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Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery

Michael Y Yang, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: The measurement of aerosol flow rates without obscuration of the flow is of particular concern with in vivo lung deposition studies, where precise knowledge of aerosol particle size distributions is a necessary requirement for the development of predictive correlations. This study examines the utility of an ultrasonic flow meter for such measurements and determines if a valved system can be attached to the flow meter for sampling exhaled aerosols. METHODS: The flow rate across a D-30 flow meter was compared with and without nebulization of 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Nomundelger Gankhuyag, Kyeong Nam Yu, Orkhonselenge Davaadamdin, Somin Lee, Won Young Cho, Changhoon Park, Hu-Lin Jiang, Bijay Singh, Chan-Hee Chae, Myung-Haing Cho, Chong-Su Cho
BACKGROUND: Rab25, a member of Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatase, is associated with progression of various types of human cancers, including lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths around the globe. METHODS: In this study, we report the gene therapeutic effect of short hairpin Rab25 RNA (shRab25) on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in female A/J mice. Initially, mice (6 weeks old) were injected with single dose of NNK (2 mg/0...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Benny Feng, Patricia Tang, Sharon Shui Yee Leung, Jayesh Dhanani, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients commonly suffer from ventilator-associated pneumonia, hypoxemia, and other lower respiratory tract infection as a result of pathogen colonization and poor sputum clearance. Consequently, there is a high rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Dry powder mannitol increases sputum clearance, and therefore, we developed a system to administer it to mechanically ventilated patients without disconnection from the ventilator. METHODS: The inspiratory line from a ventilator was split by using a three-way valve into two parallel lines where one contains a humidifier for normal breathing cycle and the other line contains a dry powder inhaler (Osmohaler™)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Stephen W Stein, Charles G Thiel
In 1956, Riker Laboratories, Inc., (now 3 M Drug Delivery Systems) introduced the first pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI). In many respects, the introduction of the MDI marked the beginning of the modern pharmaceutical aerosol industry. The MDI was the first truly portable and convenient inhaler that effectively delivered drug to the lung and quickly gained widespread acceptance. Since 1956, the pharmaceutical aerosol industry has experienced dramatic growth. The signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 led to a surge in innovation that resulted in the diversification of inhaler technologies with significantly enhanced delivery efficiency, including modern MDIs, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizer systems...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Per Bäckman, Ulrika Tehler, Bo Olsson
BACKGROUND: Exposure following oral inhalation depends on the deposition pattern of the inhaled aerosol, the extent and rate of oral and pulmonary absorption, as well as systemic distribution and clearance. For lipophilic inhaled compounds with low water solubility and high permeability, the extent and rate of pulmonary absorption can be assumed dependent on deposition pattern as well as dissolution rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mechanistic model of airway deposition, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, absorption, and dissipation was applied to simulate systemic exposure of the novel selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, AZD5423, when dosed to healthy volunteers using two different nebulizers and two different dry powder inhalers in combination with two different primary particle size distributions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Lia Jahedi, Sue R Downie, Bandana Saini, Hak-Kim Chan, Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich
BACKGROUND: Correct inhaler technique can increase medication efficacy, reducing both dose and side effects. Patient preference for inhaler device has not been fully explored, and we hypothesized that if patients have a preference and can choose their inhaler, they might be more likely to use it correctly. Our aim was to determine the preferences, attitudes, and perceptions of patients with asthma toward their inhalers, and to evaluate whether any of these factors were related to inhalation technique...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Ross H M Hatley, Jacob Parker, John N Pritchard, Dirk von Hollen
BACKGROUND: Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) should be shaken before use to prevent creaming or sedimentation of the drugs in solution; however, data published on this topic are limited, and it is rarely specified how soon after shaking the device should be actuated. Delays between shaking and firing the pMDI have previously been shown to cause significant inhomogeneity in delivered dose. We studied the effect of various shake-fire delays on the drug delivered from five commercially available pMDIs commonly prescribed for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to assess the potential variability in delivered dose...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Abubaker Alatrash, Edgar Matida
BACKGROUND: Particle size and velocity are two of the most significant factors that impact the deposition of pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) sprays in the mouth cavity. pMDIs are prominently used around the world in the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since their introduction in the field, and as a result of their effectiveness and simplicity of usage, pMDIs are considered to be the most widely prescribed medical aerosol delivery system...
December 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Sylvia Verbanck, Ghader Ghorbaniasl, Martyn F Biddiscombe, Dusica Dragojlovic, Nathan Ricks, Chris Lacor, Bart Ilsen, Johan de Mey, Daniel Schuermans, S Richard Underwood, Peter J Barnes, Walter Vincken, Omar S Usmani
BACKGROUND: While it is generally accepted that inertial impaction will lead to particle loss as aerosol is being carried into the pulmonary airways, most predictive aerosol deposition models adopt the hypothesis that the inhaled particles that remain airborne will distribute according to the gas flow distribution between airways downstream. METHODS: Using a 3D printed cast of human airways, we quantified particle deposition and distribution and visualized their inhaled trajectory in the human lung...
December 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Nicholas Ogrodnik, Victor Azzi, Elizabeth Sprigge, Sandra Fiset, Edgar Matida
BACKGROUND: Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) are commonly used to administer medication to patients suffering from chronic lower respiratory tract diseases such as asthma. Inhaling medication directly from a pMDI can prove difficult for some patients and, as a result, add-on devices (or spacers) have been designed to aid in the delivery of medication. Although spacers increase the percentage of medication that reaches the patient, medication will also nonsymmetrically deposit on the walls of the device and will be lost to the device itself...
December 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Sally Yunsun Kim, Janette K Burgess, Yiwei Wang, Eleanor P W Kable, Daniel J Weiss, Hak-Kim Chan, Wojciech Chrzanowski
BACKGROUND: Current treatment regimens for inhalation injury are mainly supportive and rely on self-regeneration processes for recovery. Cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is increasingly being investigated for the treatment of inhalation injury. Human amniotic MSCs (hAMSCs) were used in this study due to their potential use in inflammatory and fibrotic conditions of the lung. This study aimed at demonstrating that hAMSCs can be atomized with high viability, for the purpose of achieving a more uniform distribution of cells throughout the lung...
December 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Ania Carsin, Jean-Christophe Dubus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Anna Brivio, Massimo Conese, Simone Gambazza, Arianna Biffi, Amedea Silvia Tirelli, Maria Russo, Michaela Foà, Carla Colombo
BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline (HS) has been established as a therapy aimed at restoring the surface liquid of airways liquid and enhancing mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A formula containing 7% HS and 0.1% hyaluronic acid (HA) is also available, basing its use on the protective effects of HA against elastin injury and on its greater ease of administration (i.e., the perceived acceptability of inhalation). This study explores the effect of HA+HS in reducing the inflammation of airways, by measuring cytokine levels in sputum, its safety profile, and the prevalence of commonly reported symptoms like cough, throat irritation, and saltiness...
December 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
P Worth Longest, Geng Tian, Navvab Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm, Michael Hindle
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare aerosol deposition predictions of a new whole-airway CFD model with available in vivo data for a dry powder inhaler (DPI) considered across multiple inhalation waveforms, which affect both the particle size distribution (PSD) and particle deposition. METHODS: The Novolizer DPI with a budesonide formulation was selected based on the availability of 2D gamma scintigraphy data in humans for three different well-defined inhalation waveforms...
December 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Kai-Michael Beeh, Anne-Marie Kirsten, Daniel Dusser, Ashish Sharma, Piet Cornelissen, Ralf Sigmund, Petra Moroni-Zentgraf, Ronald Dahl
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to confirm the 24-hour bronchodilator efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) 5 μg add-on to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in adults with symptomatic asthma. It used a trial protocol designed to minimize the risk of pharmacokinetic sample contamination resulting from improper sampling procedure, sample handling, or device handling during priming and subsequent inhalation procedure. METHODS: A Phase II, randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover study (NCT01696071) comparing two daily dosing regimens of tiotropium for 4 weeks, once-daily 5 μg (evening dosing) or twice-daily 2...
October 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Wallace B Wee, Scott Tavernini, Andrew R Martin, Israel Amirav, Carina Majaesic, Warren H Finlay
BACKGROUND: Pediatric tracheostomies are not uncommon and aerosols allow for targeted lung therapy. However, there is little literature that quantifies aerosol delivery through tracheostomies. Nebulizers are commonly used in delivering tobramycin, but there are drawbacks, for example, time burden. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) can deliver higher payloads in less time. However, no data exist assessing DPIs with tracheostomies. OBJECTIVE: The study's aim was to quantify the amount of aerosolized tobramycin delivered to the lungs of in vitro tracheostomized spontaneously breathing pediatric models with the TOBI(®) Podhaler™ (Podhaler) and the PARI LC Plus(®) (LC Plus)...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Clizia Cazzarolli, Chiara Tartali, Ugo Pradal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Nicolas Roche, Gerhard Scheuch, John N Pritchard, Cornelia Nopitsch-Mai, Deepika A Lakhani, Bhawana Saluja, Janine Jamieson, Andrew Dundon, Roisin Wallace, Susan Holmes, David Cipolla, Myrna B Dolovich, Samir A Shah, Svetlana Lyapustina
This article reports on discussions at the 2015 workshop cosponsored by the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS) and the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM), entitled "Regulatory and Patient Considerations for Inhalation Device Design, Development and Use." Key topics addressed at the workshop and presented here include patient-focused device design for orally inhaled products (OIPs), instructions for use (IFU), human factors, regulatory considerations in the United States and Europe, development of generic inhalers, quality-by-design, and change management of OIP devices...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Jean-Bernard Michotte, Enrico Staderini, Deborah Le Pennec, Jonathan Dugernier, Rares Rusu, Jean Roeseler, Laurent Vecellio, Giuseppe Liistro, Grégory Reychler
UNLABELLED: Backround: Coupling nebulization with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be effective in patients with respiratory diseases. However, a breath-synchronized nebulization option that could potentially improve drug delivery by limiting drug loss during exhalation is currently not available on bilevel ventilators. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare aerosol delivery of amikacin with a vibrating mesh nebulizer coupled to a single-limb circuit bilevel ventilator, using conventional continuous (Conti-Neb) and experimental inspiratory synchronized (Inspi-Neb) nebulization modes...
August 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Alberto Papi, Adel H Mansur, Tetyana Pertseva, Kirsten Kaiser, Tammy McIver, Birgit Grothe, Sanjeeva Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: A primary goal of asthma management is the reduction of exacerbation risk. We assessed the occurrence of oral corticosteroid-requiring exacerbations (OCS exacerbations) with long-term fluticasone/formoterol therapy, and compared it with the occurrence of similar events reported with other inhaled corticosteroid/long acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) combinations. METHODS: The occurrence of OCS exacerbations was assessed in two open-label trials of fixed-dose fluticasone/formoterol administered for between 26 to 60 weeks in adults and adolescents with asthma...
August 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
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