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International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729029/impact-of-micrornas-in-the-cellular-response-to-hypoxia
#1
Thomas Bertero, Roger Rezzonico, Nicolas Pottier, Bernard Mari
In mammalian cells, hypoxia, or inadequate oxygen availability, regulates the expression of a specific set of MicroRNAs (MiRNAs), termed "hypoxamiRs." Over the past 10 years, the appreciation of the importance of hypoxamiRs in regulating the cellular adaptation to hypoxia has grown dramatically. At the cellular level, each hypoxamiR, including the master hypoxamiR MiR-210, can simultaneously regulate expression of multiple target genes in order to fine-tune the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia. This review addresses the complex molecular regulation of MiRNAs in both physiological and pathological conditions of low oxygen adaptation and the multiple functions of hypoxamiRs in various hypoxia-associated biological processes, including apoptosis, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729028/micrornas-as-key-effectors-in-the-p53-network
#2
Frauke Goeman, Sabrina Strano, Giovanni Blandino
The guardian of the genome p53 is embedded in a fine-spun network of MicroRNAs. p53 is able to activate or repress directly the transcription of MicroRNAs that are participating in the tumor-suppressive mission of p53. On the other hand, the expression of p53 is under tight control of MicroRNAs that are either targeting directly p53 or factors that are modifying its protein level or activity. Although the most important function of p53 is suggested to be transcriptional regulation, there are several nontranscriptional functions described...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729027/micrornas-as-multifaceted-players-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#3
Neri Mercatelli, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and inevitably lethal primary brain tumor, with a median survival rate of only 15 months from diagnosis. The current standard treatment involves maximal surgical resection flanked by radiotherapy and chemotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide. However, even such aggressive treatment is never curative, and recurrent tumors always arise, commonly in more aggressive, chemo- and radio-resistant forms, leading to untreatable and deadly tumors. MicroRNAs, recognized major players in cancer, are deeply involved in GBM, as shown by more than a decade of studies...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729026/micrornas-in-oncogenesis-and-tumor-suppression
#4
Simona Barbato, Giancarlo Solaini, Muller Fabbri
MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) have emerged in the last 15 years as central players in the biology of cancer. Increasing lines of evidence have supported their regulatory role in the expression of both oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, progressively clarifying which genes are modulated by specific MiRNAs dysregulated in cancer. Intriguingly, a "target-specific" understanding of MiRNA function in oncology has been replaced by a more "pathway-specific" vision of their involvement in cancer biology. This work provides a state-of-the-art knowledge of the role of MiRNAs in the most frequently altered signaling pathways in cancer cells and provides an updated overview on some of the most relevant findings trying to decode the complex molecular mechanisms of cancer...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729025/following-micrornas-through-the-cancer-metastatic-cascade
#5
Eleonora Grisard, Milena S Nicoloso
Approximately a decade ago the first MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) participating in cancer metastasis were identified and metastmiRs were initially only a handful. Since those first reports, MiRNA research has explosively thrived, mainly due to their revolutionary mechanism of action and the hope of having at hand a novel tool to control cancer aggressiveness. This has ultimately led to delineate an almost impenetrable regulatory network: hundreds of MiRNAs transversally dominating every aspect of normal and cancer biology, each MiRNA having hundreds of targets and context-dependent activity...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729024/understanding-the-genomic-ultraconservations-t-ucrs-and-cancer
#6
Linda Fabris, George A Calin
Transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) are genomic regions conserved across large evolutionary distances, which encode for noncoding RNAs that serve as regulators of gene expression. Although T-UCRs have been linked to multiple aspects of mammalian gene regulation, the roles of their extreme evolutionary conservation remain largely unexplained. Growing body of literature is now focusing on T-UCRs as potential cancer biomarkers or as new drug targets. Here we present an overview of the discoveries so far published about the role of T-UCR in cancer and disease...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729023/micrornas-in-dna-damage-response-carcinogenesis-and-chemoresistance
#7
Yuanzhang Fang, Lu Zhang, Zhenghu Li, Yujing Li, Cheng Huang, Xiongbin Lu
In the classical model of tumorigenesis, cancer develops via slowly accumulating mutations that facilitate uncontrolled cell growth and allow cells to escape apoptosis. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes regulate the key signaling pathways involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Moreover, studies indicate that MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are also key parts of these processes. MiRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes at the posttranscriptional level. By regulating the expression of numerous cytokines, MiRNAs play crucial roles in cell growth, apoptosis, and stemness maintenance...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526137/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-autoimmunity-and-lupus-nephritis
#8
S K Devarapu, G Lorenz, O P Kulkarni, H-J Anders, S R Mulay
Autoimmunity involves immune responses directed against self, which are a result of defective self/foreign distinction of the immune system, leading to proliferation of self-reactive lymphocytes, and is characterized by systemic, as well as tissue-specific, inflammation. Numerous mechanisms operate to ensure the immune tolerance to self-antigens. However, monogenetic defects or genetic variants that weaken immune tolerance render susceptibility to the loss of immune tolerance, which is further triggered by environmental factors...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526136/emerging-mechanisms-and-roles-for-asymmetric-cytokinesis
#9
C Thieleke-Matos, D S Osório, A X Carvalho, E Morais-de-Sá
Cytokinesis completes cell division by physically separating the contents of the mother cell between the two daughter cells. This event requires the highly coordinated reorganization of the cytoskeleton within a precise window of time to ensure faithful genomic segregation. In addition, recent progress in the field highlighted the importance of cytokinesis in providing particularly important cues in the context of multicellular tissues. The organization of the cytokinetic machinery and the asymmetric localization or inheritance of the midbody remnants is critical to define the spatial distribution of mechanical and biochemical signals...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526135/regulation-of-cell-calcium-and-role-of-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpases
#10
T Calì, M Brini, E Carafoli
The plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA pump) is a member of the superfamily of P-type pumps. It has 10 transmembrane helices and 2 cytosolic loops, one of which contains the catalytic center. Its most distinctive feature is a C-terminal tail that contains most of the regulatory sites including that for calmodulin. The pump is also regulated by acidic phospholipids, kinases, a dimerization process, and numerous protein interactors. In mammals, four genes code for the four basic isoforms. Isoform complexity is increased by alternative splicing of primary transcripts...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526134/molecular-biology-digest-of-cell-mitophagy
#11
I Matic, D Strobbe, F Di Guglielmo, M Campanella
The homeostasis of eukaryotic cells relies on efficient mitochondrial function. The control of mitochondrial quality is framed by the combination of distinct but interdependent mechanisms spanning biogenesis, regulation of dynamic network, and finely tuned degradation either through ubiquitin-proteasome system or autophagy (mitophagy). There is continuous evolution on the pathways orchestrating the mitochondrial response to stress signals and the organelle adaptation to quality control during acute and subtle dysfunctions...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526133/metabolic-reprogramming-and-oncogenesis-one-hallmark-many-organelles
#12
A S H Costa, C Frezza
The process of tumorigenesis can be described by a series of molecular features, among which alteration of cellular metabolism has recently emerged. This metabolic rewiring fulfills the energy and biosynthetic demands of fast proliferating cancer cells and amplifies their metabolic repertoire to survive and proliferate in the poorly oxygenated and nutrient-deprived tumor microenvironment. During the last decade, the complex reprogramming of cancer cell metabolism has been widely investigated, revealing cancer-specific metabolic alterations...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526132/old-and-novel-functions-of-caspase-2
#13
M A Miles, T Kitevska-Ilioski, C J Hawkins
Although caspase-2 is a highly conserved protease that has received a lot of research attention, consensus about its roles and the molecular mechanisms that underpin them has been elusive. Recent improvements to our understanding of the activities of caspase-2 have been facilitated by the development and refinement of techniques allowing identification of cellular processes instigated by this caspase. Following DNA damage, caspase-2 can be activated in a molecular complex called the "PIDDosome"; however, other stimuli provoke caspase-2-dependent activities that do not appear to involve this complex...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526131/metabolic-alterations-at-the-crossroad-of-aging-and-oncogenesis
#14
L Raffaghello, V Longo
Aging represents the major risk factor for cancer. Cancer and aging are characterized by a similar dysregulated metabolism consisting in upregulation of glycolysis and downmodulation of oxidative phosphorylation. In this respect, metabolic interventions can be viewed as promising strategies to promote longevity and to prevent or delay age-related disorders including cancer. In this review, we discuss the most promising metabolic approaches including chronic calorie restriction, periodic fasting/fasting-mimicking diets, and pharmacological interventions mimicking calorie restriction...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325216/an-update-on-src-family-of-nonreceptor-tyrosine-kinases-biology
#15
J Espada, J Martín-Pérez
The members of the Src family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are implicated in multiple signaling processes that regulate key cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. SFKs are activated by a large number of receptors for growth factors, cytokines, steroid hormones, G protein-coupled receptors, and also by adhesion proteins and other signaling partners. Through their common modular kinase an adapter protein domains, SFKs critically contribute to diversify different signal inputs, weaving a complex and dynamic network of cellular responses...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325215/new-insights-into-cellular-stress-responses-to-environmental-metal-toxicants
#16
H-R Park, R Oh, P Wagner, R Panganiban, Q Lu
Exposures to metal toxicants in the environment disrupt normal physiological functions and have been linked to the development of a myriad of human diseases. While the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying metal toxicities remain to be fully understood, it is well appreciated that metal toxicants induce cellular stresses and that how cells respond to the stresses plays an important role in metal toxicity. In this review, we focus on how metal exposures induce stresses in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to elicit the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325214/antibody-based-cancer-therapy-successful-agents-and-novel-approaches
#17
D Hendriks, G Choi, M de Bruyn, V R Wiersma, E Bremer
Since their discovery, antibodies have been viewed as ideal candidates or "magic bullets" for use in targeted therapy in the fields of cancer, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammatory disorders. A wave of antibody-dedicated research followed, which resulted in the clinical approval of a first generation of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy such as rituximab (1997) and cetuximab (2004), and infliximab (2002) for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. More recently, the development of antibodies that prevent checkpoint-mediated inhibition of T cell responses invigorated the field of cancer immunotherapy...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325213/mitochondrion-a-common-organelle-for-distinct-cell-deaths
#18
Z Wang, C Figueiredo-Pereira, C Oudot, H L A Vieira, C Brenner
Mitochondria are deeply involved in cell fate decisions via their multiple roles in metabolism, cell growth, and cell death. In healthy cells, these functions are highly regulated to provide sufficient energy for cell function, maintain cell homeostasis, and avoid undesirable cell death. This is achieved by an orchestrated cooperation of cellular and molecular mechanisms such as mitochondrial mass control (mitophagy vs biogenesis), oxidative phosphorylation, redox and calcium homeostasis, and the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic proteins...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325212/chemokine-receptor-signaling-and-the-hallmarks-of-cancer
#19
R A Lacalle, R Blanco, L Carmona-Rodríguez, A Martín-Leal, E Mira, S Mañes
The chemokines are a family of chemotactic cytokines that mediate their activity by acting on seven-transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptors. Both the ability of the chemokines and their receptors to form homo- and heterodimers and the promiscuity of the chemokine-chemokine receptor interaction endow this protein family with enormous signaling plasticity and complexity that are not fully understood at present. Chemokines were initially identified as essential regulators of homeostatic and inflammatory trafficking of innate and adaptive leucocytes from lymphoid organs to tissues...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325211/stat-transcription-factors-in-t-cell-control-of-health-and-disease
#20
R Goswami, M H Kaplan
The Jak-STAT pathway is one of many pleiotropic signaling pathways that plays an important role in organismal development and in response to changing environmental cues. As a key signaling cascade for cytokines and growth factors, Jak-STAT plays central role in the innate and adaptive immune system. Cytokines control the stability, commitment, and maturation of cytotoxic and helper T cells, parts of the adaptive immune system that mediate immunity to pathogens and are linked to inflammatory diseases. Dysregulation of Jak-STAT protein expression or function leads to autoimmunity, allergic diseases, and cancer...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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