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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123472/taurine-as-an-essential-neuromodulator-during-perinatal-cortical-development
#1
REVIEW
Werner Kilb, Atsuo Fukuda
A variety of experimental studies demonstrated that neurotransmitters are an important factor for the development of the central nervous system, affecting neurodevelopmental events like neurogenesis, neuronal migration, programmed cell death, and differentiation. While the role of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on neuronal development is well established, the aminosulfonic acid taurine has also been considered as possible neuromodulator during early neuronal development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123471/vglut2-trafficking-is-differentially-regulated-by-adaptor-proteins-ap-1-and-ap-3
#2
Haiyan Li, Magda S Santos, Chihyung K Park, Yuriy Dobry, Susan M Voglmaier
Release of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate by synaptic vesicle exocytosis depends on glutamate loading into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The two principal isoforms, VGLUT1 and 2, exhibit a complementary pattern of expression in adult brain that broadly distinguishes cortical (VGLUT1) and subcortical (VGLUT2) systems, and correlates with distinct physiological properties in synapses expressing these isoforms. Differential trafficking of VGLUT1 and 2 has been suggested to underlie their functional diversity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118695/synapse-innervation-and-associative-memory-cell-are-recruited-for-integrative-storage-of-whisker-and-odor-signals-in-the-barrel-cortex-through-mirna-mediated-processes
#3
Zhuofan Lei, Dangui Wang, Na Chen, Ke Ma, Wei Lu, Zhenhua Song, Shan Cui, Jin-Hui Wang
Associative learning is a common way for information acquisition, and the integrative storage of multiple associated signals is essential for associative thinking and logical reasoning. In terms of the cellular mechanism for associative memory, our studies by behavioral task and cellular imaging demonstrate that paired whisker and odor stimulations lead to odorant-induced whisker motion and associative memory cell recruitment in the barrel cortex (BC), which is driven presumably by synapse innervation from co-activated sensory cortices...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114207/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-are-protective-in-acute-but-not-in-chronic-models-of-ototoxicity
#4
Chao-Hui Yang, Zhiqi Liu, Deanna Dong, Jochen Schacht, Dev Arya, Su-Hua Sha
Previous studies have reported that modification of histones alters aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. In this study, we investigated three FDA-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (vorinostat/SAHA, belinostat, and panobinostat) as protectants against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in murine cochlear explants and in vivo in both guinea pigs and CBA/J mice. Individually, all three HDAC inhibitors reduced gentamicin (GM)-induced hair cell loss in a dose-dependent fashion in explants...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109676/oxytocin-removes-estrous-female-vs-male-preference-of-virgin-male-rats-mediation-of-the-supraoptic-nucleus-via-olfactory-bulbs
#5
Xiao-Yu Liu, Dan Cui, Dongyang Li, Runsheng Jiao, Xiaoran Wang, Shuwei Jia, Dan Hou, Tong Li, Haitao Liu, Ping Wang, Yu-Feng Wang
Social functions of oxytocin (OT) have been explored extensively; however, relationship between the effect of intranasally applied OT (nasal OT) on the social preference (SP) and intracerebral actions of endogenous OT remains unclear. To resolve this question, we first observed effects of nasal OT on the SP of virgin young adult male rats toward unfamiliar virgin estrous female (EF) vs. virgin male rats. The results showed that the test male rats exhibited significantly more times and longer duration accessing the female than the male, which were acutely eliminated by nasal OT...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104535/conditional-deletion-of-pdk1-in-the-forebrain-causes-neuron-loss-and-increased-apoptosis-during-cortical-development
#6
Congyu Xu, Linjie Yu, Jinxing Hou, Rosemary J Jackson, He Wang, Chaoli Huang, Tingting Liu, Qihui Wang, Xiaochuan Zou, Richard G Morris, Tara L Spires-Jones, Zhongzhou Yang, Zhenyu Yin, Yun Xu, Guiquan Chen
Decreased expression but increased activity of PDK1 has been observed in neurodegenerative disease. To study in vivo function of PDK1 in neuron survival during cortical development, we generate forebrain-specific PDK1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. We demonstrate that PDK1 cKO mice display striking neuron loss and increased apoptosis. We report that PDK1 cKO mice exhibit deficits on several behavioral tasks. Moreover, PDK1 cKO mice show decreased activities for Akt and mTOR. These results highlight an essential role of endogenous PDK1 in the maintenance of neuronal survival during cortical development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104534/mir-148b-regulates-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-rat-ischemic-stroke-model
#7
Jingru Wang, Tuanzhi Chen, Guangzhen Shan
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke induced proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) that have been proven to participate in ischemic brain repair. However, molecular mechanisms that regulate neurogenesis have not been fully investigated. MicroRNAs play an important role in the neurological repairing process and impact stroke recovery outcome. MiRNA-148b has been reported to regulate cell proliferation in tumor cells, but its role in NSCs after ischemic stroke remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093665/pi3k-and-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-proteins-modulate-gentamicin-induced-hair-cell-death-in-the-zebrafish-lateral-line
#8
Heather Wiedenhoft, Lauren Hayashi, Allison B Coffin
Inner ear hair cell death leads to sensorineural hearing loss and can be a direct consequence of aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment. Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin are effective therapy for serious Gram-negative bacterial infections such as some forms of meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Aminoglycosides enter hair cells through mechanotransduction channels at the apical end of hair bundles and initiate intrinsic cell death cascades, but the precise cell signaling that leads to hair cell death is incompletely understood...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093664/towards-the-prevention-of-aminoglycoside-related-hearing-loss
#9
REVIEW
Mary E O'Sullivan, Adela Perez, Randy Lin, Autefeh Sajjadi, Anthony J Ricci, Alan G Cheng
Aminoglycosides are potent antibiotics deployed worldwide despite their known side-effect of sensorineural hearing loss. The main etiology of this sensory deficit is death of inner ear sensory hair cells selectively triggered by aminoglycosides. For decades, research has sought to unravel the molecular events mediating sensory cell demise, emphasizing the roles of reactive oxygen species and their potentials as therapeutic targets. Studies in recent years have revealed candidate transport pathways including the mechanotransducer channel for drug entry into sensory cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085283/overlapping-mechanisms-of-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-and-angiogenesis-following-sciatic-nerve-transection
#10
Hongkui Wang, Hui Zhu, Qi Guo, Tianmei Qian, Ping Zhang, Shiying Li, Chengbin Xue, Xiaosong Gu
Peripheral nervous system owns the ability of self-regeneration, mainly in its regenerative microenvironment including vascular network reconstruction. More recently, more attentions have been given to the close relationship between tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. To explore the overlap of molecular mechanisms and key regulation molecules between peripheral nerve regeneration and angiogenesis post peripheral nerve injury, integrative and bioinformatic analysis was carried out for microarray data of proximal stumps after sciatic nerve transection in SD rats...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085282/safeguards-of-neurotransmission-endocytic-adaptors-as-regulators-of-synaptic-vesicle-composition-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Natalie Kaempf, Tanja Maritzen
Communication between neurons relies on neurotransmitters which are released from synaptic vesicles (SVs) upon Ca(2+) stimuli. To efficiently load neurotransmitters, sense the rise in intracellular Ca(2+) and fuse with the presynaptic membrane, SVs need to be equipped with a stringently controlled set of transmembrane proteins. In fact, changes in SV protein composition quickly compromise neurotransmission and most prominently give rise to epileptic seizures. During exocytosis SVs fully collapse into the presynaptic membrane and consequently have to be replenished to sustain neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081737/seven-in-absentia-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-central-regulators-of-neural-cell-fate-and-neuronal-polarity
#12
REVIEW
Taren Ong, David J Solecki
During neural development, neural precursors transition from a proliferative state within their germinal niches to a migratory state as they relocate to their final laminar positions. Transitions across these states are coupled with dynamic alterations in cellular polarity. This key feature can be seen throughout the developing vertebrate brain, in which neural stem cells give rise to multipolar or unpolarized transit-amplifying progenitors. These transit-amplifying progenitors then expand to give rise to mature neuronal lineages that become polarized as they initiate radial migration to their final laminar positions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081736/human-ipsc-derived-cerebellar-neurons-from-a-patient-with-ataxia-telangiectasia-reveal-disrupted-gene-regulatory-networks
#13
Sam P Nayler, Joseph E Powell, Darya P Vanichkina, Othmar Korn, Christine A Wells, Refik Kanjhan, Jian Sun, Ryan J Taft, Martin F Lavin, Ernst J Wolvetang
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare genetic disorder caused by loss of function of the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase and is characterized by a predisposition to cancer, pulmonary disease, immune deficiency and progressive degeneration of the cerebellum. As animal models do not faithfully recapitulate the neurological aspects, it remains unclear whether cerebellar degeneration is a neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative phenotype. To address the necessity for a human model, we first assessed a previously published protocol for the ability to generate cerebellar neuronal cells, finding it gave rise to a population of precursors highly enriched for markers of the early hindbrain such as EN1 and GBX2, and later more mature cerebellar markers including PTF1α, MATH1, HOXB4, ZIC3, PAX6, and TUJ1...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081735/targeting-wnt-signaling-for-multifaceted-glioblastoma-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Matthew McCord, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama, Mark R Gilbert, Sadhana Jackson
The WNT signaling pathway has been of great interest to developmental biologists for decades and has more recently become a central topic for study in cancer biology. It is vital for cell growth and regulation of embryogenesis in many organ systems, particularly the CNS and its associated vasculature. We summarize the role of WNT in CNS development and describe how WNT signaling makes key contributions to malignant glioma stemness, invasiveness, therapeutic resistance, and angiogenesis. The role of WNT in these mechanisms, along with creation and maintainance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), points to the potential of WNT as a multi-faceted target in malignant glioma therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081734/different-effects-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-glioblastoma-stem-cells-by-direct-cell-interaction-or-via-released-soluble-factors
#15
Adriana Bajetto, Alessandra Pattarozzi, Alessandro Corsaro, Federica Barbieri, Antonio Daga, Alessia Bosio, Monica Gatti, Valerio Pisaturo, Rodolfo Sirito, Tullio Florio
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is an aggressive, fast-growing and highly vascularized tumor, characterized by extensive invasiveness and local recurrence. In GBM and other malignancies, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to drive invasive tumor growth and recurrence, being responsible for radio- and chemo-therapy resistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that exhibit tropism for tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines, chemokines and growth factors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075181/kca3-1-inhibition-switches-the-astrocyte-phenotype-during-astrogliosis-associated-with-ischemic-stroke-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-mapk-signaling-pathways
#16
Zhihua Yu, Mengni Yi, Tianjiao Wei, Xiaoling Gao, Hongzhuan Chen
Ischemic stroke is a devastating neurological disease that can initiate a phenotype switch in astrocytes. Reactive astrogliosis is a significant pathological feature of ischemic stroke and is accompanied by changes in gene expression, hypertrophied processes and proliferation. The intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 has been shown to contribute to astrogliosis-induced neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We here present evidence, from both astrocytes subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and from the brains of mice subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), that KCa3...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075180/evaluating-the-autonomy-of-the-drosophila-circadian-clock-in-dissociated-neuronal-culture
#17
Virginie Sabado, Ludovic Vienne, Emi Nagoshi
Circadian behavioral rhythms offer an excellent model to study intricate interactions between the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate rhythms cell-autonomously, which are synchronized by the network interactions within the circadian circuit to drive behavioral rhythms. However, whether this principle is universal to circadian systems in animals remains unanswered. Here, we examined the autonomy of the Drosophila circadian clock by monitoring transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms of individual clock neurons in dispersed culture with time-lapse microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075179/bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-impairs-hippocampal-long-term-depression-by-down-regulation-of-5-ht3-receptors
#18
Rui Hao, Yu Qi, Dong-Ni Hou, Yuan-Yuan Ji, Chun-Yan Zheng, Chu-Yu Li, Wing-Ho Yung, Bai Lu, Ying Huang
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neuronal plasticity and cognitive functions. BDNF val66met polymorphism, a human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the pro-domain of BDNF gene, is associated with deficits in activity-dependent BDNF secretion and hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that in the BDNF(Met/Met) mouse line mimicking the human SNP, BDNF expression in the hippocampus was decreased. There was a reduction in the total number of cells in hippocampal CA1 region, while hippocampal expression of mRNAs for NR2a, 2b, GluR1, 2 and GABAARβ3 subunits were up-regulated...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066953/disturbances-in-the-fgfr1-5-ht1a-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-the-raphe-hippocampal-5-ht-system-develop-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#19
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Caitlin M DuPont, Xiang Li, David Savelli, Davide Lattanzi, Ipsit Srivastava, Manuel Narváez, Michael Di Palma, Elisa Barbieri, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Riccardo Cuppini, Yuji Odagaki, Miklos Palkovits, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
The FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes are involved in neuroplasticity in the rat hippocampus and in the mesencephalic raphe 5-HT nerve cells. There exists a 5-HT1A protomer enhancement of FGFR1 protomer signaling. Acute and 10 day treatment with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) FGF-2 and the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT produced enhanced antidepressant effects in the forced swim test (FST). We studied in the current work the disturbances in the FGFR1-5-HT1A heterocomplexes in a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats of Sprague-Dawley (SD) origin, by means of neurochemical, neurophysiological and behavioral techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066952/the-sleep-wake-cycle-in-the-nicotinic-alpha-9-acetylcholine-receptor-subunit-knock-out-mice
#20
Natalia Madrid-López, Jorge Estrada, Javier Díaz, Alejandro Bassi, Paul H Délano, Adrián Ocampo-Garcés
There is a neural matrix controlling the sleep-wake cycle (SWC) embedded within high ranking integrative mechanisms in the central nervous system. Nicotinic alpha-9 acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha-9 nAChR) participate in physiological processes occurring in sensory, endocrine and immune systems. There is a relationship between the SWC architecture, body homeostasis and sensory afferents so that disruption of afferent signaling is expected to affect the temporal organization of sleep and wake states. The analysis of the SWC of 9 nAChR knock-out animals may help to reveal the contribution of alpha-9 nAChR to sleep chronobiological determinants...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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