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Gut Pathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895717/interferon-%C3%AE-promotes-gastric-lymphoid-follicle-formation-but-not-gastritis-in-helicobacter-infected-balb-c-mice
#1
Michelle Chonwerawong, Patrick Avé, Michel Huerre, Richard L Ferrero
BACKGROUND: Mouse infection studies have shown that interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine, is required for the development of severe pathology induced by chronic Helicobacter infection. This finding is largely based on studies performed using mice that have polarised Th1 responses i.e. C57BL/6 animals. The current work aims to investigate the role of IFN-γ in Helicobacter-induced inflammation in BALB/c mice which have Th2-polarised immune responses. RESULTS: At 7 months post-infection with Helicobacter felis, IFN-γ deficiency in BALB/c mice had no significant effect on H...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891184/effect-of-antibiotic-pre-treatment-and-pathogen-challenge-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-mice
#2
Tadasu Iizumi, Takako Taniguchi, Wataru Yamazaki, Geraldine Vilmen, Alexander V Alekseyenko, Zhan Gao, Guillermo I Perez Perez, Martin J Blaser
BACKGROUND: More than 50 years after the discovery of antibiotics, bacterial infections have decreased substantially; however, antibiotics also may have negative effects such as increasing susceptibility to pathogens. An intact microbiome is an important line of defense against pathogens. We sought to determine the effect of orally administered antibiotics both on susceptibility to pathogens and on impact to the microbiome. We studied Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most common causes of human diarrhea, and Acinetobacter baumannii, which causes wound infections...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891183/complete-genome-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-forc014-isolated-from-the-toothfish
#3
Sojin Ahn, Han Young Chung, Sooyeon Lim, Kwondo Kim, Suyeon Kim, Eun Jung Na, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Ju-Hoon Lee, Sangryeol Ryu, Sang Ho Choi, Heebal Kim
BACKGROUND: Foodborne illness can occur due to various pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and can cause severe gastroenteritis symptoms. In this study, we completed the genome sequence of a foodborne pathogen V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014, which was isolated from suspected contaminated toothfish from South Korea. Additionally, we extended our knowledge of genomic characteristics of the FORC_014 strain through comparative analysis using the complete sequences of other V...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891182/case-control-study-of-diarrheal-disease-etiology-in-individuals-over-5%C3%A2-years-in-southwest-china
#4
Shun-Xian Zhang, Chun-Li Yang, Wen-Peng Gu, Lin Ai, Emmanuel Serrano, Pin Yang, Xia Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Shan Lv, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Jun-Hu Chen, Wei Hu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5 years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China. METHODS: 271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5 years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA; Norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; Astrovirus, As; and Adenovirus, Ad), seven bacteria (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella, NTS; Shigella spp...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891181/whole-genome-sequencing-and-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-o91-strains-isolated-from-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-human-carriers
#5
Taesoo Kwon, Young-Seok Bak, Young-Hee Jung, Young-Bin Yu, Jong Tae Choi, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Jung-Beom Kim, Won Kim, Seung-Hak Cho
BACKGROUND: The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O91:H21 strains NCCP15736 and NCCP15737 were isolated during a single outbreak in Korea, NCCP15736 from a symptomatic carrier and NCCP15737 from an asymptomatic carrier. To investigate genomic differences between the two strains, we performed whole-genome sequencing of both strains and conducted a comparative genomic analysis. RESULTS: Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and Rapid Annotation using the Subsystem Technology (RAST) server, whole-genome sequences of NCCP15736 and NCCP15737 were obtained and annotated...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843492/differences-in-host-breed-and-diet-influence-colonization-by-campylobacter-jejuni-and-induction-of-local-immune-responses-in-chicken
#6
Zifeng Han, Thomas Willer, Colin Pielsticker, Lenka Gerzova, Ivan Rychlik, Silke Rautenschlein
BACKGROUND: Chickens are regarded as the main reservoir for human campylobacteriosis. Little is known about the interaction between Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and chickens. This interaction may be influenced by the stage of maturation of the immune system, developing gut microbiota composition and other factors including breed and diet. Our aim was to investigate the impact of breed, and diet on C. jejuni colonization and host immune responses in chickens. Birds were inoculated with 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) of C...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833663/genome-sequencing-assembly-annotation-and-analysis-of%C3%A2-staphylococcus-xylosus%C3%A2-strain-dmb3-bh1-reveals-genes-responsible-for-pathogenicity
#7
Gurwinder Kaur, Amit Arora, Sathyaseelan Sathyabama, Nida Mubin, Sheenam Verma, Shanmugam Mayilraj, Javed N Agrewala
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus xylosus is coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), found occasionally on the skin of humans but recurrently on other mammals. Recent reports suggest that this commensal bacterium may cause diseases in humans and other animals. In this study, we present the first report of whole genome sequencing of S. xylosus strain DMB3-Bh1, which was isolated from the stool of a mouse. RESULTS: The draft genome of S. xylosus strain DMB3-Bh1 consisted of 2,81,0255 bp with G+C content of 32...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833662/differences-in-amino-acid-frequency-in-caga-and-vaca-sequences-of-helicobacter-pylori-distinguish-gastric-cancer-from-gastric-malt-lymphoma
#8
Masahiko Hashinaga, Rumiko Suzuki, Junko Akada, Takashi Matsumoto, Yasutoshi Kido, Tadayoshi Okimoto, Masaaki Kodama, Kazunari Murakami, Yoshio Yamaoka
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium that causes various gastrointestinal diseases. The most common gastric malignancies associated with H. pylori are gastric cancer and lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Helicobacter pylori virulence genes, namely cagA and vacA, are known to be associated with malignancy development. Conventionally, cagA and vacA were classified by looking at partial sequences of the genes. However, such genotyping has hardly proven useful predicting different risks for gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826361/viral-metagenomics-of-fecal-samples-from-non-human-primates-revealed-human-astrovirus-in-a-chimpanzee-china
#9
Xiaochun Wang, Jinxin Wang, Chenglin Zhou, Shixing Yang, Quan Shen, Wen Zhang, Dunwu Qi
BACKGROUND: Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are commonly identified worldwide as important aetiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups. More and more evidences challenged the paradigm that AstV infections are species-specific. Yet to date, AstVs associated with human infections have not been detected in any animal hosts. RESULTS: Viral metagenomics methods were used to detect viral nucleic acids in fecal samples from 69 captive non-human primates (NHPs) from three zoos in China...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826360/genome-analysis-revealed-novel-genotypes-and-recombination-of-the-human-parechoviruses-prevalent-in-children-in-eastern-china
#10
Xiangyang Zhao, Yongqiang Shi, Yu Xia
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) is a genus of virus in the family Picornaviridae, having two species A and B. HPeVs are common infectious agents, usually causing mild diarrhea and respiratory disease in young children. RESULTS: Here, we collected and sequenced the near complete genome sequences of 17 novel HPeVs from children with diarrhea in eastern China, which showed significant nucleotide sequence divergence. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genomes of these HPeV strains revealed that they belonged to seven different genotypes (including three putative novel genotypes), suggesting that HPeVs showed genotype diversity in this area...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826359/modeling-human-enteric-dysbiosis-and-rotavirus-immunity-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#11
Erica L Twitchell, Christine Tin, Ke Wen, Husen Zhang, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Samuel Vilchez, Guohua Li, Ashwin Ramesh, Mariah Weiss, Shaohua Lei, Tammy Bui, Xingdong Yang, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Lijuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines have poor efficacy in infants from low- and middle-income countries. Gut microbiota is thought to influence the immune response to oral vaccines. Thus, we developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of enteric dysbiosis to study the effects of human gut microbiota (HGM) on immune responses to rotavirus vaccination, and the effects of rotavirus challenge on the HGM by colonizing Gn pigs with healthy HGM (HHGM) or unhealthy HGM (UHGM). The UHGM was from a Nicaraguan infant with a high enteropathy score (ES) and no seroconversion following administration of oral rotavirus vaccine, while the converse was characteristic of the HHGM...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826358/use-of-molecular-typing-to-investigate-bacterial-translocation-from-the-intestinal-tract-of-chlorpyrifos-exposed-rats
#12
Claire Joly Condette, Bertin Elion Dzon, Farida Hamdad, Maurice Biendo, Véronique Bach, Hafida Khorsi-Cauet
BACKGROUND: Human are confronted on a daily basis with contaminant pesticide residues in food, water and other components of the environment. Although the digestive system is the first organ to come into contact with food contaminants, very few data are available on the impact of low-dose pesticide exposure during the in utero and postnatal periods on intestinal bacterial translocation (BT). Previous studies have revealed that chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the contamination of sterile organs...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800029/the-novel-norovirus-genotype-gii-17-is-the-predominant-strain-in-diarrheal-patients-in-shanghai-china
#13
Lifeng Pan, Caoyi Xue, Huiqin Fu, Dan Liu, Linying Zhu, Chang Cui, Weiping Zhu, Yifei Fu, Sun Qiao
In the winter of 2014-2015, a novel norovirus (NoV) strain (GII.17) was reported to be the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in East Asia. To determine the time course of gastroenteritis infections associated with the GII.17 strain and whether GII.17 was the main epidemic strain in diarrheal patients in Shanghai, 2169 stool samples were collected and tested. The detection rate of NoV GI and GII NoV strains was 0.83 and 24.02%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that there were seven NoV genotypes, among which GII...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800028/molecular-epidemiology-virulence-determinants-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-campylobacter-spreading-in-retail-chicken-meat-in-central-china
#14
Tengfei Zhang, Qingping Luo, Yiluo Chen, Tingting Li, Guoyuan Wen, Rongrong Zhang, Ling Luo, Qin Lu, Diyun Ai, Hongcai Wang, Huabin Shao
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are the major food-borne pathogens which could cause bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Contaminated chicken products have been recognized as the primary vehicles of Campylobacter transmission to human beings. In this study, the prevalence of Campylobacter in retail chicken meat in Central China was investigated, and the isolates were further characterized using molecular approaches and tested for antibiotic resistance. RESULTS: A total of 302 chicken samples purchased from April 2014 to April 2015 were tested...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785154/whole-genome-sequencing-uncovers-a-novel-ind-16-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-from-an-extensively-drug-resistant-chryseobacterium-indologenes-strain-j31
#15
Tingting Wang, Xiawei Jiang, Chunyan Feng, Ang Li, Huihui Dong, Shaoqiang Wu, Beiwen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Chryseobacterium indologenes is an emerging opportunistic pathogen in hospital-acquired infection, which is intrinsically resistant to most antimicrobial agents against gram-negative bacteria. In the purpose of extending our understanding of the resistance mechanism of C. indologenes, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of an extensively antibiotic resistant C. indologenes strain, isolated from a Chinese prostate cancer patient. We also investigated the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, particularly metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes, and performed a comparative genomic analysis with other Chryseobacterium species...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777630/the-emergence-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-liver-abscess-in-non-diabetic-patients-and-the-distribution-of-capsular-types
#16
Chien Chuang, Wen-Chien Fan, Yi-Tsung Lin, Fu-Der Wang
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common pathogen of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess in East Asia. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-established risk factor for K. pneumoniae liver abscess (KPLA). However, reports regarding the emergence of KPLA in non-diabetic patients are limited. RESULTS: A total 230 patients with KPLA from a medical center in Taiwan were identified retrospectively. The rate of DM in patients with KPLA was 44.4 % in 2011, 57...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708718/a-single-capsule-formulation-of-rhb-104-demonstrates-higher-anti-microbial-growth-potency-for-effective-treatment-of-crohn-s-disease-associated-with-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis
#17
Ahmad Qasem, Mitra Safavikhasraghi, Saleh A Naser
BACKGROUND: Most recently we reported that RHB‑104 triple antibiotics combination in culture is bactericidal and should be effective for treatment of Crohn's disease (CD)-associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) (Alcedo et al. in Gut Pathog 14:32, 2016). The combination exhibited unique synergistic antimicrobial growth activity. The proprietary RHB-104 capsule formulation contains active ingredients (63.3 % Clarithromycin (CLA), 6.7 % Clofazimine (CLO) and 30 % Rifabutin (RIF))...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688814/multilocus-sequence-typing-of-campylobacter-concisus-from-danish-diarrheic-patients
#18
Hans Linde Nielsen, Henrik Nielsen, Mia Torpdahl
The emerging enteric pathogen Campylobacter concisus is associated with prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that C. concisus strains are very genetically diverse. Nevertheless, C. concisus strains have been divided into two genomospecies, where GS1 strains have been isolated predominantly from healthy individuals, while the GS2 cluster consists of isolates primarily from diarrheic individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity of C...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651834/zonula-occludens-toxins-and-their-prophages-in-campylobacter-species
#19
Fang Liu, Hoyul Lee, Ruiting Lan, Li Zhang
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that zonula occludens toxin (Zot) encoded by Campylobacter concisus zot (808T) gene has the potential to initiate inflammatory bowel disease. This Zot protein caused prolonged intestinal epithelial barrier damage, induced intestinal epithelial and macrophage production of tumor necrosis factor-α and enhanced the responses of macrophages to other microbes. In order to understand the potential virulence of Zot proteins in other Campylobacter species, in this study we examined their presence, similarities, motifs and prophages...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625705/gut-microbiome-alterations-in-patients-with-stage-4-hepatitis-c
#20
AbdelRahman Mahmoud Aly, AbdelReheem Adel, Ahmed Osama El-Gendy, Tamer M Essam, Ramy K Aziz
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes debilitating liver diseases, which may progress to cirrhosis and cancer, and claims 500,000 annual lives worldwide. While HCV epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy are being deeply studied, rare attention is given to reciprocal interactions between HCV infection , HCV-induced chronic liver diseases, and the human gut microbiome. As Egypt has the world's highest prevalence of HCV infections, we launched this study to monitor differences in the gut microbial community composition of Egyptian HCV patients that may affect, or result from, the patients' liver state...
2016: Gut Pathogens
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