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Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804447/activity-dependent-arc-expression-and-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-are-altered-in-neurons-from-a-mouse-model-of-angelman-syndrome
#1
Elissa D Pastuzyn, Jason D Shepherd
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from deletions or mutations in chromosome 15, which usually includes the UBE3A gene. Ube3A protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates proteins and targets them for degradation. The immediate-early gene Arc, a master regulator of synaptic plasticity, was identified as a putative substrate of Ube3A, but there have been conflicting reports on whether Arc is a bona fide E3 ligase substrate. Using multiple approaches, we found no evidence for a physical interaction between Arc and Ube3A in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804446/induction-of-mir-155-after-brain-injury-promotes-type-1-interferon-and-has-a-neuroprotective-effect
#2
Emily B Harrison, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda M Morsey, Min Li, Matthew L Kelso, Sowmya V Yelamanchili, Howard S Fox
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces profound and lasting neuroinflammation that has both beneficial and detrimental effects. Recent evidence has implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of inflammation both in the periphery and the CNS. We examined the expression of inflammation associated miRNAs in the context of TBI using a mouse controlled cortical impact (CCI) model and found increased levels of miR-21, miR-223 and miR-155 in the hippocampus after CCI. The expression of miR-155 was elevated 9-fold after CCI, an increase confirmed by in situ hybridization (ISH)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798665/maternal-diabetes-alters-expression-of-micrornas-that-regulate-genes-critical-for-neural-tube-development
#3
Seshadri Ramya, Sukanya Shyamasundar, Boon Huat Bay, S Thameem Dheen
Maternal diabetes is known to cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos and neuropsychological deficits in infants. Several metabolic pathways and a plethora of genes have been identified to be deregulated in developing brain of embryos by maternal diabetes, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to regulate genes involved in brain development and maturation. Therefore, we hypothesized that maternal diabetes alters the expression of miRNAs that regulate genes involved in biological pathways critical for neural tube development and closure during embryogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798664/interplay-of-energetics-and-er-stress-exacerbates-alzheimer-s-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-toxicity-in-yeast
#4
Xin Chen, Markus M M Bisschops, Nisha R Agarwal, Boyang Ji, Kumaravel P Shanmugavel, Dina Petranovic
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegeneration. Oligomers of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) are thought to play a pivotal role in AD pathogenesis, yet the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Two major isoforms of Aβ associated with AD are Aβ40 and Aβ42, the latter being more toxic and prone to form oligomers. Here, we took a systems biology approach to study two humanized yeast AD models which expressed either Aβ40 or Aβ42 in bioreactor cultures. Strict control of oxygen availability and culture pH, strongly affected chronological lifespan and reduced variations during cell growth...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790892/a-critical-period-for-the-rapid-modification-of-synaptic-properties-at-the-vpm-relay-synapse
#5
Libiao Pan, Junhua Yang, Qian Yang, Xiaomeng Wang, Liya Zhu, Yali Liu, Huifang Lou, Chou Xu, Ying Shen, Hao Wang
In addition to cortical areas, the thalamus also displays plasticity during a critical period in early life. Since most sensory information is transmitted to the cortex via the thalamus, it will be of significant interest to understand the precise time window and underlying mechanisms of this critical period in the thalamus. By using in vitro whole-cell patch recording in acute brain slices, we found that VPm relay synapses were only sensitive to whisker deprivation from postnatal day 11 (P11) to P14. Whisker deprivation initiated within the P11 to P14 window significantly reduced the amplitude of AMPAR-EPSCs, but not NMDAR-EPSCs when recorded 24 h after whisker removal...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790891/adenosine-a1-receptor-antagonism-abolished-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-exogenous-ketone-supplementation-in-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#6
Zsolt Kovács, Dominic P D'Agostino, Arpád Dobolyi, Csilla Ari
The state of therapeutic ketosis can be achieved by using the ketogenic diet (KD) or exogenous ketone supplementation. It was suggested previously that the adenosinergic system may be involved in the mediating effect of KD on suppressing seizure activity in different types of epilepsies, likely by means of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). Thus, we tested in the present study whether exogenous ketone supplements (ketone ester: KE, 2.5 g/kg/day; ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT: KSMCT, 2.5 g/kg/day) applied sub-chronically (for 7 days) by intragastric gavage can modulate absence epileptic activity in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790890/memory-training-program-decreases-the-circulating-level-of-cortisol-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-healthy-older-adults
#7
Mirko Pesce, Raffaella Tatangelo, Irene La Fratta, Alessia Rizzuto, Giovanna Campagna, Cinzia Turli, Alessio Ferrone, Sara Franceschelli, Lorenza Speranza, Maria C Verrocchio, Maria A De Lutiis, Mario Felaco, Alfredo Grilli
Aging cognitive decline has been associated to impairment of the Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenals (HPA) axis activity and a higher level of the systemic inflammation. However, little is known about the molecules driving this process at peripheral level. In addition, the cognitive function is to some extent modifiable with Memory Training (MT) programs, even among older adults and beyond. The study aims to evaluate whether MT could contribute to ameliorate cognitive performance and modulate the HPA axis activity as well the low level inflammation in the aging phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790889/the-calcineurin-binding-activity-dependent-splice-variant-dynamin1xb-is-highly-enriched-in-synapses-in-various-regions-of-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Marie-Lisa Eich, Ekta Dembla, Silke Wahl, Mayur Dembla, Karin Schwarz, Frank Schmitz
In the present study, we generated and characterized a splice site-specific monoclonal antibody that selectively detects the calcineurin-binding dynamin1 splice variant dynamin1xb. Calcineurin is a Ca(2+)-regulated phosphatase that enhances dynamin1 activity and is an important Ca(2+)-sensing mediator of homeostatic synaptic plasticity in neurons. Using this dynamin1xb-specific antibody, we found dynamin1xb highly enriched in synapses of all analyzed brain regions. In photoreceptor ribbon synapses, dynamin1xb was enriched in close vicinity to the synaptic ribbon in a manner indicative of a peri-active zone immunolabeling...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790888/amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-a%C3%AE-1-42-induces-the-cdk2-mediated-phosphorylation-of-tau-through-the-activation-of-the-mtorc1-signaling-pathway-while-promoting-neuronal-cell-death
#9
Ki Hoon Lee, Sei-Jung Lee, Hyun Jik Lee, Gee Euhn Choi, Young Hyun Jung, Dah Ihm Kim, Amr Ahmed Gabr, Jung Min Ryu, Ho Jae Han
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. Amyloid β1-42 (Aβ) and hyper-phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau have been considered as major histological features in AD. However, the mechanism of how Aβ induces the hyper-phosphorylation of tau remains to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the underlying cellular mechanisms of Aβ with regard to the cell cycle regulatory protein-mediated phosphorylation of tau in promoting neuronal cell death...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785203/cell-death-autophagy-loop-and-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Shu Yuan, Zhong-Wei Zhang, Zi-Lin Li
Although we know that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is correlated with the glutamate-mediated corticomotor neuronal hyperexcitability, detailed ALS pathology remains largely unexplained. While a number of drugs have been developed, no cure exists so far. Here, we propose a hypothesis of neuronal cell death-incomplete autophagy positive-feedback loop-and summarize the role of the neuron-astrocyte glutamate-glutamine cycle in ALS. The disruption of these two cycles might ideally retard ALS progression. Cerebrovascular injuries (such as multiple embolization sessions and strokes) induce neuronal cell death and the subsequent autophagy...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785202/sdf1-cxcr4-signaling-maintains-central-post-stroke-pain-through-mediation-of-glial-neuronal-interactions
#11
Fei Yang, Wen-Jun Luo, Wei Sun, Yan Wang, Jiang-Lin Wang, Fan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Na Wei, Xiao-Liang Wang, Su-Min Guan, Jun Chen
Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is an intractable central neuropathic pain that has been poorly studied mechanistically. Here we showed that stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1 or CXCL12), a member of the CXC chemokine family, and its receptor CXCR4 played a key role in the development and maintenance of thalamic hemorrhagic CPSP through hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) mediated microglial-astrocytic-neuronal interactions. First, both intra-thalamic collagenase (ITC) and SDF1 injections could induce CPSP that was blockable and reversible by intra-thalamic administration of both AMD3100 (a selective CXCR4 antagonist) and inhibitors of microglial or astrocytic activation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785201/physiological-concentrations-of-amyloid-beta-regulate-recycling-of-synaptic-vesicles-via-alpha7-acetylcholine-receptor-and-cdk5-calcineurin-signaling
#12
Vesna Lazarevic, Sandra Fieńko, Maria Andres-Alonso, Daniela Anni, Daniela Ivanova, Carolina Montenegro-Venegas, Eckart D Gundelfinger, Michael A Cousin, Anna Fejtova
Despite the central role of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), its physiological function in healthy brain is still debated. It is well established that elevated levels of Aβ induce synaptic depression and dismantling, connected with neurotoxicity and neuronal loss. Growing evidence suggests a positive regulatory effect of Aβ on synaptic function and cognition; however the exact cellular and molecular correlates are still unclear. In this work, we tested the effect of physiological concentrations of Aβ species of endogenous origin on neurotransmitter release in rat cortical and hippocampal neurons grown in dissociated cultures...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769761/identification-of-the-role-of-mir-142-5p-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-comparative-bioinformatics-and-cellular-analysis
#13
Juhyun Song, Young-Kook Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) or tau protein aggregates, the hallmark of cognitive decline. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical factors in neurogenesis and synaptic functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies have reported alterations in miRNA expression in patients with AD. However, miRNAs associated with AD varied with patient groups or experimental models, suggesting the need for a comparative study to identify miRNAs commonly dysregulated in diverse AD models...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769760/implications-of-dna-methylation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Ernesto Miranda-Morales, Karin Meier, Ada Sandoval-Carrillo, José Salas-Pacheco, Paola Vázquez-Cárdenas, Oscar Arias-Carrión
It has been 200 years since Parkinson's disease (PD) was first described, yet many aspects of its etiopathogenesis remain unclear. PD is a progressive and complex neurodegenerative disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors including aging, nutrition, pesticides and exposure to heavy metals. DNA methylation may be altered in response to some of these factors; therefore, it is proposed that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, can have a fundamental role in gene-environment interactions that are related with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769759/the-insect-ortholog-of-the-human-orphan-cytokine-receptor-crlf3-is-a-neuroprotective-erythropoietin-receptor
#15
Nina Hahn, Debbra Y Knorr, Johannes Liebig, Liane Wüstefeld, Karsten Peters, Marita Büscher, Gregor Bucher, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Ralf Heinrich
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates various cell homeostatic responses to environmental challenges and pathological insults. While stimulation of vertebrate erythrocyte production is mediated by homodimeric "classical" Epo receptors, alternative receptors are involved in neuroprotection. However, their identity remains enigmatic due to complex cytokine ligand and receptor interactions and conflicting experimental results. Besides the classical Epo receptor, the family of type I cytokine receptors also includes the poorly characterized orphan cytokine receptor-like factor 3 (CRLF3) present in vertebrates including human and various insect species...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769758/the-role-of-bip-retrieval-by-the-kdel-receptor-in-the-early-secretory-pathway-and-its-effect-on-protein-quality-control-and-neurodegeneration
#16
REVIEW
Hisayo Jin, Mari Komita, Tomohiko Aoe
Protein quality control in the early secretory pathway is a ubiquitous eukaryotic mechanism for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An ER molecular chaperone, immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), is one of the essential components in this process. BiP interacts with nascent proteins to facilitate their folding. BiP also plays an important role in preventing aggregation of misfolded proteins and regulating the ER stress response when cells suffer various injuries. BiP is a member of the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family of molecular chaperones that resides in the ER...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769757/editorial-ubiquitin-and-the-brain-roles-of-proteolysis-in-the-normal-and-abnormal-nervous-system
#17
EDITORIAL
Ashok N Hegde, Fred W van Leeuwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769756/an-lmnb1-duplication-caused-adult-onset-autosomal-dominant-leukodystrophy-in-chinese-family-clinical-manifestations-neuroradiology-and-genetic-diagnosis
#18
Yi Dai, Yaling Ma, Shengde Li, Santasree Banerjee, Shengran Liang, Qing Liu, Yinchang Yang, Bin Peng, Liying Cui, Liri Jin
Autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a very rare neurological disorder featured with late onset, slowly progressive central nervous system demyelination. Duplication or over expression of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene causes ADLD. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive clinical evaluation and genetic detection for a Chinese family with ADLD. The proband is a 52-year old man manifested with autonomic abnormalities, pyramidal tract dysfunction. MRI brain scan identified bilateral symmetric white matter (WM) hyper-intensities in periventricular and semi-oval WM, cerebral peduncles and middle cerebellar peduncles...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751856/synucleins-and-gene-expression-ramblers-in-a-crowd-or-cops-regulating-traffic
#19
REVIEW
Alexei A Surguchev, Andrei Surguchov
Synuclein family consists of three members, α, β, and γ-synuclein. Due to their involvement in human diseases, they have been thoroughly investigated for the last 30 years. Since the first synuclein identification and description, members of this family are found in all vertebrates. Sequencing of their genes indicates high evolutionary conservation suggesting important function(s) of these proteins. They are small naturally unfolded proteins prone to aggregate, easily change their conformation, and bind to the membranes...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744199/differential-impact-of-mir-21-on-pain-and-associated-affective-and-cognitive-behavior-after-spared-nerve-injury-in-b7-h1-ko-mouse
#20
Franziska Karl, Anne Grießhammer, Nurcan Üçeyler, Claudia Sommer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly recognized as regulators of immune and neuronal gene expression and are potential master switches in neuropathic pain pathophysiology. miR-21 is a promising candidate that may link the immune and the pain system. To investigate the pathophysiological role of miR-21 in neuropathic pain, we assessed mice deficient of B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1), a major inhibitor of inflammatory responses. In previous studies, an upregulation of miR-21 had been shown in mouse lymphocytes. Young (8 weeks), middle-aged (6 months), and old (12 months) B7-H1 ko mice and wildtype littermates (WT) received a spared nerve injury (SNI)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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