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Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539873/pharmacological-stimulation-of-phagocytosis-enhances-amyloid-plaque-clearance-evidence-from-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-attr-neuropathy
#1
Eleni Fella, Kleitos Sokratous, Revekka Papacharalambous, Kyriacos Kyriacou, Joy Phillips, Sam Sanderson, Elena Panayiotou, Theodoros Kyriakides
Hereditary ATTR V30M amyloidosis is a lethal autosomal dominant sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy caused by deposition of aberrant transthyretin (TTR). Immunohistochemical examination of sural nerve biopsies in patients with amyloidotic neuropathy show co-aggregation of TTR with several proteins; including apolipoprotein E, serum amyloid P and components of the complement cascade. Complement activation and macrophages are increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in amyloidogenesis at the tissue bed level...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539872/the-role-of-app-in-structural-spine-plasticity
#2
REVIEW
Elena Montagna, Mario M Dorostkar, Jochen Herms
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in neurons. The full-length protein has cell-adhesion and receptor-like properties, which play roles in synapse formation and stability. Furthermore, APP can be cleaved by several proteases into numerous fragments, many of which affect synaptic function and stability. This review article focuses on the mechanisms of APP in structural spine plasticity, which encompasses the morphological alterations at excitatory synapses. These occur as changes in the number and morphology of dendritic spines, which correspond to the postsynaptic compartment of excitatory synapses...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539871/protein-quality-control-and-the-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-frontotemporal-dementia-continuum
#3
Hamideh Shahheydari, Audrey Ragagnin, Adam K Walker, Reka P Toth, Marta Vidal, Cyril J Jagaraj, Emma R Perri, Anna Konopka, Jessica M Sultana, Julie D Atkin
Protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, has an important regulatory role in cellular function. Protein quality control mechanisms, including protein folding and protein degradation processes, have a crucial function in post-mitotic neurons. Cellular protein quality control relies on multiple strategies, including molecular chaperones, autophagy, the ubiquitin proteasome system, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) and the formation of stress granules (SGs), to regulate proteostasis. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the presence of misfolded protein aggregates, implying that protein quality control mechanisms are dysfunctional in these conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536503/epigenetic-activation-of-asct2-in-the-hippocampus-contributes-to-depression-like-behavior-by-regulating-d-serine-in-mice
#4
Jiesi Wang, Ke Zhang, Xiaojuan Chen, Xiaoqian Liu, Huajing Teng, Mei Zhao, Zhongsheng Sun
The roles of D-serine in depression are raised concerned recently as an intrinsic co-agonist for the NMDA receptor. However, the mechanisms underlying its regulation are not fully elucidated. ASCT2 is a Na(+)-dependent D-serine transporter. We found that decreased D-serine and increased hippocampal ASCT2 levels correlated with chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) in mice. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA-mediated knockdown of ASCT2 and the administration of exogenous D-serine in the hippocampus alleviated CSDS-induced social avoidance and immobility...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536502/lost-in-translation-defects-in-transfer-rna-modifications-and-neurological-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Andrea Bednářová, Marley Hanna, Isabella Durham, Tara VanCleave, Alexis England, Anathbandhu Chaudhuri, Natraj Krishnan
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are key molecules participating in protein synthesis. To augment their functionality they undergo extensive post-transcriptional modifications and, as such, are subject to regulation at multiple levels including transcription, transcript processing, localization and ribonucleoside base modification. Post-transcriptional enzyme-catalyzed modification of tRNA occurs at a number of base and sugar positions and influences specific anticodon-codon interactions and regulates translation, its efficiency and fidelity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533742/depression-and-chronic-liver-diseases-are-there-shared-underlying-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Xiaoqin Huang, Xiaoyun Liu, Yongqiang Yu
The occurrence of depression is higher in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) than that in the general population. The mechanism described in previous studies mainly focused on inflammation and stress, which not only exists in CLD, but also emerges in common chronic diseases, leaving the specific mechanism unknown. This review was to summarize the prevalence and risk factors of depression in CLD including chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and to point out the possible underlying mechanism of this potential link...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533741/adulthood-exposure-to-lipopolysaccharide-exacerbates-the-neurotoxic-and-inflammatory-effects-of-rotenone-in-the-substantia-nigra
#7
Chun Huang, Li Zhu, Huan Li, Fu-Guo Shi, Guo-Qing Wang, Yi-Zheng Wei, Jie Liu, Feng Zhang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most neurodegenerative disorder with a regional decrease of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Despite intense exploration, the etiology of PD progressive process remains unclear. This study was to investigate the synergistic effects of systemic inflammation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neurotoxicity of rotenone (ROT) on exacerbating DA neuron lesion. Male SD adulthood rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Seven months later, rats were subcutaneously given ROT five times a week for consecutive 4 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529474/mir-30b-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-by-regulating-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-nav1-3-in-rats
#8
Songxue Su, Jinping Shao, Qingzan Zhao, Xiuhua Ren, Weihua Cai, Lei Li, Qian Bai, Xuemei Chen, Bo Xu, Jian Wang, Jing Cao, Weidong Zang
Nav1.3 is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive isoform among voltage-gated sodium channels that are closely associated with neuropathic pain. It can be up-regulated following nerve injury, but its biological function remains uncertain. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that can regulate post-transcriptional gene expression by binding with their target mRNAs. Using Target Scan software, we discovered that SCN3A is the major target of miR-30b, and we then determined whether miR-30b regulated the expression of Nav1...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522960/motomirs-mirnas-in-motor-neuron-function-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Zachary C E Hawley, Danae Campos-Melo, Cristian A Droppelmann, Michael J Strong
MiRNAs are key regulators of the mammalian transcriptome that have been increasingly linked to degenerative diseases of the motor neurons. Although many of the miRNAs currently incriminated as participants in the pathogenesis of these diseases are also important to the normal development and function of motor neurons, at present there is no knowledge of the complete miRNA profile of motor neurons. In this review, we examine the current understanding with respect to miRNAs that are specifically required for motor neuron development, function and viability, and provide evidence that these should be considered as a functional network of miRNAs which we have collectively termed MotomiRs...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515680/trk-receptors-and-neurotrophin-cross-interactions-new-perspectives-toward-manipulating-therapeutic-side-effects
#10
Yazan Haddad, Vojtěch Adam, Zbyněk Heger
Some therapeutic side-effects result from simultaneous activation of homolog receptors by the same ligand. Tropomyosin receptor kinases (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) play a major role in the development and biology of neurons through neurotrophin signaling. The wide range of cross-interactions between Trk receptors and neurotrophins vary in selectivity, affinity and function. In this study, we discuss new perspectives to the manipulation of side-effects via a better understanding of the cross-interactions at the molecular level, derived by computational methods...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515679/downregulation-of-the-repressor-element-1-silencing-transcription-factor-rest-is-associated-with-akt-mtor-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-prion-diseases-models
#11
Zhiqi Song, Syed Z A Shah, Wei Yang, Haodi Dong, Lifeng Yang, Xiangmei Zhou, Deming Zhao
Prion diseases are a group of infectious diseases characterized by multiple neuropathological changes, yet the mechanisms that preserve function and protect against prion-associated neurodegeneration are still unclear. We previously reported that the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST) alleviates neurotoxic prion peptide (PrP106-126)-induced toxicity in primary neurons. Here we confirmed the findings of the in vitro model in 263K infected hamsters, an in vivo model of prion diseases and further showed the relationships between REST and related signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515678/soluble-ectodomain-of-neuroligin-1-decreases-synaptic-activity-by-activating-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-2
#12
Michelle D Gjørlund, Eva M M Carlsen, Andreas B Kønig, Oksana Dmytrieva, Anders V Petersen, Jacob Jacobsen, Vladimir Berezin, Jean-François Perrier, Sylwia Owczarek
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Postsynaptic neuroligins (NLs) form trans-synaptic complexes with presynaptic neurexins (NXs). Both NXs and NLs are cleaved from the cell surface by metalloproteases in an activity-dependent manner, releasing a soluble extracellular fragment and membrane-tethered C-terminal fragment. The cleavage of NL1 depresses synaptic transmission, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) are located primarily at the periphery of presynaptic terminals, where they inhibit the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and consequently suppress the release of glutamate and decrease synaptic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512399/protein-s-negatively-regulates-neural-stem-cell-self-renewal-through-bmi-1-signaling
#13
Katya Zelentsova-Levytskyi, Ziv Talmi, Ghada Abboud-Jarrous, Tal Capucha, Tamar Sapir, Tal Burstyn-Cohen
Revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying neural stem cell self-renewal is a major goal toward understanding adult brain homeostasis. The self-renewing potential of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) must be tightly regulated to maintain brain homeostasis. We recently reported the expression of Protein S (PROS1) in adult hippocampal NSPCs, and revealed its role in regulation of NSPC quiescence and neuronal differentiation. Here, we investigate the effect of PROS1 on NSPC self-renewal and show that genetic ablation of Pros1 in neural progenitors increased NSPC self-renewal by 50%...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512398/protein-homeostasis-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-therapeutic-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Christopher P Webster, Emma F Smith, Pamela J Shaw, Kurt J De Vos
Protein homeostasis (proteostasis), the correct balance between production and degradation of proteins, is essential for the health and survival of cells. Proteostasis requires an intricate network of protein quality control pathways (the proteostasis network) that work to prevent protein aggregation and maintain proteome health throughout the lifespan of the cell. Collapse of proteostasis has been implicated in the etiology of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult onset motor neuron disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507507/pink1-parkin-dependent-mitochondrial-surveillance-from-pleiotropy-to-parkinson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Francois Mouton-Liger, Maxime Jacoupy, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Olga Corti
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disease caused by the preferential, progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta. PD is characterized by a multifaceted pathological process involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and metabolism deregulation. The molecular mechanisms governing the complex interplay between the different facets of this process are still unknown. PARK2/Parkin and PARK6/PINK1, two genes responsible for familial forms of PD, act as a ubiquitous core signaling pathway, coupling mitochondrial stress to mitochondrial surveillance, by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, the removal of damaged mitochondrial components by mitochondria-derived vesicles, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507506/differential-regulation-of-pi-4-5-p2-sensitivity-of-kv7-2-and-kv7-3-channels-by-calmodulin
#16
Carolina Gomis-Perez, Maria V Soldovieri, Covadonga Malo, Paolo Ambrosino, Maurizio Taglialatela, Pilar Areso, Alvaro Villarroel
HIGHLIGHTS - Calmodulin-dependent Kv7.2 current density without the need of binding calcium.- Kv7.2 current density increase is accompanied with resistance to PI(4,5)P2 depletion.- Kv7.3 current density is insensitive to calmodulin elevation.- Kv7.3 is more sensitive to PI(4,5)P2 depletion in the presence of calmodulin.- Apo-calmodulin influences PI(4,5)P2 dependence in a subunit specific manner. The identification and understanding of critical factors regulating M-current functional density, whose main components are Kv7...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507505/protein-protein-interaction-among-the-foxp-family-members-and-their-regulation-of-two-target-genes-vldlr-and-cntnap2-in-the-zebra-finch-song-system
#17
Ezequiel Mendoza, Constance Scharff
The Forkhead transcription factor FOXP2 is implicated in speech perception and production. The avian homolog, FoxP2 contributes to song learning and production in birds. In human cell lines, transcriptional activity of FOXP2 requires homo-dimerization or dimerization with paralogs FOXP1 or FOXP4. Whether FoxP dimerization occurs in the brain is unknown. We recently showed that FoxP1, FoxP2 and FoxP4 (FoxP1/2/4) proteins are co-expressed in neurons of Area X, a song control region in zebra finches. We now report on dimer- and oligomerization of zebra finch FoxPs and how this affects transcription...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503131/editorial-myelin-mediated-inhibition-of-axonal-regeneration-past-present-and-future
#18
EDITORIAL
Sari Hannila, Wilfredo Mellado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503130/uncoupling-the-trade-off-between-somatic-proteostasis-and-reproduction-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-models-of-polyglutamine-diseases
#19
Netta Shemesh, Nadav Shai, Lana Meshnik, Rotem Katalan, Anat Ben-Zvi
Caenorhabditis elegans somatic protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is actively remodeled at the onset of reproduction. This proteostatic collapse is regulated cell-nonautonomously by signals from the reproductive system that transmit the commitment to reproduction to somatic cells. Here, we asked whether the link between the reproductive system and somatic proteostasis could be uncoupled by activating downstream effectors in the gonadal longevity cascade. Specifically, we examined whether over-expression of lipl-4 (lipl-4(oe)), a target gene of the gonadal longevity pathway, or increase in arachidonic acid (AA) levels, associated with lipl-4(oe), modulated proteostasis and reproduction...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496400/lrp1-modulates-app-intraneuronal-transport-and-processing-in-its-monomeric-and-dimeric-state
#20
Uta-Mareike Herr, Paul Strecker, Steffen E Storck, Carolin Thomas, Verena Rabiej, Anne Junker, Sandra Schilling, Nadine Schmidt, C Marie Dowds, Simone Eggert, Claus U Pietrzik, Stefan Kins
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third) but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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