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Frontiers in Neural Circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#1
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725184/sevoflurane-induces-coherent-slow-delta-oscillations-in-rats
#2
Jennifer A Guidera, Norman E Taylor, Justin T Lee, Ksenia Y Vlasov, JunZhu Pei, Emily P Stephen, J Patrick Mayo, Emery N Brown, Ken Solt
Although general anesthetics are routinely administered to surgical patients to induce loss of consciousness, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness are not fully understood. In rats, we characterized changes in the extradural EEG and intracranial local field potentials (LFPs) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex (PC), and central thalamus (CT) in response to progressively higher doses of the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. During induction with a low dose of sevoflurane, beta/low gamma (12-40 Hz) power increased in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs, and PFC-CT and PFC-PFC LFP beta/low gamma coherence increased...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713248/deep-brain-magnetic-stimulation-promotes-neurogenesis-and-restores-cholinergic-activity-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Junli Zhen, Yanjing Qian, Jian Fu, Ruijun Su, Haiting An, Wei Wang, Yan Zheng, Xiaomin Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive decline of memory and cognitive functions. Deep magnetic stimulation (DMS), a noninvasive and nonpharmacological brain stimulation, has been reported to alleviate stress-related cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Our previous study also discovered the preventive effect of DMS on cognitive decline in an AD mouse model. However, the underlying mechanism must be explored further. In this study, we investigated the effect of DMS on spatial learning and memory functions, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), as well as expression and activity of the cholinergic system in a transgenic mouse model of AD (5XFAD)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706475/focal-stroke-in-the-developing-rat-motor-cortex-induces-age-and-experience-dependent-maladaptive-plasticity-of-corticospinal-system
#4
Mariangela Gennaro, Alessandro Mattiello, Raffaele Mazziotti, Camilla Antonelli, Lisa Gherardini, Andrea Guzzetta, Nicoletta Berardi, Giovanni Cioni, Tommaso Pizzorusso
Motor system development is characterized by an activity-dependent competition between ipsilateral and contralateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Clinical evidence suggests that age is crucial for developmental stroke outcome, with early lesions inducing a "maladaptive" strengthening of ipsilateral projections from the healthy hemisphere and worse motor impairment. Here, we investigated in developing rats the relation between lesion timing, motor outcome and CST remodeling pattern. We induced a focal ischemia into forelimb motor cortex (fM1) at two distinct pre-weaning ages: P14 and P21...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701929/anatomic-and-physiologic-heterogeneity-of-subgroup-a-auditory-sensory-neurons-in-fruit-flies
#5
Yuki Ishikawa, Natsuki Okamoto, Mizuki Nakamura, Hyunsoo Kim, Azusa Kamikouchi
The antennal ear of the fruit fly detects acoustic signals in intraspecific communication, such as the courtship song and agonistic sounds. Among the five subgroups of mechanosensory neurons in the fly ear, subgroup-A neurons respond maximally to vibrations over a wide frequency range between 100 and 1,200 Hz. The functional organization of the neural circuit comprised of subgroup-A neurons, however, remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used 11 GAL4 strains that selectively label subgroup-A neurons and explored the diversity of subgroup-A neurons by combining single-cell anatomic analysis and Ca(2+) imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680395/a-biologically-plausible-architecture-of-the-striatum-to-solve-context-dependent-reinforcement-learning-tasks
#6
Sabyasachi Shivkumar, Vignesh Muralidharan, V Srinivasa Chakravarthy
Basal ganglia circuit is an important subcortical system of the brain thought to be responsible for reward-based learning. Striatum, the largest nucleus of the basal ganglia, serves as an input port that maps cortical information. Microanatomical studies show that the striatum is a mosaic of specialized input-output structures called striosomes and regions of the surrounding matrix called the matrisomes. We have developed a computational model of the striatum using layered self-organizing maps to capture the center-surround structure seen experimentally and explain its functional significance...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676745/bottom-up-and-top-down-mechanisms-of-general-anesthetics-modulate-different-dimensions-of-consciousness
#7
George A Mashour, Anthony G Hudetz
There has been controversy regarding the precise mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness, with two salient approaches that have emerged within systems neuroscience. One prominent approach is the "bottom up" paradigm, which argues that anesthetics suppress consciousness by modulating sleep-wake nuclei and neural circuits in the brainstem and diencephalon that have evolved to control arousal states. Another approach is the "top-down" paradigm, which argues that anesthetics suppress consciousness by modulating the cortical and thalamocortical circuits involved in the integration of neural information...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676744/trace-conditioning-in-drosophila-induces-associative-plasticity-in-mushroom-body-kenyon-cells-and-dopaminergic-neurons
#8
Kristina V Dylla, Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Dopaminergic neurons (DANs) signal punishment and reward during associative learning. In mammals, DANs show associative plasticity that correlates with the discrepancy between predicted and actual reinforcement (prediction error) during classical conditioning. Also in insects, such as Drosophila, DANs show associative plasticity that is, however, less understood. Here, we study associative plasticity in DANs and their synaptic partners, the Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom bodies (MBs), while training Drosophila to associate an odorant with a temporally separated electric shock (trace conditioning)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674487/pyramidal-neurons-in-different-cortical-layers-exhibit-distinct-dynamics-and-plasticity-of-apical-dendritic-spines
#9
Michelle Tjia, Xinzhu Yu, Lavpreet S Jammu, Ju Lu, Yi Zuo
The mammalian cerebral cortex is typically organized in six layers containing multiple types of neurons, with pyramidal neurons (PNs) being the most abundant. PNs in different cortical layers have distinct morphology, physiology and functional roles in neural circuits. Therefore, their development and synaptic plasticity may also differ. Using in vivo transcranial two-photon microscopy, we followed the structural dynamics of dendritic spines on apical dendrites of layer (L) 2/3 and L5 PNs at different developmental stages...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659766/neuroanatomical-substrates-of-rodent-social-behavior-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-its-projection-patterns
#10
REVIEW
Jaewon Ko
Social behavior encompasses a number of distinctive and complex constructs that form the core elements of human imitative culture, mainly represented as either affiliative or antagonistic interactions with conspecifics. Traditionally considered in the realm of psychology, social behavior research has benefited from recent advancements in neuroscience that have accelerated identification of the neural systems, circuits, causative genes and molecular mechanisms that underlie distinct social cognitive traits. In this review article, I summarize recent findings regarding the neuroanatomical substrates of key social behaviors, focusing on results from experiments conducted in rodent models...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659765/synaptic-impairment-and-robustness-of-excitatory-neuronal-networks-with-different-topologies
#11
Ehsan Mirzakhalili, Eleni Gourgou, Victoria Booth, Bogdan Epureanu
Synaptic deficiencies are a known hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, but the diagnosis of impaired synapses on the cellular level is not an easy task. Nonetheless, changes in the system-level dynamics of neuronal networks with damaged synapses can be detected using techniques that do not require high spatial resolution. This paper investigates how the structure/topology of neuronal networks influences their dynamics when they suffer from synaptic loss. We study different neuronal network structures/topologies by specifying their degree distributions...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638322/neural-signals-related-to-outcome-evaluation-are-stronger-in-ca1-than-ca3
#12
Sung-Hyun Lee, Namjung Huh, Jong Won Lee, Jeong-Wook Ghim, Inah Lee, Min W Jung
We have shown previously that CA1 conveys significant neural signals necessary to update value of the chosen target, namely chosen value and reward signals. To better understand hippocampal neural processes related to valuation, we compared chosen value- and reward-related neural activity between the CA3 and CA1 regions. Single units were recorded with tetrodes from the dorsal CA3 and CA1 regions of rats performing a dynamic foraging task, and chosen value- and reward-related neural activity was estimated using a reinforcement learning model and multiple regression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620283/octopus-cells-in-the-posteroventral-cochlear-nucleus-provide-the-main-excitatory-input-to-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus
#13
Richard A Felix Ii, Boris Gourévitch, Marcelo Gómez-Álvarez, Sara C M Leijon, Enrique Saldaña, Anna K Magnusson
Auditory streaming enables perception and interpretation of complex acoustic environments that contain competing sound sources. At early stages of central processing, sounds are segregated into separate streams representing attributes that later merge into acoustic objects. Streaming of temporal cues is critical for perceiving vocal communication, such as human speech, but our understanding of circuits that underlie this process is lacking, particularly at subcortical levels. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent group of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian brainstem, has been implicated in processing temporal information needed for the segmentation of ongoing complex sounds into discrete events...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588455/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-in-bipolar-disorder
#14
Anton J M Loonen, Ralph W Kupka, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model, the motivation for appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) re-entry circuits that include the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, control the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579946/corrigendum-reconsidering-tonotopic-maps-in-the-auditory-cortex-and-lemniscal-auditory-thalamus-in-mice
#15
Hiroaki Tsukano, Masao Horie, Shinpei Ohga, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Yamato Kubota, Ryuichi Hishida, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsuei Shibuki
[This corrects the article on p. 14 in vol. 11, PMID: 28293178.].
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579945/lfp-oscillations-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-during-voluntary-locomotion
#16
Brian R Noga, Francisco J Sanchez, Luz M Villamil, Christopher O'Toole, Stefan Kasicki, Maciej Olszewski, Anna M Cabaj, Henryk Majczyński, Urszula Sławińska, Larry M Jordan
Oscillatory rhythms in local field potentials (LFPs) are thought to coherently bind cooperating neuronal ensembles to produce behaviors, including locomotion. LFPs recorded from sites that trigger locomotion have been used as a basis for identification of appropriate targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to enhance locomotor recovery in patients with gait disorders. Theta band activity (6-12 Hz) is associated with locomotor activity in locomotion-inducing sites in the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus, but the LFPs that occur in the functionally defined mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) during locomotion have not been determined...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567005/the-long-journey-of-pontine-nuclei-neurons-from-rhombic-lip-to-cortico-ponto-cerebellar-circuitry
#17
REVIEW
Claudius F Kratochwil, Upasana Maheshwari, Filippo M Rijli
The pontine nuclei (PN) are the largest of the precerebellar nuclei, neuronal assemblies in the hindbrain providing principal input to the cerebellum. The PN are predominantly innervated by the cerebral cortex and project as mossy fibers to the cerebellar hemispheres. Here, we comprehensively review the development of the PN from specification to migration, nucleogenesis and circuit formation. PN neurons originate at the posterior rhombic lip and migrate tangentially crossing several rhombomere derived territories to reach their final position in ventral part of the pons...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536507/dopamine-modulates-delta-gamma-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-behaving-rats
#18
Victoria Andino-Pavlovsky, Annie C Souza, Robson Scheffer-Teixeira, Adriano B L Tort, Roberto Etchenique, Sidarta Ribeiro
Dopamine release and phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC) have independently been implicated in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. To causally investigate whether dopamine release affects phase-amplitude comodulation between different frequencies in local field potentials (LFP) recorded from the medial PFC (mPFC) of behaving rats, we used RuBiDopa, a light-sensitive caged compound that releases the neurotransmitter dopamine when irradiated with visible light. LFP power did not change in any frequency band after the application of light-uncaged dopamine, but significantly strengthened phase-amplitude comodulation between delta and gamma oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529476/two-parallel-olfactory-pathways-for-processing-general-odors-in-a-cockroach
#19
Hidehiro Watanabe, Hiroshi Nishino, Makoto Mizunami, Fumio Yokohari
In animals, sensory processing via parallel pathways, including the olfactory system, is a common design. However, the mechanisms that parallel pathways use to encode highly complex and dynamic odor signals remain unclear. In the current study, we examined the anatomical and physiological features of parallel olfactory pathways in an evolutionally basal insect, the cockroach Periplaneta americana. In this insect, the entire system for processing general odors, from olfactory sensory neurons to higher brain centers, is anatomically segregated into two parallel pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515683/a-population-of-projection-neurons-that-inhibits-the-lateral-horn-but-excites-the-antennal-lobe-through-chemical-synapses-in-drosophila
#20
Kazumichi Shimizu, Mark Stopfer
In the insect olfactory system, odor information is transferred from the antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain areas by projection neurons (PNs) in multiple AL tracts (ALTs). In several species, one of the ALTs, the mediolateral ALT (mlALT), contains some GABAergic PNs; in the Drosophila brain, the great majority of ventral PNs (vPNs) are GABAergic and project through this tract to the lateral horn (LH). Most excitatory PNs (ePNs), project through the medial ALT (mALT) to the mushroom body (MB) and the LH. Recent studies have shown that GABAergic vPNs play inhibitory roles at their axon terminals in the LH...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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