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Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience

Caterina Scuderi, Mami Noda, Alexei Verkhratsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Claire Bridel, Anand J C Eijlers, Wessel N van Wieringen, Marleen Koel-Simmelink, Cyra E Leurs, Menno M Schoonheim, Joep Killestein, Charlotte E Teunissen
Background: The clinical course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is highly heterogeneous and prognostic biomarkers at time of diagnosis are lacking. Objective: We investigated the predictive value of the plasma proteome at time of diagnosis in RRMS patients. Methods: The plasma proteome was interrogated using a novel aptamer-based proteomics platform, which allows to measure the levels of a predefined set of 1310 proteins. Results: In 67 clinically and radiologically well characterized RRMS patients, we found no association between the plasma proteome at diagnosis and clinical, cognitive or MRI outcomes after 11 years...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sonja E Di Gregorio, Martin L Duennwald
In the past two decades, yeast models have delivered profound insights into basic mechanisms of protein misfolding and the dysfunction of key cellular pathways associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Expressing ALS-associated proteins, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD1), TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and Fused in sarcoma (FUS), in yeast recapitulates major hallmarks of ALS pathology, including protein aggregation, mislocalization and cellular toxicity. Results from yeast have consistently been recapitulated in other model systems and even specimens from human patients, thus providing evidence for the power and validity of ALS yeast models...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Tong Li, Yi Zheng, Yan Li, Danna Ye
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can give rise to fertile adults, but the successful perinatal and postnatal developmental rates are inefficient, including delayed developmental behaviors, and respiratory failure. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) from E5.5-6.5 epiblasts share defining features with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), providing a new opportunity to study early mammalian development in vitro. In this study, mEpiSCs were established from naturally fertilized mouse embryos (F-mEpiSCs) and SCNT mouse embryos (NT-mEpiSCs)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Paola Brivio, Giulia Sbrini, Polina Peeva, Mihail Todiras, Michael Bader, Natalia Alenina, Francesca Calabrese
Dysregulations of the central serotoninergic system have been implicated in several psychopathologies, characterized by different susceptibility between males and females. We took advantage of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) deficient rats, lacking serotonin specifically in the brain, to investigate whether a vulnerable genotype can be associated with alterations of neuronal plasticity from the early stage of maturation of the brain until adulthood. We found a significant increase, in both gene and protein expression, of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adult TPH2-deficient (TPH2-/- ) male and female rats in comparison to wild type (TPH2+/+ ) counterparts...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2018.00286.].
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Yuan Zhang, Li Shu, Qiying Sun, Hongxu Pan, Jifeng Guo, Beisha Tang
Background: Various studies have reported associations between synuclein alpha ( SNCA ) polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. However, the results are inconsistent. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of the associations between SNCA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PD risk in overall populations and subpopulations by ethnicity. Methods: Standard meta-analysis was conducted according to our protocol with a cutoff point of p < 0.05. To find the most relevant SNCA SNPs, we used a cutoff point of p < 1 × 10-5 in an analysis based on the allele model...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Nicole M Fisher, Mabel Seto, Craig W Lindsley, Colleen M Niswender
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are characterized by a wide range of symptoms including delayed speech, intellectual disability, motor dysfunction, social deficits, breathing problems, structural abnormalities, and epilepsy. Unfortunately, current treatment strategies are limited and innovative new approaches are sorely needed to address these complex diseases. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that act to modulate neurotransmission across many brain structures...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Erik Maronde
Cyclic adenosine 3',5'monophosphate (cAMP) regulated element binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor involved in many different signaling processes including memory storage and retrieval. The mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22 is widely used as a model system for neuronal cell death and cellular signal pathway investigations. For the present work a variant of HT22 with a stably expressed CRE-luciferase (CRE-luc) reporter (HT22CRE) is introduced, characterized and used to investigate cAMP-dependent and independent CRE-dependent signal processes...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Mallory A Laboulaye, Xin Duan, Mu Qiao, Irene E Whitney, Joshua R Sanes
Transgenic mouse lines are routinely employed to label and manipulate distinct cell types. The transgene generally comprises cell-type specific regulatory elements linked to a cDNA encoding a reporter or other protein. However, off-target expression seemingly unrelated to the regulatory elements in the transgene is often observed, it is sometimes suspected to reflect influences related to the site of transgene integration in the genome. To test this hypothesis, we used a proximity ligation-based method, Targeted Locus Amplification (TLA), to map the insertion sites of three well-characterized transgenes that appeared to exhibit insertion site-dependent expression in retina...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Léa Rodriguez, Julius Baya Mdzomba, Sandrine Joly, Mélissa Boudreau-Laprise, Emmanuel Planel, Vincent Pernet
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2018.00293.].
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Joris Comhair, Jens Devoght, Giovanni Morelli, Robert J Harvey, Victor Briz, Sarah C Borrie, Claudia Bagni, Jean-Michel Rigo, Serge N Schiffmann, David Gall, Bert Brône, Svetlana M Molchanova
Glycine receptors (GlyRs) containing the α2 subunit are highly expressed in the developing brain, where they regulate neuronal migration and maturation, promote spontaneous network activity and subsequent development of synaptic connections. Mutations in GLRA2 are associated with autism spectrum disorder, but the underlying pathophysiology is not described yet. Here, using Glra2 -knockout mice, we found a GlyR-dependent effect on neonatal spontaneous activity of dorsal striatum medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and maturation of the incoming glutamatergic innervation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Dusti A Shay, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Aromatase is the enzyme responsible for converting testosterone to estradiol. In mammals, aromatase is expressed in the testes, ovaries, brain, and other tissues. While estrogen is traditionally associated with reproduction and sexual behavior in females, our current understanding broadens this perspective to include such biological functions as metabolism and cognition. It is now well-recognized that aromatase plays a vital lifetime role in brain development and neurobehavioral function in both sexes. Thus, ongoing investigations seek to highlight potentially vital sex differences in the role of aromatase, particularly regarding its centrally mediated effects...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Chang-Hoon Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Lin Wang, Xi-Xi Li, Xi Chen, Xiao-Yan Qin, Elissavet Kardami, Yong Cheng
The occurrence of depressive disorder has long been attributed to changes in monoamines, with the focus of drug treatment strategies being to change the effectiveness of monoamines. However, the success achieved by changing these processes is limited and further stimulates the exploration of alternative mechanisms and treatments. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), which occurs in a high-molecular weight (HMW) and low-molecular weight (LMW) form, is a potent developmental modulator and nervous system regulator that has been suggested to play an important role in various psychiatric disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sifan Sun, Xiaojuan Han, Xueting Li, Qiqi Song, Ming Lu, Miaomiao Jia, Jianhua Ding, Gang Hu
Recently, emerging evidences show that sirtuins (SIRTs) modulate aging progress and affect neurodegenerative diseases. For example, inhibition of SIRT2 has been recognized to exert neuroprotective effects in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, current SIRT2 inhibitors are lack of selective property distinguished from its homolog. In this study, we found that SIRT2 protein level was highly increased in PD model, which was negatively regulated by miR-212-5p. In detail, miR-212-5p transfection reduced SIRT2 expression and inhibited SIRT2 activity...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sebastiano Bariselli, Alessandro Contestabile, Stamatina Tzanoulinou, Stefano Musardo, Camilla Bellone
Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene, encoding for a scaffolding protein located in the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapse, has been linked to forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It has been shown that SHANK3 controls the maturation of social reward circuits in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Whether the impairments in associative learning observed in ASD relate to SHANK3 insufficiency restricted to the reward system is still an open question. Here, we first characterize a social-conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm based on the direct and free interaction with a juvenile and non-familiar conspecific...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Hana Kubová, Zdenka Bendová, Simona Moravcová, Dominika Pačesová, Luisa Lilia Rocha, Pavel Mareš
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathways play an important role in neuronal circuitry formation during early postnatal development. Our previous studies revealed an increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental consequences in animals exposed to benzodiazepines, which enhance GABA inhibition via GABAA receptors. We reported that administration of the benzodiazepine clonazepam (CZP) during postnatal days 7-11 resulted in permanent behavioral alterations. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Lidia Garcia-Pradas, Corinna Gleiser, Andrea Wizenmann, Hartwig Wolburg, Andreas F Mack
In the retina of teleost fish, cell addition continues throughout life involving proliferation and axonal growth. To study how this is achieved in a fully functioning retina, we investigated the nerve fiber layer (NFL) of the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni for components that might regulate the extracellular environment. We hypothesized that growing axons are surrounded by different cell structures than signal conducting axons. Using immunohistochemistry and freeze fracture electron microscopy we found that the endfeet of Müller cells (MCs) expressed aquaporin-4 but not in high densities as in mammals...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Tina Harmuth, Caroline Prell-Schicker, Jonasz J Weber, Frank Gellerich, Claudia Funke, Stefan Drießen, Janine C D Magg, Guido Krebiehl, Hartwig Wolburg, Stefanie N Hayer, Stefan Hauser, Rejko Krüger, Ludger Schöls, Olaf Riess, Jeannette Hübener-Schmid
Alterations in mitochondrial morphology and function have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and Huntington disease. Metabolic defects, resulting from dysfunctional mitochondria, have been reported in patients and respective animal models of all those diseases. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 (SCA3), another neurodegenerative disorder, also presents with metabolic defects and loss of body weight in early disease stages although the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in SCA3 pathology is still to be determined...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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