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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Gabriella D'Arcangelo, Laura Lossi, Adalberto Merighi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Agata Blasiak, Devrim Kilinc, Gil U Lee
Netrin-1 modulates axonal growth direction and speed. Its best characterized receptor, Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), is localized to growth cones, but also observed in the cell bodies. We hypothesized that cell bodies sense Netrin-1 and contribute to axon growth rate modulation, mediated by the second messenger system. We cultured mouse cortical neurons in microfluidic devices to isolate distal axon and cell body microenvironments. Compared to isolated axonal treatment, global Netrin-1 treatment decreased the axon elongation rate and affected the dynamics of total and membranous DCC, calcium, and cyclic nucleotides...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Nancy Dong, Zhong-Ping Feng
Learning and memory formation are essential physiological functions. While quiescent neurons have long been the focus of investigations into the mechanisms of memory formation, there is increasing evidence that spontaneously active neurons also play key roles in this process and possess distinct rules of activity-dependent plasticity. In this study, we used a well-defined aversive learning model of aerial respiration in the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis (L. stagnalis) to study the role of basal firing activity of the respiratory pacemaker neuron Right Pedal Dorsal 1 (RPeD1) as a determinant of aversive long-term memory (LTM) formation...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
M Brittany Johnson, Ada D Young, Ian Marriott
The inflammatory responses of resident central nervous system (CNS) cells are now known to play a critical role in the initiation and progression of an array of infectious and sterile neuroinflammatory disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS). Regulating glial inflammatory responses in a timely manner is therefore critical in preserving normal CNS functions. The neuropeptide substance P is produced at high levels within the CNS and its selective receptor, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is abundantly expressed by neurons and is present on glial cell types including microglia and astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Debra A Kendall, Guillermo A Yudowski
The identification and cloning of the two major cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors together with the discovery of their endogenous ligands in the late 80s and early 90s, resulted in a major effort aimed at understanding the mechanisms and physiological roles of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Due to its expression and localization in the central nervous system (CNS), the CB1 receptor together with its endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids (eCB)) and the enzymes involved in their synthesis and degradation, has been implicated in multiple pathophysiological events ranging from memory deficits to neurodegenerative disorders among others...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Julia Higelin, Maria Demestre, Stefan Putz, Jan P Delling, Christian Jacob, Anne-Kathrin Lutz, Julia Bausinger, Anne-Kathrin Huber, Moritz Klingenstein, Gotthold Barbi, Günter Speit, Annemarie Huebers, Jochen H Weishaupt, Andreas Hermann, Stefan Liebau, Albert C Ludolph, Tobias M Boeckers
Mutations within the FUS gene (Fused in Sarcoma) are known to cause Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons. The FUS gene codes for a multifunctional RNA/DNA-binding protein that is primarily localized in the nucleus and is involved in cellular processes such as splicing, translation, mRNA transport and DNA damage response. In this study, we analyzed pathophysiological alterations associated with ALS related FUS mutations (mFUS) in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hiPSC derived motoneurons...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Janina Grosch, Jürgen Winkler, Zacharias Kohl
Motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are tightly linked to the degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and their projections into the striatum. Moreover, a broad range of non-motor symptoms like anxiety and depression frequently occur in PD, most likely related to the loss of serotonergic neurons and their projections into corresponding target regions. Strikingly, nigral dopaminergic neurons and raphe serotonergic neurons are severely affected in PD showing characteristic hallmarks of PD neuropathology, in particular alpha-synuclein containing Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sanja Ramljak, Holger Herlyn, Inga Zerr
The cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) and hypoxia appear to be tightly intertwined. Beneficial effects of PrP(c) on neuronal survival under hypoxic conditions such as focal cerebral ischemia are strongly supported. Conversely, increasing evidence indicates detrimental effects of increased PrP(c) expression on cancer progression, another condition accompanied by low oxygen tensions. A switch between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism characterizes both conditions. A cellular process that might unite both is glycolysis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Zhenqiang Zhao, Yanlin Ma, Zhibin Chen, Qian Liu, Qi Li, Deyan Kong, Kunxiong Yuan, Lan Hu, Tan Wang, Xiaowu Chen, Yanan Peng, Weimin Jiang, Yanhong Yu, Xinfeng Liu
Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) are used for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). MEFs and HFFs differed in their capacity to support the proliferation and pluripotency of hESCs and could affect cardiac differentiation potential of hESCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MEFs and HFFs feeders on dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs lines. To minimize the impact of culture condition variation, two hESCs lines were cultured on mixed feeder cells (MFCs, MEFs: HFFs = 1:1) and HFFs feeder, respectively, and then were differentiated into dopaminergic (DA) neurons under the identical protocol...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sira A Franchi, Veronica Astro, Romina Macco, Diletta Tonoli, Jean-Vianney Barnier, Martina Botta, Ivan de Curtis
Interneurons are essential modulators of brain activity and their abnormal maturation may lead to neural and intellectual disabilities. Here we show that cultures derived from murine medial ganglionic eminences (MGEs) produce virtually pure, polarized γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons that can form morphologically identifiable inhibitory synapses. We show that Rac GTPases and a protein complex including the GIT family scaffold proteins are expressed during maturation in vitro, and are required for the normal development of neurites...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Laura Walrave, Mathieu Vinken, Giulia Albertini, Dimitri De Bundel, Luc Leybaert, Ilse J Smolders
Astrocytes are active players in higher brain function as they can release gliotransmitters, which are essential for synaptic plasticity. Various mechanisms have been proposed for gliotransmission, including vesicular mechanisms as well as non-vesicular ones, for example by passive diffusion via connexin hemichannels (HCs). We here investigated whether interfering with connexin43 (Cx43) HCs influenced hippocampal spatial memory. We made use of the peptide Gap19 that blocks HCs but not gap junction channels and is specific for Cx43...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Michael Kaliszewski, Austin K Kennedy, Shelby L Blaes, Robert S Shaffer, Andrew B Knott, Wenjun Song, Henry A Hauser, Blaise Bossy, Ting-Ting Huang, Ella Bossy-Wetzel
Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) knockout (Sod1(-/-)) mice exhibit an accelerated aging phenotype. In humans, SOD1 mutations are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and post-translational modification (PTM) of wild-type SOD1 has been associated with sporadic ALS. Reversible acetylation regulates many enzymes and proteomic studies have identified SOD1 acetylation at lysine 123 (K123). The function and distribution of K123-acetylated SOD1 (Ac-K123 SOD1) in the nervous system is unknown. Here, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies against Ac-K123 SOD1...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jun Gu, Yifeng Bao, Jian Chen, Chuanjun Huang, Xinghua Zhang, Rui Jiang, Qianqian Liu, Yonghua Liu, Xide Xu, Wei Shi
The proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is important for neural regeneration after cerebral injury. Here, for the first time, we show that phosphorylated (p)-ser847-nNOS (NP847), rather than nNOS, may play a major role in NSC proliferation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Western blot results demonstrated that the expression of NP847 and Sox2 in the hippocampus is up-regulated after TBI, and they both peak 3 days after brain injury. In addition, an immunofluorescence experiment indicated that NP847 and Sox2 partly co-localize in the nuclei of NSCs after TBI...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Nina Hellström Erkenstam, Peter L P Smith, Bobbi Fleiss, Syam Nair, Pernilla Svedin, Wei Wang, Martina Boström, Pierre Gressens, Henrik Hagberg, Kelly L Brown, Karin Sävman, Carina Mallard
Immune cells display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, which may facilitate their participation in both the progression and resolution of injury-induced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal expression of genes associated with classical and alternative polarization phenotypes described for macrophages and to identify related cell populations in the brain following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). HI was induced in 9-day old mice and brain tissue was collected up to 7 days post-insult to investigate expression of genes associated with macrophage activation...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Zilong Gao, Lei Chen, Ruicheng Fan, Wei Lu, Dangui Wang, Shan Cui, Li Huang, Shidi Zhao, Sudong Guan, Yan Zhu, Jin-Hui Wang
Somatosensory signals and operative skills learned by unilateral limbs can be retrieved bilaterally. In terms of cellular mechanism underlying this unilateral learning toward bilateral memory, we hypothesized that associative memory cells in bilateral cortices and synapse innervations between them were produced. In the examination of this hypothesis, we have observed that paired unilateral whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motions in bilateral sides, which were attenuated by inhibiting the activity of barrel cortices...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Alexandra I Rosa, Sofia Grade, Sofia D Santos, Liliana Bernardino, Thomas C Chen, João Relvas, Florence M Hofman, Fabienne Agasse
Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) is regulated by diffusible factors and cell-cell contacts. In vivo, SVZ stem cells are associated with the abluminal surface of blood vessels and such interactions are thought to regulate their neurogenic capacity. SVZ neural stem cells (NSCs) have been described to contact endothelial-derived laminin via α6β1 integrin. To elucidate whether heterocellular contacts with brain endothelial cells (BEC) regulate SVZ cells neurogenic capacities, cocultures of SVZ neurospheres and primary BEC, both obtained from C57BL/6 mice, were performed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Bingke Lv, Feng Li, Jie Fang, Limin Xu, Chengmei Sun, Jianbang Han, Tian Hua, Zhongfei Zhang, Zhiming Feng, Qinghua Wang, Xiaodan Jiang
In this study, we investigated interactions among microglia (MG), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and neurons in cerebral ischemia and the potential mechanisms using an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model. Rat BMSCs were incubated with conditioned medium (CM) from in vitro cultures of OGD-activated rat MG and murine BV2 MG cells. Effects of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on rat neuron viability, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed in this model...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Carmela Giordano, Anna M Costa, Chiara Lucchi, Giuseppina Leo, Luc Brunel, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Antonio Torsello, Giuseppe Biagini
The 6-Hz corneal stimulation test is used to screen novel antiepileptic molecules to overcome the problem of drug refractoriness. Although recognized as a standard test, it has been evaluated only recently in the attempt to characterize the putative neuronal networks involved in seizures caused by corneal stimulation. In particular, by recording from the CA1 region we previously established that the hippocampus participates to propagation of seizure activity. However, these findings were not corroborated by using markers of neuronal activation such as FosB/ΔFosB antigens...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Qing Cai, Yuanyuan Li, Jianxin Mao, Gang Pei
α-Asarone is an active constituent of Acori Tatarinowii, one of the widely used traditional Chinese Medicine to treat cognitive defect, and recently is shown to promote neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrated that low level (3 μM) of α-asarone attenuated LPS-induced BV2 cell bipolar elongated morphological change, with no significant effect on the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions. In addition, time-lapse analysis also revealed that α-asarone modulated LPS-induced BV2 morphological dynamics...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Panagiota Tsitoura, Kostas Iatrou
Insect olfactory receptors (ORs) are heteromeric ligand-gated cation channels composed of a common olfactory receptor subunit (ORco) and a variable subunit (ORx) of as yet unknown structures and undetermined stoichiometries. In this study, we examined the allosteric modulation exerted on Anopheles gambiae heteromeric ORx/ORco olfactory receptors in vitro by a specific class of ORco agonists (OAs) comprising ORcoRAM2 and VUAA1. High OA concentrations produced stronger functional responses in cells expressing heteromeric receptor channels relative to cells expressing ORco alone...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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