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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165886/parsimony-and-complexity-cell-fate-assignment-in-the-developing-drosophila-eye
#1
Yannis Emmanuel Mavromatakis, Andrew Tomlinson
The specification of the R7 photoreceptor in the Drosophila eye has become a classic model for understanding how cell fates are assigned in developing systems. R7 is derived from a group of cells that also gives rise to the R1/6 photoreceptor class and the non-photoreceptor cone cells. Our studies examine the signals and cellular information that direct each of these cell types. The cell fates are directed by the combined actions of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) and Notch (N) signaling pathways. The RTK pathway acts to remove the transcription factor Tramtrack (Ttk) which represses the photoreceptor fate...
February 6, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165856/sechsp70-as-a-tool-to-approach-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-and-other-extracellular-amyloids
#2
Lorena de Mena, Deepak Chhangani, Pedro Fernandez-Funez, Diego E Rincon-Limas
Self-association of amyloidogenic proteins is the main pathological trigger in a wide variety of neurodegenerative disorders. These aggregates are deposited inside or outside the cell due to hereditary mutations, environmental exposures or even normal aging. Cumulative evidence indicates that the heat shock chaperone Hsp70 possesses robust neuroprotection against various intracellular amyloids in Drosophila and mouse models. However, its protective role against extracellular amyloids was largely unknown as its presence outside the cells is very limited...
February 6, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121487/gluconeogenesis-an-ancient-biochemical-pathway-with-a-new-twist
#3
Tetsuya Miyamoto, Hubert Amrein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960619/we-also-canfly-the-2nd-mexfly-drosophila-research-conference
#4
Fanis Missirlis, Marcos Nahmad
The 2nd Mexican Drosophila Research Conference (MexFly) took place on June 30th and July 1st, 2016 in Mexico City, at the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (Cinvestav). Principal investigators, postdocs, students, and technicians from Drosophila labs across Mexico attended. The guest speaker was Chris Rushlow from New York University, who presented work on Zelda, a key transcriptional activator of the early zygotic genome. Here we provide a brief report of the meeting, which sketches the present landscape of Drosophila research in Mexico...
December 14, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960592/mobile-phone-radiation-induced-perturbation-of-gene-expression-profiling-redox-equilibrium-and-sporadic-apoptosis-control-in-the-ovary-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Areti K Manta, Deppie Papadopoulou, Alexander P Polyzos, Adamantia F Fragopoulou, Aikaterini S Skouroliakou, Dimitris Thanos, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Lukas H Margaritis
The daily use by people of wireless communication devices has increased exponentially in the last decade, begetting concerns regarding its potential health hazards. Drosophila melanogaster four days-old adult female flies were exposed for 30 min to radiation emitted by a commercial mobile phone at a SAR of 0.15 W/kg and a SAE of 270 J/kg. ROS levels and apoptotic follicles were assayed in parallel with a genome-wide microarrays analysis. ROS cellular contents were found to increase by 1.6-fold (x), immediately after the end of exposure, in follicles of pre-choriogenic stages (germarium - stage 10), while sporadically generated apoptotic follicles (germarium 2b and stages 7-9) presented with an averaged 2x upregulation in their sub-population mass, 4 h after fly's irradiation with mobile device...
December 14, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165912/from-the-editors
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575697/the-beneficial-role-of-extracellular-reactive-oxygen-species-in-apoptosis-induced-compensatory-proliferation
#7
Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann
Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) maintains tissue homeostasis following massive stress-induced cell death. During this phenomenon, dying cells induce proliferation of the surviving cells to compensate for the tissue loss, and thus restore organ size. Along with wound healing and tissue regeneration, AiP also contributes to tumor repopulation following radiation or chemotherapy. There are several models of AiP. Using an "undead" AiP model that causes hyperplastic overgrowth of Drosophila epithelial tissue, we recently demonstrated that extracellular reactive oxygen species (eROS) are produced by undead epithelial cells, and are necessary for inducing AiP and overgrowth...
January 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562340/how-tissue-damage-met-metabolism-regulation-of-the-systemic-damage-response
#8
Soshiro Kashio, Fumiaki Obata, Masayuki Miura
Living organisms experience tissue damage from both, the surrounding environment and from inside their bodies. Tissue repair/regeneration is triggered by local tissue injury to restore an injured, or lost, part of the body. Tissue damage results in a series of responses, not only locally but also systemically in distant tissues. In our recent publication, we established a "dual system" that induces spatiotemporal tissue damage simultaneously with gene manipulation in surrounding tissues. With this system, we demonstrated that appropriate regulation of methionine metabolism in the fat body is required for tissue repair in Drosophila wing discs, thus highlighting the importance of systemic damage response (SDR) in tissue repair...
January 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560369/drosophila-yakuba-mayottensis-a-new-model-for-the-study-of-incipient-ecological-speciation
#9
Amir Yassin
A full understanding of how ecological factors drive the fixation of genetic changes during speciation is obscured by the lack of appropriate models with clear natural history and powerful genetic toolkits. In a recent study, we described an early stage of ecological speciation in a population of the generalist species Drosophila yakuba (melanogaster subgroup) on the island of Mayotte (Indian Ocean). On this island, flies are strongly associated with the toxic fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia) and show a partial degree of pre-zygotic reproductive isolation...
January 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540774/ectoparasitic-mites-and-their-drosophila-hosts
#10
Alejandra Perez-Leanos, Mariana Ramirez Loustalot-Laclette, Nestor Nazario-Yepiz, Therese Ann Markow
Only two parasite interactions are known for Drosophila to date: Allantonematid nematodes associated with mycophagous Drosophilids and the ectoparasitic mite Macrocheles subbadius with the Sonoran Desert endemic Drosophila nigrospiracula. Unlike the nematode-Drosophila association, breadth of mite parasitism on Drosophila species is unknown. As M. subbadius is a generalist, parasitism of additional Drosophilids is expected. We determined the extent and distribution of mite parasitism in nature Drosophilids collected in Mexico and southern California...
January 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494710/the-translation-factors-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Steven J Marygold, Helen Attrill, Paul Lasko
Synthesis of polypeptides from mRNA (translation) is a fundamental cellular process that is coordinated and catalyzed by a set of canonical 'translation factors'. Surprisingly, the translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster have not yet been systematically identified, leading to inconsistencies in their nomenclature and shortcomings in functional (Gene Ontology, GO) annotations. Here, we describe the complete set of translation factors in D. melanogaster, applying nomenclature already in widespread use in other species, and revising their functional annotation...
January 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494619/tools-and-strategies-for-scarless-allele-replacement-in-drosophila-using-crispr-cas9
#12
Abigail M Lamb, Elizabeth A Walker, Patricia J Wittkopp
Genome editing via the CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided nuclease system has opened up exciting possibilities for genetic analysis. However, technical challenges associated with homology-directed repair have proven to be roadblocks for producing changes in the absence of unwanted, secondary mutations commonly known as "scars." To address these issues, we developed a 2-stage, marker-assisted strategy to facilitate precise, "scarless" edits in Drosophila with a minimal requirement for molecular screening. Using this method, we modified 2 base pairs in a gene of interest without altering the final sequence of the CRISPR cut sites...
January 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450981/dpr-dip-matching-expression-in-drosophila-synaptic-pairs
#13
Marta Morey
Neurons form precise patterns of connections. The cellular recognition mechanisms regulating the selection of synaptic partners are poorly understood. As final mediators of cell-cell interactions, cell surface and secreted molecules (CSMs) are expected to play important roles in this process. To gain insight into how neurons discriminate synaptic partners, we profiled the transcriptomes of 7 closely related neurons forming distinct synaptic connections in discrete layers in the medulla neuropil of the fly visual system...
January 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362557/infection-avoidance-behavior-viral-exposure-reduces-the-motivation-to-forage-in-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Pedro F Vale, Michael D Jardine
Infection avoidance behaviors are the first line of defense against pathogenic encounters. Behavioral plasticity in response to internal or external cues of infection can therefore generate potentially significant heterogeneity in infection. We tested whether Drosophila melanogaster exhibits infection avoidance behavior, and whether this behavior is modified by prior exposure to Drosophila C Virus (DCV) and by the risk of DCV encounter. We examined 2 measures of infection avoidance: (1) the motivation to seek out food sources in the presence of an infection risk and (2) the preference to land on a clean food source over a potentially infectious source...
January 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880074/what-does-the-fruitless-gene-tell-us-about-nature-vs-nurture-in-the-sex-life-of-drosophila
#15
Daisuke Yamamoto, Soh Kohatsu
The fruitless (fru) gene in Drosophila has been proposed to play a master regulator role in the formation of neural circuitries for male courtship behavior, which is typically considered to be an innate behavior composed of a fixed action pattern as generated by the central pattern generator. However, recent studies have shed light on experience-dependent changes and sensory-input-guided plasticity in courtship behavior. For example, enhanced male-male courtship, a fru mutant "hallmark," disappears when fru-mutant males are raised in isolation...
November 23, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834611/strategy-changes-in-subsequent-fights-as-consequences-of-winning-and-losing-in-fruit-fly-fights
#16
Séverine Trannoy, Edward A Kravitz
In competition for food, territory and mates, male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) engage in agonistic encounters with conspecifics. The fighting strategies used to obtain these resources are influenced by previous and present experience, environmental cues, and the internal state of the animal including hormonal and genetic influences. Animals that experience prior defeats show submissive behavior and are more likely to lose 2(nd) contests, while animals that win 1(st) fights are more aggressive and have a higher probability of winning 2(nd) contests...
November 11, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834607/somatic-recombination-in-adult-tissues-what-is-there-to-learn
#17
Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
Somatic recombination is essential to protect genomes of somatic cells from DNA damage but it also has important clinical implications, as it is a driving force of tumorigenesis leading to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Despite this importance, our knowledge about somatic recombination in adult tissues remains very limited. Our recent work, using the Drosophila adult midgut has demonstrated that spontaneous events of mitotic recombination accumulate in aging adult intestinal stem cells and result in frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH)...
November 11, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723419/successive-requirement-of-glass-and-hazy-for-photoreceptor-specification-and-maintenance-in-drosophila
#18
F Javier Bernardo-Garcia, Tim-Henning Humberg, Cornelia Fritsch, Simon G Sprecher
Development of the insect compound eye requires a highly controlled interplay between transcription factors. However, the genetic mechanisms that link early eye field specification to photoreceptor terminal differentiation and fate maintenance remain largely unknown. Here, we decipher the function of two transcription factors, Glass and Hazy, which play a central role during photoreceptor development. The regulatory interactions between Glass and Hazy suggest that they function together in a coherent feed-forward loop in all types of Drosophila photoreceptors...
October 10, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434165/revisiting-the-role-of-the-gcm-transcription-factor-from-master-regulator-to-swiss-army-knife
#19
Pierre B Cattenoz, Angela Giangrande
Master genes are known to induce the differentiation of a multipotent cell into a specific cell type. These molecules are often transcription factors that switch on the regulatory cascade that triggers cell specification. Gcm was first described as the master gene of the glial fate in Drosophila as it induces the differentiation of neuroblasts into glia in the developing nervous system. Later on, Gcm was also shown to regulate the differentiation of blood, tendon and peritracheal cells as well as that of neuronal subsets...
October 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384866/jun-n-terminal-kinase-signaling-makes-a-face
#20
Deborah A Hursh, Brian G Stultz, Sung Yeon Park
decapentaplegic (dpp), the Drosophila ortholog of BMP 2/4, directs ventral adult head morphogenesis through expression in the peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc. This dpp expressing domain exerts effects both on the peripodial epithelium, and the underlying disc proper epithelium. We have uncovered a role for the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in dpp-mediated ventral head development. JNK activity is required for dpp's action on the disc proper, but in the absence of dpp expression, excessive JNK activity is produced, leading to specific loss of maxillary palps...
October 2016: Fly
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