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CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics

Patricia Franco, Yves Dauvilliers, Clara Odilia Inocente, Aurore Guyon, Carine Villanueva, Veronique Raverot, Sabine Plancoulaine, Jian-Sheng Lin
OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized in humans by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Greater than fifty percent of narcoleptic patients have an onset of symptoms prior to the age of 18. Current general agreement considers the loss of hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons as the direct cause of narcolepsy notably cataplexy. To assess whether brain histamine (HA) is also involved, we quantified the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of HA and tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA), the direct metabolite of HA between children with orexin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and controls...
September 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Su-Mei Liu, Zhi-Feng Xiao, Xing Li, Yan-Nan Zhao, Xian-Ming Wu, Jin Han, Bing Chen, Jia-Yin Li, Cai-Xia Fan, Bai Xu, Xiao-Yu Xue, Wei-Wei Xue, Ying Yang, Jian-Wu Dai
AIMS: Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian spinal cord are activated in response to spinal cord injury (SCI); however, mechanisms modulating this process are not clear. Here, we noticed SCI elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and we aimed to validate the roles of VEGF in NSCs activation after SCI and investigated the related signals during the process. METHODS: In vitro we detected whether VEGF promoted spinal cord NSCs proliferation and investigated the involved signals; In vivo, we injected VEGF into rat spinal cord to check the NSCs activation...
August 29, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Marco Canevelli, Giuseppe Bruno, Nicola Vanacore, Matteo Cesari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Dong-Hua Mi, Hong-Juan Fang, Guang-Hui Zheng, Xian-Hong Liang, Ya-Rong Ding, Xin Liu, Li-Ping Liu
BACKGROUND: Vascular disease in diabetes, for example, stroke, presents a significant public health burden. Recently, the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin has been found to counteract stroke among diabetic patients, showing great promise in drug repurposing and indication expansion. However, the molecular basis of this protection mechanism remains unknown. METHODS: The expression and localization of DPP-4 in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMVECs) were assessed with immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting...
August 23, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Shuang Gao, Vince D Calhoun, Jing Sui
AIMS: Major depression disorder (MDD) is the single greatest cause of disability and morbidity, and affects about 10% of the population worldwide. Currently, there are no clinically useful diagnostic biomarkers that are able to confirm a diagnosis of MDD from bipolar disorder (BD) in the early depressive episode. Therefore, exploring translational biomarkers of mood disorders based on machine learning is in pressing need, though it is challenging, but with great potential to improve our understanding of these disorders...
August 23, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Rui-Chao Chai, Ke-Nan Zhang, Yu-Qing Liu, Fan Wu, Zheng Zhao, Kuan-Yu Wang, Tao Jiang, Yong-Zhi Wang
AIMS: The pyrosequencing (PSQ) has been regarded as the gold standard for MGMT promoter methylation testing in gliomas. However, various CpG combinations are currently used in clinical practice. We aimed to clarify how and how many CpGs combined is robust enough to predict MGMT mRNA expression and therapeutic prognosis of patients. METHODS: Total 223 patients with WHO III/IV gliomas were enrolled from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, including two independent cohorts, the eight-site cohort (with CpGs 75-82 tested) and the seven-site cohort (with CpGs 72-78 tested)...
August 16, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Zhi-Jie Han, Wei-Wei Xue, Lin Tao, Feng Zhu
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of death in elderly people. Its pathogenesis is greatly associated with the abnormality of immune system. However, only a few immune-relevant AD drug target genes have been discovered up to now, and it is speculated that there are still many potential drug target genes of AD (at least immune-relevant genes) to be discovered. Thus, this study was designed to identify novel AD drug target genes and explore their biological properties...
August 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Cun-Yi Zou, Ge-Fei Guan, Chen Zhu, Tian-Qi Liu, Qing Guo, Wen Cheng, An-Hua Wu
AIMS: Immune checkpoint blockade has made breakthroughs in immunotherapy for glioma. However, current immunotherapy has therapeutic benefits only in a subset of patients and accompanied by immune-related side effects. SLAMF8 is a costimulatory molecule that affects the activation of macrophages in inflammation. The study of SLAMF8 may provide new information for immunological research and treatment of glioma. METHODS: CGGA and TCGA cohorts of 946 patients with RNA sequencing data and full clinical information were analyzed using R language and GraphPad Prism 7...
August 13, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Qing-Qing Tao, Qiao Wei, Shui-Jiang Song, Xin-Zhen Yin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Sara Merlo, Simona Federica Spampinato, Maria Angela Sortino
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive neurodegeneration and inflammation in selective brain areas, linked to severely disabling cognitive deficits. Before full manifestation, different stages appear with progressively increased brain pathology and cognitive impairment. This significantly extends the time lag between initial molecular triggers and appearance of detectable symptoms. Notably, a number of studies in the last decade have revealed that in the early stage of mild cognitive impairment, events that appear in contrast with neuronal distress may occur...
August 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Venceslas Duveau, Derek L Buhl, Alexis Evrard, Céline Ruggiero, Betty Mandé-Niedergang, Corinne Roucard, Rachel Gurrell
AIM: Antiepileptic drugs that modulate GABA have the potential to aggravate or improve the symptoms of absence epilepsy. PF-06372865 is a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α2/3/5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors with minimal activity at α1-containing receptors, which are believed to mediate many of the adverse events associated with benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess the antiepileptic effect of PF-06372865 in a preclinical model of absence seizures. METHODS: Genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) was implanted with four cortical electrodes over the frontoparietal cortex, and the number and cumulated duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) were recorded for 10-90 minutes following administration of vehicle, PF-06372865, and positive controls diazepam and valproate...
August 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Xin-Guo Li, Yi-Bao Wang
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a life threatening cerebrovascular disease characterized by phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and loss of vessel cells. In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors have been proposed to be a critical factor in the onset and progression of IA. The present study investigates the effects of serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) on VSMC proliferation and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro, as well as its role in vascular remodeling in vivo through PI3 K/Akt signaling in IA...
August 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Anastasia Bougea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Chang-Bin Liu, De-Gang Yang, Xin Zhang, Wen-Hao Zhang, Da-Peng Li, Chao Zhang, Chuan Qin, Liang-Jie Du, Jun Li, Feng Gao, Jie Zhang, Zhen-Tao Zuo, Ming-Liang Yang, Jian-Jun Li
AIM: Exploration of the mechanism of spinal cord degeneration may be the key to treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to investigate the degeneration of white matter and gray matter and pathological mechanism in canine after SCI. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on canine models with normal (n = 5) and injured (n = 7) spinal cords using a 3.0T MRI scanner at precontusion and 3 hours, 24 hours, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks postcontusion...
August 3, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jin-Zhong Huang, Yi Ren, Yuan Xu, Tao Chen, Terry C Xia, Zhuo-Ri Li, Jian-Nong Zhao, Fei Hua, Shiying Sheng, Ying Xia
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common degenerative neurological disease leading to a series of familial, medical, and social problems. Although it is known that the major characteristics of PD pathophysiology are the dysfunction of basal ganglia due to injury/loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic and exhaustion of corpus striatum dopamine, therapeutic modalities for PD are limited in clinical settings up to date. It is of utmost importance to better understand PD pathophysiology and explore new solutions for this serious neurodegenerative disorder...
August 3, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Aida Adlimoghaddam, Melanie Neuendorff, Banibrata Roy, Benedict C Albensi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects over 45 million people worldwide. Patients with severe AD require help with daily activities and show severe memory impairment. Currently, donepezil is one of two drugs approved by FDA and Health Canada for the treatment of severe AD (MMSE score <10). It is prescribed as 5 or 10 mg/d and an FDA-approved 23-mg/d dose. METHOD: This review will discuss risks and benefits of donepezil at these doses in severe AD...
July 29, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Christoph Metze, Alexander Winkelmann, Micha Loebermann, Michael Hecker, Brunhilde Schweiger, Emil Christian Reisinger, Uwe Klaus Zettl
AIMS: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a seasonal influenza vaccine in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients receiving different immunomodulating/immunosuppressive therapies and assess predictors of immune response. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, non-randomized observational study including 108 patients receiving a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccination was conducted. Influenza-specific antibody titers (H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B) were measured to evaluate rates of seroprotection and seroconversion/significant titer increase...
July 25, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Wen-Xiao Xu, Jin-Ling Yu, Yan Feng, Qiu-Xin Yan, Xin-Yu Li, Ying Li, Zhuo Liu, Di Wang, Xun Sun, Ke-Xin Li, Lu-Qi Wang, Guo-Fen Qiao, Bai-Yan Li
AIM: To study the dominant role of parasympathetic inputs at cellular level of baroreflex afferent pathway and underlying mechanism in neurocontrol of blood pressure regulation. METHODS: Whole-cell patch-clamp and animal study were conducted. RESULTS: For the first time, we demonstrated the spontaneous activities from resting membrane potential in myelinated A- and Ah-type baroreceptor neurons (BRNs, the 1st-order), but not in unmyelinated C-types, using vagus-nodose slice of adult female rats...
July 25, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Tetsuya Asakawa, Kenji Sugiyama, Takao Nozaki, Tetsuro Sameshima, Susumu Kobayashi, Liang Wang, Zhen Hong, Shu-Jiao Chen, Can-Dong Li, Ding Ding, Hiroki Namba
Pediatric movement disorders (PMDs) are common and have recently received increasing attention. As these disorders have special clinical features, the selection of appropriate behavioral assessment tools that can clearly distinguish movement disorders from other diseases (eg, epilepsy and neuromuscular disorders) is crucial for achieving an accurate diagnosis and treatment. However, few studies have focused on behavioral assessments in children. The present report attempts to provide a critical review of the available subjective and objective assessment tests for common PMDs...
July 24, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Xiao-Mei Jiang, Wei-Ping Wang, Zhi-Hui Liu, Hua-Jing Yin, Hao Ma, Nan Feng, Ling Wang, Hai-Hong Huang, Xiao-Liang Wang
AIMS: 2-(4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl) ethyl nitrate maleate (NMZM), a derivative of clomethiazole (CMZ), had been investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The beneficial effects of NMZM in AD included reversing cognitive deficit, improving learning and memory as well as neuroprotection. The pharmacological effects of NMZM on GABAA receptors were reported previously; however, the mechanisms were unclear and were explored therefore. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated that NMZM improved learning and memory by alleviating scopolamine-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) suppression in the dentate gyrus of rats, indicating that NMZM had protective effects against scopolamine-induced depression of LTP...
July 24, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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