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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217084/nad-attenuates-bilirubin-induced-hyperexcitation-in-the-ventral-cochlear-nucleus-by-inhibiting-excitatory-neurotransmission-and-neuronal-excitability
#1
Min Liang, Xin-Lu Yin, Lu-Yang Wang, Wei-Hai Yin, Ning-Ying Song, Hai-Bo Shi, Chun-Yan Li, Shan-Kai Yin
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important molecule with extensive biological functions in various cellular processes, including protection against cell injuries. However, little is known regarding the roles of NAD+ in neuronal excitation and excitotoxicity associated with many neurodegenerative disorders and diseases. Using patch-clamp recordings, we studied its potential effects on principal neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), which is particularly vulnerable to bilirubin excitotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217083/postnatal-loss-of-neuronal-and-glial-neurofascins-differentially-affects-node-of-ranvier-maintenance-and-myelinated-axon-function
#2
Anna M Taylor, Julia Saifetiarova, Manzoor A Bhat
Intricate molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells underlie the creation of unique domains that are essential for saltatory conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons. Previously, the cell surface adhesion molecule Neurofascin (Nfasc) has been shown to have a dual-role in the establishment of axonal domains from both the glial and neuronal interface. While the neuron-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF186) is indispensable for clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier; the glial-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF155) is required for myelinating glial cells to organize the paranodal domain...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210215/tryptanthrin-suppresses-the-activation-of-the-lps-treated-bv2-microglial-cell-line-via-nrf2-ho-1-antioxidant-signaling
#3
Young-Won Kwon, So Yeong Cheon, Sung Yun Park, Juhyun Song, Ju-Hee Lee
Microglia are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and play essential roles in neuronal homeostasis and neuroinflammatory pathologies. Recently, microglia have been shown to contribute decisively to neuropathologic processes after ischemic stroke. Furthermore, natural compounds have been reported to attenuate inflammation and pathologies associated with neuroinflammation. Tryptanthrin (indolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-dione) is a phytoalkaloid with known anti-inflammatory effects in cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210214/arginine-vasopressin-alters-both-spontaneous-and-phase-locked-synaptic-inputs-to-airway-vagal-preganglionic-neuron-via-activation-of-v1a-receptor-insights-into-stress-related-airway-vagal-excitation
#4
Xianxia Yan, Xingxin Chen, Yuhong Guo, Ding He, Yonghua Chen, Chunmei Xia, Jijiang Wang
The airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus (eNA) play a major role in the vagal control of tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone and maintenance of airway resistance. The eNA receives vasopressinergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the key node for the genesis of psychological stress. Since airway vagal excitation is reportedly to be associated with the psychological stress-induced/exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics, arginine vasopressin (AVP) might be involved in stress-related airway vagal excitation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203147/astrocyte-dependent-slow-inward-currents-sics-participate-in-neuromodulatory-mechanisms-in-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-ppn
#5
Adrienn Kovács, Balázs Pál
Slow inward currents (SICs) are known as excitatory events of neurons caused by astrocytic glutamate release and consequential activation of neuronal extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. In the present article we investigate the role of these astrocyte-dependent excitatory events on a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system (RAS), the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). It is well known about this and other elements of the RAS, that they do not only give rise to neuromodulatory innervation of several areas, but also targets neuromodulatory actions from other members of the RAS or factors providing the homeostatic drive for sleep...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203146/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-at-the-crossroads-of-brain-development-and-aging
#6
REVIEW
Sarah Wrigley, Donia Arafa, Daniela Tropea
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a polypeptide hormone structurally similar to insulin. It is central to the somatotropic axis, acting downstream of growth hormone (GH). It activates both the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and PI3K signaling pathways, acting in almost every tissue in the body to promote tissue growth and maturation through upregulation of anabolic processes. Overall GH and IGF1 signaling falls with age, suggesting that it is this reduced IGF1 activity that leads to age-related changes in organisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203145/bidirectional-hebbian-plasticity-induced-by-low-frequency-stimulation-in-basal-dendrites-of-rat-barrel-cortex-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons
#7
Andrea Díez-García, Natali Barros-Zulaica, Ángel Núñez, Washington Buño, David Fernández de Sevilla
According to Hebb's original hypothesis (Hebb, 1949), synapses are reinforced when presynaptic activity triggers postsynaptic firing, resulting in long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy. Long-term depression (LTD) is a use-dependent decrease in synaptic strength that is thought to be due to synaptic input causing a weak postsynaptic effect. Although the mechanisms that mediate long-term synaptic plasticity have been investigated for at least three decades not all question have as yet been answered...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197080/intense-exercise-promotes-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-but-not-spatial-discrimination
#8
Ji H So, Chao Huang, Minyan Ge, Guangyao Cai, Lanqiu Zhang, Yisheng Lu, Yangling Mu
Hippocampal neurogenesis persists throughout adult life and plays an important role in learning and memory. Although the influence of physical exercise on neurogenesis has been intensively studied, there is controversy in regard to how the impact of exercise may vary with its regime. Less is known about how distinct exercise paradigms may differentially affect the learning behavior. Here we found that, chronic moderate treadmill running led to an increase of cell proliferation, survival, neuronal differentiation, and migration...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197079/sirt3-in-neural-stem-cells-attenuates-microglia-activation-induced-oxidative-stress-injury-through-mitochondrial-pathway
#9
De-Qi Jiang, Yan Wang, Ming-Xing Li, Yan-Jiao Ma, Yong Wang
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial protein, is involved in energy metabolism, cell apoptosis and mitochondrial function. However, the role of SIRT3 in neural stem cells (NSCs) remains unknown. In previous studies, we found that microglia activation-induced cytotoxicity negatively regulated survival of NSCs, along with mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT3 on the microglia activation-induced oxidative stress injury in NSCs and its possible mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184187/ankyrin-g-membrane-partners-drive-the-establishment-and-maintenance-of-the-axon-initial-segment
#10
Christophe Leterrier, Nadine Clerc, Fanny Rueda-Boroni, Audrey Montersino, Bénédicte Dargent, Francis Castets
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a highly specialized neuronal compartment that plays a key role in neuronal development and excitability. It concentrates multiple membrane proteins such as ion channels and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that are recruited to the AIS by the scaffold protein ankyrin G (ankG). The crucial function of ankG in the anchoring of AIS membrane components is well established, but a reciprocal role of membrane partners in ankG targeting and stabilization remained elusive. In rat cultured hippocampal neurons and cortical organotypic slices, we found that shRNA-mediated knockdown of ankG membrane partners (voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) or neurofascin-186) led to a decrease of ankG concentration and perturbed the AIS formation and maintenance...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179879/cannabinoid-receptors-modulate-neuronal-morphology-and-ankyring-density-at-the-axon-initial-segment
#11
Mónica Tapia, Ana Dominguez, Wei Zhang, Ana Del Puerto, María Ciorraga, María José Benitez, Carmen Guaza, Juan José Garrido
Neuronal polarization underlies the ability of neurons to integrate and transmit information. This process begins early in development with axon outgrowth, followed by dendritic growth and subsequent maturation. In between these two steps, the axon initial segment (AIS), a subcellular domain crucial for generating action potentials (APs) and maintaining the morphological and functional polarization, starts to develop. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms and receptors involved in AIS initial development and maturation are mostly unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174522/in-vivo-imaging-of-mitochondrial-transport-in-single-axon-regeneration-of-zebrafish-mauthner-cells
#12
Yang Xu, Min Chen, Bingbing Hu, Rongchen Huang, Bing Hu
Mitochondrial transport is essential for neuronal function, but the evidence of connections between mitochondrial transport and axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) of living vertebrates remains limited. Here, we developed a novel model to explore mitochondrial transport in a single Mauthner axon (M axon) of zebrafish with non-invasive in vivo imaging. To confirm the feasibility of using this model, we treated labeled zebrafish with nocodazole and demonstrated that it could disrupt mitochondrial transport...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174521/deep-sequencing-of-the-human-retinae-reveals-the-expression-of-odorant-receptors
#13
Nikolina Jovancevic, Kirsten A Wunderlich, Claudia Haering, Caroline Flegel, Désirée Maßberg, Markus Weinrich, Lea Weber, Lars Tebbe, Anselm Kampik, Günter Gisselmann, Uwe Wolfrum, Hanns Hatt, Lian Gelis
Several studies have demonstrated that the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) occurs in various tissues. These findings have served as a basis for functional studies that demonstrate the potential of ORs as drug targets for a clinical application. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first evaluation of the mRNA expression of ORs and the localization of OR proteins in the human retina that set a stage for subsequent functional analyses. RNA-Sequencing datasets of three individual neural retinae were generated using Next-generation sequencing and were compared to previously published but reanalyzed datasets of the peripheral and the macular human retina and to reference tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154526/onion-skin-or-common-drive
#14
Maria Piotrkiewicz, Kemal S Türker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154525/deletion-of-type-3-adenylyl-cyclase-perturbs-the-postnatal-maturation-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-and-olfactory-cilium-ultrastructure-in-mice
#15
Zhe Zhang, Dong Yang, Mengdi Zhang, Ning Zhu, Yanfen Zhou, Daniel R Storm, Zhenshan Wang
Type 3 adenylyl cyclase (Adcy3) is localized to the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is an essential component of the olfactory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Although the role of this enzyme in odor detection and axonal projection in OSNs was previously characterized, researchers will still have to determine its function in the maturation of postnatal OSNs and olfactory cilium ultrastructure. Previous studies on newborns showed that the anatomic structure of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of Adcy3 knockout mice (Adcy3(-/-)) is indistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates (Adcy3(+/+)), whereas the architecture and associated composition of MOE are relatively underdeveloped at this early age...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123357/corrigendum-ih-equalizes-membrane-input-resistance-in-a-heterogeneous-population-of-fusiform-neurons-in-the-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus
#16
Cesar C Ceballos, Shuang Li, Antonio C Roque, Thanos Tzounopoulos, Ricardo M Leão
[This corrects the article on p. 249 in vol. 10, PMID: 27833532.].
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179878/geniposide-alleviates-amyloid-induced-synaptic-injury-by-protecting-axonal-mitochondrial-trafficking
#17
Haijing Zhang, Chunhui Zhao, Cui Lv, Xiaoli Liu, Shijing Du, Zhi Li, Yongyan Wang, Wensheng Zhang
Synaptic and mitochondrial pathologies are early events in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal axonal mitochondrial function and transport play crucial roles in maintaining synaptic function by producing high levels of adenosine triphosphate and buffering calcium. However, there can be abnormal axonal mitochondrial trafficking, distribution, and fragmentation, which are strongly correlated with amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced synaptic loss and dysfunction. The present study examined the neuroprotective effect of geniposide, a compound extracted from gardenia fruit in Aβ-treated neurons and an AD mouse model...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149272/neuroprotective-effects-of-a-smoothened-receptor-agonist-against-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#18
Quan Hu, Tong Li, Lingxiao Wang, Yunkai Xie, Song Liu, Xuemei Bai, Tiantian Zhang, Shishi Bo, Danqing Xin, Hao Xue, Gang Li, Zhen Wang
The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays a fundamental role in the central nervous system (CNS) development, but its effects on neural cell survival and brain repair after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not been well-investigated. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of an agonist of the Shh co-receptor Smoothened (Smo), purmorphamine (PUR), on early brain injury (EBI) as well as the underlying mechanisms after SAH. PUR was administered via an intraperitoneal injection with a dose of 0...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133446/differences-in-the-cellular-response-to-acute-spinal-cord-injury-between-developing-and-mature-rats-highlights-the-potential-significance-of-the-inflammatory-response
#19
Theresa C Sutherland, Kathryn J Mathews, Yilin Mao, Tara Nguyen, Catherine A Gorrie
There exists a trend for a better functional recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) in younger patients compared to adults, which is also reported for animal studies; however, the reasons for this are yet to be elucidated. The post injury tissue microenvironment is a complex milieu of cells and signals that interact on multiple levels. Inflammation has been shown to play a significant role in this post injury microenvironment. Endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPC), in the ependymal layer of the central canal, have also been shown to respond and migrate to the lesion site...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127276/reelin-haploinsufficiency-disrupts-the-developmental-trajectory-of-the-e-i-balance-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Lamine Bouamrane, Andrew F Scheyer, Olivier Lassalle, Jillian Iafrati, Aurore Thomazeau, Pascale Chavis
The reelin gene is a strong candidate in the etiology of several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Most of these diseases are accompanied by cognitive and executive-function deficits associated with prefrontal dysfunctions. Mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC) development is characterized by a protracted postnatal maturation constituting a period of enhanced vulnerability to psychiatric insults. The identification of the molecular components underlying this prolonged postnatal development is necessary to understand the synaptic properties of defective circuits participating in these psychiatric disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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