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International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551163/lipid-droplets-as-organelles
#1
Sarah Cohen
Long considered inert fat storage depots, it has become clear that lipid droplets (LDs) are bona fide organelles. Like other organelles, they have a characteristic complement of proteins and lipids, and undergo a life cycle that includes biogenesis, maturation, interactions with other organelles, and turnover. I will discuss recent insights into mechanisms governing the life cycle of LDs, and compare and contrast the LD life cycle with that of other metabolic organelles such as mitochondria, peroxisomes, and autophagosomes, highlighting open questions in the field...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551162/organoids-for-modeling-genetic-diseases
#2
Maria Perez-Lanzon, Guido Kroemer, Maria Chiara Maiuri
In less than a decade, organoid systems have emerged as an innovative and valid in vitro method to mimic in vivo pathophysiology. Organoids are 3D structures constituted by multiple organ-specific cell types that self-organize and can function as miniature organs. Organoids have quickly become an important tool for basic and translational research with wide applications for disease modeling, drug screening, drug optimization, and personalized and regenerative medicine. In this review, we summarize the recent utilization of organoids for modeling human genetic diseases, a research area with promising biomedical applications...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551161/intracellular-pressure-a-driver-of-cell-morphology-and-movement
#3
Pragati Chengappa, Kimheak Sao, Tia M Jones, Ryan J Petrie
Intracellular pressure, generated by actomyosin contractility and the directional flow of water across the plasma membrane, can rapidly reprogram cell shape and behavior. Recent work demonstrates that cells can generate intracellular pressure with a range spanning at least two orders of magnitude; significantly, pressure is implicated as an important regulator of cell dynamics, such as cell division and migration. Changes to intracellular pressure can dictate the mechanisms by which single human cells move through three-dimensional environments...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551160/crosstalk-of-autophagy-and-the-secretory-pathway-and-its-role-in-diseases
#4
Muhammad Zahoor, Hesso Farhan
The secretory and autophagic pathways are two fundamental, evolutionary highly conserved endomembrane processes. Typically, secretion is associated with biosynthesis and delivery of proteins. In contrast, autophagy is usually considered as a degradative pathway. Thus, an analogy to metabolic pathways is evident. Anabolic (biosynthetic) and catabolic (degradative) pathways are usually intimately linked and intertwined, and likewise, the secretory and autophagy pathways are intertwined. Investigation of this link is an emerging area of research, and we will provide an overview of some of the major advances that have been made to contribute to understanding of how secretion regulates autophagy and vice versa...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551159/apoptosis-and-cancer-force-awakens-phantom-menace-or-both
#5
Kai Cao, Stephen W G Tait
Apoptotic cell death serves as an important tumor suppressor mechanism at multiple steps during cancer progression. Equally, engagement of apoptosis represents a potent therapeutic effector mechanism. Nevertheless, the role of apoptosis in cancer may be more complex than previously thought. Indeed, various studies have found that apoptosis signaling also has oncogenic potential. In this review, we discuss how apoptosis can promote cancer and how these effects might be targeted to optimize apoptosis-inducing anticancer therapy...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551158/the-lymphatic-fluid
#6
Laura Santambrogio
This review will highlight our current understanding of the formation, circulation, and immunological role of lymphatic fluid. The formation of the extracellular fluid depends on the net balance between the hydrostatic and osmotic pressure gradients effective in the capillary beds. Lymph originates from the extracellular fluid and its composition combines the ultrafiltrated plasma proteins with the proteome generated by the metabolic activities of each parenchymal tissue. Several analyses have indicated how the lymph composition reflects the organs' physiological and pathological states...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551157/karyosphere-karyosome-a-peculiar-structure-of-the-oocyte-nucleus
#7
Dmitry S Bogolyubov
The karyosphere, aka the karyosome, is a meiosis-specific structure that represents a "knot" of condensed chromosomes joined together in a limited volume of the oocyte nucleus. The karyosphere is an evolutionarily conserved but morphologically rather "multifaceted" structure. It forms at the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase in many animals, from hydra and Drosophila to human. Karyosphere formation is generally linked with transcriptional silencing of the genome. It is believed that karyosphere/karyosome is a prerequisite for proper completion of meiotic divisions and further development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413894/altered-metabolism-of-leukemic-cells-new-therapeutic-opportunity
#8
Julia Starkova, Ivana Hermanova, Katerina Hlozkova, Alzbeta Hararova, Jan Trka
The cancer metabolic program alters bioenergetic processes to meet the higher demands of tumor cells for biomass production, nucleotide synthesis, and NADPH-balancing redox homeostasis. It is widely accepted that cancer cells mostly utilize glycolysis, as opposed to normal cells, in which oxidative phosphorylation is the most employed bioenergetic process. Still, studies examining cancer metabolism had been overlooked for many decades, and it was only recently discovered that metabolic alterations affect both the oncogenic potential and therapeutic response...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413893/new-insights-into-autophagy-dysfunction-related-to-amyloid-beta-toxicity-and-neuropathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Claudia Ntsapi, Dumisile Lumkwana, Chrisna Swart, Andre du Toit, Ben Loos
The fine control of neuronal proteostasis is an essential element that preserves cell viability. Advancing age is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and autophagy is thought to dictate normal and pathological aging through intricate molecular machinery controlling protein aggregation. Although the role of autophagy dysfunction in AD is known, the dynamic changes during the progression of the disease remain unclear. Recent studies have provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms that link defective autophagy and cellular fate, underscoring the pathogenic events associated with AD...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413892/mechanisms-of-cortical-differentiation
#10
Lata Adnani, Sisu Han, Saiqun Li, Pierre Mattar, Carol Schuurmans
During fetal and postnatal development, the human brain generates 160 billion neuronal and glial cells, each with precise cellular phenotypes. To effectively manage such a complicated task, intrinsic (e.g., transcription factors) and extrinsic (environmental signals) cues cooperate to regulate the decision by neural progenitors to continue to proliferate or to differentiate. Loss- and gain-of-function studies in the mouse brain have been instrumental in identifying these cues, leading to a fairly well-developed and well-integrated model of neocortical development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413891/loss-of-nuclear-envelope-integrity-in-aging-and-disease
#11
Joke Robijns, Gaëlle Houthaeve, Kevin Braeckmans, Winnok H De Vos
The nuclear envelope (NE) serves as a central organizing unit for the eukaryotic cell. By virtue of its highly selective, semipermeable barrier function, the NE shields the enclosed genetic material, while at the same time ensuring its regulated transcription, replication, and repair. The NE has long been considered to only dismantle during mitosis. However, in recent years it has become clear that in a variety of pathologies, NE integrity becomes compromised during interphase as well. Loss of NE integrity, or briefly NE stress, is manifested in various ways, ranging from a gradual reduction in nucleocytoplasmic transport function, to selective loss and degradation of NE components, and finally to catastrophic rupture events that provoke abhorrent molecular fluxes between the nucleus and cytoplasm...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413890/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-its-therapeutic-inhibition-in-cancer
#12
George C Prendergast, William J Malachowski, Arpita Mondal, Peggy Scherle, Alexander J Muller
The tryptophan catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) has attracted enormous attention in driving cancer immunosuppression, neovascularization, and metastasis. IDO1 suppresses local CD8+ T effector cells and natural killer cells and induces CD4+ T regulatory cells (iTreg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). The structurally distinct enzyme tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) also has been implicated recently in immune escape and metastatic progression. Lastly, emerging evidence suggests that the IDO1-related enzyme IDO2 may support IDO1-mediated iTreg and contribute to B-cell inflammed states in certain cancers...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413889/profiling-celiac-disease-related-transcriptional-changes
#13
Ainara Castellanos-Rubio, Jose Ramon Bilbao
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the small intestine with a strong but complex genetic component. The disease is triggered by the consumption of dietary gluten through the presentation of immunogenic gliadin peptides to T helper lymphocytes by HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 heterodimers, which are the major contributors to the genetic risk. Recent large-scale genotyping efforts have identified a large number of additional association signals, but the functional role of the underlying genes in the pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413888/membrane-trafficking-in-autophagy
#14
Kristiane Søreng, Thomas P Neufeld, Anne Simonsen
Macroautophagy is an intracellular pathway used for targeting of cellular components to the lysosome for their degradation and involves sequestration of cytoplasmic material into autophagosomes formed from a double membrane structure called the phagophore. The nucleation and elongation of the phagophore is tightly regulated by several autophagy-related (ATG) proteins, but also involves vesicular trafficking from different subcellular compartments to the forming autophagosome. Such trafficking must be tightly regulated by various intra- and extracellular signals to respond to different cellular stressors and metabolic states, as well as the nature of the cargo to become degraded...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305015/alternative-splicing-in-genetic-diseases-improved-diagnosis-and-novel-treatment-options
#15
Atze J Bergsma, Erik van der Wal, Mike Broeders, Ans T van der Ploeg, W W M Pim Pijnappel
Alternative splicing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and to expand the repertoire of gene products in order to accommodate an increase in complexity of multicellular organisms. It needs to be precisely regulated, which is achieved via RNA structure, splicing factors, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin. Changes in any of these factors can lead to disease. These may include the core spliceosome, splicing enhancer/repressor sequences and their interacting proteins, the speed of transcription by RNA polymerase II, and histone modifications...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305014/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-the-transcriptional-control-of-inflammation
#16
Jennifer P Mitchell, Ruaidhrí J Carmody
The NF-κB transcription factor was discovered 30 years ago and has since emerged as the master regulator of inflammation and immune homeostasis. It achieves this status by means of the large number of important pro- and antiinflammatory factors under its transcriptional control. NF-κB has a central role in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, as well as diseases comprising a significant inflammatory component such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Here, we provide an overview of the studies that form the basis of our understanding of the role of NF-κB subunits and their regulators in controlling inflammation...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305013/transcription-insights-from-the-hiv-1-promoter
#17
Enrico Ne, Robert-Jan Palstra, Tokameh Mahmoudi
In this review, we cover transcription regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression, focusing on the invaluable contributions, made by HIV research over the years, toward the field of transcription. In this context, the HIV promoter can be considered to be a well-studied model promoter, which although a viral promoter, is subject to the same cellular regulatory mechanisms that modulate the transcriptional control of endogenous host cellular genes. The molecular control of HIV-1 transcription has been well studied and considerable knowledge toward development of alternative strategies for therapies aimed at eradicating both active but also latent HIV-1 has been obtained...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305012/regulation-of-gene-transcription-following-stimulation-of-transient-receptor-potential-trp-channels
#18
Gerald Thiel, Andrea Lesch, Sandra Rubil, Tobias M Backes, Oliver G Rössler
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels belong to a heterogeneous superfamily of cation channels that are involved in the regulation of numerous biological functions, including regulation of Ca2+ and glucose homeostasis, tumorigenesis, temperature, and pain sensation. To understand the functions of TRP channels, their associated intracellular signaling pathways and molecular targets have to be identified on the cellular level. Stimulation of TRP channels frequently induces an influx of Ca2+ ions into the cells and the subsequent activation of protein kinases...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305011/transcriptional-regulation-of-metabolism-by-sirt1-and-sirt7
#19
Kazuya Yamagata, Tatsuya Yoshizawa
Sirtuins are a family of evolutionally conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ )-dependent protein deacetylases/deacylases that regulate metabolism. The mammalian sirtuin family consists of seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Recent findings have identified critical roles for SIRT1 and SIRT7 in glucose/lipid metabolism in multiple tissues. This review focuses on the metabolic roles of these two sirtuins and the benefits of modulating the activity of sirtuins for the treatment of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305010/histone-variants-and-disease
#20
Delphine Quénet
In eukaryotes, the genome is organized into a complex nucleoprotein structure called chromatin. Despite the simplicity of its monomer, DNA and two copies of four histones, the existence of histone variants opens possibilities of multiple chromatin landscapes and fine-tune regulation of molecular mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression and maintenance of genome stability. However, any defects in these combinations may contribute to disease development and/or progression. Here, I review human histone variants and their chaperones, and discuss how they contribute to pathological conditions...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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