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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Lorena Halty-deLeon, Bill S Hansson, Dieter Wicher
CALX, the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger in Drosophila , is highly expressed in the outer dendrites of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) which are equipped with the odorant receptors (ORs). Insect OR/Orco dimers are nonselective cation channels that pass also calcium which leads to elevated calcium levels after OR activation. CALX exhibits an anomalous regulation in comparison to its homolog in mammals sodium/calcium exchanger, NCX: it is inhibited by increasing intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+ ]i . Thus, CALX mediates only Ca2+ efflux, not influx...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Pengcheng Geng, Jiqian Zhang, Wei Dai, Xiaoyu Han, Qilian Tan, Dan Cheng, Panpan Fang, Xuesheng Liu
The adverse effects of anesthetics on elderly people, especially those with brain diseases are very concerning. Whether inhaled anesthetics have adverse effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most common form of dementia with brain degenerative changes, remains controversial. Autophagy, a crucial biological degradation process, is extremely important for the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane elicited many enlarged autolysosomes and impaired the overall autophagic degradation in the hippocampus of an AD mouse model, which is involved in the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and spatial learning deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Joost le Feber, Anneloes Dummer, Gerco C Hassink, Michel J A M van Putten, Jeannette Hofmeijer
In the core of a brain infarct, neuronal death occurs within minutes after loss of perfusion. In the penumbra, a surrounding area with some residual perfusion, neurons initially remain structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced synaptic failure impedes neuronal activity. Penumbral activity may recover or further deteriorate, reflecting cell death. Mechanisms leading to either outcome remain ill-understood, but may involve changes in the excitation to inhibition ( E / I ) ratio. The E / I ratio is determined by structural (relative densities of excitatory and inhibitory synapses) and functional factors (synaptic strengths)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Nathalie Laflamme, Giulia Cisbani, Paul Préfontaine, Younes Srour, Jordan Bernier, Marie-Kim St-Pierre, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Serge Rivest
A pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is myelin loss in brain white matter accompanied by compromised remyelination. Demyelinated lesions are deeply associated with oligodendrocyte apoptosis and a robust inflammatory response. Although various studies point towards a noxious role of inflammation in MS, others emphasize a positive role for the innate immune cells in disease progression. A cytokine well-known to stimulate cell survival, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mCSF), was administered to mice during a 5 week-long cuprizone diet...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hyun Woo Lim, Kwang Pak, Allen F Ryan, Arwa Kurabi
There is considerable interest in discovering drugs with the potential to protect inner ear hair cells (HCs) from damage. One means of discovery is to screen compound libraries. Excellent screening protocols have been developed employing cell lines derived from the cochlea and zebrafish larvae. However, these do not address the differentiated mammalian hair cell. We have developed a screening method employing micro-explants of the mammalian organ of Corti (oC) to identify compounds with the ability to influence aminoglycoside-induced HC loss...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yi Zhang, Li Wei, Yupeng Du, Yirui Xie, Wei Wu, Yuan Yuan
Objective : We aimed to analyze alterations in T cell subgroups during different post-ischemic stroke (IS) phases to explore the possible mechanisms underlying stroke-induced immune depression (SIID). Methods : Sixty-four IS patients who met the entry criteria were divided into three groups: an acute phase group, a sub-acute phase group and a stable phase group. Fourteen healthy individuals were selected as normal controls. The phenotype distribution of T cells in patient peripheral blood was analyzed, and the immune checkpoint receptors programed cell death-1 (PD-1) and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) were detected in different T cell phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Guy Eyal, Matthijs B Verhoog, Guilherme Testa-Silva, Yair Deitcher, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Javier DeFelipe, Christiaan P J de Kock, Huibert D Mansvelder, Idan Segev
We present detailed models of pyramidal cells from human neocortex, including models on their excitatory synapses, dendritic spines, dendritic NMDA- and somatic/axonal Na + spikes that provided new insights into signal processing and computational capabilities of these principal cells. Six human layer 2 and layer 3 pyramidal cells (HL2/L3 PCs) were modeled, integrating detailed anatomical and physiological data from both fresh and postmortem tissues from human temporal cortex. The models predicted particularly large AMPA- and NMDA-conductances per synaptic contact (0...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Quan Gan, Shigeki Watanabe
Neurotransmission in complex animals depends on a choir of functionally distinct synapses releasing neurotransmitters in a highly coordinated manner. During synaptic signaling, vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents. The rate of vesicle fusion is high and can exceed the rate at which synaptic vesicles can be re-supplied by distant sources. Thus, local compensatory endocytosis is needed to replenish the synaptic vesicle pools. Over the last four decades, various experimental methods and model systems have been used to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic vesicle cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Mara Almog, Tal Barkai, Angelika Lampert, Alon Korngreen
Exploring the properties of action potentials is a crucial step toward a better understanding of the computational properties of single neurons and neural networks. The voltage-gated sodium channel is a key player in action potential generation. A comprehensive grasp of the gating mechanism of this channel can shed light on the biophysics of action potential generation. However, most models of voltage-gated sodium channels assume a concerted Hodgkin and Huxley kinetic gating scheme. However, it is not clear if Hodgkin and Huxley models are suitable for use in action potential simulations of central nervous system neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yi-Qing Huang, Cheng Wu, Xiao-Fei He, Dan Wu, Xia He, Feng-Yin Liang, Guang-Yan Dai, Zhong Pei, Guang-Qing Xu, Yue Lan
While increasing evidence demonstrated that voluntary wheel running promotes cognitive function, little is known on how different types of voluntary wheel running affect cognitive function in elderly populations. We investigated the effects of various voluntary wheel-running types on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial cognition in middle-aged mice. Male C57BL6 and Thy1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice (13 months) were equally assigned to one of the following groups: (1) T1: no voluntary wheel running; (2) T2: intermittent voluntary wheel running; and (3) T3: continuous voluntary wheel running...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hui Hong, Xiaoyu Wang, Ting Lu, Diego A R Zorio, Yuan Wang, Jason Tait Sanchez
In the auditory system, tonotopy is the spatial arrangement of where sounds of different frequencies are processed. Defined by the organization of neurons and their inputs, tonotopy emphasizes distinctions in neuronal structure and function across topographic gradients and is a common feature shared among vertebrates. In this study we characterized action potential firing patterns and ion channel properties from neurons located in the extremely low-frequency region of the chicken nucleus magnocellularis (NM), an auditory brainstem structure...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Qian Zhu, Janice R Naegele, Sangmi Chung
Epilepsy is a severe neurological disease affecting more than 70 million people worldwide that is characterized by unpredictable and abnormal electrical discharges resulting in recurrent seizures. Although antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment for seizure control, about one third of patients with epilepsy suffer from intractable seizures that are unresponsive to AEDs. Furthermore, the patients that respond to AEDs typically experience adverse systemic side effects, underscoring the urgent need to develop new therapies that target epileptic foci rather than more systemic interventions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Khalid Rashid, Anne Wolf, Thomas Langmann
A chronic pro-inflammatory environment is a hallmark of retinal degenerative diseases and neurological disorders that affect vision. Inflammatory responses during retinal pathophysiology are orchestrated by microglial cells which constitute the resident immune cell population. Following activation, microglia cells lose their ramified protrusions, proliferate and rapidly migrate to the damaged areas and resolve tissue damage. However, sustained presence of tissue stress primes microglia to become overreactive and results in the excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators that favor retinal degenerative changes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Harun Najib Noristani, Laetitia They, Florence Evelyne Perrin
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are neuropathologies causing enormous physical and emotional anguish as well as irreversibly disabilities with great socio/economic burdens to our society. The availability of multiple mouse strains is important for studying the underlying pathophysiological response after SCI. Although strain differences have been shown to directly affect spontaneous functional recovery following incomplete SCI, its influence after complete lesion of the spinal cord is unclear. To study the influence of mouse strain on recovery after severe SCI, we first carried out behavioral analyses up to 6 weeks following complete transection of the spinal cord in mice with two different genetic backgrounds namely, C57BL/6 and Swiss Webster...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sonia Hasan, Therese Hunter, Gary Hunter, Mauro Pessia, Maria Cristina D'Adamo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Pepe Alcami
Electrical synapses are ubiquitous in interneuron networks. They form intercellular pathways, allowing electrical currents to leak between coupled interneurons. I explored the impact of electrical coupling on the integration of excitatory signals and on the coincidence detection abilities of electrically-coupled cerebellar basket cells (BCs). In order to do so, I quantified the influence of electrical coupling on the rate, the probability and the latency at which BCs generate action potentials when stimulated...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Boldizsár Czéh, Irina Vardya, Zsófia Varga, Fabia Febbraro, Dávid Csabai, Lena-Sophie Martis, Kristoffer Højgaard, Kim Henningsen, Elena V Bouzinova, Attila Miseta, Kimmo Jensen, Ove Wiborg
Clinical and experimental data suggest that fronto-cortical GABAergic deficits contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). To further test this hypothesis, we used a well characterized rat model for depression and examined the effect of stress on GABAergic neuron numbers and GABA-mediated synaptic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to 9-weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and based on their hedonic-anhedonic behavior they were behaviorally phenotyped as being stress-susceptible (anhedonic) or stress-resilient...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xuefeng Shi, Yanjiao Jin, Jianhua Cang
Neurons in the visual system display varying degrees of selectivity for stimulus features such as orientation and direction. Such feature selectivity is generated and processed by intricate circuit and synaptic mechanisms. A key factor in this process is the input-output transformation from membrane potential (Vm ) to spikes in individual neurons. Here, we use in vivo whole-cell recording to study Vm -to-spike transformation of visual feature selectivity in the superficial neurons of the mouse superior colliculus (SC)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hanson Ho, Matt De Both, Ashley Siniard, Sasha Sharma, James H Notwell, Michelle Wallace, Dino P Leone, Amy Nguyen, Eric Zhao, Hannah Lee, Daniel Zwilling, Kimberly R Thompson, Steven P Braithwaite, Matthew Huentelman, Thomas Portmann
Recent advances in single-cell technologies are paving the way to a comprehensive understanding of the cellular complexity in the brain. Protocols for single-cell transcriptomics combine a variety of sophisticated methods for the purpose of isolating the heavily interconnected and heterogeneous neuronal cell types in a relatively intact and healthy state. The emphasis of single-cell transcriptome studies has thus far been on comparing library generation and sequencing techniques that enable measurement of the minute amounts of starting material from a single cell...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Stephan Altmann, Alexandra Blietz, Björn Nitzsche, Henryk Barthel, Anja K E Horn, Constance Hobusch, Wolfgang Härtig, Martin Krueger, Dominik Michalski
As part of the neuronal cytoskeleton, neurofilaments are involved in maintaining cellular integrity. In the setting of ischemic stroke, the affection of the neurofilament network is considered to mediate the transition towards long-lasting tissue damage. Although peripheral levels of distinct neurofilament subunits are shown to correlate with the clinically observed severity of cerebral ischemia, neurofilaments have so far not been considered for neuroprotective approaches. Therefore, the present study systematically addresses ischemia-induced alterations of the neurofilament light (NF-L), medium (NF-M), and heavy (NF-H) subunits as well as of α-internexin (INA)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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