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Innate Immunity

Shuai Wang, Boon Chin Heng, Shuqi Qiu, Jing Deng, Gary Shun Pan Cheung, Lijian Jin, Baohong Zhao, Chengfei Zhang
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Enterococcus faecalis is a potent stimulator of inflammatory responses, but the effects of E. faecalis LTA on osteoclastogenesis remains far from well understood. This study showed that E. faecalis LTA significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis of wild type murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) in the presence of a high dose of RANKL, while the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by E. faecalis LTA was significantly removed in BMMs with deficient expression of the transcription factor RBP-J...
November 21, 2018: Innate Immunity
Ting Li, Xiaoyuan Huang, Zhechen Yuan, Linfang Wang, Miaobo Chen, Fenfen Su, Xiaojing Ling, Zhenghao Piao
Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived pigment pyocyanin (PCN) has been proved to induce cell apoptosis mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which has been studied mainly in epithelial cells and neutrophils. However, we previously found that the PCN-producing strain PA14 induces cell apoptosis in human NK cell line NK92 more effectively than in PCN-deficient strain PA14-phZ1/2 via a yet undetermined mechanism. In the current study, we found that PCN-induced NK92 cell apoptosis occurs through mitochondrial damage despite inhibiting intracellular ROS generation...
November 14, 2018: Innate Immunity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2018: Innate Immunity
Guangsheng Wan, Manli Xie, Hongjie Yu, Hongyu Chen
In this study we investigated the association between intestinal dysbacteriosis with colorectal cancer progress and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Tumor progression was evaluated using xenograft mice model. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were quantified by both real-time PCR and immunoblotting. The serum content of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured with ELISA kits. Cell proliferation was determined by the Cell Counting Kit-8. Intestinal dysbacteriosis was successfully simulated by the administration of a large dose of antibiotics and was demonstrated to promote xenograft tumor growth and induce EMT...
September 23, 2018: Innate Immunity
José E Belizário, Jennifer M Neyra, Maria Fernanda Setúbal Destro Rodrigues
NK cells are innate lymphoid cells that exert a key role in immune surveillance through the recognition and elimination of transformed cells and viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogen-infected cells without prior sensitization. Elucidating when and how NK cell-induced intracellular microbial cell death functions in the resolution of infection and host inflammation has been an important topic of investigation. NK cell activation requires the engagement of specific activating, co-stimulatory, and inhibitory receptors which control positively and negatively their differentiation, memory, and exhaustion...
September 20, 2018: Innate Immunity
Jiangtao Pu, Xiaojun Tang, Xiang Zhuang, Zhi Hu, Kaiming He, Yunfei Wu, Tianyang Dai
This study mainly investigated the effects of matrine on cell apoptosis and the effects of anticancer drugs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and LK2 cells). The results showed that matrine (≥10 μM) caused a significant inhibition on cell viability and 10 and 100 μM matrine induced cell apoptosis via influencing p53, bax, casp3, and bcl-2 expressions in A549 cells. In addition, matrine significantly down-regulated C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) expression, and blocking the down-regulation of CCR7 by exogenous chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) treatment alleviated matrine-caused effects of apoptosis genes in A549 cells...
September 20, 2018: Innate Immunity
Julien Rs Dandrieux, Lina Maria Martinez Lopez, Andrew Stent, Albert Jergens, Karin Allenspach, Cameron J Nowell, Simon M Firestone, Wayne Kimpton, Caroline S Mansfield
Chronic enteropathy (CE) in dogs is characterized retrospectively per treatment response as food-responsive enteropathy (FRE), antibiotic-responsive enteropathy (ARE), and immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy (IRE) - the latter most resembling inflammatory bowel disease in people. The aim of this study was to characterize duodenal macrophages (Mϕ) in CE using immunohistochemistry; with calprotectin (CAL) as a marker of early differentiated Mϕ and CD163 expression as a marker for resident Mϕ in the duodenum before and after treatment...
September 17, 2018: Innate Immunity
Charys Palmer, Francesco Peri, Frank Neumann, Feroz Ahmad, David S Leake, Grisha Pirianov
TLRs, including TLR4, have been shown to play a crucial role in cardiovascular inflammatory-based diseases. The main goal of this study was to determine the potential of FP7, a synthetic glycolipid active as a TLR4 antagonist, to modulate haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic vascular TLR4 pro-inflammatory signalling. HUVEC, human THP-1 monocytes, THP-1-derived macrophages, mouse RAW-264.7 macrophages and Angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. Western blotting, Ab array and ELISA approaches were used to explore the effect of FP7 on TLR4 functional activity in response to bacterial LPS ( in vitro) and endogenous ligands of sterile inflammation ( in vitro and in vivo)...
September 12, 2018: Innate Immunity
Abdullah B Chahin, Jason M Opal, Steven M Opal
Ninety years ago, Gregory Shwartzman first reported an unusual discovery following the intradermal injection of sterile culture filtrates from principally Gram-negative strains from bacteria into normal rabbits. If this priming dose was followed in 24 h by a second intravenous challenge (the provocative dose) from same culture filtrate, dermal necrosis at the first injection site would regularly occur. This peculiar, but highly reproducible, event fascinated the microbiologists, hematologists, and immunologists of the time, who set out to determine the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of this reaction...
November 2018: Innate Immunity
Jing-Xing Yang, Te-Chih Hsiung, Fu-Chun Weng, Shiau-Li Ding, Chin-Pyng Wu, Marco Conti, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, S-L Catherine Jin
Macrophage migration is an essential step in host defense against infection and wound healing. Elevation of cAMP by inhibiting phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), enzymes that specifically degrade cAMP, is known to suppress various inflammatory responses in activated macrophages, but the role of PDE4 in macrophage migration is poorly understood. Here we show that the migration of Raw 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS was markedly and dose-dependently induced by the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram as assessed by scratch wound healing assay...
November 2018: Innate Immunity
Nam V Nguyen, James T Tran, David Jesse Sanchez
This study investigates the modulation of Type I IFN induction of an antiviral state by HIV. IFNs, including IFN-α, are key innate immune cytokines that activate the JAK/STAT pathway leading to the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. IFN-stimulated gene expression establishes the antiviral state, limiting viral infection in IFN-α-stimulated microenvironments. Our previous studies have shown that HIV proteins disrupt the induction of IFN-α by degradation of IFN-β promoter stimulator-1, an adaptor protein for the up-regulation and release of IFN-α into the local microenvironment via the retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptor signaling pathway...
November 2018: Innate Immunity
Kata Tombácz, Gregg Burgess, Angela Holder, Arno Werners, Dirk Werling
Toxoplasma gondii is responsible for one of the most prevalent infections in people. T. gondii profilin (TgPr) is a protein integral to parasite movement and cellular invasion. Murine TLRs has been described to bind TgPr. Furthermore, more recently, human TLR5 has been described to recognise recombinant TgPr, as well as bacterial flagellin. In addition to infections in humans, T. gondii infects farm animals, but little information is available about its innate recognition. We aimed to investigate whether, similarly to their human orthologue, bovine and porcine TLR5 could also be stimulated by TgPr by using a combination of reporter cell lines expressing full length TLR5 from each species as well as primary cells...
September 8, 2018: Innate Immunity
Erdenezaya Odkhuu, Takayuki Komatsu, Naoki Koide, Yoshikazu Naiki, Kenji Takeuchi, Yukie Tanaka, Bilegtsaikhan Tsolmongyn, Ulziisaikhan Jambalganiin, Naoko Morita, Tomoaki Yoshida, Bin Gotoh, Takashi Yokochi
To suppress virus multiplication, infected macrophages produce NO. However, it remains unclear how infecting viruses then overcome NO challenge. In the present study, we report the effects of accessory protein C from Sendai virus (SeV), a prototypical paramyxovirus, on NO output. We found that in RAW264.7 murine macrophages, a mutant SeV without C protein (4C(-)) significantly enhanced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and subsequent NO production compared to wild type SeV (wtSeV). SeV 4C(-) infection caused marked production of IFN-β, which is involved in induction of iNOS expression via the JAK-STAT pathway...
September 6, 2018: Innate Immunity
Joonas Liukkonen, Ulvi K Gürsoy, Eija Könönen, Mervi Gürsoy, Jari Metso, Aino Salminen, Elisa Kopra, Matti Jauhiainen, Päivi Mäntylä, Kåre Buhlin, Susanna Paju, Timo Sorsa, Markku S Nieminen, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Juha Sinisalo, Pirkko J Pussinen
Genetic factors play a role in periodontitis. Here we examined whether the risk haplotype of MHC class III region BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA and lymphotoxin-α polymorphisms associate with salivary biomarkers of periodontal disease. A total of 455 individuals with detailed clinical and radiographic periodontal health data were included in the study. A 610 K genotyping chip and a Sequenom platform were used in genotyping analyses. Phospholipid transfer protein activity, concentrations of lymphotoxin-α, IL-8 and myeloperoxidase, and a cumulative risk score (combining Porphyromonas gingivalis, IL-1β and matrix metalloproteinase-8) were examined in saliva samples...
September 3, 2018: Innate Immunity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Innate Immunity
Huapei Zhu, Hanwei Jiao, Xin Nie, Baobao Li, Kailian Xu, Feng Pang, Ruiyong Cao, Shu Zhu, Xiaojian Yang, Zhenxing Zhang, Dongmei Peng, Yaying Li, Guohua Li, Haifeng Huang, Chuangfu Chen, Li Du, Fengyang Wang
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Brucella species and represents a serious threat to both human and animal health. Omp25 is an important immunogenic and protective antigen in Brucella species; however, the functional mechanism of Omp25 in macrophages has not yet been elucidated. Here, we constructed a Brucella melitensis omp25 deletion mutant (M5-90-Δ omp25) and performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of infected RAW264.7 cells. Eight differentially expressed miRNAs ( mmu-miR-146a-5p, mmu-miR-155-5p, mmu-miR-3473a, mmu-miR-149-3p, mmu-miR-671-5p, mmu-miR-1224-5p, mmu-miR-1895, and mmu-miR-5126) were identified, with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirming the up-regulation of mmu-miR-146-a-5p and mmu-miR-155-5p and down-regulation of mmu-miR-149-3p and mmu-miR-5126...
August 2018: Innate Immunity
Sabari Nath Neerukonda, Sanjana Mahadev-Bhat, Bridget Aylward, Casey Johnson, Chandrashekhar Charavaryamath, Ryan J Arsenault
Exacerbated inflammation upon persistent barn organic dust exposure is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of lung inflammation and lung function decline. Barn dust constituents and the mechanisms contributing to the exacerbated inflammation are not clearly known. We set out to understand the inflammatory effects of Swine Barn Dust Extracts (SBDE) on human lung epithelial (BEAS2B) and macrophage (THP-1 monocyte derived) cell lines on a kinome array to determine phosphorylation events in the inflammatory signaling pathways...
August 2018: Innate Immunity
Matthew E Long, Ke-Qin Gong, Joseph S Volk, William E Eddy, Mary Y Chang, Charles W Frevert, William A Altemeier, Michael Gale, W Conrad Liles, Anne M Manicone
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are transcriptionally regulated proteases that have multiple roles in modifying the extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammatory response. Our previous work identified Mmp28 as a key regulator of inflammation and macrophage polarization during experimental models of pulmonary infection, fibrosis, and chronic smoke exposure. However, the signaling pathways responsible for regulation of macrophage Mmp28 expression remain undefined. This study utilized murine macrophages obtained from wild type, Tlr2-/- , Tlr4-/- , MyD88-/- , Ticam1 Lps2 ( Trifmutant ), and Ifnar1-/- mice to test the hypothesis that macrophage Mmp28 expression was dependent on TRIF and type I IFN...
August 2018: Innate Immunity
Carsten Deppermann, Paul Kubes
Platelets are the main players in thrombosis and hemostasis; however they also play important roles during inflammation and infection. Through their surface receptors, platelets can directly interact with pathogens and immune cells. Platelets form complexes with neutrophils to modulate their capacities to produce reactive oxygen species or form neutrophil extracellular traps. Furthermore, they release microbicidal factors and cytokines that kill pathogens and influence the immune response, respectively. Platelets also maintain the vascular integrity during inflammation by a mechanism that is different from classical platelet activation...
August 2018: Innate Immunity
Jelena Patrnogic, Christa Heryanto, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an exceptional model for dissecting innate immunity. However, our knowledge on responses to parasitic nematode infections still lags behind. Recent studies have demonstrated that the well-conserved TGF-β signaling pathway participates in immune processes of the fly, including the anti-nematode response. To elucidate the molecular basis of TGF-β anti-nematode activity, we performed a transcript level analysis of different TGF-β signaling components following infection of D...
August 2018: Innate Immunity
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