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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

Gaojie Pan, Zhicai Chen, Honghua Zheng, Yunwu Zhang, Huaxi Xu, Guojun Bu, Hui Zheng, Yanfang Li
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting millions of people. Due to the complicated and unclear mechanisms of epilepsy, still a significant proportion of epilepsy patients remain poorly controlled. Epilepsy is characterized by convulsive seizures that are caused by increased excitability. In this study, by using kainic acid (KA)-induced epilepsy mice, we investigated the neuronal activities and revealed the neuronal compensatory mechanisms after KA-induced toxic hyperexcitability...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Hee-Jun Rho, Jae-Hyun Kim, Seung-Hee Lee
Cortical processing is dynamically modulated by different neuromodulators. Neuromodulation of the cerebral cortex is crucial for maintaining cognitive brain functions such as perception, attention and learning. However, we do not fully understand how neuromodulatory projections are organized in the cerebral cortex to exert various functions. The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic projection and the locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic projection are well-known neuromodulatory projections to the cortex. Decades of studies have identified anatomical and physiological characteristics of these circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Emiliano Marachlian, Lilach Avitan, Geoffrey J Goodhill, Germán Sumbre
The brain is continuously active, even in the absence of external stimulation. In the optic tectum of the zebrafish larva, this spontaneous activity is spatially organized and reflects the circuit's functional connectivity. The structure of the spontaneous activity displayed patterns associated with aspects of the larva's preferences when engaging in complex visuo-motor behaviors, suggesting that the tectal circuit is adapted for the circuit's functional role in detecting visual cues and generating adequate motor behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kazumichi Shimizu, Mark Stopfer
[This corrects the article on p. 30 in vol. 11, PMID: 28515683.].
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Franca Tecchio, Carlo Cottone, Camillo Porcaro, Andrea Cancelli, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Giovanni Assenza
Focal epilepsy is a network pathology, where the brain connectivity of the epileptic focus (EF) influences seizure frequency and cortical dysfunction. Growing evidence supports a clinical efficacy of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) in drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). ctDCS effects can be merely attributed to the inhibition of cortical excitability, which is abnormally increased in epilepsy, but its effect on brain network of DRE patients has never been reported. We aimed at exploring the hypothesis that functional connectivity (FC) changes may explain part of ctDCS clinical effects in DRE patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Lorenzo Cangiano, Sten Grillner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Suellen Almeida-Corrêa, Michael Czisch, Carsten T Wotjak
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is a powerful tool for in vivo non-invasive whole-brain mapping of neuronal activity. Mn2+ enters active neurons via voltage-gated calcium channels and increases local contrast in T1 -weighted images. Given the property of Mn2+ of axonal transport, this technique can also be used for tract tracing after local administration of the contrast agent. However, MEMRI is still not widely employed in basic research due to the lack of a complete description of the Mn2+ dynamics in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Lena K L Oestreich, Thomas J Whitford, Marta I Garrido
Predictive coding postulates that the brain continually predicts forthcoming sensory events based on past experiences in order to process sensory information and respond to unexpected events in a fast and efficient manner. Predictive coding models in the context of overt speech are believed to operate along auditory white matter pathways such as the arcuate fasciculus and the frontal aslant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether brain regions that are structurally connected via these white matter pathways are also effectively engaged when listening to externally-generated, temporally-predicable speech sounds...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Joao P Leite
Executive functions and working memory are long known to involve the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and two PFC-projecting areas: midline/paramidline thalamus (MLT) and cornus ammonis 1 (CA1)/subiculum of the hippocampal formation (HF). An increasing number of rodent electrophysiology studies are examining these substrates together, thus providing circuit-level perspectives on input convergence, synaptic plasticity and functional coupling, as well as insights into cognition mechanisms and brain disorders. Our review article puts this literature into a method-oriented narrative...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Volker Scheuss
The spatial organization of synaptic inputs on the dendritic tree of cortical neurons is considered to play an important role in the dendritic integration of synaptic activity. Active electrical properties of dendrites and mechanisms of dendritic integration have been studied for a long time. New technological developments are now enabling the characterization of the spatial organization of synaptic inputs on dendrites. However, quantitative methods for the analysis of such data are lacking. In order to place cluster parameters into the framework of dendritic integration and synaptic summation, these parameters need to be assessed rigorously in a quantitative manner...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Sebastien Delcasso, Sachira Denagamage, Zelie Britton, Ann M Graybiel
Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying human cognition and determining the causal factors for the development of brain pathologies are among the greatest challenges for society. Electrophysiological recordings offer remarkable observations of brain activity as they provide highly precise representations of information coding in both temporal and spatial domains. With the development of genetic tools over the last decades, mice have been a key model organism in neuroscience. However, conducting chronic in vivo electrophysiology in awake, behaving mice remains technically challenging, and this difficulty prevents many research teams from acquiring critical recordings in their mouse models...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Yu-Cherng C Chang, Sheraz Khan, Samu Taulu, Gina Kuperberg, Emery N Brown, Matti S Hämäläinen, Simona Temereanca
Saccadic eye movements are an inherent component of natural reading, yet their contribution to information processing at subsequent fixation remains elusive. Here we use anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine cortical activity following saccades as healthy human subjects engaged in a one-back word recognition task. This activity was compared with activity following external visual stimulation that mimicked saccades. A combination of procedures was employed to eliminate saccadic ocular artifacts from the MEG signal...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Brielle R Ferguson, Wen-Jun Gao
Elucidating the prefrontal cortical microcircuit has been challenging, given its role in multiple complex behaviors, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, attention, social interaction and emotional regulation. Additionally, previous methodological limitations made it difficult to parse out the contribution of certain neuronal subpopulations in refining cortical representations. However, growing evidence supports a fundamental role of fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) GABAergic interneurons in regulating pyramidal neuron activity to drive appropriate behavioral responses...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Rafael C Almada, Andreas J Genewsky, Daniel E Heinz, Paul M Kaplick, Norberto C Coimbra, Carsten T Wotjak
Defensive behavioral responses are essential for survival in threating situations. The superior colliculus (SC) has been implicated in the generation of defensive behaviors elicited by visual, tactile and auditory stimuli. Furthermore, substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neurons are known to exert a modulatory effect on midbrain tectum neural substrates. However, the functional role of this nigrotectal pathway in threating situations is still poorly understood. Using optogenetics in freely behaving mice, we activated SNr projections at the level of the SC, and assessed consequences on behavioral performance in an open field test (OFT) and the beetle mania task (BMT)...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Claudio A Villalobos, Qiong Wu, Psyche H Lee, Paul J May, Michele A Basso
The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is a sensorimotor midbrain structure responsible for orienting behaviors. Although many SC features are known, details of its intrinsic microcircuits are lacking. We used transgenic mice expressing reporter genes in parvalbumin-positive (PV+ ) and gamma aminobutyric acid-positive (GABA+ ) neurons to test the hypothesis that PV+ neurons co-localize GABA and form inhibitory circuits within the SC. We found more PV+ neurons in the superficial compared to the intermediate SC, although a larger percentage of PV+ neurons co-expressed GABA in the latter...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Wojciech Krzeptowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elżbieta Pyza
In both vertebrate and invertebrate brains, neurons, glial cells and synapses are plastic, which means that the physiology and structure of these components are modified in response to internal and external stimuli during development and in mature brains. The term plasticity has been introduced in the last century to describe experience-dependent changes in synapse strength and number. These changes result from local functional and morphological synapse modifications; however, these modifications also occur more commonly in pre- and postsynaptic neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ruijie Li, Meng Wang, Jiwei Yao, Shanshan Liang, Xiang Liao, Mengke Yang, Jianxiong Zhang, Junan Yan, Hongbo Jia, Xiaowei Chen, Xingyi Li
In vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging is a powerful tool for recording neuronal activities during perceptual tasks and has been increasingly applied to behaving animals for acute or chronic experiments. However, the auditory cortex is not easily accessible to imaging because of the abundant temporal muscles, arteries around the ears and their lateral locations. Here, we report a protocol for two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of head-fixed behaving mice. By using a custom-made head fixation apparatus and a head-rotated fixation procedure, we achieved two-photon imaging and in combination with targeted cell-attached recordings of auditory cortical neurons in behaving mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Sarah E Motley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Robert M Brownstone, Jeremy W Chopek
The pontomedullary reticular formation (RF) is a key site responsible for integrating descending instructions to execute particular movements. The indiscrete nature of this region has led not only to some inconsistencies in nomenclature, but also to difficulties in understanding its role in the control of movement. In this review article, we first discuss nomenclature of the RF, and then examine the reticulospinal motor command system through evolution. These command neurons have direct monosynaptic connections with spinal interneurons and motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Jochen F Meyer, Peyman Golshani, Stelios M Smirnakis
The influence of cortical cell spiking activity on nearby cells has been studied extensively in vitro . Less is known, however, about the impact of single cell firing on local cortical networks in vivo . In a pioneering study, Kwan and Dan (Kwan and Dan, 2012) reported that in mouse layer 2/3 (L2/3), under anesthesia , stimulating a single pyramidal cell recruits ~2.1% of neighboring units. Here we employ two-photon calcium imaging in layer 2/3 of mouse V1, in conjunction with single-cell patch clamp stimulation in layer 2/3 or layer 4, to probe, in both the awake and lightly anesthetized states , how (i) activating single L2/3 pyramidal neurons recruits neighboring units within L2/3 and from layer 4 (L4) to L2/3, and whether (ii) activating single pyramidal neurons changes population activity in local circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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