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Personality and Mental Health

Dexter D Wilborn, Matthew P Kramer, Brittany L Stevenson, Robert D Dvorak
Personality has long held a prevalent place in the pantheon of psychological research. In the last 40 years, neuropsychological models of personality have become a popular predictor of human behaviour and emotionality. With a particular focus on Grey's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, this study investigated the interaction of high Behavioural Activation System (BAS) and Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) as a predictor of emotional functioning. Participants (n = 499) recruited from the community completed an online survey composed of questions on demographic information, behavioural inhibition and activation, emotional instability and indices of depression, anxiety and mixed depression-anxiety...
July 16, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Karel D Riegel, Albert J Ksinan, Dita Samankova, Marek Preiss, Pavel Harsa, Robert F Krueger
To date, numerous studies have confirmed empirical relevance of the personality trait model defined in the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders. The supposed single-factor structure of its facets and general domains across various samples, however, has not been researched thoroughly. This study focused on evaluating the hypothesized unidimensional factor structure of the lower-order personality trait facets, as well as the validity of the higher-order domains. The Czech version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was used in a sample of 351 community volunteers and 143 psychiatric patients...
June 28, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Miquel Tortella-Feliu, Joaquim Soler, Leonard Burns, Ausiàs Cebolla, Matilde Elices, Juan C Pascual, Yolanda López Del Hoyo, Rosa Baños, Javier García-Campayo
As dimensions of effortful control (EC), activation control, attentional control, and inhibitory control could mediate the relationship between mindfulness meditation practice and the facets of mindfulness (i.e., observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reacting to inner experience). In this study, we tested whether participant status: meditators (n = 330), healthy non-meditators (n = 254) and individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnosis (n = 46) predicted the facets of mindfulness and if these potential effects were mediated through the three effortful control (EC) dimensions (activation, attentional and inhibitory control)...
May 20, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
S G Selvik, B Hummelen, U Romild, D R Langbehn, G Pedersen
Personality disorder (PD) is common among psychiatric patients, and diagnosing such disorders is of great importance for the choice of treatment. Diagnosing PD is a demanding and time-consuming process. The utilities of several PD screening instruments have been studied in different populations, but not in a population who receives long-term group psychotherapy. In the current study, we investigate the predictive properties of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS) in a sample of 694 psychiatric outpatients with and without PD who were admitted for psychodynamic long-term group therapy from 2012 to 2014...
May 3, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Lise Laporte, Joel Paris, Tanya Bergevin, Ronald Fraser, Jean-François Cardin
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the clinical outcomes of two clinics for borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a naturalistic setting, offering a stepped care model with both short-term (ST) treatment lasting 12 weeks and extended care (EC) up to 24 months. METHODS: A total of 479 patients attending the ST clinic and 145 attending the EC clinic were assessed on depression, impulsivity, self-esteem, emotion dysregulation, substance abuse, self-harm and suicidality...
April 30, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Peter Tyrer, Roger Mulder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Christopher J Hopwood
Despite its demonstrated empirical superiority over the DSM-5 Section 2 categorical model of personality disorders for organizing the features of personality pathology, limitations remain with regard to the translation of the DSM-5 Section 3 alternative model of personality disorders (AMPD) to clinical practice. The goal of this paper is to outline a general and preliminary framework for approaching treatment from the perspective of the AMPD. Specific techniques are discussed for the assessment and treatment of both Criterion A personality dysfunction and Criterion B maladaptive traits...
May 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Michael Berk, Philip Boyce, Amber Hamilton, Grace Morris, Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Darryl Bassett, Bernhard T Baune, Bill Lyndon, Roger Mulder, Gordon Parker, Ajeet B Singh, Gin S Malhi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Mozhgan Lotfi, Bo Bach, Mahdi Amini, Erik Simonsen
AIM: Personality disorders (PD) have been deemed the most problematic diagnostic grouping in terms of validity and utility, which particularly applies to non-Western societies. The current study evaluated the structural validity of PD trait domains in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) Section III and the proposed International Classification of Diseases-11 (ICD-11) in the Iranian population. METHODS: Community-dwelling adults (n = 285; 66% women) were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, whereas the proposed ICD-11 trait domains were delineated using an algorithm for Personality Inventory for DSM-5 trait facets...
May 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Zhihua Li, Yi Wang, Xinjie Mao, Xiayun Yin
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the relationship between depression and two dimensions of hope (pathways thinking and agency thinking) in college students and explore the dynamics of the causal relationship between these variables. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted and included 381 college students. Hope and depression were measured using Snyder's State Hope Scale and the Center for Epidemiological Survey Depression Scale respectively, four times within a year (at 4-month intervals), and cross-lagged regression analysis was performed...
May 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Allison Kalpakci, Carolyn Ha, Carla Sharp
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescents is highly complex and heterogeneous. Within the disorder, research has suggested the existence of at least two subgroups: one with predominantly internalizing psychopathology features and one with predominantly externalizing psychopathology features. One process that may differentiate these groups is executive functioning (EF), given that poor EF is linked to externalizing psychopathology. Against this background, the current study used a multi-informant approach to examine whether adolescent patients with predominantly externalizing BPD presentations experience greater deficits in EF than adolescent patients with predominantly internalizing presentations...
May 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Katie R Kryski, Thomas M Olino, Margaret W Dyson, C Emily Durbin, Daniel N Klein, Elizabeth P Hayden
Parent history of psychopathology is an established marker of children's own risk for later disorder and can therefore be used as a means of validating other risks, such as child temperament. While associations between children's temperament and parent psychopathology have been reported, few studies have used observational measures of child temperament or examined trait interactions, particularly between children's affective and regulatory traits such as effortful control (EC). In this bottom-up family study of 968 three-year-olds and their parents, we examined interactions between preschoolers' observed positive and negative affectivity (NA) and EC as predictors of a known marker of psychopathology risk: parent history of disorder...
May 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Vikas Menon, Balasubramanian Shanmuganathan, Jaiganesh Selvapandian Thamizh, Anand Babu Arun, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Siddharth Sarkar
BACKGROUND: People with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) may have psychological co-morbidities. AIMS: Our objectives were to assess the rates and identify correlates of psychological distress in MUS. METHODS: A total of 171 subjects with MUS seeking treatment at a tertiary care facility were assessed over a 3-year period. Psychological distress was assessed using the Tamil version of General Health Questionnaire-12. Apart from socio-demographic factors, personality, coping, perceived social support and subjective disability were assessed using standard instruments...
May 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Shereen Khoo, Leonard J Simms
Most studies on depression and personality have focused on the role of Neuroticism and Extraversion. Openness is a much less studied trait in this literature, as past studies investigating Openness and depression often have found non-significant correlations between them. However, past studies mostly have investigated Openness and depression at the domain level and used non-clinical samples. In the present study, the relationship between depression and Openness at the domain and facet levels was examined in a sample of 266 participants recruited from outpatient psychiatric settings...
April 2, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Nora H Hope, Matthew A Wakefield, Lynnaea Northey, Alexander L Chapman
BACKGROUND: Locus of control (LOC) represents individuals' beliefs about how much control they have over outcomes in their life. Previous research has found an association between external LOC and psychopathology. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by mood instability, identity disturbance and difficulties in impulse control. AIMS: The aims of this study are to evaluate the relationship between BPD features and LOC in a non-clinical sample and to assess whether external LOC is associated with BPD features after controlling for symptoms of depression and anxiety...
April 2, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Nikki Guy, Giles Newton-Howes, Hannah Ford, Jonathan Williman, James Foulds
Comorbid personality disorder (PD) worsens outcome in mental state disorders; however, the proportion of people with PD who have an alcohol use disorder (AUD) is poorly described. A systematic review of the literature for studies reporting on AUD in those with PD was completed. Lifetime prevalence figures were meta-analysed using multilevel models, accounting for type of PD and population examined. Sixteen unique studies contributed data to the analysis. PD type accounted for most of the heterogeneity in lifetime AUD prevalence...
April 2, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Charlie Andrew Davidson, John E Kiat, Melissa Tarasenko, A Jocelyn Ritchie, Dennis Molfese, William D Spaulding
Impairments in social cognition and associated abnormalities in brain function are well documented in psychotic disorders. They may represent neurodevelopmental vulnerabilities and may therefore be present in less severe or even subclinical conditions of the schizophrenia spectrum, such as schizotypy. Schizotypy has features highly suggestive of social cognitive impairments, but little is known about possible related abnormalities of brain function. This exploratory pilot study examines electrophysiological event-related potentials (ERPs) implicated in schizophrenia, in 23 undergraduates with a range of subclinical schizotypal characteristics...
March 30, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Nagila Koster, Odilia Laceulle, Paul van der Heijden, Barbara de Clercq, Marcel van Aken
In this study, it was analysed whether trajectories of change in symptom distress could be identified in a clinical group of late adolescents with personality pathology. Furthermore, it was examined whether maladaptive personality traits and relations with parents were predictive of following one of these trajectories. Three latent classes emerged from growth mixture modelling with a symptom inventory (n = 911): a Stable High, a Strong Decreasing and a Moderate Decreasing trajectory. Subsequently, by using multinomial logistic regression analyses in a subsample of late-adolescents (n = 127), it was revealed that high levels of Negative Affectivity and Detachment were predictive of following the Strong Decreasing, and high levels of Detachment were predictive of following the Stable High trajectory...
March 25, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Christopher J Hopwood, Roman Kotov, Robert F Krueger, David Watson, Thomas A Widiger, Robert R Althoff, Emily B Ansell, Bo Bach, R Michael Bagby, Mark A Blais, Marina A Bornovalova, Michael Chmielewski, David C Cicero, Christopher Conway, Barbara De Clercq, Filip De Fruyt, Anna R Docherty, Nicholas R Eaton, John F Edens, Miriam K Forbes, Kelsie T Forbush, Michael P Hengartner, Masha Y Ivanova, Daniel Leising, W John Livesley, Mark R Lukowitsky, Donald R Lynam, Kristian E Markon, Joshua D Miller, Leslie C Morey, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, J Hans Ormel, Christopher J Patrick, Aaron L Pincus, Camilo Ruggero, Douglas B Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Tim Slade, Jennifer L Tackett, Katherine M Thomas, Timothy J Trull, David D Vachon, Irwin D Waldman, Monika A Waszczuk, Mark H Waugh, Aidan G C Wright, Mathew M Yalch, David H Zald, Johannes Zimmermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Personality and Mental Health
Steven K Huprich, Sabine C Herpertz, Martin Bohus, Andrew Chanen, Marianne Goodman, Lars Mehlum, Paul Moran, Giles Newton-Howe, Lori Scott, Carla Sharp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Personality and Mental Health
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