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Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research

Dharmica April Haridatt Mistry, Peter William French
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. The key to surviving breast cancer is early detection and treatment. Current technologies rely heavily on imaging of the breast, and although considered the gold standard, they have their limitations. There is a need for a more accurate screening test for women of all ages, which can detect the cancer at a cellular level and before metastasis. There have been extensive studies into markers for breast cancer including protein and nucleic acid biomarkers, but to date, these have been unsuccessful...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Thierry Tondu, Filip Thiessen, Wiebren A A Tjalma
More high-risk women with breast cancer are identified using genetic testing at a younger age. These young women often opt for prophylactic surgery. Most patients are reluctant for extra donor-site scars besides infections and necrosis. In order to reduce these risks, a two-stage breast reconstruction technique is used for high-risk women with large or ptotic breasts. We presume that this procedure will reduce the risk of skin envelope and nipple-areola complex (NAC) necrosis to less than 1%. In the first stage, an inferior pedicle reduction is performed to obtain large volume reduction with maximal safety for the NAC...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Monica M Rivera Franco, Eucario Leon Rodriguez, Braulio Martinez Benitez, Luisa G Villanueva Rodriguez, Maria de la Luz Sevilla Gonzalez, Alejandra Armengol Alonso
PTP1B is involved in the oncogenesis of breast cancer. In addition, neoadjuvant therapy has been widely used in breast cancer; thus, a measurement to assess survival improvement could be pathological complete response (pCR). Our objective was to associate PTP1B overexpression with outcomes of breast cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Forty-six specimens were included. Diagnostic biopsies were immunostained using anti-PTP1B antibody. Expression was categorized as negative (<5%) and overexpression (≥5%)...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Jeison Garcia, Fernando Lizcano
The Jumonji-containing domain protein, KDM4C, is a histone demethylase associated with the development of several forms of human cancer. However, its specific function in the viability of tumoral lineages is yet to be determined. This work investigates the importance of KDM4C activity in cell proliferation and chromosome segregation of three triple-negative breast cancer cell lines using a specific demethylase inhibitor. Immunofluorescence assays show that KDM4C is recruited to mitotic chromosomes and that the modulation of its activity increases the number of mitotic segregation errors...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Mary J Higgins, Antonio Serrano, Kofi Y Boateng, Victoria A Parsons, Tiffany Phuong, Alyssa Seifert, Jacob M Ricca, Kyle C Tucker, Alec S Eidelman, Maureen A Carey, Robert A Kurt
Previous data obtained in our laboratory suggested that there may be constitutive signaling through the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88)-dependent signaling cascade in murine mammary carcinoma. Here, we extended these findings by showing that, in the absence of an added Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, the myddosome complex was preformed in 4T1 tumor cells, and that Myd88 influenced cytoplasmic extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/Erk2 levels, nuclear levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), tumor-derived chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) expression, and in vitro and in vivo tumor growth...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Subhojit Dey, Surabhi Sharma, Arti Mishra, Suneeta Krishnan, Jyotsna Govil, Preet K Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. METHODS: A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
David N Danforth
Sporadic breast cancer develops through the accumulation of molecular abnormalities in normal breast tissue, resulting from exposure to estrogens and other carcinogens beginning at adolescence and continuing throughout life. These molecular changes may take a variety of forms, including numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, epigenetic changes, and gene expression alterations. To characterize these abnormalities, a review of the literature has been conducted to define the molecular changes in each of the above major genomic categories in normal breast tissue considered to be either at normal risk or at high risk for sporadic breast cancer...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Ragıp Kayar, Özgül V Çilengiroğlu
[This corrects the article on p. 87 in vol. 9, PMID: 26691819.].
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Angela Pennisi, Thomas Kieber-Emmons, Issam Makhoul, Laura Hutchins
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and the different biological subtypes have different prognostic impacts. Neoadjuvant trials have recently become popular as they offer several advantages compared to traditional adjuvant trials. Studies have shown that patients who achieve pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant treatment have a better long-term outcome. Consequently, increasing the rate of pCR became the end point of neoadjuvant trials with the expectation of translation into improved survival...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Meaghan Krohe, Yanni Hao, Roger E Lamoureux, Nina Galipeau, Denise Globe, Catherine Foley, Iyar Mazar, Jeffrey Solomon, Alan L Shields
INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures serve to capture vital patient information not otherwise obtained by primary study endpoints. This paper examines how PROs are utilized as endpoints in industry-sponsored metastatic breast cancer clinical trials. METHODS: A search was conducted in the web site for trials involving common treatments for metastatic breast cancer. Thirty-eight clinical trials were identified which included a PRO endpoint in the study, and data were extracted and summarized...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Maryam Rezaei, Mohammad Hashemi, Sara Sanaei, Mohammad Ali Mashhadi, Mohsen Taheri
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an Iranian population in southeast of Iran...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Chris Twelves, Ahmad Awada, Javier Cortes, Louise Yelle, Galina Velikova, Martin S Olivo, James Song, Corina E Dutcus, Peter A Kaufman
PURPOSE AND METHODS: Our secondary analyses compared survival with eribulin versus capecitabine in various patient subgroups from a phase 3, open-label, randomized study. Eligible women aged ≥18 years with advanced/metastatic breast cancer and ≤3 prior chemotherapies (≤2 for advanced/metastatic disease), including an anthracycline and taxane, were randomized 1:1 to intravenous eribulin mesylate 1.4 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 or twice-daily oral capecitabine 1250 mg/m(2) on days 1-14 (21-day cycles)...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Manju Bala Popli, Pranav Gupta, Devraj Arse, Pawan Kumar, Prabhjot Kaur
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research work was to evaluate complex cystic breast lesions by advanced MRI techniques and correlating imaging with histologic findings. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a cross-sectional design from September 2013 to August 2015, 50 patients having sonographically detected complex cystic lesions of the breast were included in the study. Morphological characteristics were assessed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI along with diffusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy were used to further classify lesions into benign and malignant categories...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Tyler J Kochel, Olga G Goloubeva, Amy M Fulton
Elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are indicators of a poor prognosis in breast cancer. Using several independent publicly available breast cancer gene expression databases, we investigated other members of the PGE2 pathway. PGE2 is produced by COX-2 and actively exported by multiple drug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) into the extracellular microenvironment, where PGE2 can bind four cognate EP receptors (EP1-EP4) and initiate diverse biological signaling pathways...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Som D Mukherjee, Nicole Hodgson, Peter J Lovrics, Kavita Dhamanaskar, Terry Minuk, Shelley Chambers, Jonathan Sussman
INTRODUCTION: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered a more sensitive diagnostic test for detecting invasive breast cancer than mammography or breast ultrasound. Breast MRI may be particularly useful in younger premenopausal women with higher density breast tissue for differentiating between dense fibroglandular breast tissue and breast malignancies. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of preoperative breast MRI on surgical decision-making in young women with breast cancer...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
K Mungrue, H Chase, J Gordon, D Knowles, K Lockhart, N Miller, T Morley, L Sealey, B Turner
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting women in the Bahamas, which consists of many islands. This is the first attempt to identify which island has the highest occurrence of breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the sociodemographical and spatial features of breast cancer in the Bahamas in 2009-2011. METHODS: A review of the medical records of all women with a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during the period January 1, 2009-December 31, 2011, was undertaken...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Vittorio Pasta, Simona Dinicola, Alessandro Giuliani, Abdel Halim Harrath, Saleh H Alwasel, Francesco Tartaglia, Alessandra Cucina, Mariano Bizzarri
Benign mammary lumps and mastalgia are the most common breast disorders; yet, there is no clear-cut consensus about the best strategy for their treatment. We hypothesized that a combination, including boswellic acid, betaine, and myoinositol, would be beneficial in breast disorders by exerting a pleiotropic effect on multiple pathways. Indeed, myoinositol has already been proven to modulate some factors involved in the genesis of breast diseases, such as fibrosis and metabolic and endocrine cues. In our study, 76 women were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the placebo arm...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Simon B Zeichner, Hiromi Terawaki, Keerthi Gogineni
Patients with breast cancer along with metastatic estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR)- and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors are referred to as having metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) disease. Although there have been many new treatment options approved by the Food and Drug Administration for ER/PR-positive and Her2/neu-amplified metastatic breast cancer, relatively few new agents have been approved for patients with mTNBC. There have been several head-to-head chemotherapy trials performed within the metastatic setting, and much of what is applied in clinical practice is extrapolated from chemotherapy trials in the adjuvant setting, with taxanes and anthracyclines incorporated early on in the patient's treatment course...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Joelle Zambrano, Elizabeth S Yeh
While breast cancer patients benefit from the use of HER2 inhibitors, many fail therapy and become resistant to treatment, indicating a critical need to prevent treatment failure. A number of studies have emerged that highlight the catabolic process of autophagy in breast cancer as a mechanism of resistance to chemotherapy and targeted inhibitors. Furthermore, recent research has begun to dissect how autophagy signaling crosstalks with apoptotic signaling. Thus, a possible strategy in fighting resistance is to couple targeting of apoptotic and autophagy signaling pathways...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Ana de la Torre, Kirenia Pérez, Aliz M Vega, Eduardo Santiesteban, Raiza Ruiz, Leonardo Hernández, Dayamí Durrutí, Carmen E Viada, Liset Sánchez, Mabel Álvarez, Yunier Durán, Yoisbel G Moreno, Maylén Arencibia, Meylán Cepeda, Milagros Domecq, Leticia Cabrera, Jorge L Sánchez, José J Hernández, Ana R Valls, Luis E Fernández
NGcGM3 ganglioside is a tumor-specific antigen expressed in human breast tumors. The NGcGM3/VSSP vaccine, consisting in very small-sized proteoliposomes (VSSP) obtained by the incorporation of NGcGM3 into the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis, has been previously tested in a Phase II trial in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) but emulsified with Montanide ISA 51. An Expanded Access study was carried out in MBC patients aiming to find if a nonemulsive formulation of NGcGM3/VSSP, without Montanide ISA 51, could be more safe and effective...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
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