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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780306/spontaneous-hair-cell-regeneration-is-prevented-by-increased-notch-signaling-in-supporting-cells
#1
Melissa M McGovern, Luyi Zhou, Michelle R Randle, Brandon C Cox
During embryonic development, differentiation of cochlear progenitor cells into hair cells (HCs) or supporting cells (SCs) is partially controlled through Notch signaling. Many studies have shown that inhibition of Notch signaling allows SCs to convert into HCs in both normal and drug damaged neonatal mouse cochleae. This mechanism is also implicated during HC regeneration in non-mammalian vertebrates; however, the mechanism of spontaneous HC regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea is less understood. While inhibition of Notch signaling can force SCs to convert into HCs and increase the number of regenerated HCs, it is currently unknown whether this pathway is involved in spontaneous HC regeneration observed in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780305/comparing-effects-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-on-microglia-from-rat-and-mouse-transcriptional-profiles-and-potassium-channels
#2
Starlee Lively, Doris Lam, Raymond Wong, Lyanne C Schlichter
The cytokine, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), is up-regulated after central nervous system (CNS) injuries or diseases involving microglial activation, and it has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammation. Microglia can produce and respond to TGFβ1. While rats and mice are commonly used for studying neuroinflammation, very few reports directly compare them. Such studies are important for improving pre-clinical studies and furthering translational progress in developing therapeutic interventions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773979/efficient-coding-and-energy-efficiency-are-promoted-by-balanced-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-currents-in-neuronal-network
#3
Lianchun Yu, Zhou Shen, Chen Wang, Yuguo Yu
Selective pressure may drive neural systems to process as much information as possible with the lowest energy cost. Recent experiment evidence revealed that the ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local cortex is generally maintained at a certain value which may influence the efficiency of energy consumption and information transmission of neural networks. To understand this issue deeply, we constructed a typical recurrent Hodgkin-Huxley network model and studied the general principles that governs the relationship among the E/I synaptic current ratio, the energy cost and total amount of information transmission...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773978/effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-on-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-rats-beneficial-effects-of-maternal-exercise
#4
Ziyi Wu, Xingyue Li, Yi Zhang, Dongyi Tong, Lili Wang, Ping Zhao
Fetal exposure to general anesthetics may pose significant neurocognitive risks but methods to mitigate against these detrimental effects are still to be determined. We set out, therefore, to assess whether single or repeated in utero exposure to sevoflurane triggers long-term cognitive impairments in rat offspring. Since maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve cognition in offspring, we hypothesized that maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy would protect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773977/journey-to-the-center-of-the-fetal-brain-environmental-exposures-and-autophagy
#5
REVIEW
Jun Lei, Pilar Calvo, Richard Vigh, Irina Burd
Fetal brain development is known to be affected by adverse environmental exposures during pregnancy, including infection, inflammation, hypoxia, alcohol, starvation, and toxins. These exposures are thought to alter autophagy activity in the fetal brain, leading to adverse perinatal outcomes, such as cognitive and sensorimotor deficits. This review introduces the physiologic autophagy pathways in the fetal brain. Next, methods to detect and monitor fetal brain autophagy activity are outlined. An additional discussion explores possible mechanisms by which environmental exposures during pregnancy alter fetal brain autophagy activity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766991/response-commentary-analysis-of-sumo1-conjugation-at-synapses
#6
COMMENT
James A Daniel, Benjamin H Cooper, Jorma J Palvimo, Fu-Ping Zhang, Nils Brose, Marilyn Tirard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765307/a-novel-integrative-mechanism-in-anxiolytic-behavior-induced-by-galanin-2-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-interactions-on-medial-paracapsular-intercalated-amygdala-in-rats
#7
Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Luis Santín, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Miguel A Barbancho, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, José Narváez, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
Anxiety is evoked by a threatening situation and display adaptive or defensive behaviors, found similarly in animals and humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) and Galanin (GAL) receptor 2 (GALR2) interact in several regions of the limbic system, including the amygdala. In a previous study, GALR2 enhanced NPYY1R mediated anxiolytic actions on spatiotemporal parameters in the open field and elevated plus maze, involving the formation of GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the amygdala. Moreover, the inclusion of complementary ethological parameters provides a more comprehensive profile on the anxiolytic effects of a treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765306/microglial-activation-is-modulated-by-captopril-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#8
Keren Asraf, Nofar Torika, Ron N Apte, Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important peripheral system involved in homeostasis modulation, with angiotensin II (Ang II) serving as the main effector hormone. The main enzyme involved in Ang II formation is angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) such as captopril (Cap) are predominantly used for the management of hypertension. All of the components of the RAS have also been identified in brain. Centrally located hormones such as Ang II can induce glial inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, where glial inflammation occurs and is thought to contribute to the propagation of the disease, increased levels of Ang II and ACE have been detected...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765305/commentary-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-9-and-%C3%AE-10-subunits-are-expressed-in-the-brain-of-mice
#9
COMMENT
Barbara J Morley, Paul Whiteaker, Ana B Elgoyhen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765304/chloride-homeostasis-in-neurons-with-special-emphasis-on-the-olivocerebellar-system-differential-roles-for-transporters-and-channels
#10
REVIEW
Negah Rahmati, Freek E Hoebeek, Saša Peter, Chris I De Zeeuw
The intraneuronal ionic composition is an important determinant of brain functioning. There is growing evidence that aberrant homeostasis of the intracellular concentration of Cl- ([Cl- ]i ) evokes, in addition to that of Na+ and Ca2+ , robust impairments of neuronal excitability and neurotransmission and thereby neurological conditions. More specifically, understanding the mechanisms underlying regulation of [Cl- ]i is crucial for deciphering the variability in GABAergic and glycinergic signaling of neurons, in both health and disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755324/effect-of-chronic-oxidative-stress-on-neuroinflammatory-response-mediated-by-cd4-t-cells-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Helena Solleiro-Villavicencio, Selva Rivas-Arancibia
In a state of oxidative stress, there is an increase of reactive species, which induce an altered intracellular signaling, leading to dysregulation of the inflammatory response. The inability of the antioxidant defense systems to modulate the proinflammatory response is key to the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work is to review the effect of the state of oxidative stress on the loss of regulation of the inflammatory response on the microglia and astrocytes, the induction of different CD4+ T cell populations in neuroinflammation, as well as its role in some neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755323/environmental-enrichment-prevents-transcriptional-disturbances-induced-by-alpha-synuclein-overexpression
#12
Zinah Wassouf, Thomas Hentrich, Sebastian Samer, Carola Rotermund, Philipp J Kahle, Ingrid Ehrlich, Olaf Riess, Nicolas Casadei, Julia M Schulze-Hentrich
Onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders, including synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, have been associated with various environmental factors. A highly compelling association from a therapeutic point of view has been found between a physically active lifestyle and a significantly reduced risk for Parkinson's disease. Mimicking such conditions in animal models by promoting physical activity, social interactions, and novel surroundings yields in a so-called enriched environment known to enhance adult neurogenesis, increase synaptic plasticity, and decelerate neuronal loss...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755322/microglial-activation-after-systemic-stimulation-with-lipopolysaccharide-and-escherichia-coli
#13
Inge C M Hoogland, Dunja Westhoff, Joo-Yeon Engelen-Lee, Jeroen Melief, Mercedes Valls Serón, Judith H M P Houben-Weerts, Inge Huitinga, David J van Westerloo, Tom van der Poll, Willem A van Gool, Diederik van de Beek
Background: Microglial activation after systemic infection has been suggested to mediate sepsis-associated delirium. A systematic review of animal studies suggested distinct differences between microglial activation after systemic challenge with live bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we describe a mouse model of microglial activation after systemic challenge with live Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) and compare results with systemic challenge with LPS. Methods: Sixty mice were intraperitoneally injected with E...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755321/voltage-gated-calcium-channel-activation-by-backpropagating-action-potentials-downregulates-nmdar-function
#14
Anne-Kathrin Theis, Balázs Rózsa, Gergely Katona, Dietmar Schmitz, Friedrich W Johenning
The majority of excitatory synapses are located on dendritic spines of cortical glutamatergic neurons. In spines, compartmentalized Ca2+ signals transduce electrical activity into specific long-term biochemical and structural changes. Action potentials (APs) propagate back into the dendritic tree and activate voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). For spines, this global mode of spine Ca2+ signaling is a direct biochemical feedback of suprathreshold neuronal activity. We previously demonstrated that backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) result in long-term enhancement of spine VGCCs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755320/mechanically-gated-ion-channels-in-mammalian-hair-cells
#15
REVIEW
Xufeng Qiu, Ulrich Müller
Hair cells in the inner ear convert mechanical stimuli provided by sound waves and head movements into electrical signal. Several mechanically evoked ionic currents with different properties have been recorded in hair cells. The search for the proteins that form the underlying ion channels is still in progress. The mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channel near the tips of stereociliary in hair cells, which is responsible for sensory transduction, has been studied most extensively. Several components of the sensory mechanotransduction machinery in stereocilia have been identified, including the multi-transmembrane proteins tetraspan membrane protein in hair cell stereocilia (TMHS)/LHFPL5, transmembrane inner ear (TMIE) and transmembrane channel-like proteins 1 and 2 (TMC1/2)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755319/ambra1-mediated-mitophagy-counteracts-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-induced-by-neurotoxicity-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#16
Anthea Di Rita, Pasquale D'Acunzo, Luca Simula, Silvia Campello, Flavie Strappazzon, Francesco Cecconi
Therapeutic strategies are needed to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in PD pathogenesis. Selective autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy), mainly regulated by PINK1 and PARKIN, plays an important role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Mutations in those genes cause accumulation of damaged mitochondria, leading to nigral degeneration and early-onset PD. AMBRA1ActA is a fusion protein specifically expressed at the mitochondria, and whose expression has been shown to induce a powerful mitophagy in mammalian cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740287/inhibition-of-glur-current-in-microvilli-of-sensory-neurons-via-na-microdomain-coupling-among-glur-hcn-channel-and-na-k-pump
#17
Yasuhiro Kawasaki, Mitsuru Saito, Jonghwa Won, Jin Young Bae, Hajime Sato, Hiroki Toyoda, Eriko Kuramoto, Mikihiko Kogo, Takuma Tanaka, Takeshi Kaneko, Seog Bae Oh, Yong Chul Bae, Youngnam Kang
Glutamatergic dendritic EPSPs evoked in cortical pyramidal neurons are depressed by activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels expressed in dendritic spines. This depression has been attributed to shunting effects of HCN current ( I h ) on input resistance or I h deactivation. Primary sensory neurons in the rat mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN) have the somata covered by spine-like microvilli that express HCN channels. In rat MTN neurons, we demonstrated that I h enhancement apparently diminished the glutamate receptor (GluR) current ( I GluR ) evoked by puff application of glutamate/AMPA and enhanced a transient outward current following I GluR (OT- I GluR )...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740286/optogenetic-control-of-neural-circuits-in-the-mongolian-gerbil
#18
Stefan Keplinger, Barbara Beiderbeck, Stylianos Michalakis, Martin Biel, Benedikt Grothe, Lars Kunz
The Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ) is widely used as a model organism for the human auditory system. Its hearing range is very similar to ours and it uses the same mechanisms for sound localization. The auditory circuits underlying these functions have been characterized. However, important mechanistic details are still under debate. To elucidate these issues, precise and reversible optogenetic manipulation of neuronal activity in this complex circuitry is required. However, genetic and genomic resources for the Mongolian gerbil are poorly developed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740285/ovarian-function-modulates-the-effects-of-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-the-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#19
Jose L Herrera, Lara Ordoñez-Gutierrez, Gemma Fabrias, Josefina Casas, Araceli Morales, Guadalberto Hernandez, Nieves G Acosta, Covadonga Rodriguez, Luis Prieto-Valiente, Luis M Garcia-Segura, Rafael Alonso, Francisco G Wandosell
Different dietary ratios of n -6/ n -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) may alter brain lipid profile, neural activity, and brain cognitive function. To determine whether ovarian hormones influence the effect of diet on the brain, ovariectomized and sham-operated mice continuously treated with placebo or estradiol were fed for 3 months with diets containing low or high n -6/ n -3 LC-PUFA ratios. The fatty acid (FA) profile and expression of key neuronal proteins were analyzed in the cerebral cortex, with intact female mice on standard diet serving as internal controls of brain lipidome composition...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740284/ionic-mechanism-underlying-rebound-depolarization-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons
#20
Przemysław Kurowski, Katarzyna Grzelka, Paweł Szulczyk
Rebound depolarization (RD) occurs after membrane hyperpolarization and converts an arriving inhibitory signal into cell excitation. The purpose of our study was to clarify the ionic mechanism of RD in synaptically isolated layer V medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons in slices obtained from 58- to 62-day-old male rats. The RD was evoked after a step hyperpolarization below -80 mV, longer than 150 ms in 192 of 211 (91%) tested neurons. The amplitude of RD was 30.6 ± 1.2 mV above the resting membrane potential (-67...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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