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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

Scott Rich, Michal Zochowski, Victoria Booth
The interconnectivity between excitatory and inhibitory neural networks informs mechanisms by which rhythmic bursts of excitatory activity can be produced in the brain. One such mechanism, Pyramidal Interneuron Network Gamma (PING), relies primarily upon reciprocal connectivity between the excitatory and inhibitory networks, while also including intra-connectivity of inhibitory cells. The causal relationship between excitatory activity and the subsequent burst of inhibitory activity is of paramount importance to the mechanism and has been well studied...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Holger Dannenberg, Kimberly Young, Michael Hasselmo
This article provides a review of the effects of activation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors on the physiological properties of circuits in the hippocampal formation. Previous articles have described detailed computational hypotheses about the role of cholinergic neuromodulation in enhancing the dynamics for encoding in cortical structures and the role of reduced cholinergic modulation in allowing consolidation of previously encoded information. This article will focus on addressing the broad scope of different modulatory effects observed within hippocampal circuits, highlighting the heterogeneity of cholinergic modulation in terms of the physiological effects of activation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and the heterogeneity of effects on different subclasses of neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Sakura Okada, Hideyoshi Igata, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
The hippocampus contains place cells representing spaces in an environment, and these place cells have been suggested to play a fundamental role in the formation of a cognitive map for spatial processing. However, how alterations in the firing patterns of place cells in response to aversive events encode the locations tied to these aversive events is unknown. Here, we analyzed spiking patterns of place cell ensembles in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 region of rats performing a T-maze alternation task with an aversive air-puff stimulation applied at a specific location on one side of a trajectory...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Giorgio Rizzi, Kelly R Tan
Data from the World Health Organization (National Institute on Aging, 2011) and the National Institutes of Health (He et al., 2016) predicts that while today the worldwide population over 65 years of age is estimated around 8.5%, this number will reach an astounding 17% by 2050. In this framework, solving current neurodegenerative diseases primarily associated with aging becomes more pressing than ever. In 2017, we celebrate a grim 200th anniversary since the very first description of Parkinson's disease (PD) and its related symptomatology...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Rune Rasmussen, Keisuke Yonehara
A withstanding question in neuroscience is how neural circuits encode representations and perceptions of the external world. A particularly well-defined visual computation is the representation of global object motion by pattern direction-selective (PDS) cells from convergence of motion of local components represented by component direction-selective (CDS) cells. However, how PDS and CDS cells develop their distinct response properties is still unresolved. The visual cortex of the mouse is an attractive model for experimentally solving this issue due to the large molecular and genetic toolbox available...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Michael C Avery, Jeffrey L Krichmar
Neuromodulatory systems, including the noradrenergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic systems, track environmental signals, such as risks, rewards, novelty, effort, and social cooperation. These systems provide a foundation for cognitive function in higher organisms; attention, emotion, goal-directed behavior, and decision-making derive from the interaction between the neuromodulatory systems and brain areas, such as the amygdala, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and sensory cortices. Given their strong influence on behavior and cognition, these systems also play a key role in disease states and are the primary target of many current treatment strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Jose L Herrero, Marc A Gieselmann, Alexander Thiele
Acetylcholine is a neuromodulator that shapes information processing in different cortical and subcortical areas. Cell type and location specific cholinergic receptor distributions suggest that acetylcholine in macaque striate cortex should boost feed-forward driven activity, while also reducing population excitability by increasing inhibitory tone. Studies using cholinergic agonists in anesthetized primate V1 have yielded conflicting evidence for such a proposal. Here we investigated how muscarinic or nicotinic receptor blockade affect neuronal excitability and contrast response functions in awake macaque area V1...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Rune W Berg
The core elements of stereotypical movements such as locomotion, scratching and breathing are generated by networks in the lower brainstem and the spinal cord. Ensemble activities in spinal motor networks had until recently been merely a black box, but with the emergence of ultra-thin Silicon multi-electrode technology it was possible to reveal the spiking activity of larger parts of the network. A series of experiments revealed unexpected features of spinal networks, such as multiple spiking regimes and lognormal firing rate distributions...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Joshua Obermayer, Matthijs B Verhoog, Antonio Luchicchi, Huibert D Mansvelder
Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling shapes neuronal circuit development and underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. During behavior, activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) by ACh alters the activation state of neurons, and neuronal circuits most likely process information differently with elevated levels of ACh. In several brain regions, ACh has been shown to alter synaptic strength as well. By changing the rules for synaptic plasticity, ACh can have prolonged effects on and rearrange connectivity between neurons that outlasts its presence...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Philippe Saltiel, Andrea d'Avella, Matthew C Tresch, Kuno Wyler, Emilio Bizzi
The central pattern generator (CPG) architecture for rhythm generation remains partly elusive. We compare cat and frog locomotion results, where the component unrelated to pattern formation appears as a temporal grid, and traveling wave respectively. Frog spinal cord microstimulation with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA), a CPG activator, produced a limited set of force directions, sometimes tonic, but more often alternating between directions similar to the tonic forces. The tonic forces were topographically organized, and sites evoking rhythms with different force subsets were located close to the constituent tonic force regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Matthew B Toomey, Joseph C Corbo
To distinguish colors, the nervous system must compare the activity of distinct subtypes of photoreceptors that are maximally sensitive to different portions of the light spectrum. In vertebrates, a variety of adaptations have arisen to refine the spectral sensitivity of cone photoreceptors and improve color vision. In this review article, we focus on one such adaptation, the oil droplet, a unique optical organelle found within the inner segment of cone photoreceptors of a diverse array of vertebrate species, from fish to mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Inga Laube, Natasha Matthews, Angela J Dean, Redmond G O'Connell, Jason B Mattingley, Mark A Bellgrove
Limited resources for the in-depth processing of external stimuli make it necessary to select only relevant information from our surroundings and to ignore irrelevant stimuli. Attentional mechanisms facilitate this selection via top-down modulation of stimulus representations in the brain. Previous research has indicated that acetylcholine (ACh) modulates this influence of attention on stimulus processing. However, the role of muscarinic receptors as well as the specific mechanism of cholinergic modulation remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Adeola N Harewood Smith, Jnana Aditya Challa, Michael A Silver
Acetylcholine and dopamine are neurotransmitters that play multiple important roles in perception and cognition. Pharmacological cholinergic enhancement reduces excitatory receptive field size of neurons in marmoset primary visual cortex and sharpens the spatial tuning of visual perception and visual cortical fMRI responses in humans. Moreover, previous studies show that manipulation of cholinergic or dopaminergic signaling alters the spatial tuning of macaque prefrontal cortical neurons during the delay period of a spatial working memory (SWM) task and can improve SWM performance in macaque monkeys and human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Susheel Vijayraghavan, Alex J Major, Stefan Everling
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is indispensable for several higher-order cognitive and executive capacities of primates, including representation of salient stimuli in working memory (WM), maintenance of cognitive task set, inhibition of inappropriate responses and rule-guided flexible behavior. PFC networks are subject to robust neuromodulation from ascending catecholaminergic systems. Disruption of these systems in PFC has been implicated in cognitive deficits associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kentaro Arikawa, Tomoyuki Iwanaga, Motohiro Wakakuwa, Michiyo Kinoshita
Following gene duplication events, the expression patterns of the resulting gene copies can often diverge both spatially and temporally. Here we report on gene duplicates that are expressed in distinct but overlapping patterns, and which exhibit temporally divergent expression. Butterflies have sophisticated color vision and spectrally complex eyes, typically with three types of heterogeneous ommatidia. The eyes of the butterfly Papilio xuthus express two green- and one red-absorbing visual pigment, which came about via gene duplication events, in addition to one ultraviolet (UV)- and one blue-absorbing visual pigment...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
K Jannis Hildebrandt, Maneesh Sahani, Jennifer F Linden
Spike sorting is an essential first step in most analyses of extracellular in vivo electrophysiological recordings. Here we show that spike-sorting success depends critically on characteristics of coordinated population activity that can differ between anesthetic states. In tetrode recordings from mouse auditory cortex, spike sorting was significantly less successful under ketamine/medetomidine (ket/med) than urethane anesthesia. Surprisingly, this difficulty with sorting under ket/med anesthesia did not appear to result from either greater millisecond-scale burstiness of neural activity or increased coordination of activity among neighboring neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
J A Messina, Alison St Paul, Sarah Hargis, Wengora E Thompson, Andrew D McClellan
The contribution of left-right reciprocal coupling between spinal locomotor networks to the generation of locomotor activity was tested in adult lampreys. Muscle recordings were made from normal animals as well as from experimental animals with rostral midline (ML) spinal lesions (~13%→35% body length, BL), before and after spinal transections (T) at 35% BL. Importantly, in the present study actual locomotor movements and muscle burst activity, as well as other motor activity, were initiated in whole animals by descending brain-spinal pathways in response to sensory stimulation of the anterior head...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
William T Keenan, Diego C Fernandez, Lukas J Shumway, Haiqing Zhao, Samer Hattar
Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) are an important tool for modulating and understanding neural circuits. Depending on the DREADD system used, DREADD-targeted neurons can be activated or repressed in vivo following a dose of the DREADD agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Because DREADD experiments often involve behavioral assays, the method of CNO delivery is important. Currently, the most common delivery method is intraperitoneal (IP) injection. IP injection is both a fast and reliable technique, but it is painful and stressful particularly when many injections are required...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Laura N Borodinsky
The spinal cord is the first central nervous system structure to develop during vertebrate embryogenesis, underscoring its importance to the organism. Because of its early formation, accessibility to the developing spinal cord in amniotes is challenging, often invasive and the experimental approaches amenable to model systems like mammals are limited. In contrast, amphibians, in general and the African-clawed frog Xenopus laevis, in particular, offer model systems in which the formation of the spinal cord, the differentiation of spinal neurons and glia and the establishment of spinal neuron and neuromuscular synapses can be easily investigated with minimal perturbations to the whole organism...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Daisuke Miyamoto, Daichi Hirai, Masanori Murayama
Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5-4 Hz) are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow waves can enhance or impair memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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