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Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Ji-Eun Kim, Jin-Young Park, Tae-Cheon Kang
Recently, we have reported that transient receptor potential channel-6 (TRPC6) plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal excitability and synchronization of spiking activity in the dentate granule cells (DGC). However, the underlying mechanisms of TRPC6 in these phenomena have been still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPC6 in subcellular localization of Kv4.3 and its relevance to neuronal excitability in the rat hippocampus. TRPC6 knockdown increased excitability and inhibitory transmission in the DGC and the CA1 neurons in response to a paired-pulse stimulus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Chongshan Bi, Daniel K L Tham, Caroline Perronnet, Bharat Joshi, Ivan R Nabi, Hakima Moukhles
The reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue following a cerebral stroke causes oxidative stress, and leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Apart from inflicting oxidative damage, the latter may also trigger the upregulation of aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water-permeable channel expressed by astroglial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and contribute to edema formation, the severity of which is known to be the primary determinant of mortality and morbidity. The mechanism through which this occurs remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Priyamvada M Pitale, Oleg Gorbatyuk, Marina Gorbatyuk
Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ER stress response, also known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), is common to various degenerative disorders. Therefore, signaling components of the UPR are currently emerging as potential targets for intervention and treatment of human diseases. One UPR signaling member, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), has been found up-regulated in many pathological conditions, pointing to therapeutic potential in targeting its expression. In cells, ATF4 governs multiple signaling pathways, including autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, and translation, suggesting a multifaceted role of ATF4 in the progression of various pathologies...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jianhua Xu, Lei Xia, Qing Shang, Jing Du, Dengna Zhu, Yangong Wang, Dan Bi, Juan Song, Caiyun Ma, Chao Gao, Xiaoli Zhang, Yanyan Sun, Liping Zhu, Xiaoyang Wang, Changlian Zhu, Qinghe Xing
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a major cause of childhood disability in developed and developing countries, but the pathogenic mechanisms of CP development remain largely unknown. Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular self-digestion of damaged organelles and dysfunctional macromolecules. Growing evidence suggests that autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5)-dependent autophagy is involved in neural development, neuronal differentiation, and neurological degenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze ATG5 protein expression and gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with CP and to evaluate the importance of ATG5 in the development of CP...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Bo Shen, Zuo-Ren Wang, Xiao-Ping Wang
Background: Timing dysfunctions occur in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Several lines of evidence show that disrupted timing processing is involved in specific fronto-striatal abnormalities. The striatum encodes reinforcement learning and procedural motion, and consequently is required to represent temporal information precisely, which then guides actions in proper sequence. Previous studies highlighted the temporal scaling property of timing-relevant striatal neurons; however, it is still unknown how this is accomplished over short temporal latencies, such as the sub-seconds to seconds range...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Simone Mortal, Federico Iseppon, Andrea Perissinotto, Elisa D'Este, Dan Cojoc, Luisa M R Napolitano, Vincent Torre
During neurite development, Actin Waves (AWs) emerge at the neurite base and move up to its tip, causing a transient retraction of the Growth Cone (GC). Many studies have shown that AWs are linked to outbursts of neurite growth and, therefore, contribute to the fast elongation of the nascent axon. Using long term live cell-imaging, we show that AWs do not boost neurite outgrowth and that neurites without AWs can elongate for several hundred microns. Inhibition of Myosin II abolishes the transient GC retraction and strongly modifies the AWs morphology...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Rosana Muñoz, Juan Larraín
Mammals are unable to regenerate its spinal cord after a lesion, meanwhile, anuran amphibians are capable of spinal cord regeneration only as larvae, and during metamorphosis, this capability is lost. Sox2/3+ cells present in the spinal cord of regenerative larvae are required for spinal cord regeneration. Here we evaluate the effect of the transplantation of spinal cord cells from regenerative larvae into the resected spinal cord of non-regenerative stages (NR-stage). Donor cells were able to survive up to 60 days after transplantation in the injury zone...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Elvira Juzekaeva, Azat Nasretdinov, Azat Gainutdinov, Mikhail Sintsov, Marat Mukhtarov, Roustem Khazipov
Anoxic depolarization (AD) is a hallmark of ischemic brain damage. AD is associated with a spreading wave of neuronal depolarization and an increase in light transmittance. However, initiation and spread of AD across the layers of the somatosensory cortex, which is one of the most frequently affected brain regions in ischemic stroke, remains largely unknown. Here, we explored the initiation and propagation of AD in slices of the rat barrel cortex using extracellular local field potential (LFP) recordings and optical intrinsic signal (OIS) recordings...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Abhinaba Ghosh, Samantha J Carew, Xihua Chen, Qi Yuan
L type calcium channels (LTCCs) are prevalent in different systems and hold immense importance for maintaining/performing selective functions. In the nervous system, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 are emerging as critical modulators of neuronal functions. Although the general role of these calcium channels in modulating synaptic plasticity and memory has been explored, their role in olfactory learning is not well understood. In this review article we first discuss the role of LTCCs in olfactory learning especially focusing on early odor preference learning in neonate rodents, presenting evidence that while NMDARs initiate stimulus-specific learning, LTCCs promote protein-synthesis dependent long-term memory (LTM)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Audrey T Medeiros, Lindsey G Soll, Isabella Tessari, Luigi Bubacco, Jennifer R Morgan
α-Synuclein is a presynaptic protein that regulates synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking. In Parkinson's disease (PD) and several other neurodegenerative disorders, aberrant oligomerization and aggregation of α-synuclein lead to synaptic dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Despite evidence that α-synuclein oligomers are generated within neurons under physiological conditions, and that altering the balance of monomers and oligomers contributes to disease pathogenesis, how each molecular species of α-synuclein impacts SV trafficking is currently unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jianhao Chen, Houwei Du, Yixian Zhang, Hongbin Chen, Mouwei Zheng, Peiqiang Lin, Quan Lan, Qilin Yuan, Yongxing Lai, Xiaodong Pan, Ronghua Chen, Nan Liu
In the nervous system, Netrin-1 serves as a neural guide, mediating the neuronal development. However, it remains blurred whether Netrin-1 can protect neurons from apoptosis induced by cerebral stroke. In the current study, the cultured rat primary cortical neurons were transfected with Netrin-1-encoding lentivirus before the oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD) treatment. Cell death and apoptosis were evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and flow cytometry. We found that Netrin-1 attenuated OGD-induced cell death and neuronal apoptosis at 24 h after OGD treatment, and that the overexpression of Netrin-1 activated the ERK signaling pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Alexandra K Suchowerska, Sandra Fok, Holly Stefen, Peter W Gunning, Edna C Hardeman, John Power, Thomas Fath
Nerve cell connections, formed in the developing brain of mammals, undergo a well-programmed process of maturation with changes in their molecular composition over time. The major structural element at the post-synaptic specialization is the actin cytoskeleton, which is composed of different populations of functionally distinct actin filaments. Previous studies, using ultrastructural and light imaging techniques have established the presence of different actin filament populations at the post-synaptic site...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xin Deng, Laijun Song, Wen Zhao, Ying Wei, Xin-Bin Guo
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant tumor in central nervous system (CNS), and it is still insurmountable and has a poor prognosis. The proliferation and survival mechanism of glioma cells needs to be explored further for the development of glioma treatment. Hematopoietic-substrate-1 associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) has been reported as an anti-apoptosis protein that plays an important role in several malignant tumors. However, the effect and mechanism of HAX-1 in glioblastomas remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of HAX-1 in glioblastoma cells and explore the mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Luis F Queme, Jessica L Ross, Michael P Jankowski
Musculoskeletal pain due to ischemia is present in a variety of clinical conditions including peripheral vascular disease (PVD), sickle cell disease (SCD), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and even fibromyalgia (FM). The clinical features associated with deep tissue ischemia are unique because although the subjective description of pain is common to other forms of myalgia, patients with ischemic muscle pain often respond poorly to conventional analgesic therapies. Moreover, these patients also display increased cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction, which often leads to exercise intolerance or exacerbation of underlying cardiovascular conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shama Parween, Divya S Varghese, Mustafa T Ardah, Ashok D Prabakaran, Eric Mensah-Brown, Bright Starling Emerald, Suraiya A Ansari
The nutrient responsive O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational protein modification found on several nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Previous studies have suggested that hyperglycemia induces the levels of total O-GlcNAcylation inside the cells. Hyperglycemia mediated increase in protein O-GlcNAcylation has been shown to be responsible for various pathologies including insulin resistance and Alzheimer's disease. Since maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring, it is intriguing to identify the effect of increased protein O-GlcNAcylation on embryonic neurogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Michael Perny, Ching-Chia Ting, Sonja Kleinlogel, Pascal Senn, Marta Roccio
The peripheral hearing process taking place in the cochlea mainly depends on two distinct sensory cell types: the mechanosensitive hair cells and the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). The first respond to the mechanical stimulation exerted by sound pressure waves on their hair bundles by releasing neurotransmitters and thereby activating the latter. Loss of these sensorineural cells is associated with permanent hearing loss. Stem cell-based approaches aiming at cell replacement or in vitro drug testing to identify potential ototoxic, otoprotective, or regenerative compounds have lately gained attention as putative therapeutic strategies for hearing loss...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Azat Nasretdinov, Nailya Lotfullina, Daria Vinokurova, Julia Lebedeva, Gulshat Burkhanova, Kseniya Chernova, Andrey Zakharov, Roustem Khazipov
Electrophysiological assessment of infraslow (<0.1 Hz) brain activities such as cortical spreading depression (SD), which occurs in a number of pathologies including migraine, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and brain ischemia requires direct current (DC) coupled recordings of local field potentials (LFPs). Here, we describe how DC-coupled recordings can be performed using high-density iridium electrode arrays (silicone probes). We found that the DC voltage offset of the silicone probe is large and often exceeds the amplifier input range...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Chen Zhao, Min Su, Yingzi Wang, Xinmeng Li, Yongxue Zhang, Xiaona Du, Hailin Zhang
The serotonin (5-HT) system originating in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is implicated in various mood- and emotion-related disorders, such as anxiety, fear and stress. Abnormal activity of DRN 5-HT neurons is the key factor in the development of these disorders. Here, we describe a crucial role for the Kv7.4 potassium channel in modulating DRN 5-HT neuronal excitability. We demonstrate that Kv7.4 is selectively expressed in 5-HT neurons of the DRN. Using selective Kv7.4 opener fasudil and Kv7.4 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that Kv7...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ting Jiang, Liying Zhang, Xiaona Pan, Haiqing Zheng, Xi Chen, Lili Li, Jing Luo, Xiquan Hu
Myelin is closely associated with cognitive function and is extremely vulnerable to damage in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The failure of remyelination is mainly due to limitations in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) differentiation in the damaged area. Previous studies have shown that physical exercise can improve vascular cognitive impairment, but whether it can reverse the defect in remyelination during ischemic injury and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we observed the effects of physical exercise on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) established by bilateral carotid artery occlusion...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tatiana K Bogodvid, Vyatcheslav V Andrianov, Irina B Deryabina, Lyudmila N Muranova, Dinara I Silantyeva, Aliya Vinarskaya, Pavel M Balaban, Khalil L Gainutdinov
Long-term changes in membrane potential after associative training were described previously in identified premotor interneurons for withdrawal of the terrestrial snail Helix. Serotonin was shown to be a major transmitter involved in triggering the long-term changes in mollusks. In the present study we compared the changes in electrophysiological characteristics of identifiable premotor interneurons for withdrawal in response to bath applications of serotonin (5-HT) or serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in preparations from naïve, neurotoxin-injected or associatively trained snails...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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