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Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765303/adnp-a-microtubule-interacting-protein-provides-neuroprotection-through-end-binding-proteins-and-tau-an-amplifier-effect
#1
Illana Gozes, Yanina Ivashko-Pachima, Carmen L Sayas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765302/the-role-of-actin-cytoskeleton-in-dendritic-spines-in-the-maintenance-of-long-term-memory
#2
REVIEW
Sreetama Basu, Raphael Lamprecht
Evidence indicates that long-term memory formation involves alterations in synaptic efficacy produced by modifications in neural transmission and morphology. However, it is not clear how such alterations induced by learning, that encode memory, are maintained over long period of time to preserve long-term memory. This is especially intriguing as the half-life of most of the proteins that underlie such changes is usually in the range of hours to days and these proteins may change their location over time. In this review we describe studies that indicate the involvement of dendritic spines in memory formation and its maintenance...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760653/ck2-phosphorylating-i-2-pp2a-set-mediates-tau-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment
#3
Qing Zhang, Yiyuan Xia, Yongjun Wang, Yangping Shentu, Kuan Zeng, Yacoubou A R Mahaman, Fang Huang, Mengjuan Wu, Dan Ke, Qun Wang, Bin Zhang, Rong Liu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Keqiang Ye, Xiaochuan Wang
Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is highly activated in Alzheimer disease (AD) and is associated with neurofibrillary tangles formation. Phosphorylated SET, a potent PP2A inhibitor, mediates tau hyperphosphorylation in AD. However, whether CK2 phosphorylates SET and regulates tau pathological phosphorylation in AD remains unclear. Here, we show that CK2 phosphorylating SET at Ser9 induced tau hyperphosphorylation in AD. We found that either Aβ treatment or tau overexpression stimulated CK2 activation leading to SET Ser9 hyperphosphorylation in neurons and animal models, while inhibition of CK2 by TBB abolished this event...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760652/cadherins-interact-with-synaptic-organizers-to-promote-synaptic-differentiation
#4
Masahito Yamagata, Xin Duan, Joshua R Sanes
Classical cadherins, a set of ~20 related recognition and signaling molecules, have been implicated in many aspects of neural development, including the formation and remodeling of synapses. Mechanisms underlying some of these steps have been studied by expressing N-cadherin ( cdh2 ), a Type 1 cadherin, in heterologous cells, but analysis is complicated because widely used lines express cdh2 endogenously. We used CRISPR-mediated gene editing to generate a Human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 variant lacking Cdh2, then compared the behavior of rodent cortical and hippocampal neurons co-cultured with parental, cdh2 mutant and cdh2 -rescued 293 lines...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760651/human-dna-helicase-b-as-a-candidate-for-unwinding-secondary-cgg-repeat-structures-at-the-fragile-x-mental-retardation-gene
#5
Gulfem D Guler, Zev Rosenwaks, Jeannine Gerhardt
The fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a CGG repeat expansion at the fragile X mental retardation ( FMR1 ) gene. FMR1 alleles with more than 200 CGG repeats bear chromosomal fragility when cells experience folate deficiency. CGG repeats were reported to be able to form secondary structures, such as hairpins, in vitro . When such secondary structures are formed, repeats can lead to replication fork stalling even in the absence of any additional perturbation. Indeed, it was recently shown that the replication forks stall at the endogenous FMR1 locus in unaffected and FXS cells, suggesting the formation of secondary repeat structures at the FMR1 gene in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760650/characterization-of-wnt-and-notch-responsive-lgr5-hair-cell-progenitors-in-the-striolar-region-of-the-neonatal-mouse-utricle
#6
Dan You, Luo Guo, Wenyan Li, Shan Sun, Yan Chen, Renjie Chai, Huawei Li
Dysfunctions in hearing and balance are largely connected with hair cell (HC) loss. Although regeneration of HCs in the adult cochlea does not occur, there is still limited capacity for HC regeneration in the mammalian utricle from a distinct population of supporting cells (SCs). In response to HC damage, these Lgr5+ SCs, especially those in the striolar region, can regenerate HCs. In this study, we isolated Lgr5+ SCs and Plp1+ SCs (which originate from the striolar and extrastriolar regions, respectively) from transgenic mice by flow cytometry so as to compare the properties of these two subsets of SCs...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760649/brain-region-dependent-rejection-of-neural-precursor-cell-transplants
#7
Nina Fainstein, Tamir Ben-Hur
The concept of CNS as an immune-privileged site has been challenged by the occurrence of immune surveillance and allogeneic graft rejection in the brain. Here we examined whether the immune response to allogeneic neural grafts is determined by the site of implantation in the CNS. Dramatic regional differences were observed between immune responses to allogeneic neural precursor/stem cell (NPC) grafts in the striatum vs. the hippocampus. Striatal grafts were heavily infiltrated with IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages and CD3+ T cells and completely rejected...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760648/profile-of-arachidonic-acid-derived-inflammatory-markers-and-its-modulation-by-nitro-oleic-acid-in-an-inherited-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Andrés Trostchansky, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Ernesto Miquel, Sebastián Rodríguez-Bottero, Laura Martínez-Palma, Patricia Cassina, Homero Rubbo
The lack of current treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) highlights the need of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms of the disease. A consistent neuropathological feature of ALS is the extensive inflammation around motor neurons and axonal degeneration, evidenced by accumulation of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia. Final products of inflammatory processes may be detected as a screening tool to identify treatment response. Herein, we focus on (a) detection of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolization products by lipoxygenase (LOX) and prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase in SOD1G93A mice and (b) evaluate its response to the electrophilic nitro-oleic acid (NO2 -OA)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755318/arc-3-utr-splicing-leads-to-dual-and-antagonistic-effects-in-fine-tuning-arc-expression-upon-bdnf-signaling
#9
Chiara Paolantoni, Simona Ricciardi, Veronica De Paolis, Chinenye Okenwa, Caterina Catalanotto, Maria T Ciotti, Antonino Cattaneo, Carlo Cogoni, Corinna Giorgi
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) is an immediate-early gene critically involved in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Arc mRNA is rapidly induced by synaptic activation and a portion is locally translated in dendrites where it modulates synaptic strength. Being an activity-dependent effector of homeostatic balance, regulation of Arc is uniquely tuned to result in short-lived bursts of expression. Cis -Acting elements that control its transitory expression post-transcriptionally reside primarily in Arc mRNA 3' UTR...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755317/microglial-phagocytosis-and-its-regulation-a-therapeutic-target-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Elzbieta Janda, Laura Boi, Anna R Carta
The role of phagocytosis in the neuroprotective function of microglia has been appreciated for a long time, but only more recently a dysregulation of this process has been recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, microglia play several critical roles in central nervous system (CNS), such as clearance of dying neurons and pathogens as well as immunomodulation, and to fulfill these complex tasks they engage distinct phenotypes. Regulation of phenotypic plasticity and phagocytosis in microglia can be impaired by defects in molecular machinery regulating critical homeostatic mechanisms, including autophagy...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755316/single-ethanol-withdrawal-regulates-extrasynaptic-%C3%AE-gaba-a-receptors-via-pkc%C3%AE-activation
#11
Juan Chen, Yang He, Yan Wu, Hang Zhou, Li-Da Su, Wei-Nan Li, Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang, Yu-Dong Zhou, Yi Shen
Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) is one of the most widely abused drugs with profound effects on brain function and behavior. GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) are one of the major targets for EtOH in the brain. Temporary plastic changes in GABAA Rs after withdrawal from a single EtOH exposure occur both in vivo and in vitro , which may be the basis for chronic EtOH addiction, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. Extrasynaptic δ-GABAA R endocytosis is implicated in EtOH-induced GABAA R plasticity, but the mechanisms by which the relative abundance and localization of specific GABAA Rs are altered by EtOH exposure and withdrawal remain unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743870/absence-of-wdr13-gene-predisposes-mice-to-mild-social-isolation-chronic-stress-leading-to-depression-like-phenotype-associated-with-differential-expression-of-synaptic-proteins
#12
Shiladitya Mitra, Ghantasala S Sameer Kumar, B Jyothi Lakshmi, Suman Thakur, Satish Kumar
We earlier reported that the male mice lacking the Wdr13 gene ( Wdr13 -/0 ) showed mild anxiety, better memory retention, and up-regulation of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. With increasing evidences from parallel studies in our laboratory about the possible role of Wdr13 in stress response, we investigated its role in brain. We observed that Wdr13 transcript gets up-regulated in the hippocampus of the wild-type mice exposed to stress. To further dissect its function, we analyzed the behavioral and molecular phenotypes of Wdr13 -/0 mice when subjected to mild chronic psychological stress, namely; mild (attenuated) social isolation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740283/transplantation-of-human-menstrual-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviates-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#13
Yongjia Zhao, Xin Chen, Yichen Wu, Yanling Wang, Yifei Li, Charlie Xiang
Extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown therapeutic efficacy in many neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Human menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are a novel source of MSCs advantageous for their higher proliferation rate and because they are easy to obtain without ethical concerns. Although MenSCs have exhibited therapeutic efficacy in some diseases, their effects on AD remain elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740282/muscarinic-m4-receptors-on-cholinergic-and-dopamine-d1-receptor-expressing-neurons-have-opposing-functionality-for-positive-reinforcement-and-influence-impulsivity
#14
Anna M Klawonn, Daniel B Wilhelms, Sarah H Lindström, Anand Kumar Singh, Maarit Jaarola, Jürgen Wess, Michael Fritz, David Engblom
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT), during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a "waiting"-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740281/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-as-drivers-of-neural-progenitors-derived-from-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Rachel K Okolicsanyi, Lotta E Oikari, Chieh Yu, Lyn R Griffiths, Larisa M Haupt
Background: Due to their relative ease of isolation and their high ex vivo and in vitro expansive potential, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an attractive candidate for therapeutic applications in the treatment of brain injury and neurological diseases. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are a family of ubiquitous proteins involved in a number of vital cellular processes including proliferation and stem cell lineage differentiation. Methods: Following the determination that hMSCs maintain neural potential throughout extended in vitro expansion, we examined the role of HSPGs in mediating the neural potential of hMSCs...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740280/common-ribs-of-inhibitory-synaptic-dysfunction-in-the-umbrella-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Rachel Ali Rodriguez, Christina Joya, Rochelle M Hines
The term neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) is an umbrella term used to group together a heterogeneous class of disorders characterized by disruption in cognition, emotion, and behavior, early in the developmental timescale. These disorders are heterogeneous, yet they share common behavioral symptomatology as well as overlapping genetic contributors, including proteins involved in the formation, specialization, and function of synaptic connections. Advances may arise from bridging the current knowledge on synapse related factors indicated from both human studies in NDD populations, and in animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740279/activation-of-neuregulin-1-erbb-signaling-is-involved-in-the-development-of-tocp-induced-delayed-neuropathy
#17
Hai-Yang Xu, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Ming-Yuan Xu, Li Zhu, Yi-Jun Wu
Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is characterized by progressive axonal degeneration and demyelination of the spinal cord and sciatic nerves. The neuregulin 1/epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB) signaling pathway is crucial for axonal myelination. In this study, we investigated whether the neuregulin 1/ErbB signaling pathway mediated the progression of OPIDN. Adult hens were given tri- o -cresyl phosphate (TOCP), a typical neuropathic organophosphorus compound, to induce OPIDN. The ErbB inhibitor lapatinib was administered to hens 4 h prior to and 4 days after TOCP exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731708/non-canonical-mechanisms-of-presynaptic-kainate-receptors-controlling-glutamate-release
#18
REVIEW
José V Negrete-Díaz, Talvinder S Sihra, Gonzalo Flores, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno
A metabotropic modus operandi for kainate receptors (KARs) was first discovered in 1998 modulating GABA release. These receptors have been also found to modulate glutamate release at different synapses in several brain regions. Mechanistically, a general biphasic mechanism for modulating glutamate release by presynaptic KARs with metabotropic actions has emerged, with low KA concentrations invoking an increase in glutamate release, whereas higher concentrations of KA mediate a decrease in the release of this neurotransmitter...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731707/the-neuroprotection-of-low-dose-morphine-in-cellular-and-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-ameliorating-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-activating-autophagy
#19
Bing Wang, Cun-Jin Su, Teng-Teng Liu, Yan Zhou, Yu Feng, Ya Huang, Xu Liu, Zhi-Hong Wang, Li-Hua Chen, Wei-Feng Luo, Tong Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Brain endogenous morphine biosynthesis was reported to be impaired in PD patients and exogenous morphine attenuated 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death in vitro . However, the mechanisms underlying neuroprotection of morphine in PD are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of low-dose morphine in cellular and animal models of PD and the possible underlying mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725289/fine-localization-of-acetylcholinesterase-in-the-synaptic-cleft-of-the-vertebrate-neuromuscular-junction
#20
Edna Blotnick-Rubin, Lili Anglister
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is concentrated at cholinergic synapses, where it is a major factor in controlling the duration of transmitter action. The concentration and localization of AChE within the synaptic cleft are in keeping with the functional requirements of the particular type of synapse. The densities of synaptic AChE at various neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) had been evaluated by quantitative EM-autoradiography using radiolabeled probes. Yet, fundamental issues concerning the precise distribution and location of the enzyme in the cleft remained open: whether and to what extent synaptic AChE is associated with pre- or postsynaptic membranes, or with synaptic basal lamina (BL), and whether it occurs only in the primary cleft (PC) or also in postjunctional folds (PJFs)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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