Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Aging Science

Vitaly K Koltover
There are two generally known concepts in biology of aging. Accordingly to the first one, there is a program of aging. The alternative concept advocates that aging proceeds stochastically. In this area of research, free radical-theory of aging, which was put forward by Denham Harman in fifties of XXth century, has determined the most heuristic line. The goal of this review is to demonstrate how the aging program and the aging stochastics are united on the basis of the systems theory of reliability. On this basis, universal features of aging, such as the exponential growth of mortality rate with time and correlation of longevity with the species-specific resting metabolism, are naturally explained...
October 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
Andrew Korenevsky, Yulia Milyutina, Ljudmila Kozina, Alexander Arutjunyan
Industrial xenobitics, as well as endogenous damaging factors, such as L-homocysteine, are a well-known source of reactive oxygen species that disrupt biological processes. Among many others, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone synthesis and secretion mediated by a variety of neurotransmitters, which are under control of the hypothalamus and pineal gland, may be put in peril by reactive oxygen species. Their formation can be one of the reasons for the reproductive function shutdown in ageing as the generic response to the damaging factors independent of their nature...
October 6, 2016: Current Aging Science
Eamonn Eeles, Hana Burianova, Shaun Pandy, Donna Pinsker
Consciousness, the medium of sentient thought, requires integrity of functional networks and their connectivity. In health, they function as a co-operative but mutually exclusive paradigm of introspection versus external awareness subserved via the Default Mode Network and Task Positive State respectively. Higher thinking is segregated according to need, but this relationship is impacted in disorders of consciousness. In delirium, a disturbance of consciousness, the Default Mode Network is pathologically co-activated and functional cortical connectivity is compromised...
October 4, 2016: Current Aging Science
Vadim Z Lankin, Alla K Tikhaze
We have provided an overview, based on the literature and our data. In accordance with the theory of D. Harman free radical processes cause damages that can accumulate and contribute to aging of the organism. Atherosclerosis and diabetes are developing for a long time so they are manifested predominantly in old age. We found an increase in the level of free radical peroxidation products and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the tissues of animals with experimental atherosclerosis. Similar changes were found by in the blood of patients with atherosclerosis and aortic autopsy material with atherosclerotic lesions...
September 26, 2016: Current Aging Science
Boris A Feniouk, Vladimir P Skulachev
Reactive oxygen species generated in mitochondria is an important factor contributing to mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction underlying many degenerative diseases, chronic pathologies and aging. The idea of delivering antioxidant molecules to mitochondria in vivo to treat these diseases and slow aging intensively developed in the last 20 years. Derivatives of quinones covalently conjugated to a lipophilic cation (e.g., MitoQ and SkQ) were the most extensively studied mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. These compounds have now been used in a wide range of in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as in clinical trials in humans...
September 21, 2016: Current Aging Science
Vladislav S Baranova, Baranova Elena Baranov
Famous free radical theory (FRT) of aging, which 50th year anniversary is celebrated in 2015 postulates a crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aging . Still it is the most robust theory of aging as mitochondria ROS production (mtROSp) correlates well with four principal ''rules" of aging being universal, endogenous, progressive, and deleterious. Vast bulk of experiments in different species prove mutagenic effect of ROS and their carcinogenic properties. So far, FRT stimulates the search new pharmaceuticals with antioxidant activity...
September 21, 2016: Current Aging Science
Evgeniy A Khizhkin, Victor A Ilukha, Irina A Vinogradova, Lyudmila B Uzenbaeva, Tatiana N Ilyina, Victoria D Yunash, Artem V Morozov, Vladimir N Anisimov
The present study was aimed to identify how age-related changes in some physiological and biochemical systems are related to changes in the life span of rats with long-term pineal gland hypo- and hyperfunction induced by constant light and constant darkness, respectively. At the age of 25 days the rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: standard light/dark regimen (LD), constant light (LL) and constant darkness (DD). Age-related antioxidant system (AOS) changes in liver tissues, alteration of immunoreactivity in blood smears were investigated, pubescence and lifespan of the animals were determined...
September 21, 2016: Current Aging Science
Yuliana Pineda Galvan, Igor Alperovich, Petr Zolotukhin, Evgenia Prazdnova, Maria Mazanko, Anna Belanova, Vladimir Chistyakov
Here we attempt to review fullerenes biological effects stressing their antioxidant action. A scope of various poisonous and healing properties reported in literature is analyzed. The review begins with the history of fullerenes discovery and their main properties. Then we proceed to reports on longevity and antioxidant action, which are supplemented by the discussion of theoretical modeling of the C60. A special attention is given to our hypothesis of possibility of fullerenes to serve as mitochondria protonophore and corresponding simulations of C60 including its transport through membrane models...
September 21, 2016: Current Aging Science
Brandi Betts, Magaly Salinas, Dale Oladunni, George Negrete, Andrew Tsin
Background Rb1 is a ginsenoside steroid glycoside found exclusively in the plant Panax ginseng. In an earlier report, we showed that Rb1 increased cell proliferation and reduced VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE19) cells. Objective In the present study, we hypothesized that chemical modification of Rb1 changes the level of VEGF secretion by ARPE19 cells. Method Three derivatives of Rb1 were chemically synthesized by hydrogenation (Rb1-H2), acetylation (Rb1-Acyl), and epoxidation (Rb1-Epoxy)...
September 20, 2016: Current Aging Science
Owen J Kelly, Jennifer C Gilman, Youjin Kim, Jasminka Z Ilich
Aging, chronic inflammation and/or many chronic conditions may result in loss of bone and muscle mass and in increase in adiposity, manifested either as an overt overweight or as a fat redistribution and infiltration into bone and muscle. This combined condition has recently been identified as osteosarcopenic obesity. Adequate amounts of micronutrients, in combination with other dietary and lifestyle factors, are required, not just for survival but for optimal health and metabolic homeostasis. This review examines the micronutrient (minerals and vitamins) intake as part of the typical Western diet, using US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data as a proxy, and explores whether deficiencies/excess (malnutrition) exist and whether they contribute to the development of osteosarcopenic obesity in aging...
May 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
Owen J Kelly, Jennifer C Gilman, Youjin Kim, Jasminka Z Ilich
Osteosarcopenic obesity, a deterioration of bone, muscle and fat tissues, could become the ultimate trajectory of aging. Aging stem cells are modulated by low-grade chronic inflammation and possibly a reduced nutrient intake. The resultant metabolic change in stem cells towards adipogenesis results in fat infiltration of bones (osteo obesity) and muscle (sarco obesity) and an overall increase in fat mass and adipokine production (obesity). Currently, no nutritional causes or treatment/prevention guidelines exist for osteosarcopenic obesity...
May 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
Owen J Kelly, Jennifer C Gilman
Unconventional (to Western society/medicine) forms of exercise may be viable for the treatment of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO). It is well known that conventional resistance exercise builds or maintains muscle mass. Clinically, functional loss may also be relevant; therefore, articles that investigated the effects of unconventional exercises and devices on measures of functionality, strength, balance and Quality of Life (QoL) were included. The exercises, Tai Chi, Yoga, and Pilates, in addition to whole body vibration, electrical stimulation of muscle, and the Alexander Technique were reviewed due to their low impact nature...
May 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
Goncalo V Mendonca, Pedro Pezarat-Correia, João R Vaz, Luís Silva, Isabel D Almeida, Kevin S Heffernan
BACKGROUND: Older persons are the fastest growing segment of the population living in the Western hemisphere. Longevity comes at a price, including a higher rate of morbidity, functional and mental disability and the eventual loss of independence. Physical inactivity further aggravates the decline in physiological function along the aging process. Therefore, the promotion of regular exercise may be seen as one of the main non-pharmacological approaches that should be recommended to older adults...
April 26, 2016: Current Aging Science
Virawudh Soontornniyomkij, James P Kesby, Benchawanna Soontornniyomkij, Jane J Kim, Tatiana Kisseleva, Cristian L Achim, Svetlana Semenova, Dilip V Jeste
BACKGROUND: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity may promote age-related memory impairment via disturbances of ammonia-glutamine metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of age and long-term HFD exposure on glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in the liver and hippocampus and recognition memory in mice. METHODS: Adult (5-month-old) and aged (15-month-old) male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to control diet (CD, 14% calories from fat) or HFD (60% fat)...
April 13, 2016: Current Aging Science
Sailee Jagdhane, Neeta Kanekar, Alexander S Aruin
BACKGROUND: Balance deterioration in older adults limits their activities of daily living, community participation, and is a significant risk factor for falls. One contributory element to this functional decline is impairment of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role and feasibility of a novel training program in improving APAs for balance control of older adults. METHOD: Six older adults (73.3±5.0 years) were randomly assigned into the Experimental (EG) and Control (CG) groups...
April 13, 2016: Current Aging Science
Bruno Sposato, Marco Scalese, Manlio Milanese, Nicola Scichilone, Raffaele Scala, Antonio Perrella
Objective of our study was assessing whether smoking and obesity might affect airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) differently in younger and older subjects and whether this influence might be due to their different impacts on baseline lung function values at different ages. Methods 3,903 consecutive adult subjects with normal lung function (1,920 males; mean age 35.1±16.2; median FEV1:97.3% of predicted [interquartile range (IQR):89.7-105.2] and FEV1/FVC:84.6% of predicted [IQR:79.8-89.2]), having performed a methacholine test, were considered...
April 13, 2016: Current Aging Science
Lior Shamir, Joe Long
We applied quantitative image analysis to profile the alteration of brain tissues during aging. A dataset of 463 brain MRI images taken from a cohort of 416 subjects was analyzed using a large set of low-level numerical image content descriptors computed from the entire brain MRI images. The correlation between the numerical image content descriptors and the age of the subjects was computed, and the alterations of the brain tissues during aging were quantified and profiled using machine learning. The results show that the comprehensive set of global image content descriptors provides high Pearson correlation of ∼0...
April 13, 2016: Current Aging Science
Maria Elisabetta Clementi, Beatrice Sampaolese, Bruno Giardina
In this study, human neuroblastoma cells (IMR32) treated with Amyloid Beta Peptide (APβ, were used as model to evaluate the molecular basis of protective role of S100b, a neurotrophic factor and neuronal survival protein, highly expressed by reactive astrocytes nearby of amyloid deposition in the cortex of Alzheimer's patients. The aim of this work is to value the effect of S100b on ROS production in cells treated with Amyloid Beta Peptide and the subsequent influence on globin gene expression. Our results shown that at nanomolar concentrations, S100b protects cells against APβ mediated cytotoxicity and the protective mechanism could be related, almost in part, to the control of ROS production through an over expression of Myoglobin gene...
February 21, 2016: Current Aging Science
Maureen Tam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current Aging Science
Maureen Tam, Rosemary Aird, Gillian Boulton-Lewis, Laurie Buys
BACKGROUND: This paper is about a study aimed to understand what successful ageing and later life learning mean to older adults in two cultures: Hong Kong and Australia. OBJECTIVE: It aims to shed light on (1) the meaning of ageing and learning as conceptualized by elders in Hong Kong and Australia; (2) the reasons for participation in later life learning, as well as, barriers for non-participation; (3) their learning interests and instructional preferences; and (4) the correlation between learning and successful ageing, and between learning and other well-being variables, including health, happiness and satisfaction...
2016: Current Aging Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"