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Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194273/the-physiological-basis-and-clinical-significance-of-lung-volume-measurements
#1
REVIEW
Mohamed Faisal Lutfi
From a physiological standpoint, the lung volumes are either dynamic or static. Both subclasses are measured at different degrees of inspiration or expiration; however, dynamic lung volumes are characteristically dependent on the rate of air flow. The static lung volumes/capacities are further subdivided into four standard volumes (tidal, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, and residual volumes) and four standard capacities (inspiratory, functional residual, vital and total lung capacities). The dynamic lung volumes are mostly derived from vital capacity...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184305/once-daily-aerosolised-tobramycin-in-adult-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-in-the-management-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-chronic-infection
#2
Marco Mantero, Andrea Gramegna, Giovanna Pizzamiglio, Alice D'Adda, Paolo Tarsia, Francesco Blasi
It is estimated that about 60-70% of Cystic Fibrosis patients develop Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic infection, with progressive loss of lung function, as well as increased antibiotic resistance and mortality. The current strategy is to maintain lung function by chronic suppressive antipseudomonas antibiotic therapy. Tobramycin inhalation solution was the first approved aerosolised antibiotic to be used against P. aeruginosa; inhalatory tobramycin frequency of administration is twice daily and inhalation time is estimated to be 15 to 20 min...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105332/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-associated-with-interferon-therapy-a-population-based-study
#3
Ravikanth Papani, Alexander G Duarte, Yu-Li Lin, Yong-Fang Kuo, Gulshan Sharma
BACKGROUND: Isolated cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with interferon α or β therapy have been reported, but no population-based estimates of the incidence of the disease after interferon exposure are available. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of PAH after initiation of interferon therapy, using a large commercial insurance database. METHODS: Using National Drug Codes (NDCs) and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) codes, we utilized the Clinformatics™ Data Mart (CDM) database to identify subjects between 20 and 65 years old who received α or β interferon therapy between April 2001 and December 2012...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096979/bibliometric-analysis-of-worldwide-publications-on-multi-extensively-and-totally-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2006-2015
#4
Waleed M Sweileh, Adham S AbuTaha, Ansam F Sawalha, Suleiman Al-Khalil, Samah W Al-Jabi, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: The year 2015 marked the end of United Nations Millennium Development Goals which was aimed at halting and reversing worldwide tuberculosis (TB). The emergence of drug resistance is a major challenge for worldwide TB control. The aim of this study was to give a bibliometric overview of publications on multi-, extensively, and totally drug-resistant TB. METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve articles on multidrug resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and totally drug-resistant (TDR) tuberculosis for the study period (2006-2015)...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018593/cost-of-persistent-asthma-in-italy
#5
Roberto W Dal Negro, Chiara Distante, Luca Bonadiman, Paola Turco, Sergio Iannazzo
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common disease of the airways with a significant burden for the society and for patients' quality of life. The Social Impact of Respiratory Integrated Outcomes (SIRIO) study estimated a mean cost of 1,177.40 € per patient/year in Italy, in 2007. The aim of the present study was to update the cost of persistent asthma patients in Italy. METHODS: An observational, retrospective, bottom-up analysis was carried out starting from the data base operating in the Lung Unit of the Specialist Medical Centre (CEMS), Verona (Italy), over the period June 2013-December 2015...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018592/dna-damage-and-repair-capacity-in-lymphocyte-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-diseases-patients-during-physical-exercise-with-oxygen-supplementation
#6
Andréa Lúcia Gonçalves da Silva, Thaís Evelyn Karnopp, Augusto Ferreira Weber, Cassia da Luz Goulart, Paloma de Borba Scheneiders, Dannuey Machado Cardoso, Lisiane Lisboa Carvalho, Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo, Andréia Rosane de Moura Valim
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the use of oxygen supplementation during aerobic exercise induces less DNA damage than exercise alone. The aim of this study is to assess the level of DNA damage induced by physical exercise with and without oxygen supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) patients. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected before and after aerobic exercise in two conditions: (I) aerobic exercise without oxygen supplementation (AE group) and (II) with oxygen supplementation (AE-O2 group)...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980735/personality-and-unachieved-treatment-goals-related-to-poor-adherence-to-asthma-medication-in-a-newly-developed-adherence-questionnaire-a-population-based-study
#7
Malin Axelsson, Linda Ekerljung, Bo Lundbäck, Jan Lötvall
BACKGROUND: Health-care professionals have a responsibility to be attentive to patients' adherence behavior but it could be difficult to identify poor adherence in the context of clinical practice. Assessment of personality could be used to identify individuals who are in need for support with their adherence behavior. To our knowledge, existing adherence questionnaires are not based on individuals reflecting asthmatics in the general population and there is limited research describing adherence with asthma medication in relation to personal goals with the treatment...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872748/hemothorax-following-lung-transplantation-incidence-risk-factors-and-effect-on-morbidity-and-mortality
#8
Aria Hong, Christopher S King, A Whitney Walter Brown, Shahzad Ahmad, Oksana A Shlobin, Sandeep Khandhar, Linda Bogar, Anthony Rongione, Steven D Nathan
BACKGROUND: Hemothorax after lung transplantation may result in increased post-operative morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for developing hemothorax and the outcomes of patients who develop hemothorax have not been well studied. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent lung transplantation at a single center between March 2009 and July 2014. Comparison was made between patients with and without hemothorax post-transplant...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833748/respiratory-illness-and-air-pollution-from-the-steel-industry-the-case-of-piqui%C3%A3-de-baixo-brazil-preliminary-report
#9
Carla Valenti, Paolo Pozzi, Alessandra Busia, Roberto Mazza, Paolo Bossi, Cinzia De Marco, Ario Alberto Ruprecht, Alessandro Borgini, Roberto Boffi
BACKGROUND: This report is based on an independent study carried out by medical professionals of the Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (National Cancer Institute) in Milan, Italy, and  aimed to assess the incidence of respiratory diseases in a Brazilian community (Piquiá de Baixo, in the city of Açailandia) exposed to extreme air pollution in connection to a local steel manufacturing plant. The study has the objective to contribute to the existing literature on the health risks associated with fine particle pollution (PM2...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826444/efficacy-of-recombinant-human-soluble-thrombomodulin-for-the-treatment-of-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-single-arm-non-randomized-prospective-clinical-trial
#10
Sho Hayakawa, Yasuo Matsuzawa, Tamako Irie, Hagino Rikitake, Noriaki Okada, Yasuo Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Coagulation abnormalities are involved in the pathogenesis of acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF). The administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM), which has both anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant activities, improves outcomes and respiratory function in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, we conducted a prospective clinical study to examine the effects of rhTM on respiratory function, coagulation markers, and outcomes for patients with AE-IPF...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822370/cost-comparison-of-asthma-treatments-in-12-week-study-caution-about-matching-and-short-observational-follow-up
#11
David B Price, Job F M van Boven, Lisa M Law, Alessandra Cifra, R Brett McQueen
In the absence of randomisation, observational studies must take extra care to create treatment groups that are comparable in terms of key characteristics. Various matching methods exist which can create sound comparisons, minimising confounding where possible. A recent observational study by Dal Negro et al. carried out a cost analysis comparing two asthma medications. They report strong conclusions which favour one treatment over the other, however they include little discussion on the limitations of their study...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766147/the-effect-of-positive-airway-pressure-therapy-on-neurocognitive-functions-depression-and-anxiety-in-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome
#12
Serap Argun Baris, Dilek Tuncel, Cigdem Ozerdem, Huseyin Kutlu, Tugba Onyilmaz, Ilknur Basyigit, Hasim Boyaci, Fusun Yildiz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of neurocognitive dysfunctions, depression and anxiety and the effect of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on these alterations in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) patients. METHODS: Ten healthy normal and obese controls, 10 OHS and 10 OSAS patients were included in the study. Short form-36, Beck Depression Scale and State-Trade Anxiety Inventory (STAI 1-2) were performed. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MOCA), Enhanced Cued Recall (ECR) and Mini Mental Test (MMT) were used for neurocognitive evaluation...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752310/asthma-related-deaths
#13
Gennaro D'Amato, Carolina Vitale, Antonio Molino, Anna Stanziola, Alessandro Sanduzzi, Alessandro Vatrella, Mauro Mormile, Maurizia Lanza, Giovanna Calabrese, Leonardo Antonicelli, Maria D'Amato
Despite major advances in the treatment of asthma and the development of several asthma guidelines, people still die of asthma currently. According to WHO estimates, approximately 250,000 people die prematurely each year from asthma. Trends of asthma mortality rates vary very widely across countries, age and ethnic groups. Several risk factors have been associated with asthma mortality, including a history of near-fatal asthma requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, hospitalization or emergency care visit for asthma in the past year, currently using or having recently stopped using oral corticosteroids (a marker of event severity), not currently using inhaled corticosteroids, a history of psychiatric disease or psychosocial problems, poor adherence with asthma medications and/or poor adherence with (or lack of) a written asthma action plan, food allergy in a patient with asthma...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729977/preliminary-study-on-the-assessment-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Francesca De Blasio, Erica P A Rutten, Emiel F M Wouters, Luca Scalfi, Francesco De Blasio, Marco A Akkermans, Martijn A Spruit, Frits M E Franssen
BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was shown to be increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to control subjects with comparable body mass index (BMI). Our aim was to determine the relation of VAT by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in patients with COPD by disease severity, BMI, other indices of body composition and static lung volumes. METHODS: 294 COPD patients admitted for rehabilitation were studied. Lung function, static lung volumes and body composition (i...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708777/cough-impact-beliefs-and-expectations-from-a-national-survey
#15
Roberto W Dal Negro, Massimiliano Mazzolini, Paola Turco, Alessandro Zanasi
BACKGROUND: Cough is one of the most common discomforts affecting general population, which can disrupt subjects' quality of life due to its physical, social, and psychological effects. Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of cough and related beliefs of general population. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was carried out by means of a specific, validated questionnaire on a representative sample of Italian general population. All the interviews were carried out according to the Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) methodology by expert, professional interviewers...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625787/lung-disease-recalling-paraseptal-emphysema-in-a-patient-with-goltz-syndrome
#16
Rosaria Cortese, Salvatore Savasta, Silvia Di Stasi, Tiziana Boggini, Chiara Trabatti, Roberto Dore, Giulia Maria Stella
BACKGROUND: Goltz syndrome is a rare, genetic disorder mainly occurring in female patients. CASE PRESENTATION: The case presented here is, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of the occurrence of lung parenchymal alterations in a young female patient affected by Goltz syndrome. Although pulmonary involvement is not known in patients affected by X-linked Goltz syndrome, the case here described is related to the even rarer autosomal form of the disease, as in this case...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597888/dry-powder-inhalers-in-patients-with-persistent-airflow-limitation-usability-and-preference
#17
Roberto W Dal Negro, Massimiliano Povero
BACKGROUND: Inhalation devices represent per sé critical factors because they can affect the therapeutic outcomes independently of the drug used. The role of patients' usability and preference (PUP) for Dry Powder Inhalers (DPIs) is high indeed because they can influence the extent of the adherence to treatment and the therapeutic outcomes. Aim of the study was to assess and compare the PUP of three different DPIs in out-patients with persistent airflow limitation due to asthma or COPD...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555913/cultural-and-linguistic-validation-of-the-nhq-2-questionnaire-a-specific-instrument-for-assessing-patient-s-usability-of-inhalation-devices
#18
Roberto W Dal Negro, Massimiliano Povero
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of inhalation devices are presently available in the market. They are differently characterized in terms of their handling and usability, both factors which may affect the outcomes of respiratory treatment. The assessment of the preference and the usability rate of all devices can be carried out by means of specific questionnaires. Before their use, the identification of errors due to the incorrect wording of questions included in the questionnaires, together with the trans-cultural reliability represents the main issues of their cultural and linguistic validation...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482380/perimenstrual-asthma-from-pathophysiology-to-treatment-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Alessandra Graziottin, Audrey Serafini
The prevalence of asthma is about 9,7 % in women and 5,5 % in men. Asthma can deteriorate during the perimenstrual period, a phenomenon known as perimenstrual asthma (PMA), which represents a unique, highly symptomatic asthma phenotype. It is distinguished from traditional allergic asthma by aspirin sensitivity, less atopy, and lower lung capacity. PMA incidence is reported to vary between 19 and 40 % of asthmatic women. The presence of PMA has been related to increases in asthma-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations and emergency treatment including intubations...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408717/obesity-systemic-and-pulmonary-complications-biochemical-abnormalities-and-impairment-of-lung-function
#20
REVIEW
Thiago Thomaz Mafort, Rogério Rufino, Cláudia Henrique Costa, Agnaldo José Lopes
Obesity is currently one of the major epidemics of this millennium and affects individuals throughout the world. It causes multiple systemic complications, some of which result in severe impairment of organs and tissues. These complications involve mechanical changes caused by the accumulation of adipose tissue and the numerous cytokines produced by adipocytes. Obesity also significantly interferes with respiratory function by decreasing lung volume, particularly the expiratory reserve volume and functional residual capacity...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
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