Read by QxMD icon Read

International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology

C Kibaly, H H Loh, P-Y Law
Treatment of chronic pain has created a "silent epidemic," a term that describes the serious public health problem of the abuse of opioid painkillers and other prescription drugs. Conventional pharmacotherapy is limited by the loss of effectiveness in the long-term and by potentially lethal side effects. Efforts need to be focused on the development of nonpharmacological approaches. As significant progress is made in the viral vector technology, gene therapy involving recombinant viruses as vehicles may become a viable alternative for treatment of severe pain...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
K Matsuura, K Canfield, W Feng, M Kurokawa
Apoptosis is a cellular suicide program that plays a critical role in development and human diseases, including cancer. Cancer cells evade apoptosis, thereby enabling excessive proliferation, survival under hypoxic conditions, and acquired resistance to therapeutic agents. Among various mechanisms that contribute to the evasion of apoptosis in cancer, metabolism is emerging as one of the key factors. Cellular metabolites can regulate functions of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins. In turn, p53, a regulator of apoptosis, also controls metabolism by limiting glycolysis and facilitating mitochondrial respiration...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
H J Park, W-Y Kim, J M Pardo, D-J Yun
Plants have adapted to environmental changes and stresses over generations. The decision of transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage is critical, particularly under unfavorable conditions. Thus, plants appear to have developed mechanisms by which environmental factors or inputs are transmitted to stress response signaling pathways to confer tolerance and are simultaneously integrated into flowering regulation pathways (photoperiod, vernalization, autonomous, and gibberellic acid signaling) to propagate the next generation...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
G Díaz-Soto, A Rocher, C García-Rodríguez, L Núñez, C Villalobos
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a unique G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by extracellular Ca(2+) and by other physiological cations including Mg(2+), amino acids, and polyamines. CaSR is the most important master controller of the extracellular Ca(2+) homeostatic system being expressed at high levels in the parathyroid gland, kidney, gut and bone, where it regulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, vitamin D synthesis, and Ca(2+) absorption and resorption, respectively. Gain and loss of function mutations in the CaSR are responsible for severe disturbances in extracellular Ca(2+) metabolism...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
L Alibardi
During land adaptation of the integument in tetrapods, an efficient stratum corneum was originated through the evolution of numerous corneous proteins in addition to the framework of intermediate filament-keratins present in keratinocytes. The new genes for corneous proteins were originated in a chromosome region indicated as epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), a locus with no apparent relationship to keratin genes. The addition of EDC proteins to IF-keratins transformed the process of epidermal keratinization present in anamniotes into a new process of cornification in the epidermis and skin appendages of amniotes, including hairs and feathers...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
E Bustos-Morán, N Blas-Rus, N B Martín-Cófreces, F Sánchez-Madrid
The immune synapse (IS) is a specialized structure established between different immune cells that fulfills several functions, including a role as a communication bridge. This intimate contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell promotes the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes involved in the contact. T-cell activation requires the specific triggering of the T-cell receptor (TCR), which promotes the activation of different signaling pathways inducing the polarization of the T cell. During this process, different adhesion and signaling receptors reorganize at specialized membrane domains, concomitantly to the polarization of the tubulin and actin cytoskeletons, forming stable polarization platforms...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
E-L Göttgens, P N Span, M M Zegers
The transformation of polarized epithelial cells into cells with mesenchymal characteristics by the morphogenetic process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-characterized process essential for embryonic development and associated with cancer progression. EMT is a program driven by changes in gene expression induced by several EMT-specific transcription factors, which inhibit the expression of cell-cell adhesion proteins and other epithelial markers, causing a characteristic loss of cell-cell adhesion, a switch to mesenchymal cell morphology, and increased migratory capabilities...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
A Parmigiani, A V Budanov
Sestrins are a family of stress-responsive genes that have evolved to attenuate damage induced by stress caused to the cell. By virtue of their antioxidant activity, protein products of Sestrin genes prevent the accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the cell, thereby attenuating the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. In parallel, Sestrins participate in several signaling pathways that control the activity of the target of rapamycin protein kinase (TOR). TOR is a crucial sensor of intracellular and extracellular conditions that promotes cell growth and anabolism when nutrients and growth factors are abundant...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
M Haji Abdolvahab, M R K Mofrad, H Schellekens
Interferon beta (IFNβ) is a cytokine that is naturally produced by the immune system in response to biological and chemical stimuli. It signals by binding to the heterodimeric type I IFN receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains, and regulates the expression of a plethora of genes by means of the classical JAK/STAT and other pathways. IFNβ is pleiotropic in that it elicits antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities on numerous cell types. The biological activities underpin the mechanisms by which the protein is used to treat various diseases such as hepatitis C infection and multiple sclerosis...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
R Sekar, K Singh, A W R Arokiaraj, B K C Chow
Glucagon family of peptide hormones is a group of structurally related brain-gut peptides that exert their pleiotropic actions through interactions with unique members of class B1 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They are key regulators of hormonal homeostasis and are important drug targets for metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and dysregulations of the nervous systems such as migraine, anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration, psychiatric disorders, and cardiovascular diseases...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
J R Whiteford, G De Rossi, A Woodfin
Chronic inflammation is often accompanied by angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from existing ones. This vascular response is a response to chronic hypoxia and/or ischemia, but is also contributory to the progression of disorders including atherosclerosis, arthritis, and tumor growth. Proinflammatory and proangiogenic mediators and signaling pathways form a complex and interrelated network in these conditions, and many factors exert multiple effects. Inflammation drives angiogenesis by direct and indirect mechanisms, promoting endothelial proliferation, migration, and vessel sprouting, but also by mediating extracellular matrix remodeling and release of sequestered growth factors, and recruitment of proangiogenic leukocyte subsets...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
P Fonseca, I Vardaki, A Occhionero, T Panaretakis
Extracellular vesicles have gained tremendous attention in the recent years as a novel mechanism of cell to cell communication. There are several types of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microvesicles, exosome, like vesicles, apoptotic bodies that differ mainly in the mechanism of biogenesis and secretion. The most well studied type of extracellular vesicles are the exosomes which are endosome-derived vesicles with a diameter of 50-150nm and enriched in ESCRT proteins including Alix, TSG101, Hsp70, and tetraspanins...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
F G Osorio, C Soria-Valles, O Santiago-Fernández, J M P Freije, C López-Otín
NF-κB signaling exerts essential roles in immunity and cellular stress responses, regulating many functions related with organism innate defense. Besides, NF-κB altered signaling has been causally linked to ageing and diverse pathological conditions. We discuss herein the functional involvement of this signaling pathway in ageing, visiting recent experimental evidence about NF-κB activation in this complex process, its functional consequences and the novel biological functions raised from these works. Moreover, we discuss ageing intervention strategies based on NF-κB inhibition, which have demonstrated to be effective at delaying and even reverting different ageing manifestations in human and mouse models of both normal and accelerated ageing...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
M S W Xiang, K Kikuchi
Zebrafish possess a remarkable capacity for cardiac regeneration throughout their lifetime, providing a model for investigating endogenous cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating myocardial regeneration. By contrast, adult mammals have an extremely limited capacity for cardiac regeneration, contributing to mortality and morbidity from cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction and heart failure. However, the viewpoint of the mammalian heart as a postmitotic organ was recently revised based on findings that the mammalian heart contains multiple undifferentiated cell types with cardiogenic potential as well as a robust regenerative capacity during a short period early in life...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
C H Li, Y Chen
Long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) is a large class of RNA molecules with size larger than 200 nucleotides. They exhibit cellular functions although having no protein-coding capability. Accumulating evidence suggests that long noncoding RNA play crucial roles in cancer biology. Studies showed that deregulation of lncRNA was frequently observed in various types of cancers which contributed heavily to malignant phenotypical changes. Aberration of lncRNA can be induced by a number of factors such as dysregulated signaling pathway, response to catastrophic effect, viral infection, and contact with carcinogens...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
A-S Bohrer, H Takahashi
Plants utilize sulfate to synthesize primary and secondary sulfur-containing metabolites required for growth and survival in the environment. Sulfate is taken up into roots from the soil and distributed to various organs through the functions of membrane-bound sulfate transporters, while it is utilized as the primary substrate for synthesizing sulfur-containing metabolites in the sulfate assimilation pathways. Transporters and enzymes for the assimilative conversion of sulfate are regulated in highly organized manners depending on changes in sulfate supply from the environment and demand for biosynthesis of reduced sulfur compounds in the plant systems...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
H Nakato, J-P Li
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are a class of carbohydrate-modified proteins involved in key biological processes, including growth factor signaling, cell adhesion, and enzymatic catalysis. HSPGs serve as coreceptors for a number of ligand molecules to regulate their signaling and distribution. These HS-dependent factors include fibroblast growth factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnt-related factors, hedgehog, and cytokines. Several classes of HSPGs are evolutionarily conserved from humans to the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
J-P Li, M Kusche-Gullberg
Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (PGs) are ubiquitously expressed on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix of most animal tissues, having essential functions in development and homeostasis, as well as playing various roles in disease processes. The functions of HSPGs are mainly dependent on interactions between the HS-side chains with a variety of proteins including cytokines, growth factors, and their receptors. In a given HS polysaccharide, negatively charged sulfate and carboxylate groups are arranged in various types of domains, generated through strictly regulated biosynthetic reactions and with enormous potential for structural variability...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
D Bieli, I Alborelli, S Harmansa, S Matsuda, E Caussinus, M Affolter
Protein-protein interactions are crucial for almost all biological processes. Studying such interactions in their native environment is critical but not easy to perform. Recently developed genetically encoded protein binders were shown to function inside living cells. These molecules offer a new, direct way to assess protein function, distribution and dynamics in vivo. A widely used protein binder scaffold are the so-called nanobodies, which are derived from the variable domain of camelid heavy-chain antibodies...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
J Malinsky, M Opekarová
The organization of biological membranes into structurally and functionally distinct lateral microdomains is generally accepted. From bacteria to mammals, laterally compartmentalized membranes seem to be a vital attribute of life. The crucial fraction of our current knowledge about the membrane microdomains has been gained from studies on fungi. In this review we summarize the evidence of the microdomain organization of membranes from fungal cells, with accent on their enormous diversity in composition, temporal dynamics, modes of formation, and recognized engagement in the cell physiology...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"