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Gut Pathogens

Shilpa Ray, Susmita Das, Pritam Kumar Panda, Mrutyunjay Suar
Background: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections caused primarily by S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium particularly in immunocompromised hosts have accounted for a large percentage of fatalities in developed nations. Antibiotics have revolutionized the cure of enteric infections but have also led to the rapid emergence of pathogen resistance. New powerful therapeutics involving metabolic enzymes are expected to be potential targets for combating microbial infections and ensuring effective health management...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Siok-Fong Chin, Putri Intan Hafizah Megat Mohd Azlan, Luqman Mazlan, Hui-Min Neoh
Over the years, genetic profiling of the gut microbiome of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) using genome sequencing has suggested over-representation of several bacterial taxa. However, little is known about the protein or metabolite secretions from the microbiota that could lead to CRC pathology. Proteomic studies on the role of microbial secretome in CRC are relatively rare. Here, we report the identification of proteins from Schizosaccharomyces pombe found in the stool samples of both healthy individuals and patients with CRC...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Jordan E Axelrad, Benjamin Lebwohl, Edward Cuaresma, Ken Cadwell, Peter H R Green, Daniel E Freedberg
Background: Gut colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is associated with poor outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of VRE colonization on subsequent acquisition of enteric pathogens. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults admitted to an ICU from 2012 to 2017 who were screened for VRE colonization and subsequently underwent stool testing with a gastrointestinal pathogen PCR panel (GI PCR) with or without PCR testing for Clostridium difficile ...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Su-Kyung Lee, Seoheui Choi, Seon-Hee Shin, Eun Jin Lee, Jungwon Hyun, Jae-Seok Kim, Hyun Soo Kim
Background: Rotaviruses are the major causes of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide. The genotypic distribution of rotavirus strains shows temporal and geographical fluctuations, and knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses is important for the development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents. We investigated VP4 and VP7 capsid genotypes of rotaviruses isolated from 211 stool specimens collected from Korean neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit from September 2017 to March 2018...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Amit Ranjan, Julia Scholz, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Christa Ewers, Stefanie Müller, Derek J Pickard, Peter Schierack, Karsten Tedin, Niyaz Ahmed, Katharina Schaufler, Sebastian Guenther
Background: Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli infections are of global interest because of their clinical and economic impact. The ESBL resistance genes disseminate through plasmids, and are found in successful global lineages such as ST131 and ST648. The carriage of plasmids has been suggested to result in a fitness burden, but recently it was shown that ESBL-plasmids enhanced virulence in pandemic ST131 and ST648 lineages without affecting their fitness...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Jean-Félix Sicard, Philippe Vogeleer, Guillaume Le Bihan, Yaindrys Rodriguez Olivera, Francis Beaudry, Mario Jacques, Josée Harel
Background: The intestinal mucous layer is a physical barrier that limits the contact between bacteria and host epithelial cells. There is growing evidence that microbiota-produced metabolites can also be specifically sensed by gut pathogens as signals to induce or repress virulence genes. Many E. coli , including adherent and invasive (AIEC) strains, can form biofilm. This property can promote their intestinal colonization and resistance to immune mechanisms. We sought to evaluate the impact of mucus-derived sugars on biofilm formation of E...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Cheng Peng, Xiaofeng Wang, Jiangwei Zhang, Yi Jiang, Xinlin Hou
Background: Tigecycline is an 'immature' antibiotic for children. We report the youngest surviving patient who received a complete tigecycline treatment, and no significant adverse effects occurred in the patient. Case presentation: The 3-month old infant suffered from a catheter-associated bloodstream infection by multiple drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae . Tigecycline was considered as a salvage therapy to control the severe sepsis. The therapy consisted of 3 mg/kg as a loading dose and 1...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Oumaïra Rahmouni, Cécile Vignal, Marie Titécat, Benoît Foligné, Benjamin Pariente, Laurent Dubuquoy, Pierre Desreumaux, Christel Neut
Background: Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Since AIEC was first described in 1999, despite important progress on its genomic and immune characterizations, some crucial questions remain unanswered, such as whether there exists a natural reservoir, or whether there is asymptomatic carriage. The ECOR collection, including E. coli strains isolated mainly from the gut of healthy humans and animals, constitutes an ideal tool to investigate AIEC prevalence in healthy condition...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Mikihiro Fujiya, Shin Kashima, Yuya Sugiyama, Takuya Iwama, Masami Ijiri, Kazuyuki Tanaka, Keitaro Takahashi, Katuyoshi Ando, Yoshiki Nomura, Nobuhiro Ueno, Takuma Goto, Kentaro Moriichi, Yusuke Mizukami, Toshikatsu Okumura, Junpei Sasajima, Daisuke Fujishiro, Kensaku Okamoto, Yuichi Makino
Background: Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a large-vessel vasculitis pathologically characterized by granulomatous necrotizing vasculitis with giant cells. Although the cause of TA is still unclear, genetic factors as well as immunological abnormalities, particularly the overactivation of Th1 and Th-17, are considered to play important roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a type of refractory inflammation in which numerous eosinophils infiltrate the inflammatory area...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Su-Mi Lee, Seon-Young Park, Moon-Ju Kim, Eun-Ae Cho, Chung-Hwan Jun, Chang-Hwan Park, Hyun-Soo Kim, Sung-Kyu Choi, Jong-Sun Rew
Background: Eradication rate for Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) has decreased due to antibiotic resistance. Therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance H. pylori eradication, especially for H. pylori with high antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate anti- H. pylori activities of constituents from key lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ) and their possible inhibitory effects on urease activity of H. pylori. Methods: Helicobacter pylori strain ATCC 43526 and triple drug resistant (TDR) H...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
Along with the intensive development of methods of livestock breeding, breeders' expectations are growing concerning feed additives that would guarantee such results as accelerating growth rate, protection of health from pathogenic infections and improvement of other production parameters such as: absorption of feed and quality of meat, milk, eggs. The main reason for their application would be a strive to achieve some beneficial effects comparable to those of antibiotic-based growth stimulators, banned on 01 January 2006...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Yichen Ding, Ye Htut Zwe, Seow Fong Chin, Gurjeet S Kohli, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Michael Givskov, Jorgen Schlundt, Stephan C Schuster, Hyun-Gyun Yuk, Liang Yang
Background: Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul ( S . Saintpaul) is an important gut pathogen which causes salmonellosis worldwide. Although intestinal salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, it can be life-threatening in children, the elderlies and immunocompromised patients. Appropriate antibiotic treatment is therefore required for these patients. However, the efficacy of many antibiotics on S. enterica infections has been greatly compromised due to spreading of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids, which poses serious threats on public health and needs to be closely monitored...
2018: Gut Pathogens
J Goret, J Blanchi, P Floch, O Peuchant, D Chrisment, R Sanchez, H Biessy, R Lemarié, D Leyssene, B Loutfi, S Mimouni, T Flao, C Bébéar, F Mégraud
Background: The change from non-molecular to nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) is known to increase the detection of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI); however, the impact on stool rejection policies in clinical laboratories is unclear. The current guidelines have reinforced the importance of respecting strict conditions for performing tests on stool samples for CDI diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate whether the implementation of molecular tests has resulted in changes in stool rejection policies between clinical laboratories that introduced NAATs and those that did not...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Supaporn Ruksasiri, Woradee Lurchachaiwong, Patcharawalai Wassanarungroj, Oralak Serichantalergs, Chiek Sivhour, Nou Samon, Sovann Ly, Lon Chanthap, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, John Crawford
Helicobacter fennelliae ( H. fennelliae ) is associated with human gastroenteritis; however, H. fennelliae was isolated and confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic identification from a non-diarrheal child stool sample in Cambodia. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that this isolate had a high minimal inhibitory concentration against macrolides and quinolones, which are first-line antibiotic treatment choices for Campylobacter infections. Consequently, macrolides and quinolones were likewise expected to be ineffective against Campylobacter -like organisms such as H...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Ayesha Z Beg, Asad U Khan
Background: Emergence of carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli pathovars and their environmental dissemination are alarming problems. E. coli isolated from sewage water of hospital setting conferred a high resistance towards β-lactams, particularly towards carbapenem. This prompted us to perform whole genome sequence analysis to investigate the antimicrobial determinants, pathogenicity status and mobile genetic elements associated with resistance genes. Results: To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of ST 315 carrying NDM-4 from India...
2018: Gut Pathogens
G R Gopinath, H N Cinar, H R Murphy, M Durigan, M Almeria, B D Tall, A J DaSilva
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite associated with large and complex foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Linking samples from cyclosporiasis patients during foodborne outbreaks with suspected contaminated food sources, using conventional epidemiological methods, has been a persistent challenge. To address this issue, development of new methods based on potential genomically-derived markers for strain-level identification has been a priority for the food safety research community. The absence of reference genomes to identify nucleotide and structural variants with a high degree of confidence has limited the application of using sequencing data for source tracking during outbreak investigations...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Oyuntsetseg Khasag, Gantuya Boldbaatar, Tserentogtoh Tegshee, Davaadorj Duger, Azzaya Dashdorj, Tomohisa Uchida, Takeshi Matsuhisa, Yoshio Yamaoka
Background: Mongolia has not only the second highest incidence rate but also the highest mortality rate for gastric cancer globally. In addition to gastric cancer, ulcerative disease complications are also life threatening; thus, investigating Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors is essential. Results: H.pylori infection was high in tested dyspeptic patients from all parts of Mongolia, with an overall infection rate of 80.0%. Logistic regression analysis showed that H...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Li Li, Colin Pielsticker, Zifeng Han, Tereza Kubasová, Ivan Rychlik, Bernd Kaspers, Silke Rautenschlein
Background: Campylobacter jejuni is considered as a chicken commensal. The gut microbiota and the immune status of the host may affect its colonization. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus of chickens, which allows secondary pathogens to invade or exacerbates their pathogenesis. To investigate the effect of IBDV-induced immunosuppression on the pathogenesis of C. jejuni , broiler chickens were inoculated with a very virulent (vv) strain of IBDV at 14 days post hatch followed by C...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Khachik E Labachyan, Dara Kiani, Evgueni A Sevrioukov, Samuel E Schriner, Mahtab Jafari
Background: The root extract of Rhodiola rosea has historically been used in Europe and Asia as an adaptogen, and similar to ginseng and Shisandra , shown to display numerous health benefits in humans, such as decreasing fatigue and anxiety while improving mood, memory, and stamina. A similar extract in the Rhodiola family, Rhodiola crenulata , has previously been shown to confer positive effects on the gut homeostasis of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Although, R. rosea has been shown to extend lifespan of many organisms such as fruit flies, worms and yeast, its anti-aging mechanism remains uncertain...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Gopal R Gopinath, Hannah R Chase, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Athmanya Eshwar, Hyein Jang, Isha Patel, Flavia Negrete, Samantha Finkelstein, Eunbi Park, TaeJung Chung, YeonJoo Yoo, JungHa Woo, YouYoung Lee, Jihyeon Park, Hyerim Choi, Seungeun Jeong, Soyoung Jun, Mijeong Kim, Chaeyoon Lee, HyeJin Jeong, Séamus Fanning, Roger Stephan, Carol Iversen, Felix Reich, Günter Klein, Angelika Lehner, Ben D Tall
Background: Malonate utilization, an important differential trait, well recognized as being possessed by six of the seven Cronobacter species is thought to be largely absent in Cronobacter sakazakii (Csak). The current study provides experimental evidence that confirms the presence of a malonate utilization operon in 24 strains of sequence type (ST) 64, obtained from Europe, Middle East, China, and USA; it offers explanations regarding the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness among these strains, and that of other C...
2018: Gut Pathogens
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