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Translational Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223109/genome-wide-analysis-of-barrett-s-adenocarcinoma-a-first-step-towards-identifying-patients-at-risk-and-developing-therapeutic-paths
#1
Yiyang Dai, Qing Wang, Adrian Gonzalez Lopez, Mario Anders, Peter Malfertheiner, Michael Vieth, Wolfgang Kemmner
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus metaplasia is the key precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to find a subset of markers that may allow the identification of patients at risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, and to determine genes differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Laser capture microdissection technique was applied to procure cells from defined regions. Genome-wide RNA profiling was performed on esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 21), Barrett's esophagus (n = 20), esophageal squamous carcinoma (n = 9) and healthy esophageal biopsies (n = 18) using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133plus 2...
December 6, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220829/decreased-expression-of-the-polarity-regulatory-par-complex-predicts-poor-prognosis-of-the-patients-with-colorectal-adenocarcinoma
#2
Min-Kyung Yeo, Jin-Man Kim, Kwang-Sun Suh, Seok-Hyung Kim, Ok-Jun Lee, Kyung-Hee Kim
Partitioning defective (Par) proteins regulate cell polarity and differentiation. Par3, Par6β, and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ), which are PAR complex members, have been shown to be associated with oncogenesis and progression. Herein, we report the expression pattern and clinical relevance of Par3, Par6β, and PKCζ in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRAC). A total of 393 primary CRACs, 41 primary-metastatic CRAC pairs, 41 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, and 41 nontumor colorectal tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays for Par3, Par6β, and PKCζ protein expressions...
December 5, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220828/prediction-of-radiation-esophagitis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-clinical-factors-dosimetric-parameters-and-pretreatment-cytokine-levels
#3
Peter G Hawkins, Philip S Boonstra, Stephen T Hobson, James A Hayman, Randall K Ten Haken, Martha M Matuszak, Paul Stanton, Gregory P Kalemkerian, Theodore S Lawrence, Matthew J Schipper, Feng-Ming Spring Kong, Shruti Jolly
Radiation esophagitis (RE) is a common adverse event associated with radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While plasma cytokine levels have been correlated with other forms of radiation-induced toxicity, their association with RE has been less well studied. We analyzed data from 126 patients treated on 4 prospective clinical trials. Logistic regression models based on combinations of dosimetric factors [maximum dose to 2 cubic cm (D2cc) and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD)], clinical variables, and pretreatment plasma levels of 30 cytokines were developed...
December 5, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216508/quantitative-biomarkers-for-prediction-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Liwen Zhang, Bojiang Chen, Xia Liu, Jiangdian Song, Mengjie Fang, Chaoen Hu, Di Dong, Weimin Li, Jie Tian
OBJECTIVES: To predict epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status using quantitative radiomic biomarkers and representative clinical variables. METHODS: The study included 180 patients diagnosed as of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with their pre-therapy computed tomography (CT) scans. Using a radiomic method, 485 features that reflect the heterogeneity and phenotype of tumors were extracted. Afterwards, these radiomic features were used for predicting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status by a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) based on multivariable logistic regression...
December 4, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216507/chimeric-hcmv-hsv-1-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-134-5-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-elicit-immune-mediated-antigliomal-effect-and-antitumor-memory
#5
Mohammed G Ghonime, Josh Jackson, Amish Shah, Justin Roth, Mao Li, Ute Saunders, Jennifer Coleman, G Yancey Gillespie, James M Markert, Kevin A Cassady
Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor and are characterized by rapid and highly invasive growth. Because of their poor prognosis, new therapeutic strategies are needed. Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is a promising strategy for treating cancer that incorporates both direct viral replication mediated and immune mediated mechanisms to kill tumor cells. C134 is a next generation Δγ134.5 oHSV-1 with improved intratumoral viral replication. It remains safe in the CNS environment by inducing early IFN signaling which restricts its replication in non-malignant cells...
December 4, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202279/cancer-specific-inhibitory-effects-of-genetically-engineered-stem-cells-expressing-cytosine-deaminase-and-interferon-%C3%AE-against-choriocarcinoma-in-xenografted-metastatic-mouse-models
#6
Gyu-Sik Kim, Jae-Rim Heo, Seung U Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi
Cancer treatments using stem cells expressing therapeutic genes have been identified for various types of cancers. In this study, we investigated inhibitory effects of HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β cells expressing Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and human interferon-β (IFN-β) genes in intravenously (i.v.) injected mice with a metastasis model. In this treatment, pro-drug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) is converted to cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil by hNSCs expressing the CD gene, which inhibits DNA synthesis in cancer cells...
December 1, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202278/treatment-outcomes-of-257-patients-with-locoregionally-advanced-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-treated-with-nimotuzumab-plus-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-with-or-without-chemotherapy-a-single-institution-experience
#7
Fangzheng Wang, Chuner Jiang, Zhimin Ye, Tongxin Liu, Quanquan Sun, Fengqin Yan, Weifeng Qin, Zhenfu Fu, Yangming Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To report the long-term outcome and toxicity of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA NPC) treated with nimotuzumab (h-R3) plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with or without chemotherapy. METHODS: From May 2008 to March 2014, 3022 newly histology-proven, nonmetastatic NPC patients were retrospectively reviewed; among them, 257 patients treated with h-R3 were enrolled in this study. The patients' age range was between 10 and 76 years...
December 1, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175630/predicting-treatment-response-of-breast-cancer-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-using-ultrasound-guided-diffuse-optical-tomography
#8
Wenxiang Zhi, Guangyu Liu, Cai Chang, Aiyu Miao, Xiaoli Zhu, Li Xie, Jin Zhou
PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography (US-guided DOT) in predicting breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight breast cancer patients, with a total of 93 lesions, were included in our study. Pre- and post-last chemotherapy, size and total hemoglobin concentration (THC) of each lesion were measured by conventional US and US-guided DOT 1 day before biopsy (time point t0, THC THC0, SIZE S0) and 1 to 2 days before surgery (time point tL, THCL, SL)...
November 22, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172180/microsatellite-alterations-and-protein-expression-of-5-major-tumor-suppressor-genes-in-gastric-adenocarcinomas
#9
Won Hyuk Choi, Sookhyun Lee, Sungjin Cho
PURPOSE: In gastric adenocarcinoma (GC), the major tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) such as p16, PTEN, Rb, E-cadherin, and p53, may play important roles in various regulatory pathways and in tumor suppression. This study evaluated the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of microsatellite and protein expression of 5 TSGs and the results were examined for their correlation with clinicopathological factors. METHODS: LOH analysis was carried out using polymerase chain reactions with 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers of 5 chromosomes containing TSGs in 100 surgically resected tumors...
November 21, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156383/diagnosis-of-distant-metastasis-of-lung-cancer-based-on-clinical-and-radiomic-features
#10
Hongyu Zhou, Di Dong, Bojiang Chen, Mengjie Fang, Yue Cheng, Yuncun Gan, Rui Zhang, Liwen Zhang, Yali Zang, Zhenyu Liu, Hairong Zheng, Weimin Li, Jie Tian
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the distant metastasis possibility based on computed tomography (CT) radiomic features in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 348 patients with lung cancer enrolled between 2014 and February 2015. A feature set containing clinical features and 485 radiomic features was extracted from the pretherapy CT images. Feature selection via concave minimization (FSV) was used to select effective features. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to evaluate the predictive ability of each feature...
November 20, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161613/molecular-characterization-of-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-and-upper-urinary-tract
#11
Ji Yun Lee, Kyung Kim, Hyun Hwan Sung, Hwang Gyun Jeon, Byong Chang Jeong, Seong Il Seo, Seong Soo Jeon, Hyun Moo Lee, Han-Yong Choi, Ghee-Young Kwon, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Jeeyun Lee, Ho Yeong Lim, Se Hoon Park
PURPOSE: A better understanding of the molecular basis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) is needed to refine the clinical decision-making process. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed next-generation sequencing to investigate the mutational and transcriptional profiles of commonly mutated genes in UC using Ampliseq v2. Copy number variations (CNVs) were detected with nCounter assay. Genetic alterations between upper tract UC (UTUC) and urinary bladder UC (UBUC) were compared...
November 18, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154146/multiple-administrations-of-64cu-atsm-as-a-novel-therapeutic-option-for-glioblastoma-a-translational-study-using-mice-with-xenografts
#12
Yukie Yoshii, Hiroki Matsumoto, Mitsuyoshi Yoshimoto, Ming-Rong Zhang, Yoko Oe, Hiroaki Kurihara, Yoshitaka Narita, Zhao-Hui Jin, Atsushi B Tsuji, Keiichiro Yoshinaga, Yasuhisa Fujibayashi, Tatsuya Higashi
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor in humans and is difficult to cure using current treatment options. Hypoxic regions are frequently found in glioblastoma, and increased levels of hypoxia are associated with poor clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients. Hypoxia plays important roles in the progression and recurrence of glioblastoma because of drug delivery deficiencies and induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in tumor cells, which lead to poor prognosis. We focused on a promising hypoxia-targeted internal radiotherapy agent, 64Cu-diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-ATSM), to address the need for additional treatment for glioblastoma...
November 16, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145046/genetic-and-clinical-characteristics-of-phyllodes-tumors-of-the-breast
#13
Ji-Yeon Kim, Jong Han Yu, Seok Jin Nam, Seok Won Kim, Se Kyung Lee, Woong-Yang Park, Dong-Young Noh, Do-Hyun Nam, Yeon Hee Park, Wonshik Han, Jeong Eon Lee
PURPOSE: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all breast tumors. Among PTs, malignant PTs (MPTs) have malignant characteristics and distant metastases occur in about 20% to 30% of MPTs. However, there is no effective treatment for MPTs with distant metastasis, resulting in an abject prognosis. We performed targeted deep sequencing on PTs to identify the associations between genetic alterations and clinical prognosis. METHODS: We performed targeted deep sequencing to evaluate the genetic characteristics of PTs and analyzed the relationships between clinical and genetic characteristics...
November 12, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132013/chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells-redirected-to-epha2-for-the-immunotherapy-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Ning Li, Shaohui Liu, Mingjiao Sun, Wei Chen, Xiaogang Xu, Zhu Zeng, Yemin Tang, Yongquan Dong, Alex H Chang, Qiong Zhao
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 (EphA2) is overexpressed in more than 90% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but not significantly in normal lung tissue. It is therefore an important tumor antigen target for chimeric antigen receptors (CAR)-T-based therapy in NSCLC. Here, we developed a specific CAR targeted to EphA2, and the anti-tumor effects of this CAR were investigated. A second generation CAR with co-stimulatory receptor 4-1BB targeted to EphA2 was developed. The functionality of EphA2-specific T cells in vitro was tested with flow cytometry and real-time cell electronic sensing system assays...
November 10, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132012/distinct-ezrin-truncations-differentiate-metastases-in-sentinel-lymph-nodes-from-unaffected-lymph-node-tissues-from-primary-breast-tumors-and-from-healthy-glandular-breast-tissues
#15
Claudia Röwer, Christian George, Toralf Reimer, Bernd Stengel, Anngret Radtke, Bernd Gerber, Michael O Glocker
BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis status is a prognostic factor for further lymph node involvement and for patient survival in breast cancer patients. Frozen section analysis of lymph nodes is a reliable method for detection of macro-metastases. However, this method is far less effective in detecting micro-metastases, requesting improved diagnostic procedures. METHODS: We investigated expression and truncation of ezrin in (i) sentinel lymph node metastases, (ii) unaffected axillary lymph nodes, (iii) primary breast tumors, and (iv) healthy glandular breast tissues using 2D gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry in addition to Western blotting...
November 10, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096248/retrospective-proteomic-analysis-of-a-novel-cancer-metastasis-promoting-rgd-containing-peptide
#16
Michiyo Tsuru, Michio Sata, Maki Tanaka, Hideaki Umeyama, Yoshio Kodera, Mieko Shiwa, Norikazu Aoyagi, Kaori Yasuda, Kei Matsuoka, Takaaki Fukuda, Hideaki Yamana, Kensei Nagata
Patients who undergo surgical extirpation of a primary liver carcinoma followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy leading to complete remission are nevertheless known to develop cancerous metastases 3-10 years later. We retrospectively examined the blood sera collected over 8 years from 30 patients who developed bone metastases after the complete remission of liver cancer to identify serum proteins showing differential expression compared to patients without remission. We detected a novel RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)-containing peptide derived from the C-terminal portion of fibrinogen in the sera of metastatic patients that appeared to control the EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) of cancer cells, in a process associated with miR-199a-3p...
December 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096247/a-long-noncoding-rna-signature-that-predicts-pathological-complete-remission-rate-sensitively-in-neoadjuvant-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#17
Gen Wang, Xiaosong Chen, Yue Liang, Wei Wang, Kunwei Shen
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are closely related to pathological complete response (pCR) in neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Here, we construct lncRNA associated models to predict pCR rate. METHODS: LncRNA expression profiles of breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus by repurposing existing microarray data. The prediction model was firstly built by analyzing the correlation between pCR and lncRNA expression in the discovery dataset GSE 25066 (n=488)...
December 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096246/isolation-of-stem-like-cancer-cells-in-primary-endometrial-cancer-using-cell-surface-markers-cd133-and-cxcr4
#18
Yi Sun, Toshiko Yoshida, Motonori Okabe, Kaixuan Zhou, Fang Wang, Chika Soko, Sigeru Saito, Toshio Nikaido
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common familiar gynecologic malignant tumor identified in the female reproductive system and has been increasing yearly. In this study, we will identify the surface markers and stem cell markers related with cancer stem cells (CSCs) of EC. Tissue samples were obtained from endometrial cancer patients during surgical procedures. Single cells were isolated from the tissues for culturing, transfection into nude mice, and histopathology analysis. RT-PCR demonstrated that the cultured cells strongly expressed stemness-related genes, such as c-Myc, Sox-2, Nanog, Oct 4A, ABCG2, BMI-1, CK-18, Nestin and β-actin...
December 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078205/intratumor-and-intertumor-heterogeneity-in-melanoma
#19
REVIEW
Tomasz M Grzywa, Wiktor Paskal, Paweł K Włodarski
Melanoma is a cancer that exhibits one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous features. The incidence rate escalates. A high number of clones harboring various mutations contribute to an exceptional level of intratumor heterogeneity of melanoma. It also refers to metastases which may originate from different subclones of primary lesion. Such component of the neoplasm biology is termed intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity. These levels of tumor heterogeneity hinder accurate diagnosis and effective treatment...
December 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035731/postoperative-adjuvant-sorafenib-or-sunitinib-for-nonmetastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-venous-tumor-thrombus-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Liangyou Gu, Hongzhao Li, Luyao Chen, Xintao Li, Baojun Wang, Qingbo Huang, Fan Zhang, Yang Fan, Yu Gao, Cheng Peng, Xin Ma, Xu Zhang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiangiogenic agents (sorafenib and sunitinib) as postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and venous tumor thrombus (VTT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 2006 to January 2016, 147 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled; 27 patients received sorafenib, and 17 patients received sunitinib. After radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy, the duration of maintenance targeted medication treatment was approximately 1 year...
December 2017: Translational Oncology
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