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Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery

Laleh Golshahi, Sana Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Intersubject variability in nasal deposition of inhaled aerosol is significant because of the differences in nasal anatomy and breathing rate. The notable limitation of the majority of previously developed predictive correlations is including a limited number of subjects. A few recent studies have considered a wide age range of subjects, but the resulting correlations require the knowledge of the dimensions of the nasal airways and the properties of inhaled gas. In this study empirical correlations are proposed to predict aerosol deposition in nasal airways of subjects of different age as a function of intranasal pressure drop and the particle aerodynamic diameter...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Hui-Qing Ge, Ji-Mei Wang, Hui-Ling Lin, James B Fink, Ronghua Luo, Peifeng Xu, Kejing Ying
BACKGROUND: Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) maintains a sustained airway pressure over a large proportion of the respiratory cycle, and has a long inspiratory time at high pressure. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the APRV with and without spontaneous breathing on albuterol aerosol delivery with a continuous vibrating-mesh nebulizer (VMN) placed at different positions on an adult lung model of invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: An adult lung model was assembled by connecting a ventilator with a dual-limb circuit to an 8-mm inner diameter endotracheal tube (ETT) and collecting filter attached to a test lung with set compliance of 0...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Johann Christian Virchow, Gianluigi Poli, Christiane Herpich, Claudius Kietzig, Hilke Ehlich, Daniela Braeutigam, Knut Sommerer, Sabine Häussermann, Fabrizia Mariotti
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the lung deposition and the distribution pattern in the airways of a fixed combination of beclometasone dipropionate (BDP) and formoterol fumarate (FF) (100/6 μg) delivered as an extrafine dry powder formulation (mass median aerodynamic diameter, MMAD (μm) BDP = 1.5; FF = 1.4) through the NEXThaler® device in healthy subjects, asthmatics, and patients with COPD. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 10), asthmatic patients (n = 9; 30%≤FEV1 < 80%), and COPD patients (n = 9; FEV1 /FVC ≤70%, 30%≤FEV1 < 50%) completed this open-label, single administration (inhalation of four actuations) parallel group study...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Myrna B Dolovich, Jolyon P Mitchell, Daryl L Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Dale Farkas, Michael Hindle, P Worth Longest
BACKGROUND: Inline dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are actuated by an external air source and have distinct advantages for delivering aerosols to infants and children, and to individuals with compromised lung function or who require ventilator support. However, current inline DPIs either perform poorly, are difficult to operate, and/or require large volumes (∼1 L) of air. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a new inline DPI for aerosolizing spray-dried formulations with powder masses of 10 mg and higher using a dispersion air volume of 10 mL per actuation that is easy to load (capsule-based) and operate...
August 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Jens Bräunlich, Hubert Wirtz
BACKGROUND: Nasal high flow (NHF) alters breathing patterns, stabilizes fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) during respiratory distress, helps to keep up hemostasis in the airways, and washes out the upper airways. Particularly the support of inspiratory flow and decrease in functional dead space are interesting mechanisms of action with regard to aerosol delivery. Several laboratory investigations have studied aerosol delivery via the nasal route by using NHF, whereas clinical benefits are poorly evaluated...
August 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Roxanne Bournival, Raphaël Coutu, Nicolas Goettel, Chun Dian Yang, Antoine Cantin-Lafleur, Catherine Lemieux, Anne-Marie Lévesque, Jean-François Patenaude-Monette, François-Olivier Roy, Lucie Blais, Fanny Arbour, Anne Fillion, Marie-France Beauchesne
BACKGROUND: Inhaler technique and patient preferences are often overlooked when selecting maintenance treatments for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but are important issues in ensuring drug efficacy and patient adherence. Few data on these issues are available for new inhalation devices. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the inhalation techniques for the HandiHaler® , Breezhaler® , Genuair® , and Respimat® inhalation devices, and patient preferences for the three latter inhalers that were recently developed...
August 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Conor A Ruzycki, Andrew R Martin, Reinhard Vehring, Warren H Finlay
BACKGROUND: The effects of altitude on dry powder inhaler (DPI) performance remain understudied. As existing standardized testing methodologies do not consider altitude, inhalation devices may be used in environments in which their performance has not been sufficiently characterized. METHODS: Six DPIs spanning a range of device resistances were examined in vitro in an environmental chamber mimicking a high-altitude environment equivalent to an altitude of 4200 m, with controls established at an altitude of 700 m...
August 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Hugh D Smyth, Paul Colthorpe, Maureen George, Paul Jansen, Anders Fuglsang, Katherine E Armstrong, Svetlana Lyapustina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Steven V Iasella, Amy Z Stetten, Timothy E Corcoran, Stephen Garoff, Todd M Przybycien, Robert D Tilton
BACKGROUND: Secondary lung infections are the primary cause of morbidity associated with cystic fibrosis lung disease. Aerosolized antibiotic inhalation is potentially advantageous but has limited effectiveness due to altered airway aerodynamics and deposition patterns that limit drug access to infected regions. One potential strategy to better reach infected areas is to formulate aerosols with surfactants that induce surface tension gradients and drive postdeposition drug dispersal via Marangoni transport along the airway surface liquid (ASL)...
August 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
William D Bennett, Kirby L Zeman, Beth L Laube, Jihong Wu, Gail Sharpless, Peter J Mogayzel, Scott H Donaldson
BACKGROUND: Using planar gamma scintigraphy of inhaled radioaerosols, we have developed new analytical methods for assessing homogeneity of aerosol deposition and time-dependent particle clearance on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and applied them to a therapeutic cystic fibrosis (CF) study. METHODS: At baseline and 1 month after beginning treatment with ivacaftor, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator modulator for CF patients with at least one copy of the G551D mutation (n = 13), initial deposition and subsequent mucociliary clearance (MCC) of radiolabeled particles (99m Technetium-sulfur colloid, 5 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) inhaled under controlled breathing conditions were measured...
August 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Elin Boger, Markus Fridén
BACKGROUND: Predicting local lung tissue pharmacodynamic (PD) responses of inhaled drugs is a longstanding challenge related to the lack of experimental techniques to determine local free drug concentrations. This has prompted the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to potentially predict local concentration and response. A unique opportunity for PBPK model evaluation is provided by the clinical PD data for salbutamol, which in its inhaled dosage form (400 μg), produces a higher bronchodilatory effect than in its oral dosage form (2 mg) despite lower drug concentrations in blood...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Xiangyin Wei, Michael Hindle, Anubhav Kaviratna, Bao K Huynh, Renishkumar R Delvadia, Dennis Sandell, Peter R Byron
BACKGROUND: In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) for lung deposition may be established by testing inhalers in vitro with realistic mouth-throat (MT) models and inhalation profiles (IP). This study was designed to compare the currently available MT models and their ability to predict in vivo lung deposition. METHODS: Budelin® Novolizer® , Ventolin® Evohaler® , and Respimat® fenoterol were chosen to represent a dry powder inhaler (DPI), metered dose inhaler (MDI), and soft mist inhaler (SMI) in tests using eight MT models: small, medium, and large Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) models; small, medium, and large oropharyngeal consortium (OPC) models, the medium adult Alberta Idealized Throat (AIT), and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Induction Port, with IPs that simulated those used by volunteers in lung scintigraphy studies...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Beatriz Herrero-Cortina, Victoria Alcaraz, Jordi Vilaró, Antoni Torres, Eva Polverino
BACKGROUND: The role of hyaluronic acid plus hypertonic saline (HA+HS) as a mucoactive treatment in patients with bronchiectasis is still unknown. This study evaluated whether HA+HS solution enhances similar sputum quantity with better safety profile than HS alone in patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: In this double-blind randomized crossover trial, three solutions (7% HS; 0.1% HA +7%HS; and 0.9% isotonic saline, IS) were compared in outpatients with bronchiectasis and chronic sputum expectoration...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Ayca Yildiz-Peköz, Ozlem Akbal, S Hande Tekarslan, A Olcay Sagirli, Lütfiye Mulazimoglu, Deniz Morina, Erdal Cevher
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a bacterial lower respiratory tract infection that has a high morbidity rate. The gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant cause of nosocomial infections and ventilator-associated pneumonias and is mainly treated by carbapenems. Doripenem is a carbapenem drug, which has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to develop doripenem-loaded chitosan microparticles for pulmonary administration to provide more efficient treatment for pneumonia...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Peter A LeWitt, Rajesh Pahwa, Alexander Sedkov, Ann Corbin, Richard Batycky, Harald Murck
BACKGROUND: CVT-301, an inhaled levodopa (LD) formulation, is under development for relief of OFF periods in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we reported that CVT-301 improved OFF symptoms relative to placebo. In this study, we evaluate pulmonary function in patients treated with a single dose of CVT-301 or placebo for 3 hours, or received multiple doses/day for 4 weeks. METHODS: As part of two phase 2 studies, pulmonary safety and tolerability of CVT-301 were evaluated in PD patients experiencing motor fluctuations (≥2 hours OFF/day), Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-3, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio ≥75% of predicted (in ON state)...
June 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Stephen Pham, Gary T Ferguson, Edward Kerwin, Thomas Goodin, Alistair Wheeler, Andrea Bauer
BACKGROUND: Glycopyrrolate administered by a novel, investigational eFlow® Closed System (CS) nebulizer (eFlow CS) is being evaluated for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The eFlow CS is a hand-held, vibrating membrane nebulizer optimized to deliver 1 mL of glycopyrrolate solution into the lung in <3 minutes. Clinical studies have shown improvements in lung function of subjects treated with nebulized glycopyrrolate. METHODS: The aerosol performance of the eFlow CS nebulizer was characterized by delivered dose, aerodynamic droplet size distribution and nebulization time...
June 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Rajiv Dhand
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBE) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by irreversible dilation of the bronchi, symptoms of persistent cough and expectoration, and recurrent infective exacerbations. The prevalence of NCFBE is on the increase in the United States and Europe, but no licensed therapies are currently available for its treatment. Although there are many similarities between NCFBE and cystic fibrosis (CF) in terms of respiratory symptoms, airway microbiology, and disease progression, there are key differences, for example, in response to treatment, suggesting differences in pathogenesis...
June 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Ivana d'Angelo, Gabriella Costabile, Estelle Durantie, Paola Brocca, Valeria Rondelli, Annapina Russo, Giulia Russo, Agnese Miro, Fabiana Quaglia, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Francesca Ungaro
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the downregulation of genes involved in the pathogenesis of severe lung diseases through local siRNA delivery appears an interesting therapeutic approach. In this study, we propose novel hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles (hNPs) consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as siRNA inhalation system. METHODS: A panel of DPPC/PLGA hNPs was prepared by emulsion/solvent diffusion and fully characterized...
June 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Kaharu Sumino, Emily R Locke, Sheryl Magzamen, Ina Gylys-Colwell, Olivier Humblet, Huong Q Nguyen, Rachel M Thomas, Vincent S Fan
BACKGROUND: Remote inhaler monitoring is an emerging technology that enables the healthcare team to monitor the time and location of a patient's inhaler use. We assessed the feasibility of remote inhaler monitoring for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and the pattern of albuterol inhaler use associated with COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Thirty-five participants with COPD used an electronic inhaler sensor for 12 weeks which recorded the date and time of each albuterol actuation...
June 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
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