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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Elvira R Akhmetzyanova, Yana O Mukhamedshina, Margarita N Zhuravleva, Luisa R Galieva, Alexander A Kostennikov, Ekaterina E Garanina, Albert A Rizvanov
Microglial cells are known as important mediators of inflammation and immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). However, a neuroprotective role of these cells in post-traumatic processes should not be overlooked. Microglial cells are the first to respond to CNS injury and are further involved in all critical events of pathogenesis. When activated microglia clear the cellular debris and release anti- and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, nitric oxide, neurotrophins, and antioxidants capable of producing both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jesús Chato-Astrain, Fernando Campos, Olga Roda, Esther Miralles, Daniel Durand-Herrera, José Antonio Sáez-Moreno, Salomé García-García, Miguel Alaminos, Antonio Campos, Víctor Carriel
The regenerative capability of peripheral nerves is very limited, and several strategies have been proposed to increase nerve regeneration. In the present work, we have analyzed the in vivo usefulness of a novel nanostructured fibrin-agarose bio-artificial nerve substitute (Nano) used alone or in combination with NeuraGen® collagen type I conduits (Coll-Nano) in laboratory rats with a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect. Control animals were subjected to the gold-standard autograft technique (Auto). Results first demonstrated that the percentage of self-amputations was lower in Nano and Coll-Nano groups as compared to the Auto group...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shiqi Guang, Nan Pang, Xiaolu Deng, Lifen Yang, Fang He, Liwen Wu, Chen Chen, Fei Yin, Jing Peng
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a group of multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviors. ASD affects 1 in 59 children, and is about 4 times more common among boys than among girls. Strong genetic components, together with environmental factors in the early stage of development, contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. Multiple studies have revealed that mutations in genes like NRXN, NLGN , SHANK , TSC1/2 , FMR1 , and MECP2 converge on common cellular pathways that intersect at synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Chenfei Lyu, Yongfang Zhang, Minhua Gu, Yusheng Huang, Guanghui Liu, Chen Wang, Miaodan Li, Shumin Chen, Suyue Pan, Yong Gu
Background: Innate immune response to neuronal death is one of the key events of the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M, encoded by gene Irak3 , negatively regulates toll-like receptor signaling by interacting with the MyD88-IRAK-4-IRAK-1 complex and blocking the phosphorylation and dissociation of IRAK-1. Its function in the ischemic stroke is unknown. Objective: This study aims to investigate whether IRAK-M deficiency could exacerbate neuroinflammation and neurovascular injuries during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ruanna Wang, Jiahui Tan, Junxiu Guo, Yuhan Zheng, Qing Han, Kwok-Fai So, Jiandong Yu, Li Zhang
Autistic spectral disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disease that affects multiple brain regions. Both clinical and animal studies have revealed the possible involvement of the cerebellum in ASD pathology. In this study, we generated a rodent ASD model through a single prenatal administration of valproic acid (VPA) into pregnant mice, followed by cerebellar morphological and functional studies of the offspring. Behavioral studies showed that VPA exposure led to retardation of critical motor reflexes in juveniles and impaired learning in a tone-conditioned complex motor task in adults...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Zhiming Liu, Sisi Chen, Chunping Qiu, Yaqiong Sun, Wenzhi Li, Jie Jiang, Jun-Ming Zhang
Pain is the most severe and common symptom of endometriosis. Its underlying pathogenetic mechanism is poorly understood. Nerve sensitization is a particular research challenge, due to the limitations of general endometriosis models and sampling nerve tissue from patients. The chemokine fractalkine (FKN) has been demonstrated to play a key role in various forms of neuropathic pain, while its role in endometriotic pain is unknown. Our study was designed to explore the function of FKN in the development and maintenance of peripheral hyperalgesia and central sensitization in endometriosis using a novel endometriosis animal model developed in our laboratory...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Philipp Stratmann, Alin Albu-Schäffer, Henrik Jörntell
Monoamines are presumed to be diffuse metabotropic neuromodulators of the topographically and temporally precise ionotropic circuitry which dominates CNS functions. Their malfunction is strongly implicated in motor and cognitive disorders, but their function in behavioral and cognitive processing is scarcely understood. In this paper, the principles of such a monoaminergic function are conceptualized for locomotor control. We find that the serotonergic system in the ventral spinal cord scales ionotropic signals and shows topographic order that agrees with differential gain modulation of ionotropic subcircuits...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Troy Vargason, Uwe Kruger, Emily Roth, Leanna M Delhey, Marie Tippett, Shannon Rose, Sirish C Bennuri, John C Slattery, Stepan Melnyk, S Jill James, Richard E Frye, Juergen Hahn
Several studies associate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pathophysiology with metabolic abnormalities related to DNA methylation and intracellular redox homeostasis. In this regard, three completed clinical trials are reexamined in this work: treatment with (i) methylcobalamin (MeCbl) in combination with low-dose folinic acid (LDFA), (ii) tetrahydrobiopterin, and (iii) high-dose folinic acid (HDFA) for counteracting abnormalities in the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) and transsulfuration (TS) pathways and also for improving ASD-related symptoms and behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Elvira Juzekaeva, Azat Gainutdinov, Marat Mukhtarov, Roustem Khazipov
Cerebral edema is a major, life threatening complication of ischemic brain damage. Previous studies using brain slices have revealed that cellular swelling and a concomitant increase in tissue transparency starts within minutes of the onset of metabolic insult in association with collective anoxic spreading depolarization (aSD). However, the dynamics of tissue swelling in brain slices under ischemia-like conditions remain elusive. Here, we explored the dynamics of brain tissue swelling induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in submerged rat barrel cortex slices...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Vincent Pons, Serge Rivest
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mCSF) is a cytokine known to promote the recruitment of macrophages inducing the release of CCL2, a chemokine mobilizing monocytes to sites of inflammation. Additionally, it induces microglia/macrophage proliferation and the polarization of these cells towards a M2-like phenotype, impairing their ability to release pro-inflammatory factors and toxic mediators, while favoring the release of mediators promoting tissue repair. Another important player is the mCSF receptor CSFR1, which is highly expressed in monocytes, macrophages and microglia...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Dieter Wicher, Frédéric Marion-Poll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yukari Shigemoto-Mogami, Kazue Hoshikawa, Kaoru Sato
Severe neuroinflammation is associated with blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption in CNS diseases. Although microglial activation and the subsequent changes in cytokine/chemokine (C/C) concentrations are thought to be key steps in the development of neuroinflammation, little data are available concerning the interaction of microglia with BBB cells. In this study, we investigated this interaction by adding LPS-activated microglia (LPS-MG) to the abluminal side of a BBB model composed of endothelial cells (EC), pericytes (Peri) and astrocytes (Ast)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Guillermo Moya-Alvarado, Andres Gonzalez, Nicolas Stuardo, Francisca C Bronfman
Neurotrophin receptors use endosomal pathways for signaling in neurons. However, how neurotrophins regulate the endosomal system for proper signaling is unknown. Rabs are monomeric GTPases that act as molecular switches to regulate membrane trafficking by binding a wide range of effectors. Among the Rab GTPases, Rab5 is the key GTPase regulating early endosomes and is the first sorting organelle of endocytosed receptors. The objective of our work was to study the regulation of Rab5-positive endosomes by BDNF at different levels, including dynamic, activity and protein levels in hippocampal neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Amanda A Krentzel, John Meitzen
The caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core and shell are important striatal brain regions for premotor, limbic, habit formation, reward, and other critical cognitive functions. Striatal-relevant behaviors such as anxiety, motor coordination, locomotion, and sensitivity to reward, all change with fluctuations of the menstrual cycle in humans and the estrous cycle in rodents. These fluctuations implicate sex steroid hormones, such as 17β-estradiol, as potent neuromodulatory signals for striatal neuron activity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Kathleen Jordan, Joseph Murphy, Anjanya Singh, Cassie S Mitchell
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degradation of motoneurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are key regulators for inflammation and neuromodulatory signaling, both of which contribute to ALS. The study goal was to ascertain potential temporal changes in astrocyte-mediated neuromodulatory regulation with transgenic ALS model progression: glutamate, GTL-1, GluR1, GluR2, GABA, ChAT activity, VGF, TNFα, aspartate, and IGF-1. We examine neuromodulatory changes in data aggregates from 42 peer-reviewed studies derived from transgenic ALS mixed cell cultures (neurons + astrocytes)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Masashi Watanave, Yasunori Matsuzaki, Yasuyo Nakajima, Atsushi Ozawa, Masanobu Yamada, Hirokazu Hirai
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) regulates various physiological activities through activation of receptors expressed in a broad range of cells in the central nervous system. The cerebellum expresses TRH receptors in granule cells and molecular layer interneurons. However, the function of TRH in the cerebellum remains to be clarified. Here, using TRH knockout (KO) mice we studied the role of TRH in the cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry showed no gross morphological differences between KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates in the cerebellum...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yijian Li, Shujia Huo, Yajie Fang, Ting Zou, Xianliang Gu, Qin Tao, Haiwei Xu
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are heterogeneous in morphology, antigenic profiles and functions, and these OEC subpopulations have shown different outcomes following OEC transplantation for central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Morphologically, OECs are divided into two subpopulations, process-bearing (Schwann cells-like) and flattened (astrocytes-like) OECs, which could switch between each other and are affected by extracellular and intracellular factors. However, neither the relationship between the morphology and function of OECs nor their molecular mechanisms have been clarified...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sara Bachiller, Itzia Jiménez-Ferrer, Agnes Paulus, Yiyi Yang, Maria Swanberg, Tomas Deierborg, Antonio Boza-Serrano
Microglia represent a specialized population of macrophages-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS) considered immune sentinels that are capable of orchestrating a potent inflammatory response. Microglia are also involved in synaptic organization, trophic neuronal support during development, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in the developing brain, myelin turnover, control of neuronal excitability, phagocytic debris removal as well as brain protection and repair. Microglial response is pathology dependent and affects to immune, metabolic...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Valentina Latina, Silvia Caioli, Cristina Zona, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Antonella Borreca, Pietro Calissano, Giuseppina Amadoro
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) depend on nerve growth factor (NGF) for their survival/differentiation and innervate cortical and hippocampal regions involved in memory/learning processes. Cholinergic hypofunction and/or degeneration early occurs at prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology in correlation with synaptic damages, cognitive decline and behavioral disability. Alteration(s) in ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is also a pivotal AD hallmark but whether it plays a causative, or only a secondary role, in early synaptic failure associated with disease onset remains unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Dmitry V Amakhin, Elena B Soboleva, Julia L Ergina, Sergey L Malkin, Anton V Chizhov, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Excessive excitation is considered one of the key mechanisms underlying epileptic seizures. We investigated changes in the evoked postsynaptic responses of medial entorhinal cortex (ERC) pyramidal neurons by seizure-like events (SLEs), using the modified 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) model of epileptiform activity. Rat brain slices were perfused with pro-epileptic solution contained 4-AP and elevated potassium and reduced magnesium concentration. We demonstrated that 15-min robust epileptiform activity in slices leads to an increase in the amplitude of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated component of the evoked response, as well as an increase in the polysynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated components...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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