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Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642684/ferulic-acid-improves-functional-recovery-after-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats-by-inducing-hypoxia-to-inhibit-microrna-590-and-elevate-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-expressions
#1
Zhenjie Li, Shengyun Wang, Wenfang Li, Hongbin Yuan
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the leading cause of paralysis, disability and even death in severe cases, and neural stem cells (NSCs) transplant has been employed for repairing SCI. Ferulic acid (FA) is able to promote neurogenesis in various stem cell therapies. We aimed to investigate the effect of FA on NSC transplant therapy, and the underlying mechanism, in improving functional recovery in SCI rat model. A rat model of SCI was established, which then received transplant of NSCs with or without FA pre-treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642683/object-phobia-and-altered-rhoa-signaling-in-amygdala-of-mice-lacking-rich2
#2
Tasnuva Sarowar, Stefanie Grabrucker, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
RICH2 knockout (RICH2 KO) mice exhibit neophobia in the novel object test. To gain further insight into their anxiety-related phenotype, we subjected these mice to additional behavioral tests to elucidate whether the behavioral abnormality in these mice is a consequence of reduced exploratory motivation, and whether the neophobia is linked specifically to objects or also present for other modalities. RICH2 KO mice engage in normal exploration in a novel environment, suggesting that the anxiety-related phenotype is not due to reduced exploratory drive...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642682/neuritin-inhibits-notch-signaling-through-interacted-with-neuralized-to-promote-the-neurite-growth
#3
Pan Zhang, Xing Luo, Zheng Guo, Anying Xiong, Hongchang Dong, Qiao Zhang, Chunyan Liu, Jingling Zhu, Haiyan Wang, Na Yu, Jinli Zhang, Yu Hong, Lei Yang, Jin Huang
Neuritin plays a key role in neural development and regeneration by promoting neurite outgrowth and synapse maturation. However, the mechanism of neuritin in modulating neurite growth has not been elucidated. Here, using yeast two-hybrid we screened and discovered the interaction of neuritin and neuralized (NEURL1), which is an important regulator that can activate Notch signaling through promoting endocytosis of Notch ligand. And then we identified the interaction of neuritin and neuralized by co-immunoprecipitation (IP) assays, and clarified that neuritin and NEURL1 were co-localized on the cell membrane of SH-SY5Y cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642681/%C3%AE-1-containing-gaba-a-receptors-cluster-at-synapses-where-they-mediate-slower-synaptic-currents-than-%C3%AE-2-containing-gaba-a-receptors
#4
Christine L Dixon, Pankaj Sah, Angelo Keramidas, Joseph W Lynch, Nela Durisic
GABA-A receptors (GABAARs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that are assembled mainly from α (α1-6), β (β1-3) and γ (γ1-3) subunits. Although GABAARs containing γ2L subunits mediate most of the inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, significant expression of γ1 subunits is seen in the amygdala, pallidum and substantia nigra. However, the location and function of γ1-containing GABAARs in these regions remains unclear. In "artificial" synapses, where the subunit composition of postsynaptic receptors is specifically controlled, γ1 incorporation slows the synaptic current decay rate without affecting channel deactivation, suggesting that γ1-containing receptors are not clustered and therefore activated by diffuse neurotransmitter...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638321/membrane-guanylate-cyclase-catalytic-subdomain-structure-and-linkage-with-calcium-sensors-and-bicarbonate
#5
Sarangan Ravichandran, Teresa Duda, Alexandre Pertzev, Rameshwar K Sharma
Membrane guanylate cyclase (MGC) is a ubiquitous multi-switching cyclic GMP generating signaling machine linked with countless physiological processes. In mammals it is encoded by seven distinct homologous genes. It is a single transmembrane spanning multi-modular protein; composed of integrated blocks and existing in homo-dimeric form. Its core catalytic domain (CCD) module is a common transduction center where all incoming signals are translated into the production of cyclic GMP, a cellular signal second messenger...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638320/membrane-fusion-involved-in-neurotransmission-glimpse-from-electron-microscope-and-molecular-simulation
#6
REVIEW
Zhiwei Yang, Lu Gou, Shuyu Chen, Na Li, Shengli Zhang, Lei Zhang
Membrane fusion is one of the most fundamental physiological processes in eukaryotes for triggering the fusion of lipid and content, as well as the neurotransmission. However, the architecture features of neurotransmitter release machinery and interdependent mechanism of synaptic membrane fusion have not been extensively studied. This review article expounds the neuronal membrane fusion processes, discusses the fundamental steps in all fusion reactions (membrane aggregation, membrane association, lipid rearrangement and lipid and content mixing) and the probable mechanism coupling to the delivery of neurotransmitters...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634441/roles-of-pannexin-1-channels-in-inflammatory-response-through-the-tlrs-nf-kappa-b-signaling-pathway-following-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#7
Ling-Yun Wu, Zhen-Nan Ye, Chen-Hui Zhou, Chun-Xi Wang, Guang-Bin Xie, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Yong-Yue Gao, Zi-Huan Zhang, Meng-Liang Zhou, Zong Zhuang, Jing-Peng Liu, Chun-Hua Hang, Ji-Xin Shi
Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Pannexin-1 channels, as a member of gap junction proteins located on the plasma membrane, releases ATP, ions, second messengers, neurotransmitters, and molecules up to 1 kD into the extracellular space, when activated. Previous studies identified that the opening of Pannexin-1 channels is essential for cellular migration, apoptosis and especially inflammation, but its effects on inflammatory response in SAH model have not been explored yet...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634440/cysteines-as-redox-molecular-switches-and-targets-of-disease
#8
REVIEW
Annamaria Fra, Edgar D Yoboue, Roberto Sitia
Thiol groups can undergo numerous modifications, making cysteine a unique molecular switch. Cysteine plays structural and regulatory roles as part of proteins or glutathione, contributing to maintain redox homeostasis and regulate signaling within and amongst cells. Not surprisingly therefore, cysteines are associated with many hereditary and acquired diseases. Mutations in the primary protein sequence (gain or loss of a cysteine) are most frequent in membrane and secretory proteins, correlating with the key roles of disulfide bonds...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626389/rac1-guides-porf-2-to-wnt-pathway-to-mediate-neural-stem-cell-proliferation
#9
Xi-Tao Yang, Guo-Hui Huang, Hong-Jiang Li, Zhao-Liang Sun, Nan-Jie Xu, Dong-Fu Feng
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of preoptic regulator factor 2 (Porf-2) on neural stem cells (NSCs) remain largely unknown. Here, we found that Porf-2 inhibits the activity of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) protein in hippocampus-derived rat NSCs. Reduced Rac1 activity impaired the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, ultimately causing a repression of NSCs proliferation. Porf-2 knockdown enhanced NSCs proliferation but not in the presence of small molecule inhibitors of Rac1 or Wnt...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626388/increasing-n-acetylaspartate-in-the-brain-during-postnatal-myelination-does-not-cause-the-cns-pathologies-of-canavan-disease
#10
Abhilash P Appu, John R Moffett, Peethambaran Arun, Sean Moran, Vikram Nambiar, Jishnu K S Krishnan, Narayanan Puthillathu, Aryan M A Namboodiri
Canavan disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA), a deacetylase that catabolizes N-acetylaspartate (NAA). The precise involvement of elevated NAA in the pathogenesis of Canavan disease is an ongoing debate. In the present study, we tested the effects of elevated NAA in the brain during postnatal development. Mice were administered high doses of the hydrophobic methyl ester of NAA (M-NAA) twice daily starting on day 7 after birth. This treatment increased NAA levels in the brain to those observed in the brains of Nur7 mice, an established model of Canavan disease...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620280/pathophysiology-of-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#11
REVIEW
Hana Starobova, Irina Vetter
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics. It can lead to detrimental dose reductions and discontinuation of treatment, and severely affects the quality of life of cancer survivors. Clinically, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy presents as deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic function which develop in a glove and stocking distribution due to preferential effects on longer axons. The pathophysiological processes are multi-factorial and involve oxidative stress, apoptotic mechanisms, altered calcium homeostasis, axon degeneration and membrane remodeling as well as immune processes and neuroinflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611593/autophagy-and-its-impact-on-neurodegenerative-diseases-new-roles-for-tdp-43-and-c9orf72
#12
REVIEW
Mauricio Budini, Emanuele Buratti, Eugenia Morselli, Alfredo Criollo
Autophagy is a catabolic mechanism where intracellular material is degraded by vesicular structures called autophagolysosomes. Autophagy is necessary to maintain the normal function of the central nervous system (CNS), avoiding the accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins. Consistently, impaired autophagy has been associated with the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. The proteins TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43), which regulates RNA processing at different levels, and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72), probably involved in membrane trafficking, are crucial in the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611592/commentary-garlh-family-proteins-stabilize-gabaa-receptors-at-synapses
#13
COMMENT
Chang-Hoon Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611591/metabolism-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-open-questions-after-25-years
#14
REVIEW
Mauro Maccarrone
Cannabis extracts have been used for centuries, but its main active principle ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was identified about 50 years ago. Yet, it is only 25 years ago that the first endogenous ligand of the same receptors engaged by the cannabis agents was discovered. This "endocannabinoid (eCB)" was identified as N-arachidonoylethanolamine (or anandamide (AEA)), and was shown to have several receptors, metabolic enzymes and transporters that altogether drive its biological activity. Here I report on the latest advances about AEA metabolism, with the aim of focusing open questions still awaiting an answer for a deeper understanding of AEA activity, and for translating AEA-based drugs into novel therapeutics for human diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611590/cryptochrome-is-a-regulator-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-visual-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Milena Damulewicz, Gabriella M Mazzotta, Elena Sartori, Ezio Rosato, Rodolfo Costa, Elzbieta M Pyza
Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) is a blue light sensitive protein with a key role in circadian photoreception. A main feature of CRY is that light promotes an interaction with the circadian protein TIMELESS (TIM) resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation, a mechanism that contributes to the synchronization of the circadian clock to the environment. Moreover, CRY participates in non-circadian functions such as magnetoreception, modulation of neuronal firing, phototransduction and regulation of synaptic plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611589/mitochondrial-effects-of-pgc-1alpha-silencing-in-mpp-treated-human-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#16
Qinyong Ye, Chun Chen, Erwang Si, Yousheng Cai, Juhua Wang, Wanling Huang, Dongzhu Li, Yingqing Wang, Xiaochun Chen
The dopaminergic neuron degeneration and loss that occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been tightly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the aged-related cause of the mitochondrial defect observed in PD patients remains unclear, nuclear genes are of potential importance to mitochondrial function. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) is a multi-functional transcription factor that tightly regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. The goal of the present study was to explore the potential pathogenic effects of interference by the PGC-1α gene on N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced SH-SY5Y cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611588/time-dependent-hiv-tat-induced-perturbation-of-human-neurons-in-vitro-towards-a-model-for-the-molecular-pathology-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#17
Kim T Gurwitz, Richard J Burman, Brandon D Murugan, Shaun Garnett, Tariq Ganief, Nelson C Soares, Joseph V Raimondo, Jonathan M Blackburn
A significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-positive individuals are affected by the cognitive, motor and behavioral dysfunction that characterizes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the molecular etiology of HAND remains largely uncharacterized, HIV transactivator of transcription (HIV-Tat) is thought to be an important etiological cause. Here we have used mass spectrometry (MS)-based discovery proteomics to identify the quantitative, cell-wide changes that occur when non-transformed, differentiated human neurons are treated with HIV-Tat over time...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611587/downregulation-of-microrna-193b-3p-promotes-autophagy-and-cell-survival-by-targeting-tsc1-mtor-signaling-in-nsc-34-cells
#18
ChunYu Li, YongPing Chen, XuePing Chen, QianQian Wei, Bei Cao, HuiFang Shang
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported to be closely related to the development of ALS. However, the precise functions of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of ALS remain largely unknown. In previous studies, we determined that miRNA-193b-3p was significantly downregulated in patients with sporadic ALS (sALS). Here, we observed that miRNA-193b-3p was downregulated in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS and promoted cell death in NSC-34 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611586/the-distribution-of-charged-amino-acid-residues-and-the-ca-2-permeability-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-a-predictive-model
#19
Sergio Fucile
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are cation-selective ligand-gated ion channels exhibiting variable Ca(2+) permeability depending on their subunit composition. The Ca(2+) permeability is a crucial functional parameter to understand the physiological role of nAChRs, in particular considering their ability to modulate Ca(2+)-dependent processes such as neurotransmitter release. The rings of extracellular and intracellular charged amino acid residues adjacent to the pore-lining TM2 transmembrane segment have been shown to play a key role in the cation selectivity of these receptor channels, but to date a quantitative relationship between these structural determinants and the Ca(2+) permeability of nAChRs is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611585/role-of-n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-aa-5-ht-in-sleep-wake-cycle-architecture-sleep-homeostasis-and-neurotransmitters-regulation
#20
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sergio Machado, Nuno B Rocha, André B Veras, Geraldo A M Neto, Henning Budde, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval
The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep-wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) in sleep has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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