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Pol Andrés-Benito, Mayelin Domínguez-González, Isidro Ferrer
Targeted expression of genes coding for proteins specific to astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and myelin was performed in frontal cortex area 8 of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease methionine/methionine and valine/valine (CJD MM1 and VV2, respectively) compared with controls. GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) mRNA was up-regulated whereas SLC1A2 (solute carrier family 1 member 2, coding for glutamate transporter 1: GLT1), AQ4 (aquaporin 4), MPC1 (mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1) and UCP5 (mitochondrial uncoupled protein 5) mRNAs were significantly down-regulated in CJD MM1 and CJD VV2, and GJA1 (connexin 43) in CJD VV2...
July 15, 2018: Prion
Yong-Chan Kim, Min-Ju Jeong, Byung-Hoon Jeong
Abnormal structural changes of the prion protein (PrP) are the cause of prion disease in a wide range of mammals. However, spontaneous infected cases have not been reported in chicken. Genetic variations of the prion protein gene (PRNP) may impact susceptibility to prion disease but have not been investigated thus far. Because an investigation of the chicken PRNP can improve the understanding of characteristics related to resistance to prion disease, research on the chicken PRNP is highly desirable. In this study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of the chicken PRNP gene...
July 3, 2018: Prion
Gregory A Newby, Can Kayatekin
Microbial prions facilitate a variety of phenotypic switches. Recently-developed tools that can directly interrogate, in the living cell, the aggregation state of a protein have enabled a wider range of experiments for prion-mediated behaviors. With such tools, the roles of the yeast prion [SWI+ ] in migration and mating were studied. Although [SWI+ ] cells were consistently less fit than their [swi-] counterparts under traditional laboratory conditions, in these new phenotypic paradigms [SWI+ ] cells demonstrated a distinct advantage...
June 20, 2018: Prion
Qi Shi, Jian-Le Li, Yue Ma, Li-Ping Gao, Kang Xiao, Jing Wang, Wei Zhou, Cao Chen, Yan-Jun Guo, Xiao-Ping Dong
The levels of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are usually increased in the brains of human Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD animal models. To evaluate the underlying alteration of brain RyRs in prion disease, scrapie infected cell line SMB-S15 and its infected mice were tested. RyR2 specific Western blots revealed markedly decreased RyR2 levels both in the cells and in the brains of infected mice. Assays of the brain samples of other scrapie (agents 139A and ME7) infected mice collected at different time-points during incubation period showed time-dependent decreases of RyR2...
June 7, 2018: Prion
Jie Li, Shaoli Zhang, Sarantsetseg Erdenee, Xiuzhu Sun, Ruihua Dang, Yongzhen Huang, Chuzhao Lei, Hong Chen, Hongwei Xu, Yong Cai, Xianyong Lan
Studies of the ovine prion-related protein (testis-specific) gene (PRNT), including studies of genetic diversity, have highlighted its potential relationship to scrapie infection and economically important ovine traits. PRNT was previously reported to be highly polymorphic in Portuguese sheep. To characterize genetic polymorphisms in this gene in Asian sheep, a direct sequencing method was used to detect polymorphic loci in PRNT in 285 individual sheep from four Chinese and one Mongolian breeds. Seven SNP variants in PRNT were identified, including three novel variants (g...
June 5, 2018: Prion
Giuseppe Legname, Tommaso Virgilio, Edoardo Bistaffa, Chiara Maria Giulia De Luca, Marcella Catania, Paola Zago, Elisa Isopi, Ilaria Campagnani, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Giorgio Giaccone, Fabio Moda
Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that induces the cis-trans conversion of specific Ser/Thr-Pro peptide bonds in phosphorylated proteins, leading to conformational changes through which Pin1 regulates protein stability and activity. Since down-regulation of Pin1 has been described in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Huntington's Disease (HD), we investigated its potential role in prion diseases. Animals generated on wild-type (Pin1+/+ ), hemizygous (Pin1+/- ) or knock-out (Pin1-/- ) background for Pin1 were experimentally infected with RML prions...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Stefano Martellucci, Valeria Manganelli, Costantino Santacroce, Francesca Santilli, Luca Piccoli, Maurizio Sorice, Vincenzo Mattei
Cellular prion protein (PrPC ) is expressed in a wide variety of stem cells in which regulates their self-renewal as well as differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the presence of PrPC in human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) and its role in neuronal differentiation process. We show that hDPSCs expresses early PrPC at low concentration and its expression increases after two weeks of treatment with EGF/bFGF. Then, we analyzed the association of PrPC with gangliosides and EGF receptor (EGF-R) during neuronal differentiation process...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Sol Moe Lee, Wonseok Lee, Yeong Seon Lee, Jin-Soo Yoo, Soo-Jung Park, Heebal Kim, Su Yeon Kim
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. Although various small molecules have been evaluated for application in the treatment of prion diseases, none have been shown to be efficacious. Expanding our knowledge of these molecules is important for understanding of the complex mechanisms of prion diseases. To improve access to the scattered information on small molecules related to prion diseases, we built a database of therapeutic molecules associated with prion diseases (THERPA, therpa...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Soochan Kim, Sinsuk Han, Taehyun Kim, Jeehoon Nam, Yong-Sun Kim, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Mi-Yeon Kim
We previously reported that mice intracerebrally inoculated with the mouse-adapted scrapie strain ME7 have markedly diminished T zones in the spleen due to the decreased expression of CCL19 and CCL21. In addition, follicular dendritic cell networks in germinal centers were larger in ME7-infected spleens compared to uninfected spleens. As an extension of that study, we set out to determine how ME7 infection affects spleen structure and follicular helper T (Tfh) cell responses in mice. For this study, mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with brain homogenate of the ME7 inoculum and spleens were analyzed 50, 130, and 200 days after inoculation and compared with those from uninfected mice...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Jing Wang, Kang Xiao, Wei Zhou, Chen Gao, Cao Chen, Qi Shi, Xiao-Ping Dong
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) with the P102L mutation in PRNP gene is characterized with progressive cerebellar dysfunction clinically and PrPSc plaques neurologically. Due to the cerebellar ataxia in the early stage, GSS P102L is often misdiagnosed as other neurodegenerative disorders. We presented here a 49-year-old female patient with proven P102L PRNP mutation, and three heterologous mutations in hereditary ataxias associated gene SYNE1, including p.V3643L, p.M3376V and p.T2860A. The patient appeared progressive unsteady gait in early stage and developed the Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) - associated clinical manifestations, including progressive dementia, myoclonus, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Nicholas J Haley, Jürgen A Richt, Kristen A Davenport, Davin M Henderson, Edward A Hoover, Matteo Manca, Byron Caughey, Douglas Marthaler, Jason Bartz, Sabine Gilch
Amplification assays for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies have been in development for close to 15 years, with critical implications for the postmortem and antemortem diagnosis of human and animal prion diseases. Little has been published regarding the structured development, implementation and interpretation of experiments making use of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and real time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), and our goal with this Perspectives manuscript is to offer a framework which might allow for more efficient expansion of pilot studies into diagnostic trials in both human and animal subjects...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Nicholas J Haley, Davin M Henderson, Sarah Wycoff, Joanne Tennant, Edward A Hoover, Dan Love, Ed Kline, Aaron Lehmkuhl, Bruce Thomsen
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting members of the cervid species, and is one of the few TSEs with an expanding geographic range. Diagnostic limitations, efficient transmission, and the movement of infected animals are important contributing factors in the ongoing spread of disease. Managing CWD in affected populations has proven difficult, relying on population reduction in the case of wild deer and elk, or quarantine and depopulation in farmed cervids...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Natsumi Saito, Tomohiko Ishihara, Kensaku Kasuga, Mana Nishida, Takanobu Ishiguro, Hiroaki Nozaki, Takayoshi Shimohata, Osamu Onodera, Masatoyo Nishizawa
We report a Japanese patient with spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). A 52-year-old man developed progressive cognitive impairment after the appearance of cerebellar symptoms. Brain MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) demonstrated a slowly expanding hyperintense lesion in the cerebral cortex. The patient was finally diagnosed as having both SCA31 and sCJD by identification of genetic mutations and by real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC) analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), respectively...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Sebastian Jung, Jörg Tatzelt
The prion protein (PrP) is composed of two major domains of similar size. The structured C-terminal domain contains three alpha-helical regions and a short two-stranded beta-sheet, while the N-terminal domain is intrinsically disordered. The analysis of PrP mutants with deletions in the C-terminal globular domain provided the first hint that intrinsically disordered domains are inefficiently transported into the endoplasmic reticulum through the Sec61 translocon. Interestingly, C-terminally truncated PrP mutants have been linked to inherited prion disease in humans and are characterized by inefficient ER import and the formation of neurotoxic PrP conformers...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Natalia Fernández-Borges, Hasier Eraña, Joaquín Castilla
Historically, the observation of naturally occurring cases of prion disease led to the classification of different susceptibility grades and to the designation of prion resistant species. However, the development of highly efficient in vitro prion propagation systems and the generation of ad hoc transgenic models allowed determining that leporidae and equidae families have been erroneously considered resistant to prion infection. On the contrary, similar approaches revealed an unexpected high level of resistance of the canidae family...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Joanna Bielewicz, Anna Szczepańska-Szerej, Magdalena Ogórek, Piotr Dropko, Katarzyna Wojtal, Konrad Rejdak
We reported the case of a patient with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKs) as an early clinical manifestation of sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (sCJD). The 66-year-old female complained of dizziness and imbalance which mostly occurred while walking. A neurological examination revealed a triad of symptoms characteristic for WKs such as gaze paresis, ataxia of limbs and trunk as well as memory disturbances with confabulations. The disturbances increased during the course of the disease, which led to the death of the patient four months after the appearance of the signs...
March 4, 2018: Prion
Jie Li, Sarantsetseg Erdenee, Shaoli Zhang, Zhenyu Wei, Meng Zhang, Yunyun Jin, Hui Wu, Hong Chen, Xiuzhu Sun, Hongwei Xu, Yong Cai, Xianyong Lan
Prion protein (PRNP) gene is well known for affecting mammal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), and is also reported to regulate phenotypic traits (e.g. growth traits) in healthy ruminants. To identify the insertion/deletion (indel) variations of the PRNP gene and evaluate their effects on growth traits, 768 healthy individuals from five sheep breeds located in China and Mongolia were identified and analyzed. Herein, four novel indel polymorphisms, namely, Intron-1-insertion-7bp (I1-7bp), Intron-2-insertion-15bp (I2-15bp), Intron-2-insertion-19bp (I2-19bp), and 3' UTR-insertion-7bp (3' UTR-7bp), were found in the sheep PRNP gene...
January 2, 2018: Prion
Daniel Samorodnitsky, Eric M Nicholson
Misfolding of the normally folded prion protein of mammals (PrPC ) into infectious fibrils causes a variety of diseases, from scrapie in sheep to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. The misfolded form of PrPC , termed PrPSc , or in this case PrPCWD , interacts with PrPC to create more PrPCWD . This process is not clearly defined but is affected by the presence and interactions of biotic and abiotic cofactors. These include nucleic acids, lipids, glycosylation, pH, and ionic character. PrPC has been shown to act as a copper-binding protein in vivo, though it also binds to other divalents as well...
January 2, 2018: Prion
Elena De Cecco, Giuseppe Legname
Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein amyloids in several regions of the brain. α-Synuclein fibrils are able to spread via cell-to-cell transfer, and once inside the cells, they can template the misfolding and aggregation of the endogenous α-synuclein. Multiple mechanisms have been shown to participate in the process of propagation: endocytosis, tunneling nanotubes and macropinocytosis. Recently, we published a research showing that the cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC ) acts as a receptor for α-synuclein amyloid fibrils, facilitating their internalization through and endocytic pathway...
January 2, 2018: Prion
Sei-Kyoung Park, Fatih Arslan, Vydehi Kanneganti, Sami J Barmada, Pravinkumar Purushothaman, Subhash Chandra Verma, Susan W Liebman
TDP-43 and FUS are DNA/RNA binding proteins associated with neuronal inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Other neurodegenerative diseases are also characterized by neuronal protein aggregates, e.g. Huntington's disease, associated with polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions in the protein huntingtin. Here we discuss our recent paper establishing similarities between aggregates of TDP-43 that have short glutamine and asparagine (Q/N)-rich modules and are soluble in detergents, with those of polyQ and PIN4C that have large Q/N-rich domains and are detergent-insoluble...
January 2, 2018: Prion
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