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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Daniel Ramirez-Gordillo, Ming Ma, Diego Restrepo
Neuromodulators such as noradrenaline appear to play a crucial role in learning and memory. The goal of this study was to determine the role of norepinephrine in representation of odorant identity and value by olfactory bulb oscillations in an olfactory learning task. We wanted to determine whether the different bandwidths of olfactory bulb oscillations encode information involved in associating the odor with the value, and whether norepinephrine is involved in modulating this association. To this end mice expressing halorhodopsin under the dopamine-beta-hydrolase (DBH) promoter received an optetrode implant targeted to the olfactory bulb...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Frederic Pouille, Nathan E Schoppa
Recent studies have provided evidence that corticofugal feedback (CFF) from the olfactory cortex to the olfactory bulb (OB) can significantly impact the state of excitation of output mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) and also modulate neural synchrony. Interpreting these effects however has been complicated by the large number of cell targets of CFF axons in the bulb. Within the granule cell layer (GCL) alone, CFF axons target both GABAergic granule cells (GCs) as well as GABAergic deep short-axon cells (dSACs) that inhibit GCs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Qin Rui, Haibo Ni, Fan Gao, Baoqi Dang, Di Li, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is widely expressed in the brain and exerts neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease. The p38/Drosha signaling activation has been reported to increase cell death under stress. This study was designed to investigate the potential role and mechanism of LRRK2 in secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 130 male Sprague-Dawley rats were examined using a weight-drop model of TBI. The rats received the specific LRRK2 inhibitor PF-06447475 or LRRK2 pDNA alone or in combination with Drosha pDNA...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tao Tan, Wei Wang, Haitao Xu, Zhilin Huang, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ellen A G Chernoff, Kazuna Sato, Hai V N Salfity, Deborah A Sarria, Teri Belecky-Adams
The differentiated state of spinal cord ependymal cells in regeneration-competent amphibians varies between a constitutively active state in what is essentially a developing organism, the tadpole of the frog Xenopus laevis , and a quiescent, activatable state in a slowly growing adult salamander Ambystoma mexicanum , the Axolotl. Ependymal cells are epithelial in intact spinal cord of all vertebrates. After transection, body region ependymal epithelium in both Xenopus and the Axolotl disorganizes for regenerative outgrowth (gap replacement)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Nicole Rosskothen-Kuhl, Heika Hildebrandt, Ralf Birkenhäger, Robert-Benjamin Illing
Neuron-glia interactions contribute to tissue homeostasis and functional plasticity in the mammalian brain, but it remains unclear how this is achieved. The potential of central auditory brain tissue for stimulation-dependent cellular remodeling was studied in hearing-experienced and neonatally deafened rats. At adulthood, both groups received an intracochlear electrode into the left cochlea and were continuously stimulated for 1 or 7 days after waking up from anesthesia. Normal hearing and deafness were assessed by auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Gaia Gestri, Naiara Bazin-Lopez, Clarissa Scholes, Stephen W Wilson
Coloboma is a defect in the morphogenesis of the eye that is a consequence of failure of choroid fissure fusion. It is among the most common congenital defects in humans and can significantly impact vision. However, very little is known about the cellular mechanisms that regulate choroid fissure closure. Using high-resolution confocal imaging of the zebrafish optic cup, we find that apico-basal polarity is re-modeled in cells lining the fissure in proximal to distal and inner to outer gradients during fusion...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Clive P Morgan, Hongyu Zhao, Meredith LeMasurier, Wei Xiong, Bifeng Pan, Piotr Kazmierczak, Matthew R Avenarius, Michael Bateschell, Ruby Larisch, Anthony J Ricci, Ulrich Müller, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Hair cells of the inner ear transduce mechanical stimuli like sound or head movements into electrical signals, which are propagated to the central nervous system. The hair-cell mechanotransduction channel remains unidentified. We tested whether three transient receptor channel (TRP) family members, TRPV6, TRPM6 and TRPM7, were necessary for transduction. TRPV6 interacted with USH1C (harmonin), a scaffolding protein that participates in transduction. Using a cysteine-substitution knock-in mouse line and methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents selective for this allele, we found that inhibition of TRPV6 had no effect on transduction in mouse cochlear hair cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Petr Dubový, Ilona Klusáková, Ivana Hradilová-Svíženská, Marek Joukal, Pere Boadas-Vaello
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) may result in cellular and molecular changes in supraspinal structures possibly involved in neuropathic pain (NPP) maintenance. Activated glial cells in specific supraspinal subregions may affect the facilitatory role of descending pathways. Sterile chronic compression injury (sCCI) and complete sciatic nerve transection (CSNT) in rats were used as NPP models to study the activation of glial cells in the subregions of periaqueductal gray (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Katarzyna Pogoda, Paul A Janmey
Understanding the mechanical behavior of human brain is critical to interpret the role of physical stimuli in both normal and pathological processes that occur in CNS tissue, such as development, inflammation, neurodegeneration, aging, and most common brain tumors. Despite clear evidence that mechanical cues influence both normal and transformed brain tissue activity as well as normal and transformed brain cell behavior, little is known about the links between mechanical signals and their biochemical and medical consequences...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Meagan Milton, Patrice D Smith
An acute ischemic stroke is characterized by the presence of a blood clot that limits blood flow to the brain resulting in subsequent neuronal loss. Acute stroke threatens neuronal survival, which relies heavily upon proper function of astrocytes. Neurons are more susceptible to cell death when an astrocyte is unable to carry out its normal functions in supporting the neuron in the area affected by the stroke (Rossi et al., 2007; Takano et al., 2009). For example, under normal conditions, astrocytes initially swell in response to changes in extracellular osmotic pressure and then reduce their regulatory volume in response to volume-activated potassium (K+ ) and chloride channels (Vella et al...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Juliana Cackovic, Susana Gutierrez-Luke, Gerald B Call, Amber Juba, Stephanie O'Brien, Charles H Jun, Lori M Buhlman
Selective degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic (DA) neurons is a hallmark pathology of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). While the mechanism of degeneration is elusive, abnormalities in mitochondrial function and turnover are strongly implicated. An Autosomal Recessive-Juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) Drosophila melanogaster model exhibits DA neurodegeneration as well as aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and function. Disruptions in mitophagy have been observed in parkin loss-of-function models, and changes in mitochondrial respiration have been reported in patient fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Andrew J Shepherd, Aaron D Mickle, Suraj Kadunganattil, Hongzhen Hu, Durga P Mohapatra
Bone metastasis in breast, prostate and lung cancers often leads to chronic pain, which is poorly managed by existing analgesics. The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie chronic pain associated with bone-metastasized cancers are not well understood, but sensitization of peripheral nociceptors by tumor microenvironment factors has been demonstrated to be important. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is highly expressed in bone-metastasized breast and prostate cancers, and is critical to growth and proliferation of these tumors in the bone tumor microenvironment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Olivia C Eller-Smith, Andrea L Nicol, Julie A Christianson
Centralized pain syndromes are associated with changes within the central nervous system that amplify peripheral input and/or generate the perception of pain in the absence of a noxious stimulus. Examples of idiopathic functional disorders that are often categorized as centralized pain syndromes include fibromyalgia, chronic pelvic pain syndromes, migraine, and temporomandibular disorder. Patients often suffer from widespread pain, associated with more than one specific syndrome, and report fatigue, mood and sleep disturbances, and poor quality of life...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Heather Nichol, Bénédicte Amilhon, Frédéric Manseau, Saishree Badrinarayanan, Sylvain Williams
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha2 subunit (Chrna2) is a specific marker for oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus. It was recently shown using a Chrna2-cre mice line that OLM interneurons can modulate entorhinal cortex and CA3 inputs and may therefore have an important role in gating, encoding, and recall of memory. In this study, we have used a combination of electrophysiology and optogenetics using Chrna2-cre mice to determine the role of Chrna2 interneurons in the subiculum area, the main output region of the hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Mouwei Zheng, Ronghua Chen, Hongbin Chen, Yixian Zhang, Jianhao Chen, Peiqiang Lin, Quan Lan, Qilin Yuan, Yongxing Lai, Xinhong Jiang, Xiaodong Pan, Nan Liu
As a secreted axon guidance molecule, Netrin-1 has been documented to be a neuroprotective factor, which can reduce infarct volume, promote angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis after stroke in rodents. However, its role in axonal regeneration and synaptic formation after cerebral ischemic injury, and the related underlying mechanisms remain blurred. In this study, we used Adeno-associated vectors carrying Netrin-1 gene (AAV-NT-1) to up-regulate the expression level of Netrin-1 in rats' brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hugo Zeberg, Johanna Nilsson, Peter Århem
Understanding the relationships between the rates and dynamics of current wave forms under voltage clamp conditions is essential for understanding phenomena such as state-dependence and use-dependence, which are fundamental for the action of drugs used as anti-epileptics, anti-arrhythmics, and anesthetics. In the present study, we mathematically analyze models of blocking mechanisms. In previous experimental studies of potassium channels we have shown that the effect of local anesthetics can be explained by binding to channels in the open state...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Marko Ilić, Andrej Meglič, Marko Kreft, Gregor Belušič
Microvillar photoreceptors are intrinsically capable of detecting the orientation of e-vector of linearly polarized light. They provide most invertebrates with an additional sensory channel to detect important features of their visual environment. However, polarization sensitivity (PS) of photoreceptors may lead to the detection of polarization-induced false colors and intensity contrasts. Most insect photoreceptors are thus adapted to have minimal PS. Flies have twisted rhabdomeres with microvilli rotated along the length of the ommatidia to reduce PS...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Samuela Cataldi, Cataldo Arcuri, Stéphane Hunot, Carmen Mecca, Michela Codini, Maria E Laurenti, Ivana Ferri, Elisabetta Loreti, Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Giovanna Traina, Carmela Conte, Francesco S Ambesi-Impiombato, Tommaso Beccari, Francesco Curcio, Elisabetta Albi
It has long been proven that neurogenesis continues in the adult brains of mammals in the dentatus gyrus of the hippocampus due to the presence of neural stem cells. Although a large number of studies have been carried out to highlight the localization of vitamin D receptor in hippocampus, the expression of vitamin D receptor in neurogenic dentatus gyrus of hippocampus in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the molecular mechanisms triggered by vitamin D underlying the production of differentiated neurons from embryonic cells remain unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Qiang Hao, Xiao-Lin Chen, Li Ma, Tong-Tong Wang, Yue Hu, Yuan-Li Zhao
In this study, we successfully established a stable method for the isolation of endothelial cells (ECs) from human cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cAVM) tissues. Despite human cAVM tissues having a minor population of ECs, they play an important role in the manifestation and development of cAVM as well as in hemorrhagic stroke and thrombogenesis. To characterize and understand the biology of ECs in human cAVM (cAVM-ECs), methods for the isolation and purification of these cells are necessary. We have developed this method to reliably obtain pure populations of ECs from cAVMs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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