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Child Development Perspectives

Jennifer E Lansford, Marc H Bornstein, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Kenneth A Dodge, Suha M Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini, Anna Silvia Bombi, Lei Chang, Bin-Bin Chen, Laura Di Giunta, Patrick S Malone, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Ann T Skinner, Emma Sorbring, Laurence Steinberg, Sombat Tapanya, Liane Peña Alampay, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Arnaldo Zelli
International research on parenting and child development can advance our understanding of similarities and differences in how parenting is related to children's development across countries. Challenges to conducting international research include operationalizing culture, disentangling effects within and between countries, and balancing emic and etic perspectives. Benefits of international research include testing whether findings regarding parenting and child development replicate across diverse samples, incorporating cultural and contextual diversity to foster more inclusive and representative research samples and investigators than has typically occurred, and understanding how children develop in proximal parenting and family and distal international contexts...
September 2016: Child Development Perspectives
Jukka M Leppänen
Infants have a natural tendency to look at adults' faces, possibly to help initiate vital interactions with caregivers during sensitive periods of development. Recent studies using eye-tracking technologies have identified the mechanisms that underlie infants' capacity to orient and hold attention on faces. These studies have shown that the bias for faces is weak in young infants, but becomes more robust and resistant to distraction during the second half of the 1st year. This development is apparently related to more general changes in infants' attention and control of eye movement...
September 2016: Child Development Perspectives
Allan Wigfield, Jessica Gladstone, Lara Turci
The authors review research on children's reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children's reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children's reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students' reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension...
September 2016: Child Development Perspectives
Emily C Merz, Katia M Harlé, Kimberly G Noble, Robert B McCall
In studies of children adopted from institutions, being raised in an institution has been associated consistently with an increased risk of persistent cognitive, academic, and social-emotional problems. These findings raise questions about the neurocognitive mechanisms that contribute to these negative outcomes. Theory and models based on studies of animals indicate that development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences during early childhood...
June 2016: Child Development Perspectives
Kristin Pauker, Amanda Williams, Jennifer R Steele
The ability to discriminate visually based on race emerges early in infancy: 3-month-olds can perceptually differentiate faces by race and 6-month-olds can perceptually categorize faces by race. Between ages 6 and 8 years, children can sort others into racial groups. But to what extent are these abilities influenced by context? In this article, we review studies on children's racial categorization and discuss how our conclusions are affected by how we ask the questions (i.e., our methods and stimuli), where we ask them (i...
March 2016: Child Development Perspectives
Gayla Margolin, Michelle C Ramos, Adela C Timmons, Kelly F Miller, Sohyun C Han
Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood...
March 1, 2016: Child Development Perspectives
Pamela E Davis-Kean, Justin Jager, Julie Maslowsky
Secondary data analysis of large longitudinal and national data sets is a standard method used in many social sciences to answer complex questions regarding behavior. In this article, we detail the advantages of using these data sets to study developmental questions across the lifespan. First, we provide an overview of how using secondary data can increase studies' scientific integrity. Then, we detail where and how data sets can be obtained that answer specific questions. Finally, we discuss methodological issues related to using longitudinal, population data sets...
December 1, 2015: Child Development Perspectives
K Paige Harden, Frank D Mann
Adolescence is a time of increasing engagement in a variety of problem behaviors, including substance use and delinquency. Genetic risk for problem behavior increases over adolescence, is mediated partially by individual differences in sensation seeking, and is exacerbated by involvement with deviant peers. In this article, we describe how findings from behavioral genetic research on problem behavior intersect with research from developmental neuroscience. In particular, the incentive-processing system, including the ventral striatum, responds increasingly to rewards in adolescence, particularly in peer contexts...
December 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Rebecca L Gómez, Jamie O Edgin
Sleep is an important physiological state for the consolidation and generalization of new learning in children and adults. We review the literature on sleep-dependent memory consolidation and generalization in infants and preschool children and place the findings in the context of the development of the neural systems underlying memory (hippocampus and its connections to cortex). Based on the extended trajectory of hippocampal development, transitions in the nature of sleep-dependent learning are expected. The studies reviewed here show shifts in the nature of sleep-dependent learning across early childhood, with sleep facilitating generalization in infants but enhancing precise memory after 18-24 months of age...
September 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Robert L Wagmiller
Economic deprivation during childhood adversely affects achievement in adolescence and early adulthood. Economically disadvantaged children tend to achieve less than their more advantaged peers on a variety of measures of educational and socioeconomic achievement. Researchers recognize that what matters for achievement is not merely exposure to economic deprivation during childhood but also the temporal dynamics of deprivation. Recent studies have found that the effects of childhood economic disadvantage on achievement depend on the timing of deprivation (early childhood versus middle or late childhood), the sequencing of deprivation (whether family income is rising or falling), and the overall duration of exposure to deprivation...
September 1, 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Kimberly J Saudino, Lauren Micalizzi
In this article, we describe three emerging trends in the application of behavioral genetic methods to the study of temperament. The trends-using multiple methods to assess temperament, considering contextual influences on temperament, and evaluating the structure of temperament-have been well studied in the phenotypic literature, but adding a behavioral genetic perspective can enrich our understanding of temperament. We review recent behavioral genetic research in each of these areas and discuss its implications...
September 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Gustaf Gredebäck, Moritz M Daum
In this article, we review recent evidence of infants' early competence in perceiving and interpreting the actions of others. We present a theoretical model that decomposes the timeline of action perception into a series of distinct processes that occur in a particular order. Once an agent is detected, covert attention can be allocated to the future state of the agent (priming), which may lead to overt gaze shifts that predict goals (prediction). Once these goals are achieved, the consequence of the agents' actions and the manner in which the actions were performed can be evaluated (evaluation)...
June 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Sarah C Kucker, Bob McMurray, Larissa K Samuelson
In this article, we review literature on word learning and propose a theoretical account of how lexical knowledge and word use emerge and develop over time. We contend that the developing lexical system is built on processes that support children's in-the-moment word usage interacting with processes that create long-term learning. We argue for a new characterization of word learning in which simple mechanisms like association and competition, and the interaction between the two, guide children's selection of referents and word use in the moment...
June 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Ellen Bialystok
This paper reviews research examining the effect of bilingualism on children's cognitive development, and in particular, executive function. Studies reporting bilingual advantages in various tasks are described with the purpose of identifying the process or executive function component that might be responsible for this bilingual advantage. Several possibilities are discussed, such as inhibitory control. Finally, the role of attention is proposed as a fundamental process that initiates developmental differences in bilingual children from as early as infancy...
June 1, 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Martha E Wadsworth
Health disparities are rooted in childhood and stem from adverse early environments that damage physiologic stress-response systems. Developmental psychobiological models of the effects of chronic stress account for both the negative effects of a stress-response system calibrated to a dangerous and unpredictable environment from a health perspective, and the positive effects of such an adaptively calibrated stress response from a functional perspective. Our research suggests that contexts that produce functionally adapted physiologic responses to stress also encourage a functionally adapted coping response-coping that can result in maladjustment in physical and mental health, but enables children to grow and develop within those contexts...
June 1, 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Valerie F Reyna, Evan A Wilhelms, Michael J McCormick, Rebecca B Weldon
Developmental differences in mental representations of choices, reward sensitivity, and behavioral inhibition (self-control) explain greater susceptibility to risk taking. Ironically, relying on precise representations in reasoning promotes greater risk taking, but this reliance declines as adolescents mature. This phenomenon is known as a developmental reversal; it is called a reversal because it violates traditional developmental expectations of greater cognitive complexity with maturation. Fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) predicts reversals by proposing two types of mental representation (gist and verbatim), and that risk takers rely more on verbatim processing when making decisions...
June 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Joseph P Allen, Emily L Loeb
The world of peers presents a unique developmental challenge to adolescents-one that is likely to be linked to prior experiences within the family, affected by concurrent experiences with adults outside the family, and predictive of future mental and physical health. To negotiate relationships with peers successfully, adolescents must manage the challenge of connecting with peers while establishing autonomy regarding peer influences. Both the nature of this challenge and how it is handled are linked closely to the ways adolescents are treated by the adults in their lives...
June 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
The authors review current knowledge about the cognitive processes underlying the early stages of word reading development. Recent findings in a variety of alphabetic languages converge on the conclusion that there are 3 "cognitive foundations" for learning to read: letter-sound knowledge, phonemic awareness, and rapid automatized naming skills. Deficits in each of these skills appear causally related to problems in learning to read, and deficits in letter-sound knowledge and phonemic awareness appear to be remediable by suitable teaching...
March 1, 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Soo Hyun Rhee, Benjamin B Lahey, Irwin D Waldman
In this article, we review evidence from recent behavior genetic studies that examined the covariance among common childhood psychopathological conditions and tested specific hypotheses regarding common and broadband-specific underlying features of childhood psychopathology. Specifically, we review the distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders, the support for the generalist genes and specialist environments model, negative emotionality as a heritable underlying feature common to both internalizing and externalizing disorders, and daring as a heritable broadband-specific underlying feature that distinguishes externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders...
March 1, 2015: Child Development Perspectives
Angela Duckworth, Laurence Steinberg
Self-controlled behavior refers to actions aligned with valued, longer-term goals in the face of conflicting impulses to seek immediate gratification. In this article, we argue that the psychological processes that contribute to self-controlled behavior can be grouped into two functionally distinct categories: Volitional processes facilitate self-controlled behavior and include executive functions as well as learned metacognitive strategies like planning, attention deployment, and psychological distancing. In contrast, impulsigenic processes undermine self-controlled behavior and include reward sensitivity, sensation seeking, and domain-specific cravings...
March 2015: Child Development Perspectives
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