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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Ji-Eun Kim, Tae-Cheon Kang
Under pathophysiological conditions, aberrant mitochondrial dynamics lead to the different types of neuronal death: excessive mitochondrial fission provokes apoptosis and abnormal mitochondrial elongation induces necrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms how the different mitochondrial dynamics result in the distinct neuronal death patterns have been elusive. In the present study, status epilepticus (SE) evoked excessive mitochondrial fission in parvalbumin (PV) cells (one of GABAergic interneurons) and abnormal mitochondrial elongation in CA1 neurons in the rat hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Eduardo Couve, Oliver Schmachtenberg
Mammalian teeth have evolved as dentin units that enclose a complex system of sensory innervation to protect and preserve their structure and function. In human dental pulp (DP), mechanosensory and nociceptive fibers form a dense meshwork of nerve endings at the coronal dentin-pulp interface, which arise from myelinated and non-myelinated axons of the Raschkow plexus (RP). Schwann cells (SCs) play a crucial role in the support, maintenance and regeneration after injury of these fibers. We have recently characterized two SC phenotypes hierarchically organized within the coronal and radicular DP in human teeth...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Martina Pyrski, Mahbuba Tusty, Eugenia Eckstein, Livio Oboti, Diego J Rodriguez-Gil, Charles A Greer, Frank Zufall
Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels are a prerequisite for signal transmission at the first olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) synapse within the glomeruli of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We showed previously that the N-type Cav channel subunit Cav2.2 is present in the vast majority of glomeruli and plays a central role in presynaptic transmitter release. Here, we identify a distinct subset of glomeruli in the MOB of adult mice that is characterized by expression of the P/Q-type channel subunit Cav2.1. Immunolocalization shows that Cav2...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Alexandru Cǎlin, Mihai Stancu, Ana-Maria Zagrean, John G R Jefferys, Andrei S Ilie, Colin J Akerman
Current anti-epileptic medications that boost synaptic inhibition are effective in reducing several types of epileptic seizure activity. Nevertheless, these drugs can generate significant side-effects and even paradoxical responses due to the broad nature of their action. Recently developed chemogenetic techniques provide the opportunity to pharmacologically recruit endogenous inhibitory mechanisms in a selective and circuit-specific manner. Here, we use chemogenetics to assess the potential of suppressing epileptiform activity by enhancing the synaptic output from three major interneuron populations in the rodent hippocampus: parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expressing interneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xingchun Gao, Yajing Mi, Na Guo, Hao Xu, Pengtao Jiang, Ruisan Zhang, Lixian Xu, Xingchun Gou
Whether persons with schizophrenia have a higher or lower incidence of cancer has been discussed for a long time. Due to the complex mechanisms and characteristics of different types of cancer, it is difficult to evaluate the exact relationship between cancers and schizophrenia without considering the type of tumor. Schizophrenia, a disabling mental illness that is now recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder, is more correlated with brain tumors, such as glioma, than other types of tumors. Thus, we mainly focused on the relationship between schizophrenia and glioma morbidity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yufei Shen, Jingxia Gu, Ziyun Liu, Congying Xu, Shuxia Qian, Xiaoling Zhang, Beiqun Zhou, Qiaobing Guan, Yanyun Sun, Yanping Wang, Xinchun Jin
Increase of blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability after acute ischemia stroke is a predictor to intracerebral hemorrhage transformation (HT) for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thrombolysis and post-endovascular treatment. Previous studies showed that 2-h ischemia induced damage of BBB integrity and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) made major contribution to this disruption. A recent study showed that blocking β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) alleviated ischemia-induced BBB injury by reducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) level...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Vincent E J M Jacob
The set of chemosensory receptors expressed by the olfactory receptor neurons lying in an insect's antennae and maxillary palps define the ability of this insect to perceive the volatile chemicals of its environment. The main two electrophysiological methods of antennal recordings for studying the range of chemicals that activate chemosensory receptors have limitations. Single-sensillum recording (SSR) samples a subset of olfactory receptor neurons and therefore does not reveal the full capacity of an insect to perceive an odor...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Edoardo Moretto, Maria Passafaro
α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPA-Rs) are tetrameric protein complexes that mediate most of the fast-excitatory transmission in response to the neurotransmitter glutamate in neurons. The abundance of AMPA-Rs at the surface of excitatory synapses establishes the strength of the response to glutamate. It is thus evident that neurons need to tightly regulate this feature, particularly in the context of all synaptic plasticity events, which are considered the biological correlates of higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tianying Wang, Adya Saran Sinha, Tenpei Akita, Yuchio Yanagawa, Atsuo Fukuda
Exposure to prenatal stress (PS) and mutations in Gad1 , which encodes GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 67, are the primary risk factors for psychiatric disorders associated with abnormalities in parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Decreased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins has also been reported in patients with these disorders, raising the possibility that ECM abnormalities may play a role in their pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jiancai Wang, Yuqian Li, Li Gao, Fengqi Yan, Guodong Gao, Lihong Li
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays significant roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD). The inactivation of c-Myc, a down-stream gene of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, may contribute to the mitochondria dysfunction. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) with Alsterpaullone (Als) can activate the down-stream events of Wnt signaling. Here, we investigated the protective roles of Als against MPP+ -induced cell apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. The data showed that Als effectively rescued c-Myc from the MPP+ -induced decline via Wnt signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Brenton T Laing, Peixin Li, Cameron A Schmidt, Wyatt Bunner, Yuan Yuan, Taylor Landry, Amber Prete, Joseph M McClung, Hu Huang
The potential to control feeding behavior via hypothalamic AgRP/NPY neurons has led to many approaches to modulate their excitability-particularly by glutamatergic input. In the present study using NPY-hrGFP reporter mice, we visualize AgRP/NPY neuronal metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) expression and test the effect of fasting on mGluR1 function. Using the pharmacological agonist dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), we demonstrate the enhanced capacity of mGluR1 to drive firing of AgRP/NPY neurons after overnight fasting, while antagonist 3-MATIDA reduces firing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tanya McDonald, Michelle Puchowicz, Karin Borges
There is mounting evidence that oxidative glucose metabolism is impaired in epilepsy and recent work has further characterized the metabolic mechanisms involved. In healthy people eating a traditional diet, including carbohydrates, fats and protein, the major energy substrate in brain is glucose. Cytosolic glucose metabolism generates small amounts of energy, but oxidative glucose metabolism in the mitochondria generates most ATP, in addition to biosynthetic precursors in cells. Energy is crucial for the brain to signal "normally," while loss of energy can contribute to seizure generation by destabilizing membrane potentials and signaling in the chronic epileptic brain...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Cynthia Lecours, Maude Bordeleau, Léo Cantin, Martin Parent, Thérèse Di Paolo, Marie-Ève Tremblay
Microglia, often described as the brain-resident macrophages, play crucial roles in central nervous system development, maintenance, plasticity, and adaptation to the environment. Both aging and chronic stress promote microglial morphological and functional changes, which can lead to the development of brain pathologies including Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, aging, and chronic stress represent main environmental risk factors for PD. In these conditions, microglia are known to undergo different morphological and functional changes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Marwa Elamin, David N Ruskin, Susan A Masino, Paola Sacchetti
The ketogenic diet's (KD) anti-seizure effects have long been documented. Recently, its therapeutic potential in multiple neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders has emerged. Yet experimental evidence for a fundamental mechanism underlying beneficial effects across numerous diseases remains lacking. We previously showed that feeding rats a KD produced an early (within 2 days) and persistent elevation of hippocampal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ (NAD+ ), an essential metabolic coenzyme and signaling molecule...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Carolina Gomez-Diaz, Fernando Martin, Jose Manuel Garcia-Fernandez, Esther Alcorta
Most insect species rely on the detection of olfactory cues for critical behaviors for the survival of the species, e.g., finding food, suitable mates and appropriate egg-laying sites. Although insects show a diverse array of molecular receptors dedicated to the detection of sensory cues, two main types of molecular receptors have been described as responsible for olfactory reception in Drosophila , the odorant receptors (ORs) and the ionotropic receptors (IRs). Although both receptor families share the role of being the first chemosensors in the insect olfactory system, they show distinct evolutionary origins and several distinct structural and functional characteristics...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xia Wang, Ruijuan Guan, Xiaomei Zhao, Danian Zhu, Nana Song, Linlin Shen
The ventrolateral medulla (VLM), including the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi) and rostral VLM (RVLM), is commonly considered to be a chemosensitive region. However, the specific mechanism of chemoreception in the VLM remains elusive. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), a family of voltage-independent proton-gated cation channels, can be activated by an external pH decrease to cause Na+ entry and induce neuronal excitability. TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channels (TASKs) are members of another group of pH-sensitive channels; in contrast to AISICs, they can be stimulated by pH increases and are inhibited by pH decreases in the physiological range...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Hugh M Robertson, Jules Silverman, Coby Schal
A key challenge in understanding the evolution of animal behaviors is to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the evolution of adaptive traits and behaviors in polymorphic populations under local selection pressures. Despite recent advances in fish, mice, and insects, there are still only a few compelling examples of major genes and cellular mechanisms associated with complex behavioral changes. Shifts in food or host preferences in insects, accompanied by changes in the peripheral chemosensory system, offer some of the best examples of adaptive behavioral evolution...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hongmei Song, Sivakami M Mylvaganam, Justin Wang, Saeyon M K Mylvaganam, Chiping Wu, Peter L Carlen, James H Eubanks, Jiachun Feng, Liang Zhang
The hippocampal circuitry is widely recognized as susceptible to ischemic injury and seizure generation. However, hippocampal contribution to acute non-convulsive seizures (NCS) in models involving middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) remains to be determined. To address this, we occluded the middle cerebral artery in adult C57 black mice and monitored electroencephalographic (EEG) discharges from hippocampal and neocortical areas. Electrographic discharges in the absence of convulsive motor behaviors were observed within 90 min following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tânia Faustino-Mendes, Marta Machado-Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Raquel Ferreira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Raoni C Dos-Santos, Hanna M Grover, Luís C Reis, Alastair V Ferguson, André S Mecawi
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is involved in the control of sympathetic tone and the secretion of hormones, both functions known to be influenced by ghrelin, suggesting direct effect of ghrelin in this nucleus. However, the effects of ghrelin on the excitability of different PVN neuronal populations have not been demonstrated. This study assessed the effects of ghrelin on the activity of PVN neurons, correlating the responses to subpopulations of PVN neurons. We used a 64 multielectrode array to examine the effects of ghrelin administration on extracellular spike frequency in PVN neurons recorded in brain slices obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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