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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780307/parvalbumin-and-gaba-microcircuits-in-the-mouse-superior-colliculus
#1
Claudio A Villalobos, Qiong Wu, Psyche H Lee, Paul J May, Michele A Basso
The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is a sensorimotor midbrain structure responsible for orienting behaviors. Although many SC features are known, details of its intrinsic microcircuits are lacking. We used transgenic mice expressing reporter genes in parvalbumin-positive (PV+ ) and gamma aminobutyric acid-positive (GABA+ ) neurons to test the hypothesis that PV+ neurons co-localize GABA and form inhibitory circuits within the SC. We found more PV+ neurons in the superficial compared to the intermediate SC, although a larger percentage of PV+ neurons co-expressed GABA in the latter...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770112/circadian-plasticity-in-the-brain-of-insects-and-rodents
#2
REVIEW
Wojciech Krzeptowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elżbieta Pyza
In both vertebrate and invertebrate brains, neurons, glial cells and synapses are plastic, which means that the physiology and structure of these components are modified in response to internal and external stimuli during development and in mature brains. The term plasticity has been introduced in the last century to describe experience-dependent changes in synapse strength and number. These changes result from local functional and morphological synapse modifications; however, these modifications also occur more commonly in pre- and postsynaptic neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740289/two-photon-functional-imaging-of-the-auditory-cortex-in-behaving-mice-from-neural-networks-to-single-spines
#3
Ruijie Li, Meng Wang, Jiwei Yao, Shanshan Liang, Xiang Liao, Mengke Yang, Jianxiong Zhang, Junan Yan, Hongbo Jia, Xiaowei Chen, Xingyi Li
In vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging is a powerful tool for recording neuronal activities during perceptual tasks and has been increasingly applied to behaving animals for acute or chronic experiments. However, the auditory cortex is not easily accessible to imaging because of the abundant temporal muscles, arteries around the ears and their lateral locations. Here, we report a protocol for two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of head-fixed behaving mice. By using a custom-made head fixation apparatus and a head-rotated fixation procedure, we achieved two-photon imaging and in combination with targeted cell-attached recordings of auditory cortical neurons in behaving mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740288/relationship-between-neuromodulation-and-working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-it-s-complicated
#4
Sarah E Motley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720934/reticulospinal-systems-for-tuning-motor-commands
#5
REVIEW
Robert M Brownstone, Jeremy W Chopek
The pontomedullary reticular formation (RF) is a key site responsible for integrating descending instructions to execute particular movements. The indiscrete nature of this region has led not only to some inconsistencies in nomenclature, but also to difficulties in understanding its role in the control of movement. In this review article, we first discuss nomenclature of the RF, and then examine the reticulospinal motor command system through evolution. These command neurons have direct monosynaptic connections with spinal interneurons and motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713266/the-effect-of-single-pyramidal-neuron-firing-within-layer-2-3-and-layer-4-in-mouse-v1
#6
Jochen F Meyer, Peyman Golshani, Stelios M Smirnakis
The influence of cortical cell spiking activity on nearby cells has been studied extensively in vitro . Less is known, however, about the impact of single cell firing on local cortical networks in vivo . In a pioneering study, Kwan and Dan (Kwan and Dan, 2012) reported that in mouse layer 2/3 (L2/3), under anesthesia , stimulating a single pyramidal cell recruits ~2.1% of neighboring units. Here we employ two-photon calcium imaging in layer 2/3 of mouse V1, in conjunction with single-cell patch clamp stimulation in layer 2/3 or layer 4, to probe, in both the awake and lightly anesthetized states , how (i) activating single L2/3 pyramidal neurons recruits neighboring units within L2/3 and from layer 4 (L4) to L2/3, and whether (ii) activating single pyramidal neurons changes population activity in local circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706871/plasticity-in-one-hemisphere-control-from-two-adaptation-in-descending-motor-pathways-after-unilateral-corticospinal-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#7
Tong-Chun Wen, Sophia Lall, Corey Pagnotta, James Markward, Disha Gupta, Shivakeshavan Ratnadurai-Giridharan, Jacqueline Bucci, Lucy Greenwald, Madelyne Klugman, N Jeremy Hill, Jason B Carmel
After injury to the corticospinal tract (CST) in early development there is large-scale adaptation of descending motor pathways. Some studies suggest the uninjured hemisphere controls the impaired forelimb, while others suggest that the injured hemisphere does; these pathways have never been compared directly. We tested the contribution of each motor cortex to the recovery forelimb function after neonatal injury of the CST. We cut the left pyramid (pyramidotomy) of postnatal day 7 rats, which caused a measurable impairment of the right forelimb...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674958/neuronal-calcium-signaling-in-metabolic-regulation-and-adaptation-to-nutrient-stress
#8
REVIEW
Siddharth Jayakumar, Gaiti Hasan
All organisms can respond physiologically and behaviorally to environmental fluxes in nutrient levels. Different nutrient sensing pathways exist for specific metabolites, and their inputs ultimately define appropriate nutrient uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Nutrient sensing mechanisms at the cellular level require pathways such as insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that integrates information from different organ systems like the fat body and the gut. Such integration is essential for coordinating growth with development...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670512/eyes-matched-to-the-prize-the-state-of-matched-filters-in-insect-visual-circuits
#9
REVIEW
Jessica R Kohn, Sarah L Heath, Rudy Behnia
Confronted with an ever-changing visual landscape, animals must be able to detect relevant stimuli and translate this information into behavioral output. A visual scene contains an abundance of information: to interpret the entirety of it would be uneconomical. To optimally perform this task, neural mechanisms exist to enhance the detection of important features of the sensory environment while simultaneously filtering out irrelevant information. This can be accomplished by using a circuit design that implements specific "matched filters" that are tuned to relevant stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670511/low-frequency-microstimulation-is-locally-excitatory-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#10
Andrea Bartoli, Rémi Tyrand, Maria I Vargas, Shahan Momjian, Colette Boëx
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) could become a palliative treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy for which surgery cannot be proposed. The objective of this study was to perform microstimulation to measure the effects of DBS in epilepsy locally at the level of a few neurons, with microelectrode recordings, for the first time in patients with epilepsy. Microelectrode recordings were performed before, during and after microstimulation in nine patients with refractory epilepsy. Neuronal spikes were successfully extracted from multi-unit recordings with clustering in six out of seven patients during hippocampal and in one out of two patients during cortical dysplasia microstimulation (1 Hz, charge-balanced biphasic waveform, 60 μs/ph, 25 μA)...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662442/topographic-organization-of-cholinergic-innervation-from-the-basal-forebrain-to-the-visual-cortex-in-the-rat
#11
Frédéric Huppé-Gourgues, Karim Jegouic, Elvire Vaucher
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter for the regulation of visual attention, plasticity, and perceptual learning. It is released in the visual cortex predominantly by cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, where stimulation may produce potentiation of visual processes. However, little is known about the fine organization of these corticopetal projections, such as whether basal forebrain neurons projecting to the primary and secondary visual cortical areas (V1 and V2, respectively) are organized retinotopically...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651239/editorial-spontaneous-activity-in-sensory-systems
#12
EDITORIAL
Kazuo Imaizumi, Edward S Ruthazer, Jason N MacLean, Charles C Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593504/neuromodulatory-correlates-of-pupil-dilation
#13
REVIEW
Rylan S Larsen, Jack Waters
Pupillometry has long been used as a measure of brain state. Changes in pupil diameter are thought to coincide with the activity of neuromodulators, including noradrenaline and acetylcholine, producing alterations in the brain state and corresponding changes in behavior. Here we review mechanisms underlying the control of pupil diameter and how these mechanisms are correlated with changes in cortical activity and the recruitment of neuromodulatory circuits.
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593503/emergence-of-serotonergic-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-turtles
#14
Gabriela Fabbiani, María I Rehermann, Carina Aldecosea, Omar Trujillo-Cenóz, Raúl E Russo
Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI) in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559898/coding-schemes-in-the-archerfish-optic-tectum
#15
Adam Reichenthal, Mor Ben-Tov, Ronen Segev
Many studies have yielded valuable knowledge on the early visual system but it is biased since the studies have focused on terrestrial mammals alone. Here, to better account for visual systems in different environments and animal classes, we studied the structure of early visual processing in the archerfish which harnesses its extreme visual ability to hunt by shooting water jets at prey hanging on vegetation above the water. Thus, the archerfish provides a unique opportunity to study visual processing in a vertebrate which is an expert vision-guided predator with a very different brain structure than mammals...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559897/material-exchange-in-photoreceptor-transplantation-updating-our-understanding-of-donor-host-communication-and-the-future-of-cell-engraftment-science
#16
REVIEW
Philip E B Nickerson, Arturo Ortin-Martinez, Valerie A Wallace
Considerable research effort has been invested into the transplantation of mammalian photoreceptors into healthy and degenerating mouse eyes. Several platforms of rod and cone fluorescent reporting have been central to refining the isolation, purification and transplantation of photoreceptors. The tracking of engrafted cells, including identifying the position, morphology and degree of donor cell integration post-transplant is highly dependent on the use of fluorescent protein reporters. Improvements in imaging and analysis of transplant recipients have revealed that donor cell fluorescent reporters can transfer into host tissue though a process termed material exchange (ME)...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535611/sleep-deprivation-and-the-epigenome
#17
REVIEW
Marie E Gaine, Snehajyoti Chatterjee, Ted Abel
Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i) DNA methylation; (ii) histone modifications; and (iii) non-coding RNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527156/toward-a-mechanistic-understanding-of-color-vision-in-insects
#18
REVIEW
Bo-Mi Song, Chi-Hon Lee
Many visual animals exploit spectral information for seeking food and mates, for identifying preys and predators, and for navigation. Animals use chromatic information in two ways. "True color vision," the ability to discriminate visual stimuli on the basis of their spectral content independent of brightness, is thought to play an important role in object identification. In contrast, "wavelength-specific behavior," which is strongly dependent on brightness, often associates with foraging, navigation, and other species-specific needs...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487506/high-throughput-automatic-training-system-for-odor-based-learned-behaviors-in-head-fixed-mice
#19
Zhe Han, Xiaoxing Zhang, Jia Zhu, Yulei Chen, Chengyu T Li
Understanding neuronal mechanisms of learned behaviors requires efficient behavioral assays. We designed a high-throughput automatic training system (HATS) for olfactory behaviors in head-fixed mice. The hardware and software were constructed to enable automatic training with minimal human intervention. The integrated system was composed of customized 3D-printing supporting components, an odor-delivery unit with fast response, Arduino based hardware-controlling and data-acquisition unit. Furthermore, the customized software was designed to enable automatic training in all training phases, including lick-teaching, shaping and learning...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487505/the-mouse-superior-colliculus-an-emerging-model-for-studying-circuit-formation-and-function
#20
REVIEW
Shinya Ito, David A Feldheim
The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain area where visual, auditory and somatosensory information are integrated to initiate motor commands. The SC plays a central role in visual information processing in the mouse; it receives projections from 85% to 90% of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). While the mouse SC has been a long-standing model used to study retinotopic map formation, a number of technological advances in mouse molecular genetic techniques, large-scale physiological recordings and SC-dependent visual behavioral assays have made the mouse an even more ideal model to understand the relationship between circuitry and behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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