotopic-maps-in-the-auditory-cortex-and-lemniscal-auditory-thalamus-in-mice
#15
REVIEW
Hiroaki Tsukano, Masao Horie, Shinpei Ohga, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Yamato Kubota, Ryuichi Hishida, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsuei Shibuki
The auditory thalamus and auditory cortex (AC) are pivotal structures in the central auditory system. However, the thalamocortical mechanisms of processing sounds are largely unknown. Investigation of this process benefits greatly from the use of mice because the mouse is a powerful animal model in which various experimental techniques, especially genetic tools, can be applied. However, the use of mice has been limited in auditory research, and thus even basic anatomical knowledge of the mouse central auditory system has not been sufficiently collected...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270752/neuronal-correlates-of-functional-coupling-between-reach-and-grasp-related-components-of-muscle-activity
#16
Shashwati Geed, Martha L McCurdy, Peter L E van Kan
Coordinated reach-to-grasp movements require precise spatiotemporal synchrony between proximal forelimb muscles (shoulder, elbow) that transport the hand toward a target during reach, and distal muscles (wrist, digit) that simultaneously preshape and orient the hand for grasp. The precise mechanisms through which the redundant neuromuscular circuitry coordinates reach with grasp, however, remain unclear. Recently, Geed and Van Kan (2016) demonstrated, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), that limited numbers of global, template-like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components underlie the complexity and variability of intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) of up to 21 distal and proximal muscles recorded while monkeys performed reach-to-grasp tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243194/scalable-lightweight-integrated-and-quick-to-assemble-sliq-hyperdrives-for-functional-circuit-dissection
#17
Li Liang, Stefan N Oline, Justin C Kirk, Lukas Ian Schmitt, Robert W Komorowski, Miguel Remondes, Michael M Halassa
Independently adjustable multielectrode arrays are routinely used to interrogate neuronal circuit function, enabling chronic in vivo monitoring of neuronal ensembles in freely behaving animals at a single-cell, single spike resolution. Despite the importance of this approach, its widespread use is limited by highly specialized design and fabrication methods. To address this, we have developed a Scalable, Lightweight, Integrated and Quick-to-assemble multielectrode array platform. This platform additionally integrates optical fibers with independently adjustable electrodes to allow simultaneous single unit recordings and circuit-specific optogenetic targeting and/or manipulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217086/increased-sparsity-of-hippocampal-ca1-neuronal-ensembles-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome-assayed-by-arc-expression
#18
Constance L Smith-Hicks, Peiling Cai, Alena V Savonenko, Roger H Reeves, Paul F Worley
Down syndrome (DS) is the leading chromosomal cause of intellectual disability, yet the neural substrates of learning and memory deficits remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate neural networks linked to learning and memory in a well-characterized model of DS, the Ts65Dn mouse. We report that Ts65Dn mice exhibit exploratory behavior that is not different from littermate wild-type (WT) controls yet behavioral activation of Arc mRNA transcription in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus is altered in Ts65Dn mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217085/resting-state-fmri-in-mice-reveals-anesthesia-specific-signatures-of-brain-functional-networks-and-their-interactions
#19
Qasim Bukhari, Aileen Schroeter, David M Cole, Markus Rudin
fMRI studies in mice typically require the use of anesthetics. Yet, it is known that anesthesia alters responses to stimuli or functional networks at rest. In this work, we have used Dual Regression analysis Network Modeling to investigate the effects of two commonly used anesthetics, isoflurane and medetomidine, on rs-fMRI derived functional networks, and in particular to what extent anesthesia affected the interaction within and between these networks. Experimental data have been used from a previous study (Grandjean et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194098/spatiotemporal-profiles-of-proprioception-processed-by-the-masseter-muscle-spindles-in-rat-cerebral-cortex-an-optical-imaging-study
#20
Satoshi Fujita, Mari Kaneko, Hiroko Nakamura, Masayuki Kobayashi
Muscle spindles in the jaw-closing muscles, which are innervated by trigeminal mesencephalic neurons (MesV neurons), control the strength of occlusion and the position of the mandible. The mechanisms underlying cortical processing of proprioceptive information are critical to understanding how sensory information from the masticatory muscles regulates orofacial motor function. However, these mechanisms are mostly unknown. The present study aimed to identify the regions that process proprioception of the jaw-closing muscles using in vivo optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye in rats under urethane anesthesia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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