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Gut Pathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912838/phylogenomics-of-colombian-helicobacter-pylori-isolates
#1
Andrés Julián Gutiérrez-Escobar, Esperanza Trujillo, Orlando Acevedo, María Mercedes Bravo
BACKGROUND: During the Spanish colonisation of South America, African slaves and Europeans arrived in the continent with their corresponding load of pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori. Colombian strains have been clustered with the hpEurope population and with the hspWestAfrica subpopulation in multilocus sequence typing (MLST) studies. However, ancestry studies have revealed the presence of population components specific to H. pylori in Colombia. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough phylogenomic analysis to describe the evolution of the Colombian urban H...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912837/carbuncle-due-to-salmonella-enteritidis-a-novel-presentation
#2
Wadha Alfouzan, Dieter Bulach, Hidemasa Izumiya, Khaled AlBassam, Simin Sheikh, Nasser Alrubai'aan, M John Albert
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Enteritidis causes intestinal and extra-intestinal infections, but rarely cutaneous infections. It has never been reported to cause carbuncle (a collection of interconnected furuncles with multiple pustular openings). We report a case of carbuncle due to S. Enteritidis. CASE PRESENTATION: An adult Bangladeshi patient with type 2 diabetes presented with a carbuncle on the left-side of his neck. A pure culture of S. Enteritidis was grown from the pus of the carbuncle...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904565/class-1-integrons-and-plasmid-mediated-multiple-resistance-genes-of-the-campylobacter-species-from-pediatric-patient-of-a-university-hospital-in-taiwan
#3
Yi-Chih Chang, Ni Tien, Jai-Sing Yang, Chi-Cheng Lu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Tsurng-Juhn Huang, I-Kuan Wang
BACKGROUND: The Campylobacter species usually causes infection between humans and livestock interaction via livestock breeding. The studies of the Campylobacter species thus far in all clinical isolates were to show the many kinds of antibiotic phenomenon that were produced. Their integrons cause the induction of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species in the Campylobacter species. RESULTS: The bacterial strains from the diarrhea of pediatric patient which isolated by China Medical University Hospital storage bank...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883891/the-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-effect-of-auranta-3001-in-preventing-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection
#4
Alexandros Ch Stratakos, Filip Sima, Patrick Ward, Mark Linton, Carmel Kelly, Laurette Pinkerton, Lavinia Stef, Ioan Pet, Tiberiu Iancu, Gratiela Pircalabioru, Nicolae Corcionivoschi
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhea worldwide in both humans and farm animals with no completely effective treatment available at present. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of Auranta 3001 (0.1, 0.5 and 1%), a novel natural feed supplement, on C. hominis and C. parvum invasion of human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8), bovine primary cells and C. parvum invasion of HCT-8, bovine primary cells and bovine intestinal biopsies...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824712/incidence-of-campylobacter-concisus-and-c-ureolyticus-in-traveler-s-diarrhea-cases-and-asymptomatic-controls-in-nepal-and-thailand
#5
Oralak Serichantalergs, Sirigade Ruekit, Prativa Pandey, Sinn Anuras, Carl Mason, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Brett Swierczewski
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter concisus and C. ureolyticus have emerged in recent years as being associated with acute and prolonged gastroenteritis and implicated in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, there are limited data on the prevalence of these microorganisms in Southeast Asia. In this study, 214 pathogen-negative stool samples after laboratory examination for common enteric pathogens to include C. jejuni and C. coli by culture from two case-control traveler's diarrhea (TD) studies conducted in Thailand (cases = 26; controls = 30) and Nepal (cases = 83; controls = 75) respectively were assayed by PCR for the detection of Campylobacter 16S rRNA and two specific heat shock protein genes specific for C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824711/advanced-non-cardia-gastric-cancer-and-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-vietnam
#6
Tran Thanh Binh, Vo Phuoc Tuan, Ho Dang Quy Dung, Pham Huu Tung, Tran Dinh Tri, Ngo Phuong Minh Thuan, Vu Van Khien, Phan Quoc Hoan, Rumiko Suzuki, Tomohisa Uchida, Tran Thi Huyen Trang, Yoshio Yamaoka
BACKGROUND: The incidence of gastric cancer in the Northern city, Hanoi is higher than in the Southern city, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. We previously reported that Helicobacter pylori vacA m1 genotype might be responsible for the difference between the two cities, however, the study only included non-cancer patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the non-cardia gastric cancer characteristics and the role of H. pylori virulence on different non-cardia gastric cancer incidence between two cities in Vietnam...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814976/analysis-of-proteomes-released-from-in-vitro-cultured-eight-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-revealed-specific-expression-in-pcr-ribotypes-027-and-176-confirming-their-genetic-relatedness-and-clinical-importance-at-the-proteomic-level
#7
Jiri Dresler, Marcela Krutova, Alena Fucikova, Jana Klimentova, Veronika Hruzova, Miloslava Duracova, Katerina Houdkova, Barbora Salovska, Jana Matejkova, Martin Hubalek, Petr Pajer, Libor Pisa, Otakar Nyc
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of C. difficile infection (CDI) that could be manifested by diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis or life-threatening toxic megacolon. The spread of certain strains represents a significant economic burden for health-care. The epidemic successful strains are also associated with severe clinical features of CDI. Therefore, a proteomic study has been conducted that comprises proteomes released from in vitro cultured panel of eight different PCR ribotypes (RTs) and employs the combination of shotgun proteomics and label-free quantification (LFQ) approach...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811841/bacteriophages-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-their-implications
#8
Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Renata Wojciechowska, Andrzej Górski
The gut microbiota plays an essential role in health and disease of humans. Bacteriophages are the most abundant members of the gut virobiota and display great diversity. Phages can translocate through the mucosa to lymph and internal organs and play a role as regulators of the bacterial population in the gut. Increasing abundance of phages in the gut mucosa may reduce colonization by bacteria. Moreover, phages may have an immunomodulatory role in the immune response in the human gut. The role of phages in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794801/gut-dysbiosis-in-mice-genetically-selected-for-low-antibody-production
#9
Ana Carolina da Silva Santos, José Ricardo Jensen, Silvio Luis de Oliveira, Josias Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is linked to the cause of several human diseases, many of which having an immunity related component. This work investigated whether mice genetically selected for low or high antibody production display differences in intestinal bacterial communities, and consisted in the comparison of fecal 16SV6-V8 rDNA PCR amplicons resolved by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of five each of low (LIII) and high (HIII) antibody producing mice. 16SV6 rDNA amplicons of 2 mice from each line were sequenced...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794800/genome-characterization-of-a-novel-binary-toxin-positive-strain-of-clostridium-difficile-and-comparison-with-the-epidemic-027-and-078-strains
#10
Zhong Peng, Sidi Liu, Xiujuan Meng, Wan Liang, Zhuofei Xu, Biao Tang, Yuanguo Wang, Juping Duan, Chenchao Fu, Bin Wu, Anhua Wu, Chunhui Li
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming gut pathogen that causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. A small number of C. difficile strains express the binary toxin (CDT), which is generally found in C. difficile 027 (ST1) and/or 078 (ST11) in clinic. However, we isolated a binary toxin-positive non-027, non-078 C. difficile LC693 that is associated with severe diarrhea in China. The genotype of this strain was determined as ST201. To understand the pathogenesis-basis of C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770009/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-commensal-bacterium-hafnia-alvei-cba7124-isolated-from-human-feces
#11
Hye Seon Song, Joon Yong Kim, Yeon Bee Kim, Myeong Seon Jeong, Jisu Kang, Jin-Kyu Rhee, Joseph Kwon, Ju Suk Kim, Jong-Soon Choi, Hak-Jong Choi, Young-Do Nam, Seong Woon Roh
BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Hafnia have been isolated from the feces of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish, as well as from soil, water, sewage, and foods. Hafnia alvei is an opportunistic pathogen that has been implicated in intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. However, its pathogenicity is still unclear. In this study, we isolated H. alvei from human feces and performed sequencing as well as comparative genomic analysis to better understand its pathogenicity. RESULTS: The genome of H...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770008/overexpression-of-serine-protease-htra-enhances-disruption-of-adherens-junctions-paracellular-transmigration-and-type-iv-secretion-of-caga-by-helicobacter-pylori
#12
Aileen Harrer, Manja Boehm, Steffen Backert, Nicole Tegtmeyer
BACKGROUND: The serine protease HtrA is an important factor for regulating stress responses and protein quality control in bacteria. In recent studies, we have demonstrated that the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori can secrete HtrA into the extracellular environment, where it cleaves-off the ectodomain of the tumor suppressor and adherens junction protein E-cadherin on gastric epithelial cells. RESULTS: E-cadherin cleavage opens cell-to-cell junctions, allowing paracellular transmigration of the bacteria across polarized monolayers of MKN-28 and Caco-2 epithelial cells...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680484/introducing-the-sporobiota-and-sporobiome
#13
George Tetz, Victor Tetz
Unrelated spore-forming bacteria share unique characteristics stemming from the presence of highly resistant endospores, leading to similar challenges in health and disease. These characteristics are related to the presence of these highly transmissible spores, which are commonly spread within the environment and are implicated in host-to-host transmission. In humans, spore-forming bacteria contribute to a variety of pathological processes that share similar characteristics, including persistence, chronicity, relapses and the maintenance of the resistome...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670346/molecular-characterization-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-stool-specimens-of-outpatients-in-sentinel-hospitals-beijing-china-2010-2015
#14
Bing Lu, Haijian Zhou, Xin Zhang, Mei Qu, Ying Huang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is an opportunistic pathogen associated with community-acquired infections and nosocomial infections. From 2010 to 2015, K. pneumoniae testing was included into the exiting diarrhea-syndrome surveillance with objective to estimate the prevalence of K. pneumoniae in diarrhea-syndrome patients, test antibiotics susceptibility and investigate molecular characteristics. METHODS: Stool specimens from diarrhea-syndrome outpatients were cultured and identified the pathogens by the Vitek2 Compact instrument...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649284/development-and-evaluation-of-a-pcr-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-azithromycin-resistant-campylobacter-isolated-from-diarrhoeal-patients-in-kolkata-india
#15
Piyali Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a well-known bacterial pathogen for triggering acute gastroenteritis in humans both in developed and developing countries. This organism is highly resistant to fluoroquinolones. Macrolides are very much useful for the treatment of campylobacteriosis when clinical therapy is necessary. However, increasing resistance to azithromycin, a potent macrolide has been reported in Campylobacter in recent years. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacter is found mainly due to point mutation in V region of 23S rRNA...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616083/outer-membrane-phospholipase-a-s-roles-in-helicobacter-pylori-acid-adaptation
#16
Hilde S Vollan, Tone Tannæs, Dominique A Caugant, Gert Vriend, Geir Bukholm
BACKGROUND: The pH of the human gastric mucosa varies around 2.5 so that only bacteria with strong acidic stress tolerance can colonize it. The ulcer causing Helicobacter pylori thrives in the gastric mucosa. We analyse the roles of the key outer membrane protein OMPLA in its roles in acid tolerance. RESULTS: The homology model of Helicobacter pylori outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) reveals a twelve stranded β-barrel with a pore that allows molecules to pass with a diameter up to 4 Å...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616082/prevalence-of-pks-positive-escherichia-coli-in-japanese-patients-with-or-without-colorectal-cancer
#17
Takayuki Shimpoh, Yoshihiro Hirata, Sozaburo Ihara, Nobumi Suzuki, Hiroto Kinoshita, Yoku Hayakawa, Yumiko Ota, Akiko Narita, Shuntaro Yoshida, Atsuo Yamada, Kazuhiko Koike
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that some Escherichia coli strains possessing a gene cluster named the pks island might have a causative role in the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC). In several reports from Europe, they are found more prevalently in colon tissue specimens derived from CRC patients compared to those from controls. In this study we sought to clarify the difference in pks prevalence between CRC patients and non-CRC controls in the Japanese population, by using non-invasive sample collection technique during colonoscopy...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616081/anaerobic-adaptation-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-in-vitro-similarities-to-m-tuberculosis-and-differential-susceptibility-to-antibiotics
#18
Nicole Parrish, Aravinda Vadlamudi, Neil Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants and is associated with Crohn's disease (CD) in humans, although the latter remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the ability of MAP to adapt to anaerobic growth using the "Wayne" model of non-replicating persistence (NRP) developed for M. tuberculosis. RESULTS: All strains adapted to anaerobiosis over time in a manner similar to that seen with MTB...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592996/immune-responses-upon-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-of-secondary-abiotic-mice-lacking-nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2
#19
Stefan Bereswill, Ursula Grundmann, Marie E Alutis, André Fischer, Anja A Kühl, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni infections are of rising importance worldwide. Given that innate immune receptors including nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (Nod2) are essentially involved in combating enteropathogenic infections, we here surveyed the impact of Nod2 in murine campylobacteriosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to overcome physiological colonization resistance preventing from C. jejuni infection, we generated secondary abiotic Nod2(-/-) and wildtype (WT) mice by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588654/complete-genome-sequence-of-clostridium-perfringens-cba7123-isolated-from-a-faecal-sample-from-korea
#20
Yeon Bee Kim, Joon Yong Kim, Hye Seon Song, Changsu Lee, Joseph Kwon, Jisu Kang, Jin-Kyu Rhee, Myeong Seon Jeong, Young-Do Nam, Seong Woon Roh
BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis, mild diarrhea, clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene, sepsis, etc. In this study, we aim to determine the pathogenesis of this bacterium at the genomic level. The genome of strain CBA7123 was sequenced, and a comparative genomic analysis between strain CBA7123 and four other related C. perfringens strains was performed. RESULTS: The genome of strain CBA7123 consisted of one circular chromosome and one plasmid that were 3,088,370 and 46,640 bp long with 28...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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