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CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics

Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace
Recent evidence highlighted a pathogenetic link between redox dysregulation and the early stages of psychosis. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have pointed toward an association between oxidative stress, both at central and peripheral levels, and first psychotic episode. Moreover, basal low antioxidant capacity has been shown to directly correlate with cognitive impairment in the early onset of psychosis. In this context, the possibility to use antioxidant compounds in first psychotic episode, especially as supplementation to antipsychotic therapy, has become the focus of numerous investigations on rodents with the aim to translate data on the possible effects of antioxidant therapies to large populations of patients, with a diagnosis of the first psychotic episode...
March 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Ting Cao, Xue-Chu Zhen
Although it is generally believed that genetic and developmental factors play critical roles in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, however, the precise etiological mechanism of schizophrenia remains largely unknown. Over past decades, miRNAs have emerged as an essential post-transcriptional regulator in gene expression regulation. The importance of miRNA in brain development and neuroplasticity has been well-established. Abnormal expression and dysfunction of miRNAs are known to involve in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
March 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Xiao-Xiao Ma, Jin Liu, Chun-Man Wang, Jiang-Ping Zhou, Zhen-Zhou He, Han Lin
AIMS: This study was to determine whether curcumin had any effect on the proliferation of neural stem cell (NSC), analyze the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Notch1 at transcription and protein level, and discuss the related mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: NSCs were harvested from E15 SD rat brain and cultured. All experiments were performed at the second passage. Cell cytotoxicity, cell viability, and proliferation assays were used to figure out the optimal concentration of curcumin, which can be used for the protein and mRNA studies...
March 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Yue Suo, Wei-Qi Chen, Yue-Song Pan, Yu-Jing Peng, Hong-Yi Yan, Xing-Quan Zhao, Li-Ping Liu, Yi-Long Wang, Gai-Fen Liu, Yong-Jun Wang
AIMS: Little is known about the performance of the maximally treated intracerebral hemorrhage (max-ICH) score in predicting unfavorable long-term functional outcome and death in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in China. We aimed to validate the performance of the max-ICH score and compared it with other recognized scores. METHODS: We derived data from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Hosmer-Lemeshow test were used to measure the score performance...
March 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Seungyeop Lee, Si-On Lee, Gyu-Lee Kim, Dong-Kwon Rhee
AIMS: Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in acute bacterial meningitis can lead to widespread brain damage and mortality. Inflammatory responses by immune cells in the brain are thought to determine the degree of brain injury. Yet, the mechanisms underlying host responses to pneumococcal meningitis are largely unknown. To explore host responses as a potential therapeutic target for preventing brain injury after pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS: We evaluated signaling mechanisms that minimize neuronal damage caused by pneumococcal infection; specifically, we assessed pathways related to neuronal survival after enhancing estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) expression using a natural therapeutic substance known as ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 enhanced ginseng...
March 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Sandra M Holley, Talia Kamdjou, Jack C Reidling, Brian Fury, Dane Coleal-Bergum, Gerhard Bauer, Leslie M Thompson, Michael S Levine, Carlos Cepeda
The principal symptoms of Huntington's disease (HD), chorea, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric symptoms are associated with the massive loss of striatal and cortical projection neurons. As current drug therapies only partially alleviate symptoms, finding alternative treatments has become peremptory. Cell replacement using stem cells is a rapidly expanding field that offers such an alternative. In this review, we examine recent studies that use mesenchymal cells, as well as pluripotent, cell-derived products in animal models of HD...
March 6, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Fei-Fei Zhang, Wei Peng, John A Sweeney, Zhi-Yun Jia, Qi-Yong Gong
Depression is the leading cause of disability around the world, but little is known about its pathology. Currently, the diagnosis of depression is made based on clinical manifestations, with little objective evidence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to investigate the pathological changes in brain anatomy associated with this disorder. MRI can identify structural alterations in depressive patients in vivo, which could make considerable contributions to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Numerous studies that focused on gray and white matter have found significant brain region alterations in major depressive disorder patients, such as in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, temporal lobe, thalamus, striatum, and amygdala...
March 5, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Antonella Cardinale, Francesca R Fusco
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition, due to a mutation in the IT15 gene encoding for huntingtin. Currently, disease-modifying therapy is not available for HD, and only symptomatic drugs are administered for the management of symptoms. In the last few years, preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that pharmacological strategies aimed at inhibiting cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDEs) may develop into a novel therapeutic approach in neurodegenerative disorders. PDEs are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides into monophosphate isoforms...
March 3, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Zhou-Wei Zhan, Li-Zhen Lin, Er-Han Yu, Jia-Wei Xin, Lin Lin, Hai-Long Lin, Qin-Yong Ye, Xiao-Chun Chen, Xiao-Dong Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in the functional connectivity (FC) pattern in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia by employing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). METHODS: Twenty-seven PD patients with different cognitive status and 9 healthy control subjects (control group) were enrolled for RS-fMRI. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed with DPARSF and REST software...
March 3, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Qing-Mei Kong, Hong Qiao, Chao-Zhong Liu, Ping Zhang, Ke Li, Li Wang, Ji-Tao Li, Yun'Ai Su, Ke-Qing Li, Chao-Gan Yan, Philip B Mitchell, Tian-Mei Si
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence has implicated dysfunction of the thalamus and its projection cortical targets in depression. However, the anatomical specificity of thalamo-cortical connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unknown due to the regional heterogeneity of the thalamus and limited methods to examine this. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI was collected on 70 MDD patients and 70 healthy controls. The thalamus was parcellated based on connectivity with six predefined cortical regions of interest (ROIs)...
February 28, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jing-Yu Xiao, Bing-Rui Xiong, Wen Zhang, Wen-Chang Zhou, Hui Yang, Feng Gao, Hong-Bing Xiang, Anne Manyande, Xue-Bi Tian, Yu-Ke Tian
AIM: Multifactors contribute to the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), of which the most important mechanism is neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key neuroinflammatory molecule and could modulate hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. This study was designed to investigate whether PGE2 and its receptors signaling pathway were involved in the pathophysiology of POCD. METHODS: Sixteen-month old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to laparotomy...
February 27, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Di Li, Jia-Xuan Ji, Yi-Tian Xu, Hai-Bo Ni, Qin Rui, Hui-Xiang Liu, Feng Jiang, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
AIMS: To investigate the roles of Lats1/p-YAP1 pathway in TBI-induced neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits in rats. RESULTS: We found that Lats1 and YAP1 were expressed in cerebral cortex neurons of Sprague-Dawley rats, and the phosphorylation levels of Lats1 and YAP1 in injured regions were significantly increased after TBI. Furthermore, inhibition of Lats1 not only decreased the level of p-YAP1, but also attenuated neuronal apoptosis and neurological impairment...
February 27, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Francis Delicata, Cristiano Bombardi, Massimo Pierucci, Roberto Di Maio, Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
AIMS: Serotonergic (5-HT) modulation of the lateral habenula (LHb) activity is central in normal and pathologic conditions such as mood disorders. Among the multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) involved, the 5-HT2C R seems to play a pivotal role. Yet, the role of 5-HT2A Rs in the control of the LHb neuronal activity is completely unknown. METHODS: Single-cell extracellular recording of the LHb neurons was used in rats to study the effect of the general activation and blockade of the 5-HT2C R and 5-HT2A R with Ro 60-0175 and SB242084, TCB-2 and MDL11939, respectively...
February 25, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Hui-Feng Zhang, David Mellor, Dai-Hui Peng
Genetic-neuroimaging studies could identify new potential endophenotypes of major depressive disorder (MDD). Morphological and functional alterations may be attributable to genetic factors that regulate neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. Given that the association between gene polymorphisms and brain morphology or function has varied across studies, this systematic review aims at evaluating and summarizing all available genetic-neuroimaging studies. Twenty-eight gene variants were evaluated in 64 studies by structural or functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 23, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Tine M Hansen, Dina Lelic, Anne E Olesen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Jens B Frøkjaer
AIM: Different mechanisms may be involved in the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone (opioid) and venlafaxine (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these drugs on brain functional connectivity. METHODS: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 20 healthy volunteers before and after a 5-day treatment with oxycodone, venlafaxine, or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study...
February 21, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
George V Rebec
AIMS: This review summarizes evidence for dysfunctional connectivity between cortical and striatal neurons in Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by a single gene mutation. The focus is on data derived from recording of electrophysiological signals in behaving transgenic mouse models. DISCUSSIONS: Firing patterns of individual neurons and the frequency oscillations of local field potentials indicate a disruption in corticostriatal processing driven, in large part, by interactions between cells that contain the mutant gene rather than the mutant gene alone...
February 21, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Maurice Garret, Zhuowei Du, Marine Chazalon, Yoon H Cho, Jérôme Baufreton
Hereditary Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by cell dysfunction and death in the brain, leading to progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor impairments. Despite molecular and cellular descriptions of the effects of the HD mutation, no effective pharmacological treatment is yet available. In addition to well-established alterations of glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, it is becoming clear that the GABAergic systems are also impaired in HD. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and GABAergic neurotransmission has been postulated to be modified in many neurological and psychiatric diseases...
February 21, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Spomenka Kiđemet-Piskač, Mirjana Babić Leko, Antonela Blažeković, Lea Langer Horvat, Nataša Klepac, Zdenko Sonicki, Danijela Kolenc, Patrick R Hof, Marina Boban, Ninoslav Mimica, Fran Borovečki, Goran Šimić
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) is still largely based on clinical guidelines and exclusion of other diseases that may lead to dementia. AIMS: In this study, we assessed whether the use of sensitive and specific biomarkers such as phosphorylated tau proteins could contribute to an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of AD and VaD, as well as to their differentiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 198 patients, of which 152 had AD, 28 VaD, and 18 were healthy controls (HC), were included in the analyses...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Xing-Guang Liang, Chao Tan, Cheng-Kun Wang, Rong-Rong Tao, Yu-Jie Huang, Kui-Fen Ma, Kohji Fukunaga, Ming-Zhu Huang, Feng Han
OBJECTIVE: The cholinergic deficit is thought to underlie progressed cognitive decline in Alzheimer Disease. The lineage reprogramming of somatic cells into cholinergic neurons may provide strategies toward cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we found that a combination of neuronal transcription factors, including Ascl1, Myt1l, Brn2, Tlx3, and miR124 (5Fs) were capable of directly converting human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) into cholinergic neuronal cells...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Victor G Gómez-Pineda, Francisco M Torres-Cruz, César I Vivar-Cortés, Elizabeth Hernández-Echeagaray
AIMS: Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed in the mouse striatum; however, it is not clear the NT-3 role in striatal physiology. The expression levels of mRNAs and immune localization of the NT-3 protein and its receptor TrkC are altered in the striatum following damage induced by an in vivo treatment with 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a mitochondrial toxin used to mimic the histopathological hallmarks of Huntington's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NT-3 on corticostriatal synaptic transmission and its plasticity in both the control and damaged striatum...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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