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Advances in Urology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853870/pattern-of-ureteric-pathology-presenting-to-a-fistula-centre-in-western-kenya
#1
Anthony Wanjala, Henry Mwangi, Hillary Mabeya
Background: Ureteric pathology arises from surgical misadventures, trauma, and congenital anomalies. Early detection and treatment is of the essence. Objectives: To determine the types/etiology and outcome of ureteric pathology presenting to Gynocare Fistula Centre, Eldoret, Kenya. Methods: Descriptive retrospective study that evaluated patients presenting with ureteric pathology at Gynocare between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2016...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853869/a-review-of-outcomes-and-technique-for-the-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-retroperitoneal-lymph-node-dissection-for-testicular-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Zeyad R Schwen, Mohit Gupta, Phillip M Pierorazio
Objectives: The robotic-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (R-RPLND) represents a new frontier in the surgical management of testicular cancer in the realm of minimally invasive urologic oncology. We aimed to review the early outcomes as compared to the laparoscopic and open approaches as well as describe the operative technique for the R-RPLND. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all the literature related to the R-RPLND based on an electronic PubMed search up until July 2017...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849605/the-use-of-modified-templates-in-early-and-advanced-stage-nonseminomatous-germ-cell-tumor
#3
REVIEW
Timothy A Masterson, Clint Cary
The surgical management of both early and advanced stage germ cell tumors of the testis remains a complex process of surgical decision making to maximize oncologic control while minimizing morbidity. Over the past 5 decades, the evolution of the surgical template for retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) has resulted in important modifications to achieve these goals. In this review, we will characterize the historical motivating factors that led to the modified template, outline patient and clinical factors in selecting these approaches in both early and advanced stage disease, and briefly discuss future horizons for their implementation...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808086/adjuvant-therapy-for-stage-ib-germ-cell-tumors-one-versus-two-cycles-of-bep
#4
REVIEW
Robert A Huddart, Alison M Reid
Testicular germ cell tumours are the commonest tumours of young men and are broadly managed either as pure seminomas or as 'nonseminomas'. The management of Stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs), beyond surgical removal of the primary tumour at orchidectomy, is somewhat controversial. Cancer-specific survival rates in these patients are in the order of 99% regardless of whether surveillance, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, or adjuvant chemotherapy is employed. However, the toxicities of these treatment modalities differ...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780414/antibiotic-prophylaxis-with-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-versus-no-treatment-after-mid-to-distal-hypospadias-repair-a-prospective-randomized-study
#5
Elizabeth B Roth, John V Kryger, Charles T Durkee, Melissa A Lingongo, Ruth M Swedler, Travis W Groth
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of prophylactic antibiotics after distal hypospadias repair on postoperative bacteriuria, symptomatic urinary tract infection, and postoperative complications in a prospective, randomized trial. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients aged 6 months to 2 years were enrolled at our institution between June 2013 and May 2017. Consenting patients were randomized to antibiotic prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus no antibiotic...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780413/experience-with-renal-autotransplantation-typical-and-atypical-indications
#6
Ali Bourgi, Rana Aoun, Elias Ayoub, Maroun Moukarzel
Introduction and Objectives: Renal autotransplantation is a kidney-saving surgical procedure used in selected patients. The purpose of this report is to review nine typical and atypical indications for kidney autotransplantation and evaluate its effectiveness in maintaining kidney function and avoiding cancer recurrence. Materials and Methods: From 1999 till 2014, nine renal autotransplantations were performed in our center. A retrospective case review was done...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736168/conventional-dose-versus-high-dose-chemotherapy-for-relapsed-germ-cell-tumors
#7
REVIEW
Deaglan J McHugh, Darren R Feldman
The majority of metastatic germ cell tumors (GCTs) are cured with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but 20-30% of patients will relapse after first-line chemotherapy and require additional salvage strategies. The two major salvage approaches in this scenario are high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) or conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT). Both CDCT and HDCT have curative potential in the management of relapsed/refractory GCT. However, due to a lack of conclusive randomized trials, it remains unknown whether sequential HDCT or CDCT represents the optimal initial salvage approach, with practice varying between tertiary institutions...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725351/immune-related-concepts-in-biology-and-treatment-of-germ-cell-tumors
#8
REVIEW
Michal Chovanec, Ugo De Giorgi, Michal Mego
Germ-cell tumors (GCTs) are highly curable with chemotherapy. Salvage chemotherapy or surgery can cure a proportion of patients, but the ones failing these treatments will die of their disease in the young age. Immune checkpoint pathways are emerging as powerful targetable biomarkers, and a significant preclinical and clinical research is underway to widen our knowledge and expand the treatment possibilities with immune therapy. The concept of immune modulation that was currently adopted in many solid tumors is understudied in GCTs...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725350/urinary-bladder-cancer-in-egypt-are-there-gender-differences-in-its-histopathological-presentation
#9
Fiorina Kyritsi, Christopher A Loffredo, Yun-Ling Zheng, George Philips, Sania Amr
We investigated gender differences in the histopathologic presentation of bladder cancer cases in Egypt, where both urothelial cell carcinoma (UC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) types are highly prevalent. We used logistic regression to estimate the unadjusted (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the associations between gender and different histopathologic and sociodemographic parameters of 2,186 confirmed cases of primary bladder cancer (1,775 males and 411 females; 784 SCC and 1,402 UC)...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713340/supine-percutaneous-nephrolithotripsy-in-double-s-position
#10
Giuseppe Giusti, Antonello De Lisa
Background: At present, the percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) is performed both in supine and in prone position. The aim of this paper is to describe an innovative position during PCNL. Methods: We describe a supine position. The patient's legs are slightly abducted at the hips. The thorax is laterally tilted (inclination 30°-35°) and kept in the right position by one or two gel pads placed between the scapula and the vertebrae. External genitalia can be accessed at any time, so that it is always possible to use flexible instruments in the upper urinary tract...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670654/toxicities-associated-with-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-in-long-term-testicular-cancer-survivors
#11
REVIEW
Chunkit Fung, Paul Dinh, Shirin Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard, Kerry Schaffer, Sophie D Fossa, Lois B Travis
Testicular cancer has become the paradigm of adult-onset cancer survivorship, due to the young age at diagnosis and 10-year relative survival of 95%. This clinical review presents the current status of various treatment-related complications experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors (TCS) free of disease for 5 or more years after primary treatment. Cardiovascular disease and second malignant neoplasms represent the most common potentially life-threatening late effects. Other long-term adverse outcomes include neuro- and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, nephrotoxicity, hypogonadism, infertility, and avascular necrosis...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670653/dissecting-the-evolving-risk-of-relapse-over-time-in-surveillance-for-testicular-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Madhur Nayan, Robert J Hamilton
Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men, and the incidence is increasing in most countries worldwide. The vast majority of patients present with clinical stage I disease, and surveillance is being increasingly adopted as the preferred management strategy. At the time of diagnosis, patients on surveillance are often counselled about their risk of relapse based on risk factors present at diagnosis, but this risk estimate becomes less informative in patients that have survived a period of time without experiencing relapse...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670652/combined-dorsal-and-ventral-onlay-buccal-graft-technique-for-large-and-complex-penile-strictures
#13
Nikolaos Mertziotis, Andreas Konandreas, Christos Kyratsas
Purpose: To present a modified technique of managing extensive penile urethral strictures with dorsal and ventral onlay buccal mucosa grafts. Patients and Methods: From October 2014 to January 2016, a total of 12 patients underwent urethroplasty for penile urethral strictures, using dorsal and ventral onlay grafts from buccal mucosa. The mean age was 42.75 (17-71). All patients completed the IPSS and QoL questionnaire, and uroflowmetry was done preoperatively. After surgery, the follow-up included completion of IPSS and QoL questionnaire and measuring of uroflow at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662516/adolescent-and-young-adult-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-special-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Amanda F Saltzman, Nicholas G Cost
While testicular germ cell tumors (T-GCTs) make up only 0.5% of pediatric malignancies and less than 2% of adult malignancies, they comprise 14% of adolescent malignancies, making it the most common solid tumor in this age group. The transition in incidence at this age is also accompanied by a transition in tumor histology with adolescents having mostly pure embryonal carcinoma and mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Similar to T-GCTs of all ages, surgical excision with orchiectomy is the standard initial step in treatment...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515628/pediatric-germ-cell-tumors-a-developmental-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Joshua L Pierce, A Lindsay Frazier, James F Amatruda
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) arising in infants, children, and adolescents present a set of special challenges. GCTs make up about 3% of malignancies in children aged 0-18 and nearly 15% of cancers in adolescents. Epidemiologic and molecular evidence suggests that GCTs in young children likely represent a distinct biologic group as compared to GCTs of older adolescents and adults. Despite this difference, pediatric GCTs are typically treated with cisplatin-based multiagent regimens similar to those used in adults...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515627/kidney-stone-disease-an-update-on-current-concepts
#16
REVIEW
Tilahun Alelign, Beyene Petros
Kidney stone disease is a crystal concretion formed usually within the kidneys. It is an increasing urological disorder of human health, affecting about 12% of the world population. It has been associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure. The etiology of kidney stone is multifactorial. The most common type of kidney stone is calcium oxalate formed at Randall's plaque on the renal papillary surfaces. The mechanism of stone formation is a complex process which results from several physicochemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention of urinary stone constituents within tubular cells...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487620/retroperitoneal-lymph-node-dissection-as-primary-treatment-for-metastatic-seminoma
#17
REVIEW
Brian Hu, Siamak Daneshmand
Reducing the long-term morbidity in testicular cancer survivors represents a major area of interest. External beam radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy are established treatments for seminoma; however, they are associated with late toxicities such as cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and secondary malignancy. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is a standard treatment for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) that has minimal long-term morbidity. Given the efficacy of RPLND in management of NSGCT, interest has developed in this surgery as a front-line treatment for seminoma with isolated lymph node metastasis to the retroperitoneum...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527225/spermatozoal-fractalkine-signaling-pathway-is-upregulated-in-subclinical-varicocele-patients-with-normal-seminogram-and-low-level-leucospermia
#18
Salwa M Abo El-Khair, Mohammad A Gaballah, Mamdouh M Abdel-Gawad, Sherif Refaat M Ismail, Ayman Z Elsamanoudy
Background: Fractalkine is produced in seminal plasma in small amounts and correlates with sperm motility. Purpose: To investigate the possible effect of low-level leucospermia on spermatozoa oxidative stress and sDNA fragmentation in patients with subclinical varicocele and apparently normal seminogram, and also to study the role of spermatozoal fractalkine and its receptor (CX3CR1) gene expression as a marker of spermatozoa inflammatory response. Methods: This study included 80 patients with subclinical varicocele (45 fertile and 35 infertile) and 45 age-matched fertile volunteers...
2017: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430250/impact-on-the-quality-of-erections-after-completing-a-low-intensity-extracorporeal-shock-wave-treatment-cycle-on-a-group-of-710-patients
#19
Héctor A Corredor Ayala, José Pablo Saffon Cuartas, Diana Cerquera Cleves
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the response to low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy in a group of patients with organic vascular erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods: This is an observational retrospective study. The researchers reviewed 710 patients with a clinical diagnosis of organic vascular erectile dysfunction (ED) of more than 3-month duration from male sexual health clinics of the Boston Medical Group from 12 cities in Spain and 4 in Mexico...
2017: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744308/recent-pathophysiological-aspects-of-peyronie-s-disease-role-of-free-radicals-rationale-and-therapeutic-implications-for-antioxidant-treatment-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Gianni Paulis, Gennaro Romano, Luca Paulis, Davide Barletta
Peyronie's disease (PD) is a chronic inflammation of tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa that causes an inelastic plaque resulting in penis deformation. Although its etiology is not completely known, there is general consensus that PD is genetically transmitted and secondary to penile trauma. In recent years, numerous studies demonstrated the role played by oxidative stress in PD pathogenesis, and other studies have described successful use of antioxidants in PD treatment. Oxidative stress is an integral part of this disease, influencing its progression...
2017: Advances in Urology
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