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International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology

Julia Starkova, Ivana Hermanova, Katerina Hlozkova, Alzbeta Hararova, Jan Trka
The cancer metabolic program alters bioenergetic processes to meet the higher demands of tumor cells for biomass production, nucleotide synthesis, and NADPH-balancing redox homeostasis. It is widely accepted that cancer cells mostly utilize glycolysis, as opposed to normal cells, in which oxidative phosphorylation is the most employed bioenergetic process. Still, studies examining cancer metabolism had been overlooked for many decades, and it was only recently discovered that metabolic alterations affect both the oncogenic potential and therapeutic response...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Claudia Ntsapi, Dumisile Lumkwana, Chrisna Swart, Andre du Toit, Ben Loos
The fine control of neuronal proteostasis is an essential element that preserves cell viability. Advancing age is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and autophagy is thought to dictate normal and pathological aging through intricate molecular machinery controlling protein aggregation. Although the role of autophagy dysfunction in AD is known, the dynamic changes during the progression of the disease remain unclear. Recent studies have provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms that link defective autophagy and cellular fate, underscoring the pathogenic events associated with AD...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Lata Adnani, Sisu Han, Saiqun Li, Pierre Mattar, Carol Schuurmans
During fetal and postnatal development, the human brain generates 160 billion neuronal and glial cells, each with precise cellular phenotypes. To effectively manage such a complicated task, intrinsic (e.g., transcription factors) and extrinsic (environmental signals) cues cooperate to regulate the decision by neural progenitors to continue to proliferate or to differentiate. Loss- and gain-of-function studies in the mouse brain have been instrumental in identifying these cues, leading to a fairly well-developed and well-integrated model of neocortical development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Joke Robijns, Gaëlle Houthaeve, Kevin Braeckmans, Winnok H De Vos
The nuclear envelope (NE) serves as a central organizing unit for the eukaryotic cell. By virtue of its highly selective, semipermeable barrier function, the NE shields the enclosed genetic material, while at the same time ensuring its regulated transcription, replication, and repair. The NE has long been considered to only dismantle during mitosis. However, in recent years it has become clear that in a variety of pathologies, NE integrity becomes compromised during interphase as well. Loss of NE integrity, or briefly NE stress, is manifested in various ways, ranging from a gradual reduction in nucleocytoplasmic transport function, to selective loss and degradation of NE components, and finally to catastrophic rupture events that provoke abhorrent molecular fluxes between the nucleus and cytoplasm...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
George C Prendergast, William J Malachowski, Arpita Mondal, Peggy Scherle, Alexander J Muller
The tryptophan catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) has attracted enormous attention in driving cancer immunosuppression, neovascularization, and metastasis. IDO1 suppresses local CD8+ T effector cells and natural killer cells and induces CD4+ T regulatory cells (iTreg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). The structurally distinct enzyme tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) also has been implicated recently in immune escape and metastatic progression. Lastly, emerging evidence suggests that the IDO1-related enzyme IDO2 may support IDO1-mediated iTreg and contribute to B-cell inflammed states in certain cancers...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Ainara Castellanos-Rubio, Jose Ramon Bilbao
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the small intestine with a strong but complex genetic component. The disease is triggered by the consumption of dietary gluten through the presentation of immunogenic gliadin peptides to T helper lymphocytes by HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 heterodimers, which are the major contributors to the genetic risk. Recent large-scale genotyping efforts have identified a large number of additional association signals, but the functional role of the underlying genes in the pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Kristiane Søreng, Thomas P Neufeld, Anne Simonsen
Macroautophagy is an intracellular pathway used for targeting of cellular components to the lysosome for their degradation and involves sequestration of cytoplasmic material into autophagosomes formed from a double membrane structure called the phagophore. The nucleation and elongation of the phagophore is tightly regulated by several autophagy-related (ATG) proteins, but also involves vesicular trafficking from different subcellular compartments to the forming autophagosome. Such trafficking must be tightly regulated by various intra- and extracellular signals to respond to different cellular stressors and metabolic states, as well as the nature of the cargo to become degraded...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Atze J Bergsma, Erik van der Wal, Mike Broeders, Ans T van der Ploeg, W W M Pim Pijnappel
Alternative splicing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and to expand the repertoire of gene products in order to accommodate an increase in complexity of multicellular organisms. It needs to be precisely regulated, which is achieved via RNA structure, splicing factors, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin. Changes in any of these factors can lead to disease. These may include the core spliceosome, splicing enhancer/repressor sequences and their interacting proteins, the speed of transcription by RNA polymerase II, and histone modifications...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Jennifer P Mitchell, Ruaidhrí J Carmody
The NF-κB transcription factor was discovered 30 years ago and has since emerged as the master regulator of inflammation and immune homeostasis. It achieves this status by means of the large number of important pro- and antiinflammatory factors under its transcriptional control. NF-κB has a central role in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, as well as diseases comprising a significant inflammatory component such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Here, we provide an overview of the studies that form the basis of our understanding of the role of NF-κB subunits and their regulators in controlling inflammation...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Enrico Ne, Robert-Jan Palstra, Tokameh Mahmoudi
In this review, we cover transcription regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression, focusing on the invaluable contributions, made by HIV research over the years, toward the field of transcription. In this context, the HIV promoter can be considered to be a well-studied model promoter, which although a viral promoter, is subject to the same cellular regulatory mechanisms that modulate the transcriptional control of endogenous host cellular genes. The molecular control of HIV-1 transcription has been well studied and considerable knowledge toward development of alternative strategies for therapies aimed at eradicating both active but also latent HIV-1 has been obtained...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Gerald Thiel, Andrea Lesch, Sandra Rubil, Tobias M Backes, Oliver G Rössler
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels belong to a heterogeneous superfamily of cation channels that are involved in the regulation of numerous biological functions, including regulation of Ca2+ and glucose homeostasis, tumorigenesis, temperature, and pain sensation. To understand the functions of TRP channels, their associated intracellular signaling pathways and molecular targets have to be identified on the cellular level. Stimulation of TRP channels frequently induces an influx of Ca2+ ions into the cells and the subsequent activation of protein kinases...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Kazuya Yamagata, Tatsuya Yoshizawa
Sirtuins are a family of evolutionally conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent protein deacetylases/deacylases that regulate metabolism. The mammalian sirtuin family consists of seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Recent findings have identified critical roles for SIRT1 and SIRT7 in glucose/lipid metabolism in multiple tissues. This review focuses on the metabolic roles of these two sirtuins and the benefits of modulating the activity of sirtuins for the treatment of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Delphine Quénet
In eukaryotes, the genome is organized into a complex nucleoprotein structure called chromatin. Despite the simplicity of its monomer, DNA and two copies of four histones, the existence of histone variants opens possibilities of multiple chromatin landscapes and fine-tune regulation of molecular mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression and maintenance of genome stability. However, any defects in these combinations may contribute to disease development and/or progression. Here, I review human histone variants and their chaperones, and discuss how they contribute to pathological conditions...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Cary N Weiss, Keisuke Ito
MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are a class of endogenously encoded ~22 nucleotide, noncoding, single-stranded RNAs that contribute to development, body planning, stem cell differentiation, and tissue identity through posttranscriptional regulation and degradation of transcripts. Given their importance, it is predictable that dysregulation of MiRNAs, which target a wide variety of transcripts, can result in malignant transformation. In this review, we explore the discovery of MiRNAs, their mechanism of action, and the tools that aid in their discovery and study...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Sean Quinlan, Aidan Kenny, Miguel Medina, Tobias Engel, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level in a sequence-specific manner. After their discovery in 1993, mounting data have provided compelling evidence for their causal involvement in several human diseases, such as cancer and disorders of the brain. MicroRNAs have been described as the main regulator of homeostasis in neurons, and their dysregulation results in pathological conditions in the brain. In this review, we will focus on the role of MicroRNAs as novel drug targets and biomarkers of the three main neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's diseases, and Huntington's disease) and their role in other neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury and status epilepticus...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Mathieu Neault, Florence Couteau, Éric Bonneau, Vincent De Guire, Frédérick A Mallette
Cellular senescence is a tumor suppressor response that acts as a barrier to cancer development and progression. In normal cells, diverse stimuli, including excessive mitogenic signaling, DNA damage or telomere shortening, trigger a senescence response characterized by stable growth arrest. Cellular senescence is orchestrated by tumor suppressor pathways, which have to be inactivated in order to impair the establishment of senescence and promote cancer. Consequently, by overcoming or bypassing this cellular response, cancer cells evade cell cycle checkpoint control leading to genomic instability and uncontrolled proliferation...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Rachel McCormick, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
Skeletal muscle is one of the biggest organs of the body with important mechanistic and metabolic functions. Muscle homeostasis is controlled by environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Indeed, MiRNAs, small noncoding RNAs robust regulators of gene expression, have and have been shown to regulate muscle homeostasis on several levels: through controlling myogenesis, muscle growth (hypertrophy) and atrophy, as well as interactions of muscle with other tissues. Given the large number of MiRNA target genes and the important role of MiRNAs in most physiological processes and various diseases, MiRNAs may have an enormous potential as therapeutic targets against numerous disorders, including pathologies of muscle...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Robin Verjans, Marc van Bilsen, Blanche Schroen
The prevalence of age-related diseases is increasing dramatically, among which cardiac disease represents the leading cause of death. Aging of the heart is characterized by various molecular and cellular hallmarks impairing both cardiomyocytes and noncardiomyocytes, and resulting in functional deteriorations of the cardiac system. The aging process includes desensitization of β-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-signaling and decreased calcium handling, altered growth signaling and cardiac hypertrophy, mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired autophagy, increased programmed cell death, low-grade inflammation of noncanonical inflammatory cells, and increased ECM deposition...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Rachel Munk, Amaresh C Panda, Ioannis Grammatikakis, Myriam Gorospe, Kotb Abdelmohsen
Senescent cells arise as a consequence of cellular damage and can have either a detrimental or advantageous impact on tissues and organs depending on the specific cell type and metabolic state. As senescent cells accumulate in tissues with advancing age, they have been implicated in many age-related declines and diseases. The major facets of senescence include two pathways responsible for establishing and maintaining a senescence program, p53/CDKN1A(p21) and CDKN2A(p16)/RB, as well as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Liuxi Chen, Yuxia Zhou, Qiuhua Sun, Jichun Zhou, Hongming Pan, Xinbing Sui
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process for the degradation and recycling of cytosolic components or organelles through a lysosome-dependent pathway. Autophagy can be induced in response to multiple stress conditions, such as nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, energy depletion, etc. As a result, autophagy can regulate many biological processes, including cell survival, metabolism, differentiation, senescence, and cell death. MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are small noncoding molecules that regulate gene expression by silencing mRNA targets...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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