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Gut Pathogens

Laura Deutsch-Nagy, Péter Urbán, Zsuzsanna Tóth, Zoltán Bihari, Béla Kocsis, Csaba Fekete, Ferenc Kilár
Background: Shigella spp. are Gram-negative intracellular pathogenic bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause bacterial dysentery, a severe diarrheal disease. The pathophysiological impact of the Gram-negative bacteria is highly related to the composition and structural variability of lipopolysaccharides, the major lipoid components of the outer membrane. Out of the 114 genes involved in the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway, 47 genes are specific to Shigella spp...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Oda Barth Vedøy, Kurt Hanevik, Sunniva Todnem Sakkestad, Halvor Sommerfelt, Hans Steinsland
Background: As part of the effort to develop an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) human challenge model for testing new heat-stable toxin (ST)-based vaccine candidates, a controlled human infection model study based on the ST-producing ETEC strain TW11681 was undertaken. Here, we estimate stool TW11681 DNA concentration and evaluate its association with dose, clinical symptoms, and with levels of antibodies targeting the CfaB subunit of the ETEC Colonization Factor Antigen I and the E...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Erik Van Roey, Subin Park, Ganesh Srinivasamoorthy, Fernanda S Nascimento, Delynn M Moss, Eldin Talundzic, Michael J Arrowood
Background: Cyclospora cayetanensis is a food-borne intestinal human parasite that causes outbreaks of diarrhea. There is a need for efficient laboratory methods for strain-level characterization to assist in outbreak investigations. By using next generation sequencing, genomic sequences can be obtained and compared to identify potential genotyping markers. However, there is no method available to propagate this parasite in the laboratory. Therefore, genomic DNA must be extracted from oocysts purified from human stool...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Claire L O'Brien, Christopher J Kiely, Paul Pavli
Background: Reduced intestinal microbial diversity and bacterial imbalance (dysbiosis) are seen in studies of Crohn's disease. As it is difficult to obtain biopsy samples before disease presentation, the earliest mucosal lesions in Crohn's disease, aphthous ulcers, present the best chance at assessing microbial communities at the onset of disease or a new flare. The aim of our study was to compare the microbial communities of aphthous ulcers and adjacent normal mucosa from patients with Crohn's disease with normal mucosa from controls...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Nadja Saile, Elisabeth Schuh, Torsten Semmler, Inga Eichhorn, Lothar H Wieler, Andreas Bauwens, Herbert Schmidt
Background: In the current study, nine foodborne "Locus of Enterocyte Effacement" (LEE)-negative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were selected for whole genome sequencing and analysis for yet unknown genetic elements within the already known LEE integration sites selC , pheU and pheV . Foreign DNA ranging in size from 3.4 to 57 kbp was detected and further analyzed. Five STEC strains contained an insertion of foreign DNA adjacent to the selC tRNA gene and five and seven strains contained foreign DNA adjacent to the pheU and pheV tRNA genes, respectively...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Tae Woong Whon, Hyun Sik Kim, Jin-Woo Bae
Background: Members of the species Kocuria rhizophila , belonging to the family Micrococcaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria , have been isolated from a wide variety of natural sources, such as soil, freshwater, fish gut, and clinical specimens. K . rhizophila is important from an industrial viewpoint, because the bacterium grows rapidly with high cell density and exhibits robustness at various growth conditions. However, the bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen involved in human infections...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Hooriyeh Mohammadpour, Enayat Berizi, Saeid Hosseinzadeh, Majid Majlesi, Morteza Zare
There are a number of reports indicating correlation between outbreaks of campylobacteriosis and the consumption of raw vegetables. This study is a meta-analysis on the prevalence of Campylobacter in fresh vegetables and fruits without any location limitation, which was performed through a documented review of the available resources. Relevant literature was reviewed by trained reviewers, who examined the results for the inclusion of articles in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of Campylobacter in raw vegetables, the sample source, the Campylobacter species, and the method of detection were extracted...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Anja Müller, Wiebke Jansen, Nils Th Grabowski, Corinna Kehrenberg
Background: Food products of animal origin brought into the EU from third countries, both legally and illegally, can harbor foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica . In this study, we examined five S. enterica isolates recovered either from legally imported chicken meat (n = 3) or from meat products confiscated from air travel passengers arriving in Germany (n = 2). The isolates were serotyped and further characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR-detection and sequencing of genes associated with antimicrobial resistances, and macrorestriction analysis...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Amira A Moawad, Helmut Hotzel, Heinrich Neubauer, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Herbert Tomaso, Hafez M Hafez, Uwe Roesler, Hosny El-Adawy
Background: Poultry remains one of the most important reservoir for zoonotic multidrug resistant pathogens. The global rise of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is of reasonable concern and demands intensified surveillance. Methods: In 2016, 576 cloacal swabs were collected from 48 broiler farms located in five governorates in northern Egypt. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae could be cultivated on different media and were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and PCR...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Shu-Ying Tseng, Kwong-Chung Tung, Jan-Fang Cheng, Yi-Hsuan Lee, Zong-Yen Wu, Yu-Kai Hong, Shi-Yu Chen, Yao-Ting Huang, Po-Yu Liu
Background: Shewanella algae has been recognized as an emerging human pathogen. However, not much is known about the mechanism of its pathogenesis and its adaptation to a special niche such as the hepatobiliary tract. Results: In this study, we isolated the S. algae ACCC strain from human bile and performed whole genome sequencing. S. algae ACCC consists of a circular 4,743,354-bp chromosome with a GC content of 53.08%, within 4080 protein coding sequences. The genome of strain ACCC contains a number of candidate genes which have been reported to be associated with bile adaption, including htpB, exbBD , wecA , galU , adeFGH and phoPQ regulon...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Shiwen Wang, Feng Yang, Dong Li, Juanxiu Qin, Weiwei Hou, Lian Jiang, Mimi Kong, Yong Wu, Yuchen Zhang, Fuju Zhao, Yi Fang, Yingxin Miao, Lingli Xu, Jie Chen, Zhijun Bao, Michal A Olszewski, Hu Zhao, Yanmei Zhang
Background: Culture-based diagnostic methods cannot achieve rapid and precise diagnoses for the identification of multiple diarrhoeal pathogens (DPs). A high-throughput multiplex genetic detection system (HMGS) was adapted and evaluated for the simultaneous identification and differentiation of infectious DPs and a broad analysis of DP infection aetiology. Results: DP-HMGS was highly sensitive and specific for DP detection compared with culture-based techniques and was similar to singleplex real-time PCR...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Young Eun Kim, Miok Song, Jaein Lee, Hyun Jung Seung, Eun-Young Kwon, Jinkyung Yu, Youngok Hwang, Taeho Yoon, Tae Jun Park, In Kyoung Lim
Background: Phylogenetic analysis of norovirus (NoV) is efficient for tracking NoV transmission. To determine the widespread NoV strains in Seoul, we conducted an extensive phylogenetic characterization of NoV-positives from 1659 diarrheal specimens collected in 2014-2016 for the Seoul NoV-surveillance. Results: When the large numbers of NoV partial VP1 genome sequences were analyzed in acute gastroenteritis patients along with the phylogenetic characterization, we could identify molecular epidemiologic patterns based on the genetic characteristics of sporadic NoV strains circulating in Seoul, which could provide a detailed description of the genome-wide and community-wide NoV evolution in each genotype...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Dan Li, Min Shen, Ying Xu, Chao Liu, Wen Wang, Jinyan Wu, Xianmei Luo, Xu Jia, Yongxin Ma
Background: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is one of the most important etiological agents of diarrheal diseases. In this study we investigated the prevalence, virulence gene profiles, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular genetic characteristics of DEC at a hospital in western China. Methods: A total of 110 Escherichia coli clinical isolates were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College from 2015 to 2016. Microbiological methods, PCR, antimicrobial susceptibility test, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were used in this study...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Liying Liu, Lili Lin, Linna Zheng, Hui Tang, Xinzhong Fan, Nianguo Xue, Min Li, Min Liu, Xianyao Li
Background: Salmonella enterica , serovar Enteritidis ( S. Enteritidis), an important zoonotic foodborne pathogen, can affect the microbiota of the chicken intestine and cause many enteric diseases, such as acute gastroenteritis. The gut microbiota contributes to the development and function of the host immune system and competes with pathogenic microbes. The interaction between S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota is still not fully understood. We investigated the microbiome composition in both treated and control groups through 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days post- S...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Vikash Singh, Peter Schwerk, Karsten Tedin
Background: Both typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections remain a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and impose a major socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade host cells and reside within an intracellular, vacuolar compartment called the Salmonella -containing vacuole (SCV). Although the SCV is involved in both immune-evasion and intracellular replication and spread within the host, information about the host:pathogen interactions at this interface are limited, in part due to the technical difficulties involved in purification of these vacuoles...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Yanmei Xu, Hui Sun, Xiangning Bai, Shanshan Fu, Ruyue Fan, Yanwen Xiong
Background: Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is regarded as a globally emerging enteropathogen. aEPECs exhibit various level of resistance to a range of antibiotics, which is increasing alarmingly. The present study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of aEPEC isolates recovered from diarrheal patients, healthy carriers, animals, and raw meats. Results: Among 267 aEPEC isolates, 146 (54.7%) were resistant to tetracycline, followed by ampicillin (49...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Bailiang Li, Smith Etareri Evivie, Da Jin, Yueyue Meng, Na Li, Fenfen Yan, Guicheng Huo, Fei Liu
Background: Enterococci are commensal bacteria in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract which play an important role in the production of various fermented foods. Thus, certain enterococcal strains are commonly used as probiotics to confer health benefits to human and animals. Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0933 is a potential probiotic strain with high cholesterol removal ability, which was isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. To better understand the genetic basis of the probiotic properties of this strain, the whole-genome sequence was performed using the PacBio RSII platform...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Baoguang Liu, Huarun Sun, Yushan Pan, Yajun Zhai, Tian Cai, Xiaoling Yuan, Yanling Gao, Dandan He, Jianhua Liu, Li Yuan, Gongzheng Hu
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens and a causative agent of a variety of infections in humans and animals. A total of 640 samples were collected from healthy animals and patients from 2013 to 2014 in Henan Province, China, to investigate the prevalence and perform molecular characterization of S. aureus . Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were determined and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing were performed...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Shilpa Ray, Susmita Das, Pritam Kumar Panda, Mrutyunjay Suar
Background: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections caused primarily by S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium particularly in immunocompromised hosts have accounted for a large percentage of fatalities in developed nations. Antibiotics have revolutionized the cure of enteric infections but have also led to the rapid emergence of pathogen resistance. New powerful therapeutics involving metabolic enzymes are expected to be potential targets for combating microbial infections and ensuring effective health management...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Siok-Fong Chin, Putri Intan Hafizah Megat Mohd Azlan, Luqman Mazlan, Hui-Min Neoh
Over the years, genetic profiling of the gut microbiome of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) using genome sequencing has suggested over-representation of several bacterial taxa. However, little is known about the protein or metabolite secretions from the microbiota that could lead to CRC pathology. Proteomic studies on the role of microbial secretome in CRC are relatively rare. Here, we report the identification of proteins from Schizosaccharomyces pombe found in the stool samples of both healthy individuals and patients with CRC...
2018: Gut Pathogens
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