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Gut Pathogens

Shiwen Wang, Feng Yang, Dong Li, Juanxiu Qin, Weiwei Hou, Lian Jiang, Mimi Kong, Yong Wu, Yuchen Zhang, Fuju Zhao, Yi Fang, Yingxin Miao, Lingli Xu, Jie Chen, Zhijun Bao, Michal A Olszewski, Hu Zhao, Yanmei Zhang
Background: Culture-based diagnostic methods cannot achieve rapid and precise diagnoses for the identification of multiple diarrhoeal pathogens (DPs). A high-throughput multiplex genetic detection system (HMGS) was adapted and evaluated for the simultaneous identification and differentiation of infectious DPs and a broad analysis of DP infection aetiology. Results: DP-HMGS was highly sensitive and specific for DP detection compared with culture-based techniques and was similar to singleplex real-time PCR...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Young Eun Kim, Miok Song, Jaein Lee, Hyun Jung Seung, Eun-Young Kwon, Jinkyung Yu, Youngok Hwang, Taeho Yoon, Tae Jun Park, In Kyoung Lim
Background: Phylogenetic analysis of norovirus (NoV) is efficient for tracking NoV transmission. To determine the widespread NoV strains in Seoul, we conducted an extensive phylogenetic characterization of NoV-positives from 1659 diarrheal specimens collected in 2014-2016 for the Seoul NoV-surveillance. Results: When the large numbers of NoV partial VP1 genome sequences were analyzed in acute gastroenteritis patients along with the phylogenetic characterization, we could identify molecular epidemiologic patterns based on the genetic characteristics of sporadic NoV strains circulating in Seoul, which could provide a detailed description of the genome-wide and community-wide NoV evolution in each genotype...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Dan Li, Min Shen, Ying Xu, Chao Liu, Wen Wang, Jinyan Wu, Xianmei Luo, Xu Jia, Yongxin Ma
Background: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is one of the most important etiological agents of diarrheal diseases. In this study we investigated the prevalence, virulence gene profiles, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular genetic characteristics of DEC at a hospital in western China. Methods: A total of 110 Escherichia coli clinical isolates were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College from 2015 to 2016. Microbiological methods, PCR, antimicrobial susceptibility test, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were used in this study...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Liying Liu, Lili Lin, Linna Zheng, Hui Tang, Xinzhong Fan, Nianguo Xue, Min Li, Min Liu, Xianyao Li
Background: Salmonella enterica , serovar Enteritidis ( S. Enteritidis), an important zoonotic foodborne pathogen, can affect the microbiota of the chicken intestine and cause many enteric diseases, such as acute gastroenteritis. The gut microbiota contributes to the development and function of the host immune system and competes with pathogenic microbes. The interaction between S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota is still not fully understood. We investigated the microbiome composition in both treated and control groups through 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days post- S...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Vikash Singh, Peter Schwerk, Karsten Tedin
Background: Both typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections remain a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and impose a major socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade host cells and reside within an intracellular, vacuolar compartment called the Salmonella -containing vacuole (SCV). Although the SCV is involved in both immune-evasion and intracellular replication and spread within the host, information about the host:pathogen interactions at this interface are limited, in part due to the technical difficulties involved in purification of these vacuoles...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Yanmei Xu, Hui Sun, Xiangning Bai, Shanshan Fu, Ruyue Fan, Yanwen Xiong
Background: Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is regarded as a globally emerging enteropathogen. aEPECs exhibit various level of resistance to a range of antibiotics, which is increasing alarmingly. The present study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of aEPEC isolates recovered from diarrheal patients, healthy carriers, animals, and raw meats. Results: Among 267 aEPEC isolates, 146 (54.7%) were resistant to tetracycline, followed by ampicillin (49...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Bailiang Li, Smith Etareri Evivie, Da Jin, Yueyue Meng, Na Li, Fenfen Yan, Guicheng Huo, Fei Liu
Background: Enterococci are commensal bacteria in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract which play an important role in the production of various fermented foods. Thus, certain enterococcal strains are commonly used as probiotics to confer health benefits to human and animals. Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0933 is a potential probiotic strain with high cholesterol removal ability, which was isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. To better understand the genetic basis of the probiotic properties of this strain, the whole-genome sequence was performed using the PacBio RSII platform...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Baoguang Liu, Huarun Sun, Yushan Pan, Yajun Zhai, Tian Cai, Xiaoling Yuan, Yanling Gao, Dandan He, Jianhua Liu, Li Yuan, Gongzheng Hu
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens and a causative agent of a variety of infections in humans and animals. A total of 640 samples were collected from healthy animals and patients from 2013 to 2014 in Henan Province, China, to investigate the prevalence and perform molecular characterization of S. aureus . Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were determined and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing were performed...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Shilpa Ray, Susmita Das, Pritam Kumar Panda, Mrutyunjay Suar
Background: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections caused primarily by S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium particularly in immunocompromised hosts have accounted for a large percentage of fatalities in developed nations. Antibiotics have revolutionized the cure of enteric infections but have also led to the rapid emergence of pathogen resistance. New powerful therapeutics involving metabolic enzymes are expected to be potential targets for combating microbial infections and ensuring effective health management...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Siok-Fong Chin, Putri Intan Hafizah Megat Mohd Azlan, Luqman Mazlan, Hui-Min Neoh
Over the years, genetic profiling of the gut microbiome of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) using genome sequencing has suggested over-representation of several bacterial taxa. However, little is known about the protein or metabolite secretions from the microbiota that could lead to CRC pathology. Proteomic studies on the role of microbial secretome in CRC are relatively rare. Here, we report the identification of proteins from Schizosaccharomyces pombe found in the stool samples of both healthy individuals and patients with CRC...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Jordan E Axelrad, Benjamin Lebwohl, Edward Cuaresma, Ken Cadwell, Peter H R Green, Daniel E Freedberg
Background: Gut colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is associated with poor outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of VRE colonization on subsequent acquisition of enteric pathogens. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults admitted to an ICU from 2012 to 2017 who were screened for VRE colonization and subsequently underwent stool testing with a gastrointestinal pathogen PCR panel (GI PCR) with or without PCR testing for Clostridium difficile ...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Su-Kyung Lee, Seoheui Choi, Seon-Hee Shin, Eun Jin Lee, Jungwon Hyun, Jae-Seok Kim, Hyun Soo Kim
Background: Rotaviruses are the major causes of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide. The genotypic distribution of rotavirus strains shows temporal and geographical fluctuations, and knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses is important for the development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents. We investigated VP4 and VP7 capsid genotypes of rotaviruses isolated from 211 stool specimens collected from Korean neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit from September 2017 to March 2018...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Amit Ranjan, Julia Scholz, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Christa Ewers, Stefanie Müller, Derek J Pickard, Peter Schierack, Karsten Tedin, Niyaz Ahmed, Katharina Schaufler, Sebastian Guenther
Background: Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli infections are of global interest because of their clinical and economic impact. The ESBL resistance genes disseminate through plasmids, and are found in successful global lineages such as ST131 and ST648. The carriage of plasmids has been suggested to result in a fitness burden, but recently it was shown that ESBL-plasmids enhanced virulence in pandemic ST131 and ST648 lineages without affecting their fitness...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Jean-Félix Sicard, Philippe Vogeleer, Guillaume Le Bihan, Yaindrys Rodriguez Olivera, Francis Beaudry, Mario Jacques, Josée Harel
Background: The intestinal mucous layer is a physical barrier that limits the contact between bacteria and host epithelial cells. There is growing evidence that microbiota-produced metabolites can also be specifically sensed by gut pathogens as signals to induce or repress virulence genes. Many E. coli , including adherent and invasive (AIEC) strains, can form biofilm. This property can promote their intestinal colonization and resistance to immune mechanisms. We sought to evaluate the impact of mucus-derived sugars on biofilm formation of E...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Cheng Peng, Xiaofeng Wang, Jiangwei Zhang, Yi Jiang, Xinlin Hou
Background: Tigecycline is an 'immature' antibiotic for children. We report the youngest surviving patient who received a complete tigecycline treatment, and no significant adverse effects occurred in the patient. Case presentation: The 3-month old infant suffered from a catheter-associated bloodstream infection by multiple drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae . Tigecycline was considered as a salvage therapy to control the severe sepsis. The therapy consisted of 3 mg/kg as a loading dose and 1...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Oumaïra Rahmouni, Cécile Vignal, Marie Titécat, Benoît Foligné, Benjamin Pariente, Laurent Dubuquoy, Pierre Desreumaux, Christel Neut
Background: Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Since AIEC was first described in 1999, despite important progress on its genomic and immune characterizations, some crucial questions remain unanswered, such as whether there exists a natural reservoir, or whether there is asymptomatic carriage. The ECOR collection, including E. coli strains isolated mainly from the gut of healthy humans and animals, constitutes an ideal tool to investigate AIEC prevalence in healthy condition...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Mikihiro Fujiya, Shin Kashima, Yuya Sugiyama, Takuya Iwama, Masami Ijiri, Kazuyuki Tanaka, Keitaro Takahashi, Katuyoshi Ando, Yoshiki Nomura, Nobuhiro Ueno, Takuma Goto, Kentaro Moriichi, Yusuke Mizukami, Toshikatsu Okumura, Junpei Sasajima, Daisuke Fujishiro, Kensaku Okamoto, Yuichi Makino
Background: Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a large-vessel vasculitis pathologically characterized by granulomatous necrotizing vasculitis with giant cells. Although the cause of TA is still unclear, genetic factors as well as immunological abnormalities, particularly the overactivation of Th1 and Th-17, are considered to play important roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a type of refractory inflammation in which numerous eosinophils infiltrate the inflammatory area...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Su-Mi Lee, Seon-Young Park, Moon-Ju Kim, Eun-Ae Cho, Chung-Hwan Jun, Chang-Hwan Park, Hyun-Soo Kim, Sung-Kyu Choi, Jong-Sun Rew
Background: Eradication rate for Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) has decreased due to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance H. pylori eradication, especially for H. pylori with high antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate anti- H. pylori activities of constituents from key lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ) and their possible inhibitory effects on urease activity of H. pylori. Methods: Helicobacter pylori strain ATCC 43526 and triple drug resistant (TDR) H...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
Along with the intensive development of methods of livestock breeding, breeders' expectations are growing concerning feed additives that would guarantee such results as accelerating growth rate, protection of health from pathogenic infections and improvement of other production parameters such as: absorption of feed and quality of meat, milk, eggs. The main reason for their application would be a strive to achieve some beneficial effects comparable to those of antibiotic-based growth stimulators, banned on 01 January 2006...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Yichen Ding, Ye Htut Zwe, Seow Fong Chin, Gurjeet S Kohli, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Michael Givskov, Jorgen Schlundt, Stephan C Schuster, Hyun-Gyun Yuk, Liang Yang
Background: Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul ( S . Saintpaul) is an important gut pathogen which causes salmonellosis worldwide. Although intestinal salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, it can be life-threatening in children, the elderlies and immunocompromised patients. Appropriate antibiotic treatment is therefore required for these patients. However, the efficacy of many antibiotics on S. enterica infections has been greatly compromised due to spreading of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids, which poses serious threats on public health and needs to be closely monitored...
2018: Gut Pathogens
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