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International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069137/mitochondria-in-multiple-sclerosis-molecular-mechanisms-of-pathogenesis
#1
S Patergnani, V Fossati, M Bonora, C Giorgi, S Marchi, S Missiroli, T Rusielewicz, M R Wieckowski, P Pinton
Mitochondria, the organelles that function as the powerhouse of the cell, have been increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and a leading cause of neurological disability in young adults in the western world. Its etiology remains unknown, and while the inflammatory component of MS has been heavily investigated and targeted for therapeutic intervention, the failure of remyelination and the process of axonal degeneration are still poorly understood...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069136/the-inflammatory-signal-adaptor-ripk3-functions-beyond-necroptosis
#2
K Moriwaki, F K-M Chan
Receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) is an essential serine/threonine kinase for necroptosis, a type of regulated necrosis. A variety of stimuli can cause RIPK3 activation through phosphorylation. Activated RIPK3 in turn phosphorylates and activates the downstream necroptosis executioner mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). Necroptosis is a highly inflammatory type of cell death because of the release of intracellular immunogenic contents from disrupted plasma membrane. Indeed, RIPK3-deficient mice exhibited reduced inflammation in many inflammatory disease models...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069135/epigenetic-control-of-gene-expression-in-maize
#3
J Huang, J S Lynn, L Schulte, S Vendramin, K McGinnis
Epigenetic gene regulation is important for proper development and gene expression in eukaryotes. Maize has a large and complex genome that includes abundant repetitive sequences which are frequently silenced by epigenetic mechanisms, making it an ideal organism to study epigenetic gene regulation. Epigenetic modifications are chromosome-bound, heritable changes to the genome that do not affect the DNA sequence, and can include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA processing. Our appreciation and understanding of epigenetic regulation has grown with the field since its inception ∼65 years ago...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069134/the-multifaceted-contributions-of-chromatin-to-hiv-1-integration-transcription-and-latency
#4
E De Crignis, T Mahmoudi
The capacity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) to establish latent infections constitutes a major barrier to the development of a cure for HIV-1. In latent infection, replication competent HIV-1 provirus is integrated within the host genome but remains silent, masking the infected cells from the activity of the host immune response. Despite the progress in elucidating the molecular players that regulate HIV-1 gene expression, the mechanisms driving the establishment and maintenance of latency are still not fully understood...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069133/bh3-only-proteins-in-health-and-disease
#5
J A Glab, G W Mbogo, H Puthalakath
BH3-only proteins are proapoptotic members of the broader Bcl-2 family, which promote cell death by directly or indirectly activating Bax and Bak. The expression of BH3-only proteins is regulated both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally in a cell type-specific and a tissue-specific manner. Research over the last 20 years has provided significant insights into their roles in tissue homeostasis and various pathologies, which in turn has led to the development of novel therapeutics for numerous diseases...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069132/molecular-regulation-of-the-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-by-kinases-and-phosphatases
#6
G Manic, F Corradi, A Sistigu, S Siteni, I Vitale
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a surveillance mechanism contributing to the preservation of genomic stability by monitoring the microtubule attachment to, and/or the tension status of, each kinetochore during mitosis. The SAC halts metaphase to anaphase transition in the presence of unattached and/or untensed kinetochore(s) by releasing the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) from these improperly-oriented kinetochores to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). The reversible phosphorylation of a variety of substrates at the kinetochore by antagonistic kinases and phosphatases is one major signaling mechanism for promptly turning on or turning off the SAC...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069131/molecular-mechanisms-of-noncanonical-autophagy
#7
N Dupont, A C Nascimbeni, E Morel, P Codogno
Macroautophagy is a lysosomal catabolic process that maintains the homeostasis of eukaryotic cells, tissues, and organisms. Macroautophagy plays important physiological roles during development and aging processes and also contributes to immune responses. The process of macroautophagy is compromised in diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and diabetes. The autophagosome, the double-membrane-bound organelle that sequesters cytoplasmic material to initiate macroautophagy, is formed by the hierarchical recruitment of about 15 autophagy-related (ATG) proteins and associated proteins, such as DFCP1, AMBRA1, the class III phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase VPS34, and p150/VPS15...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692181/a-mechanistic-approach-to-the-development-of-gene-therapy-for-chronic-pain
#8
C Kibaly, H H Loh, P-Y Law
Treatment of chronic pain has created a "silent epidemic," a term that describes the serious public health problem of the abuse of opioid painkillers and other prescription drugs. Conventional pharmacotherapy is limited by the loss of effectiveness in the long-term and by potentially lethal side effects. Efforts need to be focused on the development of nonpharmacological approaches. As significant progress is made in the viral vector technology, gene therapy involving recombinant viruses as vehicles may become a viable alternative for treatment of severe pain...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692180/metabolic-regulation-of-apoptosis-in-cancer
#9
K Matsuura, K Canfield, W Feng, M Kurokawa
Apoptosis is a cellular suicide program that plays a critical role in development and human diseases, including cancer. Cancer cells evade apoptosis, thereby enabling excessive proliferation, survival under hypoxic conditions, and acquired resistance to therapeutic agents. Among various mechanisms that contribute to the evasion of apoptosis in cancer, metabolism is emerging as one of the key factors. Cellular metabolites can regulate functions of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins. In turn, p53, a regulator of apoptosis, also controls metabolism by limiting glycolysis and facilitating mitochondrial respiration...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692179/molecular-interactions-between-flowering-time-and-abiotic-stress-pathways
#10
H J Park, W-Y Kim, J M Pardo, D-J Yun
Plants have adapted to environmental changes and stresses over generations. The decision of transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage is critical, particularly under unfavorable conditions. Thus, plants appear to have developed mechanisms by which environmental factors or inputs are transmitted to stress response signaling pathways to confer tolerance and are simultaneously integrated into flowering regulation pathways (photoperiod, vernalization, autonomous, and gibberellic acid signaling) to propagate the next generation...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692178/the-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-health-and-disease
#11
G Díaz-Soto, A Rocher, C García-Rodríguez, L Núñez, C Villalobos
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a unique G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by extracellular Ca(2+) and by other physiological cations including Mg(2+), amino acids, and polyamines. CaSR is the most important master controller of the extracellular Ca(2+) homeostatic system being expressed at high levels in the parathyroid gland, kidney, gut and bone, where it regulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, vitamin D synthesis, and Ca(2+) absorption and resorption, respectively. Gain and loss of function mutations in the CaSR are responsible for severe disturbances in extracellular Ca(2+) metabolism...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692177/the-process-of-cornification-evolved-from-the-initial-keratinization-in-the-epidermis-and-epidermal-derivatives-of-vertebrates-a-new-synthesis-and-the-case-of-sauropsids
#12
L Alibardi
During land adaptation of the integument in tetrapods, an efficient stratum corneum was originated through the evolution of numerous corneous proteins in addition to the framework of intermediate filament-keratins present in keratinocytes. The new genes for corneous proteins were originated in a chromosome region indicated as epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), a locus with no apparent relationship to keratin genes. The addition of EDC proteins to IF-keratins transformed the process of epidermal keratinization present in anamniotes into a new process of cornification in the epidermis and skin appendages of amniotes, including hairs and feathers...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692176/orchestrating-lymphocyte-polarity-in-cognate-immune-cell-cell-interactions
#13
E Bustos-Morán, N Blas-Rus, N B Martín-Cófreces, F Sánchez-Madrid
The immune synapse (IS) is a specialized structure established between different immune cells that fulfills several functions, including a role as a communication bridge. This intimate contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell promotes the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes involved in the contact. T-cell activation requires the specific triggering of the T-cell receptor (TCR), which promotes the activation of different signaling pathways inducing the polarization of the T cell. During this process, different adhesion and signaling receptors reorganize at specialized membrane domains, concomitantly to the polarization of the tubulin and actin cytoskeletons, forming stable polarization platforms...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692175/roles-and-regulation-of-epithelial-splicing-regulatory-proteins-1-and-2-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#14
E-L Göttgens, P N Span, M M Zegers
The transformation of polarized epithelial cells into cells with mesenchymal characteristics by the morphogenetic process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-characterized process essential for embryonic development and associated with cancer progression. EMT is a program driven by changes in gene expression induced by several EMT-specific transcription factors, which inhibit the expression of cell-cell adhesion proteins and other epithelial markers, causing a characteristic loss of cell-cell adhesion, a switch to mesenchymal cell morphology, and increased migratory capabilities...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692174/sensing-the-environment-through-sestrins-implications-for-cellular-metabolism
#15
A Parmigiani, A V Budanov
Sestrins are a family of stress-responsive genes that have evolved to attenuate damage induced by stress caused to the cell. By virtue of their antioxidant activity, protein products of Sestrin genes prevent the accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the cell, thereby attenuating the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. In parallel, Sestrins participate in several signaling pathways that control the activity of the target of rapamycin protein kinase (TOR). TOR is a crucial sensor of intracellular and extracellular conditions that promotes cell growth and anabolism when nutrients and growth factors are abundant...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572132/interferon-beta-from-molecular-level-to-therapeutic-effects
#16
M Haji Abdolvahab, M R K Mofrad, H Schellekens
Interferon beta (IFNβ) is a cytokine that is naturally produced by the immune system in response to biological and chemical stimuli. It signals by binding to the heterodimeric type I IFN receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains, and regulates the expression of a plethora of genes by means of the classical JAK/STAT and other pathways. IFNβ is pleiotropic in that it elicits antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities on numerous cell types. The biological activities underpin the mechanisms by which the protein is used to treat various diseases such as hepatitis C infection and multiple sclerosis...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572131/pharmacological-actions-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-gastric-inhibitory-polypeptide-and-glucagon
#17
R Sekar, K Singh, A W R Arokiaraj, B K C Chow
Glucagon family of peptide hormones is a group of structurally related brain-gut peptides that exert their pleiotropic actions through interactions with unique members of class B1 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They are key regulators of hormonal homeostasis and are important drug targets for metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and dysregulations of the nervous systems such as migraine, anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration, psychiatric disorders, and cardiovascular diseases...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572130/mutually-supportive-mechanisms-of-inflammation-and-vascular-remodeling
#18
J R Whiteford, G De Rossi, A Woodfin
Chronic inflammation is often accompanied by angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from existing ones. This vascular response is a response to chronic hypoxia and/or ischemia, but is also contributory to the progression of disorders including atherosclerosis, arthritis, and tumor growth. Proinflammatory and proangiogenic mediators and signaling pathways form a complex and interrelated network in these conditions, and many factors exert multiple effects. Inflammation drives angiogenesis by direct and indirect mechanisms, promoting endothelial proliferation, migration, and vessel sprouting, but also by mediating extracellular matrix remodeling and release of sequestered growth factors, and recruitment of proangiogenic leukocyte subsets...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572129/metabolic-and-signaling-functions-of-cancer-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#19
P Fonseca, I Vardaki, A Occhionero, T Panaretakis
Extracellular vesicles have gained tremendous attention in the recent years as a novel mechanism of cell to cell communication. There are several types of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microvesicles, exosome, like vesicles, apoptotic bodies that differ mainly in the mechanism of biogenesis and secretion. The most well studied type of extracellular vesicles are the exosomes which are endosome-derived vesicles with a diameter of 50-150nm and enriched in ESCRT proteins including Alix, TSG101, Hsp70, and tetraspanins...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572128/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-as-a-driver-of-ageing
#20
F G Osorio, C Soria-Valles, O Santiago-Fernández, J M P Freije, C López-Otín
NF-κB signaling exerts essential roles in immunity and cellular stress responses, regulating many functions related with organism innate defense. Besides, NF-κB altered signaling has been causally linked to ageing and diverse pathological conditions. We discuss herein the functional involvement of this signaling pathway in ageing, visiting recent experimental evidence about NF-κB activation in this complex process, its functional consequences and the novel biological functions raised from these works. Moreover, we discuss ageing intervention strategies based on NF-κB inhibition, which have demonstrated to be effective at delaying and even reverting different ageing manifestations in human and mouse models of both normal and accelerated ageing...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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