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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015555/bantam-microrna-is-a-negative-regulator-of-the-drosophila-decapentaplegic-pathway
#1
Nanci S Kane, Mehul Vora, Richard W Padgett, Ying Li
Decapentaplegic (Dpp), the Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2/4), is crucial for patterning and growth in many developmental contexts. The Dpp pathway is regulated at many different levels to exquisitely control its activity. We show that bantam (ban), a microRNA, modulates Dpp signaling activity. Over expression of ban decreases phosphorylated Mothers against decapentaplegic (Mad) levels and negatively affects Dpp pathway transcriptional target genes, while null mutant clones of ban upregulate the pathway...
July 17, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451063/epithelial-tumors-growing-from-within
#2
Mariana Muzzopappa, Marco Milán
The growth of epithelial tumors is often governed by cell interactions with the surrounding stroma. Drosophila has been instrumental in identifying the relevant molecular elements mediating these interactions. Of note is the role of the TNF ligand Eiger, released from recruited blood cells, in activating the JNK tumor-promoting pathway in epithelial tumors. JNK drives the transcriptional induction of mitogenic molecules, matrix metalloproteases and systemic signals that lead to tumor growth, tissue invasiveness and malignancy...
March 1, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355090/combining-morphology-and-molecular-data-to-improve-drosophila-paulistorum-diptera-drosophilidae-taxonomic-status
#3
Rebeca Zanini, Mário Josias Müller, Gilberto Cavalheiro Vieira, Victor Hugo Valiati, Maríndia Deprá, Vera Lúcia da Silva Valente
The willistoni species subgroup has been the subject of several studies since the latter half of the past century and is considered a Neotropical model for evolutionary studies, given the many levels of reproductive isolation and different evolutionary stages occurring within them. Here we present for the first time a phylogenetic reconstruction combining morphological characters and molecular data obtained from 8 gene fragments (COI, COII, Cytb, Adh, Ddc, Hb, kl-3 and per). Some relationships were incongruent when comparing morphological and molecular data...
February 7, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355077/the-cop9-signalosome-inhibits-cullin-ring-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-independently-of-its-deneddylase-activity
#4
Annabelle Suisse, Miklós Békés, Tony T Huang, Jessica E Treisman
The COP9 signalosome inhibits the activity of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases by removing Nedd8 modifications from their Cullin subunits. Neddylation renders these complexes catalytically active, but deneddylation is also necessary for them to exchange adaptor subunits and avoid auto-ubiquitination. Although deneddylation is thought to be the primary function of the COP9 signalosome, additional activities have been ascribed to some of its subunits. We recently showed that COP9 subunits protect the transcriptional repressor and tumor suppressor Capicua from two distinct modes of degradation...
January 22, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455581/keeping-it-tight-the-relationship-between-bacterial-dysbiosis-septate-junctions-and-the-intestinal-barrier-in-drosophila
#5
Martin Resnik-Docampo, Vivien Sauer, Joseph M Schinaman, Rebecca I Clark, David W Walker, D Leanne Jones
Maladaptive changes in the intestinal flora, typically referred to as bacterial dysbiosis, have been linked to intestinal aging phenotypes, including an increase in intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation, activation of inflammatory pathways, and increased intestinal permeability1,2 . However, the causal relationships between these phenotypes are only beginning to be unravelled. We recently characterized the age-related changes that occur to septate junctions (SJ) between adjacent, absorptive enterocytes (EC) in the fly intestine...
January 2, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239688/compromising-asymmetric-stem-cell-division-in-drosophila-central-brain-revisiting-the-connections-with-tumorigenesis
#6
Ana Carmena
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is an essential process during development for generating cell diversity. In addition, a more recent connection between ACD, cancer and stem cell biology has opened novel and highly intriguing venues in the field. This connection between compromised ACD and tumorigenesis was first demonstrated using Drosophila neural stem cells (neuroblasts, NBs) more than a decade ago and, over the past years, it has also been established in vertebrate stem cells. Here, focusing on Drosophila larval brain NBs, and in light of results recently obtained in our lab, we revisit this connection emphasizing two main aspects: 1) the differences in tumor suppressor activity of different ACD regulators and 2) the potential relevance of environment and temporal window frame for compromised ACD-dependent induction of tumor-like overgrowth...
January 2, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189094/fijiwingspolarity-an-open-source-toolkit-for-semi-automated-detection-of-cell-polarity
#7
Leonard L Dobens, Anna Shipman, Jeffrey D Axelrod
Epithelial cells are defined by apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the latter of which establishes an orthogonal plane of polarity in the epithelial sheet. PCP signaling is required for normal cell migration, differentiation, stem cell generation and tissue repair, and defects in PCP have been associated with developmental abnormalities, neuropathologies and cancers. While the molecular mechanism of PCP is incompletely understood, the deepest insights have come from Drosophila, where PCP is manifest in hairs and bristles across the adult cuticle and organization of the ommatidia in the eye...
January 2, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166845/identifying-the-minimum-number-of-microsatellite-loci-needed-to-assess-population-genetic-structure-a-case-study-in-fly-culturing
#8
Wolfgang Arthofer, Carina Heussler, Patrick Krapf, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner, Florian M Steiner
Small, isolated populations are constantly threatened by loss of genetic diversity due to drift. Such situations are found, for instance, in laboratory culturing. In guarding against diversity loss, monitoring of potential changes in population structure is paramount; this monitoring is most often achieved using microsatellite markers, which can be costly in terms of time and money when many loci are scored in large numbers of individuals. Here, we present a case study reducing the number of microsatellites to the minimum necessary to correctly detect the population structure of two Drosophila nigrosparsa populations...
January 2, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125381/pleiotropy-in-drosophila-organogenesis-mechanistic-insights-from-combgap-and-the-retinal-determination-gene-network
#9
Trevor L Davis, Ilaria Rebay
Master regulatory transcription factors cooperate in networks to shepherd cells through organogenesis. In the Drosophila eye, a collection of master control proteins known as the retinal determination gene network (RDGN) switches the direction and targets of its output to choreograph developmental transitions, but the molecular partners that enable such regulatory flexibility are not known. We recently showed that two RDGN members, Eyes absent (Eya) and Sine oculis (So), promote exit from the terminal cell cycle known as the second mitotic wave (SMW) to permit differentiation...
January 2, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125376/extending-julius-seizure-a-bang-sensitive-gene-as-a-model-for-studying-epileptogenesis-cold-shock-and-a-new-insertional-mutation
#10
Derek Dean, Hannah Weinstein, Seema Amin, Breelyn Karno, Emma McAvoy, Ronald Hoy, Andrew Recknagel, Casey Jarvis, David Deitcher
The bang-sensitive (BS) mutants of Drosophila are an important model for studying epilepsy. We recently identified a novel BS locus, julius seizure (jus), encoding a protein containing two transmembrane domains and an extracellular cysteine-rich loop. We also determined that jussda iso7.8 , a previously identified BS mutation, is an allele of jus by recombination, deficiency mapping, complementation testing, and genetic rescue. RNAi knockdown revealed that jus expression is important in cholinergic neurons and that the critical stage of jus expression is the mid-pupa...
January 2, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095113/strong-responses-of-drosophila-melanogaster-microbiota-to-developmental-temperature
#11
Neda N Moghadam, Pia Mai Thorshauge, Torsten N Kristensen, Nadieh de Jonge, Simon Bahrndorff, Henrik Kjeldal, Jeppe Lund Nielsen
Physiological responses to changes in environmental conditions such as temperature may partly arise from the resident microbial community that integrates a wide range of bio-physiological aspects of the host. In the present study, we assessed the effect of developmental temperature on the thermal tolerance and microbial community of Drosophila melanogaster. We also developed a bacterial transplantation protocol in order to examine the possibility of reshaping the host bacterial composition and assessed its influence on the thermotolerance phenotype...
January 2, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095106/deletion-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunit-gene-d%C3%AE-1-confers-insecticide-resistance-but-at-what-cost
#12
Jason Somers, Hang Ngoc Bao Luong, Philip Batterham, Trent Perry
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have vital functions in processes of neurotransmission that underpin key behaviors. These pentameric ligand-gated ion channels have been used as targets for insecticides that constitutively activate them, causing the death of insect pests. In examining a knockout of the Dα1 nAChR subunit gene, our study linked this one subunit with multiple traits. We were able to confirm previous work that had identified Dα1 as a target of the neonicotinoid class of insecticides...
January 2, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471262/mtv-sings-jubilation-for-telomere-biology-in-drosophila
#13
Lin Cheng, Ming Cui, Yikang S Rong
Telomere protects the ends of linear chromosomes. Telomere dysfunction fuels genome instability that can lead to diseases such as cancer. For over 30 years, Drosophila has fascinated the field as the only major model organism that does not rely on the conserved telomerase enzyme for end protection. Instead of short DNA repeats at chromosome ends, Drosophila has domesticated retrotransposons. In addition, telomere protection can be entirely sequence-independent under normal laboratory conditions, again dissimilar to what has been established for telomerase-maintained systems...
January 2, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945500/dual-role-of-bmp-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-drosophila-intestinal-stem-cell-self-renewal
#14
Aiguo Tian, Jin Jiang
Many adult organs including Drosophila adult midguts rely on resident stem cells to replenish damaged cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Previous studies have shown that, upon injury, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the midguts can increase proliferation and lineage differentiation to meet the demand for tissue repair. Our recent study has demonstrated that, in response to certain injury, midguts can expand ISC population size as an additional regenerative mechanism. We found that injury elicited by bleomycin feeding or bacterial infection increased the production of two BMP ligands (Dpp and Gbb) in enterocytes (ECs), leading to elevated BMP signaling in progenitor cells that drove an expansion of ISCs by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division...
October 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853976/generation-of-genome-modified-drosophila-cell-lines-using-swap
#15
Alexandra Franz, Erich Brunner, Konrad Basler
The ease of generating genetically modified animals and cell lines has been markedly increased by the recent development of the versatile CRISPR/Cas9 tool. However, while the isolation of isogenic cell populations is usually straightforward for mammalian cell lines, the generation of clonal Drosophila cell lines has remained a longstanding challenge, hampered by the difficulty of getting Drosophila cells to grow at low densities. Here, we describe a highly efficient workflow to generate clonal Cas9-engineered Drosophila cell lines using a combination of cell pools, limiting dilution in conditioned medium and PCR with allele-specific primers, enabling the efficient selection of a clonal cell line with a suitable mutation profile...
October 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837401/complex-roles-of-myoglianin-in-regulating-adult-performance-and-lifespan
#16
Hrvoje Augustin, Jennifer Adcott, Christopher J H Elliott, Linda Partridge
Myoglianin, the Drosophila homolog of the secreted vertebrate proteins Myostatin and GDF-11, is an important regulator of neuronal modeling, and synapse function and morphology. While Myoglianin suppression during development elicits positive effects on the neuromuscular system, genetic manipulations of myoglianin expression levels have a varied effect on the outcome of performance tests in aging flies. Specifically, Myoglianin preserves jumping ability, has no effect on negative geotaxis, and negatively regulates flight performance in aging flies...
October 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644712/comparative-analysis-of-behavioral-and-transcriptional-variation-underlying-co-2-sensory-neuron-function-and-development-in-drosophila
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jia Wern Pan, Joi McLaughlin, Haining Yang, Charles Leo, Paula Rambarat, Sumie Okuwa, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Sabrina Clark, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages...
October 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586288/genomic-signatures-of-local-adaptation-in-the-drosophila-immune-response
#18
Angela M Early, Andrew G Clark
As environments and pathogen landscapes shift, host defenses must evolve to remain effective. Due to this selection pressure, among-species comparisons of genetic sequence data often find immune genes to be among the fastest evolving genes across the genome. The full extent and nature of these immune adaptations, however, remain largely unexplored. In a recent study, we analyzed patterns of selection within distinct components of the Drosophila melanogaster immune pathway. While we found evidence of positive selection within some immune processes, immune genes were not universally characterized by signatures of strong selection...
October 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574763/the-dark-side-of-hippo-signaling-a-cancer-promoter-role
#19
Brandon Dunn, Xianjue Ma
The Hippo signaling pathway regulates organ size and tissue homeostasis. Given this role it is unsurprising that dysregulation of this pathway has implications for cancer progression. A convincing body of literature shows that the Hippo pathway serves a tumor suppressive function with its inactivation leading to massive overgrowth. However, additional studies have also shown that activation of Hippo signaling can promote tumor progression. It remains unknown how a single pathway can produce such diametrically opposed effects...
October 2, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481649/new-perspectives-on-the-roles-of-abl-tyrosine-kinase-in-axon-patterning
#20
REVIEW
Ramakrishnan Kannan, Edward Giniger
The Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) lies at the heart of one of the small set of ubiquitous, conserved signal transduction pathways that do much of the work of development and physiology. Abl signaling is essential to epithelial integrity, motility of autonomous cells such as blood cells, and axon growth and guidance in the nervous system. However, though Abl was one of the first of these conserved signaling machines to be identified, it has been among the last to have its essential architecture elucidated. Here we will first discuss some of the challenges that long delayed the dissection of this pathway, and what they tell us about the special problems of investigating dynamic processes like motility...
October 2, 2017: Fly
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