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CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143496/does-the-serotonin2c-receptor-segregate-circuits-of-the-basal-ganglia-responding-to-cingulate-cortex-stimulation
#1
LETTER
Mélanie Lagière, Marion Bosc, Sara Whitestone, Julien Manem, Hasna Elboukhari, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143463/advances-in-chronic-cerebral-circulation-insufficiency
#2
REVIEW
Da Zhou, Ran Meng, Si-Jie Li, Jing-Yuan Ya, Jia-Yue Ding, Shu-Ling Shang, Yu-Chuan Ding, Xun-Ming Ji
Chronic cerebral circulation insufficiency (CCCI) may not be an independent disease; rather, it is a pervasive state of long-term cerebral blood flow insufficiency caused by a variety of etiologies, and considered to be associated with either occurrence or recurrence of ischemic stroke, vascular cognitive impairment, and development of vascular dementia, resulting in disability and mortality worldwide. This review summarizes the features and recent progress of CCCI, mainly focusing on epidemiology, experimental research, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, imaging presentation, diagnosis, and potential therapeutic regimens...
November 15, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130652/ginsenoside-rb1-improves-leptin-sensitivity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-obese-mice
#3
Yizhen Wu, Xu-Feng Huang, Christopher Bell, Yinghua Yu
AIM: Obesity impairs leptin-induced regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and synaptogenesis, which has been considered to be associated with the incidence of neuronal degenerative diseases, cognitive decline, and depression. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), a major bioactive component of ginseng, is known to have an antiobesity effect and improve cognition. This study examined whether Rb1 can improve central leptin effects on BDNF expression and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex during obesity using an in vivo and an in vitro model...
November 11, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125694/impaired-long-contact-white-matter-fibers-integrity-is-related-to-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Jia-Yong Wu, Yang Zhang, Wen-Bo Wu, Gang Hu, Yun Xu
AIMS: Depression is one of the most common nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). But the pathogenesis is still unclear. Studies have shown that depression in PD is closely related to the white matter abnormalities, but the number of studies is still very small and lack of whole brain white matter lesions study. METHODS: In this study, we investigated whole brain white matter integrity in 31 depressed PD patients and 37 nondepressed PD patients by diffusion tensor imaging...
November 10, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125684/magnesium-boosts-the-memory-restorative-effect-of-environmental-enrichment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#5
Ying Huang, Xian Huang, Ling Zhang, Fang Han, Ke-Liang Pang, Xue Li, Jian-Ying Shen
BACKGROUND: Environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to enhance cognitive function in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Magnesium-L-threonate (MgT) is a compound with a newly discovered effect to rescue learning and memory function in aging and AD mice. AIM: To study the additive therapeutic effect of EE combined with MgT (EM) and the potential mechanism underlying the effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: APP/PS1 mice were treated with EE, MgT, or combination of EE and MgT (EM) and compared for restored memory function...
November 10, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110407/acupuncture-inhibits-txnip-associated-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-to-attenuate-cognitive-impairment-in-vascular-dementia-rats
#6
Si-Qi Du, Xue-Rui Wang, Wen Zhu, Yang Ye, Jing-Wen Yang, Si-Ming Ma, Cai-Shuo Ji, Cun-Zhi Liu
AIMS: Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) plays a vital role in oxidative stress and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. There is evidence that acupuncture has an antioxidative and neuroprotective effect in VD. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture can attenuate cognitive impairment via inhibiting TXNIP-associated oxidative stress and inflammation in VD rats...
November 6, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110391/th2-axis-related-cytokines-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#7
Ying Zhang, Xiao-Ying Yao, Mei-Chun Gao, Jie Ding, Rong-Hua Hong, Hua Huang, Lei Zhuang, Yong-Gang Wang, Yong Hao, Yang-Tai Guan
AIMS: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Increasing evidence indicates that NMOSD is a Th2- and Th17-dominant disease. IL-25, IL-31, and IL-33 are three newly found Th2-related cytokines, and their roles in the pathogenesis of NMOSD have not been studied. This study aimed to measure the serum levels of IL-25, IL-31, and IL-33 in patients with NMOSD and evaluate their clinical implications. METHODS: Serum was collected from patients with NMOSD (n = 48) and healthy controls (HC, n = 28)...
November 6, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105300/inhibition-of-transient-potential-receptor-vanilloid-type-1-suppresses-seizure-susceptibility-in-the-genetically-epilepsy-prone-rat
#8
Sue J Cho, Michelle A Vaca, Clive J Miranda, Prosper N'Gouemo
AIMS: Intracellular calcium plays an important role in neuronal hyperexcitability that leads to seizures. One calcium influx route of interest is the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel. Here, we evaluated the effects of capsazepine (CPZ), a potent blocker of TRPV1 channels on acoustically evoked seizures (audiogenic seizures, AGS) in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat (GEPR-3), a model of inherited epilepsy. METHODS: Male and female GEPR-3s were used...
November 3, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092095/a%C3%AE-exacerbates-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-neurotoxicity-through-impaired-insulin-signaling-in-%C3%AE-synuclein-overexpressed-human-sk-n-mc-neuronal-cells
#9
Ching-Chi Chang, Hsin-Hua Li, Yen-Ting Chang, Ying-Jui Ho, Ling-Jia Hsieh, Pai-Yi Chiu, Yu-Shih Cheng, Chih-Li Lin, Te-Jen Lai
AIM: α-Synuclein (αSyn) is known as a small soluble protein abundantly expressed in neuronal cells. Although its physiological role is still unclear, the aggregation of αSyn has been recognized as responsible for some neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In most cases, intracellular abnormal aggregates are caused by protein-coding mutations that alter primary structure and therefore increase propensity toward aggregation. However, no pathogenic alterations or polymorphisms in αSyn are found in DLB patients so far, suggesting genetic mutations may not play a major role in DLB pathogenesis...
November 1, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052954/enlarged-perivascular-spaces-are-associated-with-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#10
Yan Liang, Min Deng, Yang-Kun Chen, Vincent Mok, De-Feng Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chiu-Wing Winnie Chu, Eivind Berge, Wai-Kwong Tang
AIMS: This study explored the association between enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This was an observational study of consecutively screened patients with acute ischemic stroke from March 2010 to March 2015. EPVS were rated in the basal ganglia and the centrum semiovale with a validated scale. The HRQoL was assessed 3 months after the stroke onset using the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL)...
October 20, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047208/expression-of-aromatase-in-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-and-its-role-in-the-regulation-of-visceral-pain
#11
Po Gao, Xiao-Wei Ding, Li Dong, Ping Luo, Guo-Hua Zhang, Wei-Fang Rong
AIMS: Estrogens are known to exert a wide spectrum of actions on brain functions including modulation of pain. Besides the circulating estrogens produced mainly by the ovaries, many brain regions are also capable of de novo synthesizing estrogens, which may exert important modulatory effects on neuronal functions. This study was aimed to test the hypothesis that aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiols, may be distributed in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), where it may impact on visceral pain...
October 18, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045036/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-parthanatos-in-human-sh-sy5y-cells-via-improvement-of-intracellular-ros
#12
Hai-Feng Wang, Zong-Qi Wang, Ye Ding, Mei-Hua Piao, Chun-Sheng Feng, Guang-Fan Chi, Yi-Nan Luo, Peng-Fei Ge
AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated to regulate neuronal death caused by ischemic insults via activation of apoptosis, but it still remains unclear whether ER stress participates in regulation of parthanatos, a new type of programmed cell death characterized by PARP-1 overactivation and intracellular accumulation of PAR polymer. METHODS: we used oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and human SH-SY5Y cells to simulate neuronal damage caused by ischemia...
October 16, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030894/pooled-efficacy-and-safety-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-as-add-on-treatment-in-patients-with-focal-onset-seizures-data-from-four-double-blind-placebo-controlled-pivotal-phase-iii-clinical-studies
#13
Christian Elger, Mathias Koepp, Eugen Trinka, Vicente Villanueva, João Chaves, Elinor Ben-Menachen, Pedro A Kowacs, António Gil-Nagel, Joana Moreira, Helena Gama, José-Francisco Rocha, Patrício Soares-da-Silva
PURPOSE: Pooled evaluation of the key efficacy and safety profile of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) added-on to stable antiepileptic therapy in adults with focal-onset seizures. METHODS: Data from 1703 patients enrolled in four phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies were pooled and analyzed. Following a 2 week titration period, ESL was administered at 400 mg, 800 mg, and 1200 mg once-daily doses for 12 weeks (maintenance period). Pooled efficacy variable was standardized (/4 weeks) seizure frequency (SSF) analyzed over the maintenance period as reduction in absolute and relative SSF and proportion of responders (≥50% reduction in SSF)...
October 13, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990373/sigma-1-receptor-agonist-increases-axon-outgrowth-of-hippocampal-neurons-via-voltage-gated-calcium-ions-channels
#14
Dong Li, Shu-Zhuo Zhang, Yu-Hong Yao, Yun Xiang, Xiao-Yun Ma, Xiao-Li Wei, Hai-Tao Yan, Xiao-Yan Liu
INTRODUCTION: Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) are unique endoplasmic reticulum proteins that have been implicated in both neurodegenerative and ischemic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Accumulating evidence has suggested that Sig-1R plays a role in neuroprotection and axon outgrowth. The underlying mechanisms of Sig-1R-mediated neuroprotection have been well elucidated. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of Sig-1R on axon outgrowth are not fully understood. METHODS: To clarify this issue, we utilized immunofluorescence to compare the axon lengths of cultured naïve hippocampal neurons before and after the application of the Sig-1R agonist, SA4503...
October 8, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980404/preventive-and-therapeutic-potential-of-ascorbic-acid-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Morgana Moretti, Daiane Bittencourt Fraga, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
In this review, we summarize the involvement of ascorbic acid in neurodegenerative diseases by presenting available evidence on the behavioral and biochemical effects of this compound in animal models of neurodegeneration as well as the use of ascorbic acid as a therapeutic approach to alleviate neurodegenerative progression in clinical studies. Ascorbate, a reduced form of vitamin C, has gained interest for its multiple functions and mechanisms of action, contributing to the homeostasis of normal tissues and organs as well as to tissue regeneration...
October 4, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971620/effectiveness-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-after-acute-stroke-a-one-year-longitudinal-randomized-trial
#16
Yu-Zhou Guan, Jing Li, Xue-Wei Zhang, Shuang Wu, Hua Du, Li-Ying Cui, Wei-Hong Zhang
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery after stroke using a prospective, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study. METHODS: Patients with unilateral subcortical infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory within 1 week after onset were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into an rTMS treatment group and a sham group. We performed high-frequency rTMS or sham rTMS on the two groups...
October 2, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961379/claudin-5-regulates-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-by-modifying-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cell-proliferation-migration-and-adhesion-to-prevent-lung-cancer-metastasis
#17
Shun-Chang Ma, Qi Li, Jia-Yi Peng, Jian-Long Zhouwen, Jin-Fu Diao, Jian-Xing Niu, Xi Wang, Xiu-Dong Guan, Wang Jia, Wen-Guo Jiang
AIMS: To investigate the roles of Claudin-5 (CLDN5) in regulating the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during lung cancer brain metastasis. RESULTS: By silencing and overexpressing the CLDN5 gene in human brain vascular endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells, we demonstrated the attenuation of cell migration ability and CLDN5's significant positive role in cell proliferation in CLDN5-overexpressing hCMEC/D3 cells and observed the opposite result in the CLDN5 knockdown group...
September 29, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961370/mir-181d-5p-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-in-pc12%C3%A2-cells-via-pi3k-akt-pathway
#18
Li-Ming Shen, Zhi-Wen Song, Yin Hua, Xu Chao, Jin-Bo Liu
INTRODUCTION: miRNAs dysregulate in spinal cord injury (SCI) and have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in neurite outgrowth. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we constructed a mouse model of SCI, extracted RNA from injured spinal cord tissue for the use of microarray assay. miR-181d-5p which is one of the most significantly expressed miRNAs in miRNA-mRNA network, abundantly expressed in center system and highly conserved across different spices, was chosen for our further study...
September 29, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960838/increased-adult-neurogenesis-associated-with-reactive-astrocytosis-occurs-prior-to-neuron-loss-in-a-mouse-model-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#19
Ting-Ting Liu, Xiao-Lian Ye, Jin-Ping Zhang, Ting-Ting Yu, Shan-Shan Cheng, Xiao-Chuan Zou, Yun Xu, Gui-Quan Chen, Zhen-Yu Yin
AIMS: This study was to investigate whether cell proliferation and adult neurogenesis are affected at early neurodegenerative stage when neuron loss has not begun to display. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forebrain-specific nicastrin (NCT) conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated by crossing NCT(f/f) with CaMKIIα-Cre Tg mice. BrdU was used as a lineage tracer to label proliferating neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) on BrdU indicated that the total number of BrdU positive (+) cells was increased in NCT cKO mice...
September 27, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948716/fibroblast-growth-factor-22-is-a-novel-modulator-of-depression-through-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#20
Yu-Hao Xu, Ming Yu, Hong Wei, Shun Yao, Si-Yuan Chen, Xiao-Lan Zhu, Yue-Feng Li
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Emerging evidence shows that fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) plays a critical role in the etiology of depression. However, the molecular mechanisms of FGF22 are not fully comprehended. Here, the effect of FGF22 in depression and its relationship with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were investigated in clinical, animal, and cell experiments. METHODS: Serum from depressive patients was collected, and the levels of FGF22 and IL-1β were analyzed by ELISA...
September 25, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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