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Translational Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214774/multimodality-imaging-of-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cell-migration-and-antitumor-immunity
#1
Su-Bi Ahn, Sang Bong Lee, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Sung Jin Cho, Sang Kyoon Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee, Sang-Woo Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon
Here, we sought to monitor bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) migration and antitumor effects using a multimodal reporter imaging strategy in living mice. BMDCs were transduced with retroviral vector harboring human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS, nuclear imaging reporter), firefly luc2 (optical imaging reporter), and thy1.1 (surrogate marker of NIS and luc2) genes (BMDC/NF cells). No significant differences in biological functions, including cell proliferation, antigen uptake, phenotype expression, and migration ability, were observed between BMDC and BMDC/NF cells...
February 16, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214773/the-usefulness-of-bone-biomarkers-for-monitoring-treatment-disease-a-comparative-study-in-osteolytic-and-osteosclerotic-bone-metastasis-models
#2
Marta Martín-Fernández, Karmele Valencia, Carolina Zandueta, Cristina Ormazábal, Susana Martínez-Canarias, Fernando Lecanda, Concepción de la Piedra
BACKGROUND: The skeleton is the most common site of colonization by metastatic cancers. Zoledronic acid (ZA) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of bone metastases regardless of whether the bone lesions are osteolytic or osteoblastic. Biochemical markers of bone turnover may be useful tools to quantify the degree of bone remodeling in the presence of bone metastases. The aim of this work was to establish the correlation between tumor dispersion (bioluminescence) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in two osteolytic and osteoblastic metastasis models in mice...
February 16, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199863/analysis-of-chemopredictive-assay-for-targeting-cancer-stem-cells-in-glioblastoma-patients
#3
Candace M Howard, Jagan Valluri, Anthony Alberico, Terrence Julien, Rida Mazagri, Robert Marsh, Hoyt Alastair, Antonio Cortese, Michael Griswold, Wanmei Wang, Krista Denning, Linda Brown, Pier Paolo Claudio
INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) treated with standard-of-care maximal surgical resection and concurrent adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ)/radiotherapy remains very poor (less than 15 months). GBMs have been found to contain a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to tumor propagation, maintenance, and treatment resistance. The highly invasive nature of high-grade gliomas and their inherent resistance to therapy lead to very high rates of recurrence. For these reasons, not all patients with similar diagnoses respond to the same chemotherapy, schedule, or dose...
February 12, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193559/dual-functional-mesoporous-silicon-nanoparticles-enhance-the-radiosensitivity-of-vpa-in-glioblastoma
#4
Hailong Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yong Zhou, Yuhua Jiang, Shupeng Li
Radiotherapy is a critical strategy and standard adjuvant approach to glioblastoma treatment. One of the major challenges facing radiotherapy is to minimize radiation damage to normal tissue without compromising therapeutic effects on cancer cells. Various agents and numerous approaches have been developed to improve the therapeutic index of radiotherapy. Among them, radiosensitizers have attracted much attention because they selectively increase susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation and thus enhance biological effectiveness of radiotherapy...
February 10, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189993/dual-inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-and-mek-erk-pathways-induces-synergistic-antitumor-effects-in-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-cells
#5
Y Linda Wu, Uday Bhanu Maachani, Melanie Schweitzer, Ranjodh Singh, Melinda Wang, Raymond Chang, Mark M Souweidane
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a devastating disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Recent studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and its downstream effector pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, are frequently amplified in DIPG, and potential therapies targeting this pathway have emerged. However, the addition of targeted single agents has not been found to improve clinical outcomes in DIPG, and targeting this pathway alone has produced insufficient clinical responses in multiple malignancies investigated, including lung, endometrial, and bladder cancers...
February 9, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189067/microrna-489-plays-an-anti-metastatic-role-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-targeting-matrix-metalloproteinase-7
#6
Yixiong Lin, Jianjun Liu, Yuqi Huang, Dingli Liu, Guowei Zhang, Heping Kan
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is actively involved in the pathogenesis and tumorigenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR-489 was found to play either oncogenic or tumor suppressive roles in human cancers. Recent study reported that the levels of miR-489 in late recurrent HCC patients were evidently higher than that in early recurrent cases, suggesting that miR-489 may function as a tumor suppressive miRNA in HCC. Yet, the clinical value and biological function of miR-489 remain rarely known in HCC...
February 8, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189066/mdh2-stimulated-by-estrogen-gpr30-pathway-down-regulated-pten-expression-promoting-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-cells-in-endometrial-cancer
#7
Yan Zhuang, Jiangdong Xiang, Wei Bao, Ya Sun, Lina Wang, Meihua Tan, Yinyan He, Xiaowei Xi
PURPOSE: The relationship between endometrial carcinoma and cellular metabolism is unknown. In endometrial cancer, mutation rate of PTEN has been reported very high. Malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) is one of the isoforms of malate dehydrogenase, which is involved in citric acid cycle in mitochondria. Our study aimed to investigate the role MDH2 played in PTEN-regulated endometrial carcinoma. METHODS: To reveal the expression of MDH2 and the co-localization of PTEN and MDH2, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining were used...
February 8, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189065/the-pulmonary-fibrosis-associated-muc5b-promoter-polymorphism-is-prognostic-of-the-overall-survival-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-receiving-definitive-radiotherapy
#8
Ju Yang, Ting Xu, Daniel R Gomez, Melenda Jeter, Lawrence B Levy, Yipeng Song, Stephen Hahn, Zhongxing Liao, Xianglin Yuan
BACKGROUND: MUC5B is glycoprotein secreted by bronchial glands. A promoter variant in MUC5B, rs35705950, was previously found to be strongly associated with the incidence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and also the overall survival (OS) of such patients. Patients with IPF and patients with radiation pneumonitis (RP) have the similar pathologic process and clinical symptoms. However, the role of rs35705950 in patients receiving thoracic radiotherapy remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 664 patients with NSCLC receiving definitive radiotherapy (total dose ≥60 Gy) were included in our study...
February 8, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182994/atm-deficient-colorectal-cancer-cells-are-sensitive-to-the-parp-inhibitor-olaparib
#9
Chen Wang, Nicholas Jette, Daniel Moussienko, D Gwyn Bebb, Susan P Lees-Miller
The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage. Loss or inactivation of both copies of the ATM gene (ATM) leads to ataxia telangiectasia, a devastating childhood condition characterized by neurodegeneration, immune deficiencies, and cancer predisposition. ATM is also absent in approximately 40% of mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs), and we previously showed that MCL cell lines with loss of ATM are sensitive to poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors...
February 6, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182993/de-novo-emergence-of-mesenchymal-stem-like-cd105-cancer-cells-by-cytotoxic-agents-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Yoshimoto Nomura, Taro Yamashita, Naoki Oishi, Kouki Nio, Takehiro Hayashi, Mariko Yoshida, Tomoyuki Hayashi, Tomomi Hashiba, Yasuhiro Asahina, Hikari Okada, Hajime Sunagozaka, Hajime Takatori, Masao Honda, Shuichi Kaneko
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered a pivotal target for the eradication of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, we reported that the CSC markers epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and CD90 are expressed independently in primary HCCs and cell lines, and CD90(+) cells share features of metastatic vascular endothelial cells and express the vascular endothelial marker CD105, a co-receptor of transforming growth factor-beta. METHODS: The EpCAM(+) cell lines HuH1 and HuH7 were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or epirubicin in vitro...
February 6, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167243/prediction-of-recurrence-by-preoperative-intratumoral-fdg-uptake-heterogeneity-in-endometrioid-endometrial-cancer
#11
Seo Young Kang, Gi Jeong Cheon, Maria Lee, Hee Seung Kim, Jae-Weon Kim, Noh-Hyun Park, Yong Sang Song, Hyun Hoon Chung
PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative intratumoral (18)F-FDG uptake heterogeneity (IFH) derived from positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated clinicopathological data from patients with pathologically proven endometrioid endometrial cancer who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans before surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to their IFH...
February 3, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167242/epigenome-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-identifies-differential-methylation-biomarkers-in-high-grade-bladder-cancer
#12
Ekaterina Olkhov-Mitsel, Andrea J Savio, Ken J Kron, Vaijayanti V Pethe, Thomas Hermanns, Neil E Fleshner, Bas W van Rhijn, Theodorus H van der Kwast, Alexandre R Zlotta, Bharati Bapat
Epigenetic changes, including CpG island hypermethylation, occur frequently in bladder cancer (BC) and may be exploited for BC detection and distinction between high-grade (HG) and low-grade (LG) disease. Genome-wide methylation analysis was performed using Agilent Human CpG Island Microarrays to determine epigenetic differences between LG and HG cases. Pathway enrichment analysis and functional annotation determined that the most frequently methylated pathways in HG BC were enriched for anterior/posterior pattern specification, embryonic skeletal system development, neuron fate commitment, DNA binding, and transcription factor activity...
February 3, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167241/the-effect-of-sunitinib-treatment-in-human-melanoma-xenografts-associations-with-angiogenic-profiles
#13
Jon-Vidar Gaustad, Trude G Simonsen, Lise Mari K Andersen, Einar K Rofstad
The effect of antiangiogenic agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) pathway has been reported to vary substantially in preclinical studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sunitinib treatment on tumor vasculature and oxygenation in melanoma xenografts with different angiogenic profiles. A-07, U-25, D-12, or R-18 melanoma xenografts were grown in dorsal window chambers and given daily treatments of sunitinib (40 mg/kg) or vehicle. Morphologic parameters of tumor vascular networks were assessed from high-resolution transillumination images, and tumor blood supply times (BSTs) were assessed from first-pass imaging movies...
February 2, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161661/multi-chemotherapeutic-schedules-containing-the-pan-fgfr-inhibitor-arq-087-are-safe-and-show-antitumor-activity-in-different-xenograft-models
#14
Rosaria Chilà, Terence Hall G, Giovanni Abbadessa, Massimo Broggini, Giovanna Damia
ARQ 087 is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent activity against the FGFR receptor family, currently in Phase I clinical studies for the treatment of advanced solid tumors. The compound has a very safe profile and induces tumor regressions in FGFR-driven models. The feasibility of combining ARQ 087 with chemotherapy was investigated in FGFR deregulated human xenografts. Nude mice were transplanted subcutaneously with H1581, and when tumor masses reached 150 mg, were randomized to receive vehicle, ARQ 087, paclitaxel, carboplatin as single agents or in combination...
February 2, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131798/progression-of-human-renal-cell-carcinoma-via-inhibition-of-rhoa-rock-axis-by-parg1
#15
Junichiro Miyazaki, Keiichi Ito, Tomonobu Fujita, Yuriko Matsuzaki, Takako Asano, Masamichi Hayakawa, Tomohiko Asano, Yutaka Kawakami
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal urological malignancy with high risk of recurrence; thus, new prognostic biomarkers are needed. In this study, a new RCC antigen, PTPL1 associated RhoGAP1 (PARG1), was identified by using serological identification of recombinant cDNA expression cloning with sera from RCC patients. PARG1 protein was found to be differentially expressed in RCC cells among patients. High PARG1 expression is significantly correlated with various clinicopathological factors relating to cancer cell proliferation and invasion, including G3 percentage (P = ...
January 26, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129580/immunotherapy-with-dendritic-cells-modified-with-tumor-associated-antigen-gene-demonstrates-enhanced-antitumor-effect-against-lung-cancer
#16
Tao Jiang, Xiao Chen, Wei Zhou, Guoxin Fan, Peilin Zhao, Shengxiang Ren, Caicun Zhou, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy using dendritic cell (DC) vaccine has the potential to overcome the bottleneck of cancer therapy. METHODS: We engineered Lewis lung cancer cells (LLCs) and bone marrow-derived DCs to express tumor-associated antigen (TAA) ovalbumin (OVA) via lentiviral vector plasmid encoding OVA gene. We then tested the antitumor effect of modified DCs both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that in vitro modified DCs could dramatically enhance T-cell proliferation (P<...
January 24, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126685/prognostic-value-of-e-cadherin-cd44-and-msh2-associated-nomograms-in-patients-with-stage-ii-and-iii-colorectal-cancer
#17
Jinmiao Qu, Yuming Jiang, Hao Liu, Haijun Deng, Jiang Yu, Xiaolong Qi, Weiting Ge, Guoxin Li
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prognostic value of E-cadherin, CD44, and MSH2 expression for colorectal cancer (CRC) and construct nomograms that can predict prognosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the expression of E-cadherin, CD44, and MSH2 in 223 paraffin-embedded stage II and III CRC specimens using immunohistochemistry in the training cohort. Their prognostic values were assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate and multivariate COX regression models...
January 23, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081478/pulmonary-sarcomatoid-carcinoma-with-alk-rearrangement-frequency-clinical-pathologic-characteristics-and-response-to-alk-inhibitor
#18
Xinru Chen, Yu Zhang, Jiabin Lu, Chunwei Xu, Jianzhong Liang, Fang Wang, Wenyong Sun, Sangao Fang, Jingping Yuan, Huijuan Wang, Hui Wang, Xuewen Liu, Likun Chen
PURPOSE: The incidence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement in pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is controversial. In this study, we aimed to reveal the reliable frequency and the clinical-pathologic characteristics of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) with ALK rearrangement in Chinese population, and to provide insight into the translatability of anti-ALK treatment in this treatment-refractory disease. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a Ventana anti-ALK (D5F3) rabbit monoclonal antibody was performed in 141 PSC specimens collected from multiple medical centers...
January 9, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013168/integrated-analysis-identifies-molecular-signatures-and-specific-prognostic-factors-for-different-gastric-cancer-subtypes
#19
Li Min, Yu Zhao, Shengtao Zhu, Xintao Qiu, Rui Cheng, Jie Xing, Linlin Shao, Shuilong Guo, Shutian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. As an effective and easily performed method, microscopy-based Lauren classification has been widely accepted by gastrointestinal surgeons and pathologists for GC subtyping, but molecular characteristics of different Lauren subtypes were poorly revealed. METHODS: GSE62254 was used as a derivation cohort, and GSE15459 was used as a validation cohort. The difference between diffuse and intestinal GC on the gene expression level was measured...
December 22, 2016: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992832/ct-guided-125-i-brachytherapy-in-the-treatment-of-distant-metastases-in-the-oral-cavity-and-maxillofacial-region
#20
Huzheng Yan, Zhanwang Xiang, Zhihui Zhong, Zhiqiang Mo, Tao Zhang, Guanyu Chen, Fujun Zhang, Fei Gao
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of CT-guided (125)I brachytherapy for distant oral and maxillofacial metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 65 patients with 84 distant oral and maxillofacial metastases. Thirty-one patients with 38 lesions received (125)I brachytherapy (group A) and 34 with 46 lesions received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; group B). RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 16 months...
December 16, 2016: Translational Oncology
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