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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899883/commentary-melanopsin-regulates-both-sleep-promoting-and-arousal-promoting-responses-to-light
#1
COMMENT
Christian Cajochen, Sarah L Chellappa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895555/spike-timing-rigidity-is-maintained-in-bursting-neurons-under-pentobarbital-induced-anesthetic-conditions
#2
Risako Kato, Masanori Yamanaka, Eiko Yokota, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
Pentobarbital potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission by prolonging the open time of GABAA receptors. However, it is unknown how pentobarbital regulates cortical neuronal activities via local circuits in vivo. To examine this question, we performed extracellular unit recording in rat insular cortex under awake and anesthetic conditions. Not a few studies apply time-rescaling theorem to detect the features of repetitive spike firing. Similar to these methods, we define an average spike interval locally in time using random matrix theory (RMT), which enables us to compare different activity states on a universal scale...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#3
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891079/contribution-of-tms-and-rtms-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-and-in-the-treatment-of-dystonia
#4
REVIEW
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Alexandra Richard, Sana Masmoudi, Elodie Meppiel, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891078/neural-and-response-correlations-to-complex-natural-sounds-in-the-auditory-midbrain
#5
Dominika Lyzwa, Florentin Wörgötter
How natural communication sounds are spatially represented across the inferior colliculus, the main center of convergence for auditory information in the midbrain, is not known. The neural representation of the acoustic stimuli results from the interplay of locally differing input and the organization of spectral and temporal neural preferences that change gradually across the nucleus. This raises the question of how similar the neural representation of the communication sounds is across these gradients of neural preferences, and whether it also changes gradually...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877114/ontogenetic-development-of-vestibulo-ocular-reflexes-in-amphibians
#6
REVIEW
Francisco Branoner, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877113/the-effects-of-realistic-synaptic-distribution-and-3d-geometry-on-signal-integration-and-extracellular-field-generation-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells-and-inhibitory-neurons
#7
Attila I Gulyás, Tamás F Freund, Szabolcs Káli
In vivo and in vitro multichannel field and somatic intracellular recordings are frequently used to study mechanisms of network pattern generation. When interpreting these data, neurons are often implicitly considered as electrotonically compact cylinders with a homogeneous distribution of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. However, the actual distributions of dendritic length, diameter, and the densities of excitatory and inhibitory input are non-uniform and cell type-specific. We first review quantitative data on the dendritic structure and synaptic input and output distribution of pyramidal cells (PCs) and interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 area...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857684/spatial-localization-of-sources-in-the-rat-subthalamic-motor-region-using-an-inverse-current-source-density-method
#8
Kees J van Dijk, Marcus L F Janssen, Daphne G M Zwartjes, Yasin Temel, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Peter H Veltink, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Tjitske Heida
Objective: In this study we introduce the use of the current source density (CSD) method as a way to visualize the spatial organization of evoked responses in the rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) at fixed time stamps resulting from motor cortex stimulation. This method offers opportunities to visualize neuronal input and study the relation between the synaptic input and the neural output of neural populations. Approach: Motor cortex evoked local field potentials and unit activity were measured in the subthalamic region, with a 3D measurement grid consisting of 320 measurement points and high spatial resolution...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857683/in-vitro-magnetic-stimulation-a-simple-stimulation-device-to-deliver-defined-low-intensity-electromagnetic-fields
#9
Stephanie Grehl, David Martina, Catherine Goyenvalle, Zhi-De Deng, Jennifer Rodger, Rachel M Sherrard
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by electromagnetic fields appears to benefit human neurological and psychiatric conditions, although the optimal stimulation parameters and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although, in vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms, stimulation is delivered by a range of coils (from commercially available human stimulation coils to laboratory-built circuits) so that the electromagnetic fields induced within the tissue to produce the reported effects are ill-defined...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822180/axonal-cleaved-caspase-3-regulates-axon-targeting-and-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-auditory-brainstem
#10
Sarah E Rotschafer, Michelle R Allen-Sharpley, Karina S Cramer
Caspase-3 is a cysteine protease that is most commonly associated with cell death. Recent studies have shown additional roles in mediating cell differentiation, cell proliferation and development of cell morphology. We investigated the role of caspase-3 in the development of chick auditory brainstem nuclei during embryogenesis. Immunofluorescence from embryonic days E6-13 revealed that the temporal expression of cleaved caspase-3 follows the ascending anatomical pathway. The expression is first seen in the auditory portion of VIIIth nerve including central axonal regions projecting to nucleus magnocellularis (NM), then later in NM axons projecting to nucleus laminaris (NL), and subsequently in NL dendrites...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818624/glial-cell-contributions-to-auditory-brainstem-development
#11
REVIEW
Karina S Cramer, Edwin W Rubel
Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818623/an-evolutionarily-conserved-mechanism-for-activity-dependent-visual-circuit-development
#12
REVIEW
Kara G Pratt, Masaki Hiramoto, Hollis T Cline
Neural circuit development is an activity-dependent process. This activity can be spontaneous, such as the retinal waves that course across the mammalian embryonic retina, or it can be sensory-driven, such as the activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by visual stimuli. Whichever the source, neural activity provides essential instruction to the developing circuit. Indeed, experimentally altering activity has been shown to impact circuit development and function in many different ways and in many different model systems...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812323/intrinsic-cellular-properties-and-connectivity-density-determine-variable-clustering-patterns-in-randomly-connected-inhibitory-neural-networks
#13
Scott Rich, Victoria Booth, Michal Zochowski
The plethora of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus and cortex play a pivotal role in generating rhythmic activity by clustering and synchronizing cell firing. Results of our simulations demonstrate that both the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons and the degree of network connectivity affect the characteristics of clustered dynamics exhibited in randomly connected, heterogeneous inhibitory networks. We quantify intrinsic cellular properties by the neuron's current-frequency relation (IF curve) and Phase Response Curve (PRC), a measure of how perturbations given at various phases of a neurons firing cycle affect subsequent spike timing...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807408/cortical-neural-computation-by-discrete-results-hypothesis
#14
REVIEW
Carlos Castejon, Angel Nuñez
One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774054/tmseeg-a-matlab-based-graphical-user-interface-for-processing-electrophysiological-signals-during-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#15
Sravya Atluri, Matthew Frehlich, Ye Mei, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Nigel C Rogasch, Willy Wong, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Faranak Farzan
Concurrent recording of electroencephalography (EEG) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging and powerful tool for studying brain health and function. Despite a growing interest in adaptation of TMS-EEG across neuroscience disciplines, its widespread utility is limited by signal processing challenges. These challenges arise due to the nature of TMS and the sensitivity of EEG to artifacts that often mask TMS-evoked potentials (TEP)s. With an increase in the complexity of data processing methods and a growing interest in multi-site data integration, analysis of TMS-EEG data requires the development of a standardized method to recover TEPs from various sources of artifacts...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766073/differences-in-motor-evoked-potentials-induced-in-rats-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-under-two-separate-anesthetics-implications-for-plasticity-studies
#16
Matthew Sykes, Natalie A Matheson, Philip W Brownjohn, Alexander D Tang, Jennifer Rodger, Jonathan B H Shemmell, John N J Reynolds
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however, results are variable between participants and across studies...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746722/somatostatin-expressing-inhibitory-interneurons-in-cortical-circuits
#17
Iryna Yavorska, Michael Wehr
Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM) inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733817/hodge-decomposition-of-information-flow-on-small-world-networks
#18
Taichi Haruna, Yuuya Fujiki
We investigate the influence of the small-world topology on the composition of information flow on networks. By appealing to the combinatorial Hodge theory, we decompose information flow generated by random threshold networks on the Watts-Strogatz model into three components: gradient, harmonic and curl flows. The harmonic and curl flows represent globally circular and locally circular components, respectively. The Watts-Strogatz model bridges the two extreme network topologies, a lattice network and a random network, by a single parameter that is the probability of random rewiring...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713692/determining-monkey-free-choice-long-before-the-choice-is-made-the-principal-role-of-prefrontal-neurons-involved-in-both-decision-and-motor-processes
#19
Encarni Marcos, Aldo Genovesio
When choices are made freely, they might emerge from pre-existing neural activity. However, whether neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PF) show this anticipatory effect and, if so, in which part of the process they are involved is still debated. To answer this question, we studied PF activity in monkeys while they performed a strategy task. In this task when the stimulus changed from the previous trial, the monkeys had to shift their response to one of two spatial goals, excluding the one that had been previously selected...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713691/characterizing-and-modulating-brain-circuitry-through-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-combined-with-electroencephalography
#20
Faranak Farzan, Marine Vernet, Mouhsin M D Shafi, Alexander Rotenberg, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
The concurrent combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is a powerful technology for characterizing and modulating brain networks across developmental, behavioral, and disease states. Given the global initiatives in mapping the human brain, recognition of the utility of this technique is growing across neuroscience disciplines. Importantly, TMS-EEG offers translational biomarkers that can be applied in health and disease, across the lifespan, and in humans and animals, bridging the gap between animal models and human studies...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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