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Epigenetics & Chromatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751847/asf1-is-required-to-load-histones-on-the-hira-complex-in-preparation-of-paternal-chromatin-assembly-at-fertilization
#1
Béatrice Horard, Laure Sapey-Triomphe, Emilie Bonnefoy, Benjamin Loppin
BACKGROUND: Anti-Silencing Factor 1 (ASF1) is a conserved H3-H4 histone chaperone involved in both Replication-Coupled and Replication-Independent (RI) nucleosome assembly pathways. At DNA replication forks, ASF1 plays an important role in regulating the supply of H3.1/2 and H4 to the CAF-1 chromatin assembly complex. ASF1 also provides H3.3-H4 dimers to HIRA and DAXX chaperones for RI nucleosome assembly. The early Drosophila embryo is an attractive system to study chromatin assembly in a developmental context...
May 11, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665845/deletion-of-hp1%C3%AE-in-cardiac-myocytes-affects-h4k20me3-levels-but-does-not-impact-cardiac-growth
#2
Kyohei Oyama, Danny El-Nachef, Chen Fang, Hidemi Kajimoto, Jeremy P Brown, Prim B Singh, W Robb MacLellan
BACKGROUND: Heterochromatin, which is formed when tri-methyl lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3) is bound by heterochromatin 1 proteins (HP1s), plays an important role in differentiation and senescence by silencing cell cycle genes. Cardiac myocytes (CMs) accumulate heterochromatin during differentiation and demethylation of H3K9me3 inhibits cell cycle gene silencing and cell cycle exit in CMs; however, it is unclear if this process is mediated by HP1s. In this study, we created a conditional CM-specific HP1 gamma (HP1γ) knockout (KO) mouse model and tested whether HP1γ is required for cell cycle gene silencing and cardiac growth...
April 17, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665841/same-agent-different-messages-insight-into-transcriptional-regulation-by-sin3-isoforms
#3
REVIEW
Ashlesha Chaubal, Lori A Pile
SIN3 is a global transcriptional coregulator that governs expression of a large repertoire of gene targets. It is an important player in gene regulation, which can repress or activate diverse gene targets in a context-dependent manner. SIN3 is required for several vital biological processes such as cell proliferation, energy metabolism, organ development, and cellular senescence. The functional flexibility of SIN3 arises from its ability to interact with a large variety of partners through protein interaction domains that are conserved across species, ranging from yeast to mammals...
April 17, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653589/histone-h3k9-and-h4-acetylations-and-transcription-facilitate-the-initial-cenp-a-hcp-3-deposition-and-de-novo-centromere-establishment-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-artificial-chromosomes
#4
Jing Zhu, Kevin Chi Lok Cheng, Karen Wing Yee Yuen
BACKGROUND: The centromere is the specialized chromatin region that directs chromosome segregation. The kinetochore assembles on the centromere, attaching chromosomes to microtubules in mitosis. The centromere position is usually maintained through cell cycles and generations. However, new centromeres, known as neocentromeres, can occasionally form on ectopic regions when the original centromere is inactivated or lost due to chromosomal rearrangements. Centromere repositioning can occur during evolution...
April 13, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618374/transient-reduction-of-dna-methylation-at-the-onset-of-meiosis-in-male-mice
#5
Valeriya Gaysinskaya, Brendan F Miller, Chiara De Luca, Godfried W van der Heijden, Kasper D Hansen, Alex Bortvin
BACKGROUND: Meiosis is a specialized germ cell cycle that generates haploid gametes. In the initial stage of meiosis, meiotic prophase I (MPI), homologous chromosomes pair and recombine. Extensive changes in chromatin in MPI raise an important question concerning the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation to meiosis. Interestingly, previous studies concluded that in male mice, genome-wide DNA methylation patters are set in place prior to meiosis and remain constant subsequently...
April 4, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609617/genome-wide-analysis-of-gene-regulation-mechanisms-during-drosophila-spermatogenesis
#6
Petr P Laktionov, Daniil A Maksimov, Stanislav E Romanov, Polina A Antoshina, Olga V Posukh, Helen White-Cooper, Dmitry E Koryakov, Stepan N Belyakin
BACKGROUND: During Drosophila spermatogenesis, testis-specific meiotic arrest complex (tMAC) and testis-specific TBP-associated factors (tTAF) contribute to activation of hundreds of genes required for meiosis and spermiogenesis. Intriguingly, tMAC is paralogous to the broadly expressed complex Myb-MuvB (MMB)/dREAM and Mip40 protein is shared by both complexes. tMAC acts as a gene activator in spermatocytes, while MMB/dREAM was shown to repress gene activity in many cell types. RESULTS: Our study addresses the intricate interplay between tMAC, tTAF, and MMB/dREAM during spermatogenesis...
April 2, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598829/depletion-of-dnmt1-in-differentiated-human-cells-highlights-key-classes-of-sensitive-genes-and-an-interplay-with-polycomb-repression
#7
Karla M O'Neill, Rachelle E Irwin, Sarah-Jayne Mackin, Sara-Jayne Thursby, Avinash Thakur, Ciske Bertens, Laura Masala, Jayne E P Loughery, Darragh G McArt, Colum P Walsh
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the cell, but loss-of-function mutations of the maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 in normal human cells are lethal, precluding target identification, and existing hypomorphic lines are tumour cells. We generated instead a hypomorphic series in normal hTERT-immortalised fibroblasts using stably integrated short hairpin RNA. RESULTS: Approximately two-thirds of sites showed demethylation as expected, with one-third showing hypermethylation, and targets were shared between the three independently derived lines...
March 29, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598828/the-saga-trex-2-subunit-sus1-binds-widely-to-transcribed-genes-and-affects-mrna-turnover-globally
#8
Varinia García-Molinero, José García-Martínez, Rohit Reja, Pedro Furió-Tarí, Oreto Antúnez, Vinesh Vinayachandran, Ana Conesa, B Franklin Pugh, José E Pérez-Ortín, Susana Rodríguez-Navarro
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic transcription is regulated through two complexes, the general transcription factor IID (TFIID) and the coactivator Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA). Recent findings confirm that both TFIID and SAGA contribute to the synthesis of nearly all transcripts and are recruited genome-wide in yeast. However, how this broad recruitment confers selectivity under specific conditions remains an open question. RESULTS: Here we find that the SAGA/TREX-2 subunit Sus1 associates with upstream regulatory regions of many yeast genes and that heat shock drastically changes Sus1 binding...
March 29, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548294/modulation-of-nucleosomal-dna-accessibility-via-charge-altering-post-translational-modifications-in-histone-core
#9
Andrew T Fenley, Ramu Anandakrishnan, Yared H Kidane, Alexey V Onufriev
BACKGROUND: Controlled modulation of nucleosomal DNA accessibility via post-translational modifications (PTM) is a critical component to many cellular functions. Charge-altering PTMs in the globular histone core-including acetylation, phosphorylation, crotonylation, propionylation, butyrylation, formylation, and citrullination-can alter the strong electrostatic interactions between the oppositely charged nucleosomal DNA and the histone proteins and thus modulate accessibility of the nucleosomal DNA, affecting processes that depend on access to the genetic information, such as transcription...
March 16, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523178/the-bromodomain-containing-protein-ibd1-links-multiple-chromatin-related-protein-complexes-to-highly-expressed-genes-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#10
Alejandro Saettone, Jyoti Garg, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Syed Nabeel-Shah, Marcelo Ponce, Alyson Burtch, Cristina Thuppu Mudalige, Anne-Claude Gingras, Ronald E Pearlman, Jeffrey Fillingham
BACKGROUND: The chromatin remodelers of the SWI/SNF family are critical transcriptional regulators. Recognition of lysine acetylation through a bromodomain (BRD) component is key to SWI/SNF function; in most eukaryotes, this function is attributed to SNF2/Brg1. RESULTS: Using affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) we identified members of a SWI/SNF complex (SWI/SNFTt ) in Tetrahymena thermophila. SWI/SNFTt is composed of 11 proteins, Snf5Tt , Swi1Tt , Swi3Tt , Snf12Tt , Brg1Tt , two proteins with potential chromatin-interacting domains and four proteins without orthologs to SWI/SNF proteins in yeast or mammals...
March 9, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482658/independent-functions-of-dnmt1-and-usp7-at-replication-foci
#11
Olya Yarychkivska, Omid Tavana, Wei Gu, Timothy H Bestor
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that USP7 (ubiquitin-specific protease 7) prevents ubiquitylation and degradation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) by direct binding of USP7 to the glycine-lysine (GK) repeats that join the N-terminal regulatory domain of DNMT1 to the C-terminal methyltransferase domain. The USP7-DNMT1 interaction was reported to be mediated by acetylation of lysine residues within the (GK) repeats. RESULTS: We found that DNMT1 is present at normal levels in mouse and human cells that contain undetectable levels of USP7...
February 27, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482626/alterations-in-sperm-dna-methylation-non-coding-rna-and-histone-retention-associate-with-ddt-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-disease
#12
Michael K Skinner, Millissia Ben Maamar, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, Eric Nilsson, Margaux McBirney, Rachel Klukovich, Yeming Xie, Chong Tang, Wei Yan
BACKGROUND: Environmental toxicants such as DDT have been shown to induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease (e.g., obesity) through the germline. The current study was designed to investigate the DDT-induced concurrent alterations of a number of different epigenetic processes including DNA methylation, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and histone retention in sperm. METHODS: Gestating females were exposed transiently to DDT during fetal gonadal development, and then, the directly exposed F1 generation, the directly exposed germline F2 generation and the transgenerational F3 generation sperm were investigated...
February 27, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482634/individual-retrotransposon-integrants-are-differentially-controlled-by-kzfp-kap1-dependent-histone-methylation-dna-methylation-and-tet-mediated-hydroxymethylation-in-na%C3%A3-ve-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Andrea Coluccio, Gabriela Ecco, Julien Duc, Sandra Offner, Priscilla Turelli, Didier Trono
BACKGROUND: The KZFP/KAP1 (KRAB zinc finger proteins/KRAB-associated protein 1) system plays a central role in repressing transposable elements (TEs) and maintaining parent-of-origin DNA methylation at imprinting control regions (ICRs) during the wave of genome-wide reprogramming that precedes implantation. In naïve murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs), the genome is maintained highly hypomethylated by a combination of TET-mediated active demethylation and lack of de novo methylation, yet KAP1 is tethered by sequence-specific KZFPs to ICRs and TEs where it recruits histone and DNA methyltransferases to impose heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation...
February 26, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409522/systematic-prediction-of-dna-shape-changes-due-to-cpg-methylation-explains-epigenetic-effects-on-protein-dna-binding
#14
Satyanarayan Rao, Tsu-Pei Chiu, Judith F Kribelbauer, Richard S Mann, Harmen J Bussemaker, Remo Rohs
BACKGROUND: DNA shape analysis has demonstrated the potential to reveal structure-based mechanisms of protein-DNA binding. However, information about the influence of chemical modification of DNA is limited. Cytosine methylation, the most frequent modification, represents the addition of a methyl group at the major groove edge of the cytosine base. In mammalian genomes, cytosine methylation most frequently occurs at CpG dinucleotides. In addition to changing the chemical signature of C/G base pairs, cytosine methylation can affect DNA structure...
February 6, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378668/genome-wide-analysis-reveals-a-role-for-tdg-in-estrogen-receptor-mediated-enhancer-rna-transcription-and-3-dimensional-reorganization
#15
Bart Kolendowski, Haider Hassan, Milica Krstic, Majdina Isovic, Gobi Thillainadesan, Ann F Chambers, Alan B Tuck, Joseph Torchia
BACKGROUND: The estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand-dependant transcription factor expressed in many breast cancers and is the target of many endocrine-based cancer therapies. Genome-wide studies have shown that the ER binds to gene-specific enhancer regions in response to β-estradiol (E2) which undergo transcription producing noncoding enhancer RNA (eRNA). While eRNAs are important for transcriptional activation of neighboring genes, the mechanism remains poorly understood. RESULTS: Using ChIP-Seq we generate a global profile of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), an ER coactivator that plays an essential role in DNA demethylation, in response to E2 in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line...
January 29, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370823/identification-of-protein-lysine-methylation-readers-with-a-yeast-three-hybrid-approach
#16
Agnieszka Anna Rawłuszko-Wieczorek, Franziska Knodel, Raluca Tamas, Arunkumar Dhayalan, Albert Jeltsch
BACKGROUND: Protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) occur broadly in the human proteome, and their biological outcome is often mediated indirectly by reader proteins that specifically bind to modified proteins and trigger downstream effects. Particularly, many lysine methylation sites among histone and nonhistone proteins have been characterized; however, the list of readers associated with them is incomplete. RESULTS: This study introduces a modified yeast three-hybrid system (Y3H) to screen for methyllysine readers...
January 25, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357905/chromosome-nuclear-envelope-attachments-affect-interphase-chromosome-territories-and-entanglement
#17
Nicholas Allen Kinney, Igor V Sharakhov, Alexey V Onufriev
BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that the interphase chromatin of higher eukaryotes folds into non-random configurations forming territories within the nucleus. Chromosome territories have biologically significant properties, and understanding how these properties change with time during lifetime of the cell is important. Chromosome-nuclear envelope (Chr-NE) interactions play a role in epigenetic regulation of DNA replication, repair, and transcription. However, their role in maintaining chromosome territories remains unclear...
January 22, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329550/systematic-quantitative-analysis-of-h2a-and-h2b-variants-by-targeted-proteomics
#18
Sara El Kennani, Annie Adrait, Olga Permiakova, Anne-Marie Hesse, Côme Ialy-Radio, Myriam Ferro, Virginie Brun, Julie Cocquet, Jérôme Govin, Delphine Pflieger
BACKGROUND: Histones organize DNA into chromatin through a variety of processes. Among them, a vast diversity of histone variants can be incorporated into chromatin and finely modulate its organization and functionality. Classically, the study of histone variants has largely relied on antibody-based assays. However, antibodies have a limited efficiency to discriminate between highly similar histone variants. RESULTS: In this study, we established a mass spectrometry-based analysis to address this challenge...
January 12, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310712/genome-wide-screening-of-dna-methylation-in-bovine-blastocysts-with-different-kinetics-of-development
#19
Jessica Ispada, Camila Bruna de Lima, Marc-André Sirard, Patrícia Kubo Fontes, Marcelo Fábio Gouveia Nogueira, Kelly Annes, Marcella Pecora Milazzotto
BACKGROUND: The timing of the first cell divisions may predict the developmental potential of an embryo, including its ability to establish pregnancy. Besides differences related to metabolism, stress, and survival, embryos with different speeds of development present distinct patterns of gene expression, mainly related to energy and lipid metabolism. As gene expression is regulated by epigenetic factors, and that includes DNA methylation patterns, in this study we compared the global DNA methylation profile of embryos with different kinetics of development in order to identify general pathways and regions that are most influenced by this phenotype...
January 8, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273066/co-regulation-of-transcription-by-brg1-and-brm-two-mutually-exclusive-swi-snf-atpase-subunits
#20
Jesse R Raab, John S Runge, Camarie C Spear, Terry Magnuson
BACKGROUND: SWI/SNF is a large heterogeneous multi-subunit chromatin remodeling complex. It consists of multiple sets of mutually exclusive components. Understanding how loss of one sibling of a mutually exclusive pair affects the occupancy and function of the remaining complex is needed to understand how mutations in a particular subunit might affect tumor formation. Recently, we showed that the members of the ARID family of SWI/SNF subunits (ARID1A, ARID1B and ARID2) had complex transcriptional relationships including both antagonism and cooperativity...
December 22, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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