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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337129/novel-neuromodulation-techniques-to-assess-interhemispheric-communication-in-neural-injury-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Samuel S Shin, Galit Pelled
Interhemispheric interaction has a major role in various neurobehavioral functions. Its disruption is a major contributor to the pathological changes in the setting of brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, peripheral nerve injury, and stroke, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Because interhemispheric interaction has a crucial role in functional consequence in these neuropathological states, a review of noninvasive and state-of-the-art molecular based neuromodulation methods that focus on or have the potential to elucidate interhemispheric interaction have been performed...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321182/sparse-and-specific-coding-during-information-transmission-between-co-cultured-dentate-gyrus-and-ca3-hippocampal-networks
#2
Daniele Poli, Srikanth Thiagarajan, Thomas B DeMarse, Bruce C Wheeler, Gregory J Brewer
To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303092/synaptic-ensemble-underlying-the-selection-and-consolidation-of-neuronal-circuits-during-learning
#3
REVIEW
Yoshio Hoshiba, Takeyoshi Wada, Akiko Hayashi-Takagi
Memories are crucial to the cognitive essence of who we are as human beings. Accumulating evidence has suggested that memories are stored as a subset of neurons that probably fire together in the same ensemble. Such formation of cell ensembles must meet contradictory requirements of being plastic and responsive during learning, but also stable in order to maintain the memory. Although synaptic potentiation is presumed to be the cellular substrate for this process, the link between the two remains correlational...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298887/automated-operant-conditioning-in-the-mouse-home-cage
#4
Nikolas A Francis, Patrick O Kanold
Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have made mice an advantageous animal model for studying the neurophysiology of sensation, cognition, and locomotion. A key benefit of mice is that they provide a large population of test subjects for behavioral screening. Reflex-based assays of hearing in mice, such as the widely used acoustic startle response, are less accurate than operant conditioning in measuring auditory processing. To date, however, there are few cost-effective options for scalable operant conditioning systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298886/mapping-and-analysis-of-the-connectome-of-sympathetic-premotor-neurons-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-of-the-rat-using-a-volumetric-brain-atlas
#5
Bowen Dempsey, Sheng Le, Anita Turner, Phil Bokiniec, Radhika Ramadas, Jan G Bjaalie, Clement Menuet, Rachael Neve, Andrew M Allen, Ann K Goodchild, Simon McMullan
Spinally projecting neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation of vasomotor sympathetic tone and are thought to receive convergent input from neurons at every level of the neuraxis; the factors that determine their ongoing activity remain unresolved. In this study we use a genetically restricted viral tracing strategy to definitively map their spatially diffuse connectome. We infected bulbospinal RVLM neurons with a recombinant rabies variant that drives reporter expression in monosynaptically connected input neurons and mapped their distribution using an MRI-based volumetric atlas and a novel image alignment and visualization tool that efficiently translates the positions of neurons captured in conventional photomicrographs to Cartesian coordinates...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293178/reconsidering-tonotopic-maps-in-the-auditory-cortex-and-lemniscal-auditory-thalamus-in-mice
#6
REVIEW
Hiroaki Tsukano, Masao Horie, Shinpei Ohga, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Yamato Kubota, Ryuichi Hishida, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsuei Shibuki
The auditory thalamus and auditory cortex (AC) are pivotal structures in the central auditory system. However, the thalamocortical mechanisms of processing sounds are largely unknown. Investigation of this process benefits greatly from the use of mice because the mouse is a powerful animal model in which various experimental techniques, especially genetic tools, can be applied. However, the use of mice has been limited in auditory research, and thus even basic anatomical knowledge of the mouse central auditory system has not been sufficiently collected...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270752/neuronal-correlates-of-functional-coupling-between-reach-and-grasp-related-components-of-muscle-activity
#7
Shashwati Geed, Martha L McCurdy, Peter L E van Kan
Coordinated reach-to-grasp movements require precise spatiotemporal synchrony between proximal forelimb muscles (shoulder, elbow) that transport the hand toward a target during reach, and distal muscles (wrist, digit) that simultaneously preshape and orient the hand for grasp. The precise mechanisms through which the redundant neuromuscular circuitry coordinates reach with grasp, however, remain unclear. Recently, Geed and Van Kan (2016) demonstrated, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), that limited numbers of global, template-like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components underlie the complexity and variability of intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) of up to 21 distal and proximal muscles recorded while monkeys performed reach-to-grasp tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243194/scalable-lightweight-integrated-and-quick-to-assemble-sliq-hyperdrives-for-functional-circuit-dissection
#8
Li Liang, Stefan N Oline, Justin C Kirk, Lukas Ian Schmitt, Robert W Komorowski, Miguel Remondes, Michael M Halassa
Independently adjustable multielectrode arrays are routinely used to interrogate neuronal circuit function, enabling chronic in vivo monitoring of neuronal ensembles in freely behaving animals at a single-cell, single spike resolution. Despite the importance of this approach, its widespread use is limited by highly specialized design and fabrication methods. To address this, we have developed a Scalable, Lightweight, Integrated and Quick-to-assemble multielectrode array platform. This platform additionally integrates optical fibers with independently adjustable electrodes to allow simultaneous single unit recordings and circuit-specific optogenetic targeting and/or manipulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217086/increased-sparsity-of-hippocampal-ca1-neuronal-ensembles-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome-assayed-by-arc-expression
#9
Constance L Smith-Hicks, Peiling Cai, Alena V Savonenko, Roger H Reeves, Paul F Worley
Down syndrome (DS) is the leading chromosomal cause of intellectual disability, yet the neural substrates of learning and memory deficits remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate neural networks linked to learning and memory in a well-characterized model of DS, the Ts65Dn mouse. We report that Ts65Dn mice exhibit exploratory behavior that is not different from littermate wild-type (WT) controls yet behavioral activation of Arc mRNA transcription in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus is altered in Ts65Dn mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217085/resting-state-fmri-in-mice-reveals-anesthesia-specific-signatures-of-brain-functional-networks-and-their-interactions
#10
Qasim Bukhari, Aileen Schroeter, David M Cole, Markus Rudin
fMRI studies in mice typically require the use of anesthetics. Yet, it is known that anesthesia alters responses to stimuli or functional networks at rest. In this work, we have used Dual Regression analysis Network Modeling to investigate the effects of two commonly used anesthetics, isoflurane and medetomidine, on rs-fMRI derived functional networks, and in particular to what extent anesthesia affected the interaction within and between these networks. Experimental data have been used from a previous study (Grandjean et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194098/spatiotemporal-profiles-of-proprioception-processed-by-the-masseter-muscle-spindles-in-rat-cerebral-cortex-an-optical-imaging-study
#11
Satoshi Fujita, Mari Kaneko, Hiroko Nakamura, Masayuki Kobayashi
Muscle spindles in the jaw-closing muscles, which are innervated by trigeminal mesencephalic neurons (MesV neurons), control the strength of occlusion and the position of the mandible. The mechanisms underlying cortical processing of proprioceptive information are critical to understanding how sensory information from the masticatory muscles regulates orofacial motor function. However, these mechanisms are mostly unknown. The present study aimed to identify the regions that process proprioception of the jaw-closing muscles using in vivo optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye in rats under urethane anesthesia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184188/stimulus-phase-locking-of-cortical-oscillations-for-rhythmic-tone-sequences-in-rats
#12
Takahiro Noda, Tomoki Amemiya, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Hirokazu Takahashi
Humans can rapidly detect regular patterns (i.e., within few cycles) without any special attention to the acoustic environment. This suggests that human sensory systems are equipped with a powerful mechanism for automatically predicting forthcoming stimuli to detect regularity. It has recently been hypothesized that the neural basis of sensory predictions exists for not only what happens (predictive coding) but also when a particular stimulus occurs (predictive timing). Here, we hypothesize that the phases of neural oscillations are critical in predictive timing, and these oscillations are modulated in a band-specific manner when acoustic patterns become predictable, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174523/a-principle-for-describing-and-verifying-brain-mechanisms-using-ongoing-activity
#13
David Eriksson
Not even the most informed scientist can setup a theory that takes all brain signals into account. A neuron not only receives neuronal short range and long range input from all over the brain but a neuron also receives input from the extracellular space, astrocytes and vasculature. Given this complexity, how does one describe and verify a typical brain mechanism in vivo? Common to most described mechanisms is that one focuses on how one specific input signal gives rise to the activity in a population of neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167901/astrocytic-ip3-ca-2-signaling-modulates-theta-rhythm-and-rem-sleep
#14
Jeannine Foley, Tamara Blutstein, SoYoung Lee, Christophe Erneux, Michael M Halassa, Philip Haydon
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep onset is triggered by disinhibition of cholinergic neurons in the pons. During REM sleep, the brain exhibits prominent activity in the 5-8 Hz (theta) frequency range. How REM sleep onset and theta waves are regulated is poorly understood. Astrocytes, a non-neuronal cell type in the brain, respond to cholinergic signals by elevating their intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The goal of this study was to assess the sleep architecture of mice with attenuated IP3 mediated Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127277/breathing-as-a-fundamental-rhythm-of-brain-function
#15
Detlef H Heck, Samuel S McAfee, Yu Liu, Abbas Babajani-Feremi, Roozbeh Rezaie, Walter J Freeman, James W Wheless, Andrew C Papanicolaou, Miklós Ruszinkó, Yury Sokolov, Robert Kozma
Ongoing fluctuations of neuronal activity have long been considered intrinsic noise that introduces unavoidable and unwanted variability into neuronal processing, which the brain eliminates by averaging across population activity (Georgopoulos et al., 1986; Lee et al., 1988; Shadlen and Newsome, 1994; Maynard et al., 1999). It is now understood, that the seemingly random fluctuations of cortical activity form highly structured patterns, including oscillations at various frequencies, that modulate evoked neuronal responses (Arieli et al...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123358/rigidity-and-flexibility-the-central-basis-of-inter-leg-coordination-in-the-locust
#16
Daniel Knebel, Amir Ayali, Hans-Joachim Pflüger, Jan Rillich
Many motor behaviors, and specifically locomotion, are the product of an intricate interplay between neuronal oscillators known as central pattern generators (CPGs), descending central commands, and sensory feedback loops. The relative contribution of each of these components to the final behavior determines the trade-off between fixed movements and those that are carefully adapted to the environment. Here we sought to decipher the endogenous, default, motor output of the CPG network controlling the locust legs, in the absence of any sensory or descending influences...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119576/the-features-and-functions-of-neuronal-assemblies-possible-dependency-on-mechanisms-beyond-synaptic-transmission
#17
Antoine-Scott Badin, Francesco Fermani, Susan A Greenfield
"Neuronal assemblies" are defined here as coalitions within the brain of millions of neurons extending in space up to 1-2 mm, and lasting for hundreds of milliseconds: as such they could potentially link bottom-up, micro-scale with top-down, macro-scale events. The perspective first compares the features in vitro versus in vivo of this underappreciated "meso-scale" level of brain processing, secondly considers the various diverse functions in which assemblies may play a pivotal part, and thirdly analyses whether the surprisingly spatially extensive and prolonged temporal properties of assemblies can be described exclusively in terms of classic synaptic transmission or whether additional, different types of signaling systems are likely to operate...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119575/enhanced-thalamic-functional-connectivity-with-no-fmri-responses-to-affected-forelimb-stimulation-in-stroke-recovered-rats
#18
Woo H Shim, Ji-Yeon Suh, Jeong K Kim, Jaeseung Jeong, Young R Kim
Neurological recovery after stroke has been extensively investigated to provide better understanding of neurobiological mechanism, therapy, and patient management. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional MRI (fMRI), have widely contributed to unravel the relationship between the altered neural function and stroke-affected brain areas. As results of previous investigations, the plastic reorganization and/or gradual restoration of the hemodynamic fMRI responses to neural stimuli have been suggested as relevant mechanisms underlying the stroke recovery process...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119574/rules-for-shaping-neural-connections-in-the-developing-brain
#19
REVIEW
Elena Kutsarova, Martin Munz, Edward S Ruthazer
It is well established that spontaneous activity in the developing mammalian brain plays a fundamental role in setting up the precise connectivity found in mature sensory circuits. Experiments that produce abnormal activity or that systematically alter neural firing patterns during periods of circuit development strongly suggest that the specific patterns and the degree of correlation in firing may contribute in an instructive manner to circuit refinement. In fish and amphibians, unlike amniotic vertebrates, sensory input directly drives patterned activity during the period of initial projection outgrowth and innervation...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111542/a-global-orientation-map-in-the-primary-visual-cortex-v1-could-a-self-organizing-model-reveal-its-hidden-bias
#20
Ryan T Philips, V Srinivasa Chakravarthy
A remarkable accomplishment of self organizing models is their ability to simulate the development of feature maps in the cortex. Additionally, these models have been trained to tease out the differential causes of multiple feature maps, mapped on to the same output space. Recently, a Laterally Interconnected Synergetically Self Organizing Map (LISSOM) model has been used to simulate the mapping of eccentricity and meridional angle onto orthogonal axes in the primary visual cortex (V1). This model is further probed to simulate the development of the radial bias in V1, using a training set that consists of both radial (rectangular bars of random size and orientation) as well as non-radial stimuli...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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