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Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology

Toke Alstrup, Marco Eijken, Anja Bille Bohn, Bjarne Møller, Tine Engberg Damsgaard
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of great interest due to their properties of immune modulation, tissue regeneration, and multipotent differentiation. Future developments of clinical applications, however, require a higher yield of MSCs, lower number of passages of cells in culture, and shorter time from harvest to use. Optimization and standardization of techniques for mesenchymal adipose tissue-derived stem cell isolation offers solutions to current bottlenecks as a larger amount of MSCs can be isolated...
October 26, 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Jean Ann Maguire, Fabian L Cardenas-Diaz, Paul Gadue, Deborah L French
Human PSCs offer tremendous potential for both basic biology and cell-based therapies for a wide variety of diseases. The ability to manipulate the genome of these cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 technology has expanded this potential by providing a valuable tool for engineering or correcting disease-associated mutations. Because of the high efficiency with which CRISPR-Cas9 creates targeted double-strand breaks, a major challenge has been the introduction of precise genetic modifications on one allele, without indel formation on the non-targeted allele...
October 24, 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Sylvie Janssens, Michael Schotsaert, Lara Manganaro, Marion Dejosez, Viviana Simon, Adolfo García-Sastre, Thomas P Zwaka
Organoids-or pluripotent stem cell-derived in vitro-grown simplified mini organs-have become a tremendously important model to study human organ development and disease. To restrict the noise inherent to the heterogeneous cell mixtures derived from organoid cultures, we developed a new technique of fluorescence-assisted cell sorting (FACS) of virus-infected cerebral organoid cultures. This method still includes the advantage of growing cells in a more natural environment than traditional cell culture, but now renders samples suitable for downstream cell type-specific multi-omics analyses...
October 24, 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
I C Tobias, R Khazaee, D H Betts
Dynamic alterations to mitochondrial structure and function regulate cell fate decisions and underlie multiple age-related and genetic diseases that are modeled using embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to obtain high-resolution micrographs of mitochondria, but mitochondrial ultrastructure is easily distorted during specimen processing. This unit describes a method that preserves mitochondrial membrane structure from adherent ESC cultures for TEM sample preparation...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Kosuke Kusamori, Yukiya Takayama, Makiya Nishikawa
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold promise in cell-based therapies because of their strong tissue repair ability and immunosuppressive effects; however, the therapeutic efficacy of transplanted MSCs is limited due to low survival rates and short-term functioning after transplantation. While the functionalization of MSCs is an ideal way to solve these problems, conventional cell functionalization methods have disadvantages such as cell damage, changes in cellular characteristics, and short-term modification...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Mi Ae Park, Ho Sun Jung, Igor Slukvin
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) emerged as an important tool to investigate human development and disease. These studies often require genetically engineering hPSCs to stably express a transgene, which remains functional in various hPSC progeny. PiggyBac transposon is a highly effective and technically simple vector system with large cargo space available for permanent gene delivery. This unit describes the use of PiggyBac transposons to genetically engineer hPSCs to introduce conditionally expressed transgene or reporter to effectively monitor gene expression during differentiation...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Antje Appelt-Menzel, Alevtina Cubukova, Marco Metzger
Human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro models pose a promising tool in drug development and understanding of mechanistic regulations during health and disease. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells) represent an unlimited cell source to generate functional cells of the neurovascular unit (NVU), independent of variations or limitations during isolation and in vitro cultivation. This unit describes the standardized 2-D differentiation of adherent hiPS cells into BBB endothelial cells and neuronal stem cells (NSCs)...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Devang K Thakor, Lei Wang, Darcy Benedict, Serdar Kabatas, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Human mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hMSCs) hold regenerative medicine potential due to their availability, in vitro expansion readiness, and autologous feasibility. For neural repair, hMSCs show translational value in research on stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), and traumatic brain injury. It is pivotal to establish multimodal in vitro systems to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying neural actions of hMSCs. Here, we describe a platform protocol on how to set up organotypic co-cultures of hMSCs (alone or polymer-scaffolded) with explanted adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) to determine neural injury and recovery events for designing implants to counteract neurotrauma sequelae...
November 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Masayo Kondo, Michihiko Sugimoto, Kuniya Abe
Epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are primed pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) derived from mouse postimplantation embryos. Interestingly, EpiSCs share many characteristics with human PSCs such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced PSCs (hiPSC). Thus, EpiSCs can serve as a model for studying primed states of pluripotency. This article describes a simple yet highly efficient protocol for EpiSC derivation and maintenance of homogenous EpiSCs using an inhibitor of WNT secretion. Using this method, EpiSCs can be readily derived from mouse strains with different genetic background including C57BL/6N...
August 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Wei Lian, Yuning Jia, Lingyun Li, Zhong Huang, Jianyong Xu
Cardiospheres represent a more effective cell-based therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction than stem cells of non-cardiac origin. Unfortunately, their therapeutic application is limited by low yield of cell harvesting, declining quality and quantity during the aging process, and the need for highly invasive heart biopsy. Therefore, there is an emerging interest in generating cardiosphere-like stem cells from somatic cells via somatic reprogramming. This novel approach would provide an unlimited source of stem cells with cardiac differentiation potential...
August 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Joseph J Kim, Prabhas V Moghe
This unit describes a protocol for acquiring and analyzing high-content super-resolution images of human stem cell nuclei for the characterization and classification of the cell differentiation paths based on distinct patterns of epigenetic mark organization. Here, we describe the cell culture, immunocytochemical labeling, super-resolution imaging parameters, and MATLAB-based quantitative image analysis approaches for monitoring human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as the cells differentiate towards various lineages...
August 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Dan C Wilkinson, Michael Mellody, Luisa K Meneses, Ashley C Hope, Bruce Dunn, Brigitte N Gomperts
This unit describes a protocol for generation of lung organoids. A lung organoid is a 3D cell/hydrogel composite that resembles the morphology and cellular composition of the human distal lung. These tissue-engineered constructs provide an in vitro model of human lung and are best suited for disease modeling applications. The organoid generation methodology is flexible, allowing for easy scalability in the number of organoids produced and in the ability to accommodate a wide range of cell types. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc...
August 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Claudia Lo Sicco, Daniele Reverberi, Luisa Pascucci, Roberta Tasso
The unit describes protocols for isolating and characterizing extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). EVs are a mixed population of membrane-surrounded structures with overlapping composition and size. Advances made in recent years have led to a better understanding of the biological role of EVs. In particular, they can be considered key factors responsible for MSC-paracrine activity, mediating their anti-inflammatory effects towards innate immune cells, such as macrophages...
August 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Arja Ray, Rachel K Morford, Paolo P Provenzano
Cell migration is strongly influenced by the organization of the surrounding 3-D extracellular matrix. In particular, within fibrous solid tumors, carcinoma cell invasion may be directed by patterns of aligned collagen in the extra-epithelial space. Thus, studying the interactions of heterogeneous populations of cancer cells that include the stem/progenitor-like cancer stem cell subpopulation and aligned collagen networks is critical to our understanding of carcinoma dissemination. Here, we describe a robust method to generate aligned collagen matrices in vitro that mimic in vivo fiber organization...
August 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Marie Fernandes, Brian McArdle, Lauren Schiff, Timothy A Blenkinsop
An adult human retinal pigment epithelial layer (ahRPE) model derived from stem cells isolated from native RPE monolayers (ahRPE-SCs) exhibits key physiological characteristics of native tissue and therefore provides the means to create a human "disease in a dish" model to study RPE diseases. Traditionally, RPE lines are established from whole globes dedicated to research. Here we describe a new technique for establishing primary RPE lines from the posterior poles of globes used for corneal transplants...
May 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Katherine B McCauley, Finn Hawkins, Darrell N Kotton
New protocols to efficiently generate functional airway epithelial organoids from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) would represent a major advance towards effective disease modeling, drug screening and cell based therapies for lung disorders. This unit describes an approach using stage-specific signaling pathway manipulation to differentiate cells to proximal airway epithelium via key developmental intermediates. Cells are directed via definitive endoderm (DE) to anterior foregut, and then specified to NKX2-1+ lung epithelial progenitors...
May 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Navin Gupta, Koichiro Susa, Yoko Yoda, Joseph V Bonventre, M Todd Valerius, Ryuji Morizane
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a formidable tool for disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine using human cells and tissues in vitro. Evolving techniques of targeted genome editing, specifically the CRISPR/Cas9 system, allow for the generation of cell lines bearing gene-specific knock-outs, knock-in reporters, and precise mutations. However, there are increasing concerns related to the transfection efficiency, cell viability, and maintenance of pluripotency provided by genome-editing techniques...
May 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Yoshinobu Takahashi, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Despite the promise of emerging organoid-based approaches, building additional complexity, such as the vascular network, remains a major challenge toward regenerative therapy. Recently, we developed a complex organoid engineering method by "self-condensation," wherein mesenchymal cell-dependent contraction enables large-scale condensation from heterotypic multiple progenitors. Here, we describe the adaptation of this protocol for generating three-dimensional (3D) pancreatic condensates from dissociated β cell lines (MIN6) together with blood vessel-forming progenitors...
May 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Jessica R Perez, Norma Ybarra, Frederic Chagnon, Olivier Lesur, Jan Seuntjens, Issam El Naqa
Stem cell therapy has shown great promise for organ repair and regeneration. In the context of lung disease, such as radiation-induced lung damage (RILD) in cancer radiotherapy, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown the ability to reduce damage possibly due to their immunomodulatory properties and other unknown mechanisms. However, once MSCs are transplanted into the body, little is known as to their localization or their mechanisms of action. In this work, we proposed, implemented, and validated a fluorescence endomicroscopy (FE) imaging technique that allows for the real-time detection and quantification of transplanted pre-labeled MSCs in vivo and tracking in a rat model...
May 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Seonmi Park, Gustavo Mostoslavsky
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer great opportunities for the study of human development and disease modeling and have enormous potential for use in future clinical cell-based therapies. However, most current systems to create hiPSCs often expose the cells to animal feeder layers or xenogeneic reagents; this raises safety concerns about using hiPSC-derived cells for therapeutic purposes. Here, we describe protocols to generate hiPSCs without exposing the cells to xenogeneic materials that uses a defined, feeder-free reprogramming system...
May 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
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