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Innate Immunity

Reham Hammad Mahmoud Hammad, Dina Hossam El Dine Hamed, Mona Abd El Rahman Eldosoky, Ashraf Abd Elmonem Sayed Ahmad, Hanan Mohsen Osman, Heba Mohamed Abd Elgalil, Mahmoud Mohsen Mahmoud Hassan
Childhood asthma represents a worldwide problem, involving genetic, immune defense and environmental components. MicroRNAs (miRs) are non-coding, single-stranded RNAs involved in immune regulation. The aim was to evaluate clinical potential of plasma miR-21 and miR-146a involved in T helper differentiation in childhood asthma and non-asthmatic controls. Group 1 consisted of 27 asthmatic children receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), which was compared to group 2 with 21 healthy control children. All patients were assessed by pulmonary function tests...
April 2018: Innate Immunity
Antoni W Różalski
Professor Krystyna Kotełko was working as a microbiologist at the University of Łódź (Poland). Her main object of study was the LPS (endotoxin) of opportunistic urinary pathogens from the genus Proteus. She demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of uronic acids and amino acids, as well as two heptoses (L- glycero-D- manno-heptose and D- glycero-D- manno-heptose) and hexosamines in Proteus LPS, and developed a classification scheme of the Proteus LPS into chemotypes. Prof Kotełko also initiated studies on the chemical structure of Proteus O-specific polysaccharide and investigations on the serological specificity of this part of LPS, as well its core region...
April 2018: Innate Immunity
Mia Olsson, Lisa Bremer, Cecilia Aulin, Helena Erlandsson Harris
Hyaluronan (HA) is a large polymer and an important component of the extracellular matrix. During homeostasis, high molecular mass HA is the predominant form, but upon inflammation, degradation products of HA accumulate. These HA fragments (HA-fs) have been reported to possess pro-inflammatory activities and thus act as alarmins, notifying immune cells of danger via TLR4 and CD44. HA is found in large quantities in synovial joint fluid. In order to reveal a potential role of HA-fs in arthritis pathogenesis, the in vitro effects of HA of various molecular masses (from 1680 kDa to oligosaccharide HA) on synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients, and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors, were investigated...
February 2018: Innate Immunity
XiaoWei Qian, Hang Zhao, XinZhong Chen, Jun Li
Elastase released by neutrophils is critical for eliminating Gram-negative bacteria. Ca2+ influx plays a key role in elastase release and bacterial clearance in neutrophils. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+ -permeable cation channel highly expressed in neutrophils. Here, we explore the role and possible mechanism of TRPM2 in bacterial clearance in TRPM2 knockout (TRPM2-KO) mice neutrophils. After exposure to Escherichia coli, TRPM2-KO bone marrow neutrophils (BMNs) had increased bacterial burden and decreased elastase release...
February 2018: Innate Immunity
Hans Christian D Aass, Marit Hellum, Anne-Marie Siebke Trøseid, Petter Brandtzaeg, Jens Petter Berg, Reidun Øvstebø, Carola Elisabeth Henriksson
Levels of bacterial LPS, pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-10 are related to the severity of meningococcal septicaemia. Patients infected with a Neisseria meninigitidis lpxL1 mutant ( Nm-mutant) with penta-acylated lipid A present with a milder meningococcal disease than those infected with hexa-acylated Nm wild type ( Nm-wt). The aim was to compare the pro-inflammatory responses after ex vivo incubation with the heat-inactivated Nm-wt or the Nm-mutant in citrated whole blood, and the modulating effects of IL-10...
February 2018: Innate Immunity
Cortney L Armstrong, Christopher K Klaes, Aruna Vashishta, Richard J Lamont, Silvia M Uriarte
Neutrophils operate at the site of injury or inflammation in the periodontal pocket to ensure periodontal health and clearance of bacterial pathogens. Filifactor alocis is recently identified as a potential periodontal pathogen, and in this study, we assessed the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), in response to the presence of the organism . NET formation by human neutrophils was not induced when challenged with F. alocis, independent of opsonization, viability, time, or bacterial dose. F...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Shuting Cao, Qianhui Zhang, ChunChun Wang, Huan Wu, Lefei Jiao, Qihua Hong, Caihong Hu
Here we investigated the influence of LPS-induced gut injury on antioxidant homeostasis, mitochondrial (mt) function and the level of mitophagy in piglets. The results showed that LPS-induced intestinal injury decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance, increased the paracellular permeability of F1TC dextran 4 kDa, and decreased the expression of claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens-1 in the jejunum compared with the control group. LPS decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and increased the content of malondialdehyde in the jejunum...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Jingzhu Lv, Xiaojie Zhang, Caizhi Wang, Hongtao Wang, Ting Wang, Zhongqing Qian
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy disorder with a high mortality rate. Patients with PE exhibit systemic high oxidative stress status and inflammatory immune activation. This study aims to define the role of H2 O2 in the activation of neutrophils and T lymphocytes in PE patients. CD3+ /HLA-DR+ cells in blood from PE patients are remarkably increased compared with those of normal non-pregnancies or normal pregnancies, while the percentage of CD3+ /CD62L+ cells is significantly reduced in PE patients compared to normal pregnancies...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Muki Shehu Shey, Avuyonke Balfour, Katalin Andrea Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes
APCs such as monocytes and dendritic cells are among the first cells to recognize invading pathogens and initiate an immune response. The innate response can either eliminate the pathogen directly, or through presentation of Ags to T cells, which can help to clear the infection. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are among the unconventional T cells whose activation does not involve the classical co-stimulation during Ag presentation. MAIT cells can be activated either via presentation of unconventional Ags (such as riboflavin metabolites) through the evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility class I-like molecule, MR1, or directly by cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-18...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Nailia R Khasbiullina, Nadezhda V Shilova, Maxim E Navakouski, Alexey Yu Nokel, Yuri A Knirel, Ola Blixt, Nicolai V Bovin
Innate immunity natural Abs (NAbs) execute a number of functions, including protection and surveillance. Despite active research, the stimuli that induce the formation of NAbs are still described only hypothetically. Here, we compared repertoires of anti-glycan Abs in the peripheral blood of mice that received per os various bacteria. The repertoires of Abs of mice primed in this way were compared using a microarray that included about 350 glycans, as well as 150 bacterial polysaccharides. Sterile mice did not possess anti-glycan Abs...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Ewelina Gowin, Bogna Świątek-Kościelna, Ewelina Kałużna, Ewa Strauss, Jacek Wysocki, Jerzy Nowak, Michał Michalak, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of single single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as their combinations in genes encoding proteins involved in the immune response in children with bacterial meningitis. The prospective study group consisted of 39 children with bacterial meningitis and 49 family members surveyed between 2012 and 2016. Eleven SNPs in five genes involved in immune response were analysed. The mean number of minor frequency alleles (MAF) of studied SNPs was lowest in the control group and highest in patients with pneumococcal meningitis...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Nikita H Trivedi, Jieh-Juen Yu, Chiung-Yu Hung, Richard P Doelger, Christopher S Navara, Lisa Y Armitige, Janakiram Seshu, Anthony P Sinai, James P Chambers, M Neal Guentzel, Bernard P Arulanandam
Macrophages are important innate immune cells that respond to microbial insults. In response to multi-bacterial infection, the macrophage activation state may change upon exposure to nascent mediators, which results in different bacterial killing mechanism(s). In this study, we utilized two respiratory bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium bovis (Bacillus Calmette Guẻrin, BCG) and Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) with different phagocyte evasion mechanisms, as model microbes to assess the influence of initial bacterial infection on the macrophage response to secondary infection...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Sarah L Caddy, Meng Wang, Pramila Krishnamurthy, Benjamin Uttenthal, Anita Chandra, Charles Crawley, Leo C James
Viral infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), with up to one in four deaths directly linked to viral disease. Whilst awaiting lymphocyte reconstitution post-HSCT, the innate antiviral immune response is the first line of defense against invading viruses. Several novel innate viral-sensing pathways have recently been characterized, but their physiological importance in humans is poorly understood. We analyzed a panel of innate viral-sensor genes in HSCT patients, and assessed whether differences in innate antiviral responses could account for variation in susceptibility to viral infections...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Tathagat Dutta Ray, Samrawit Mekasha, Yanmei Liang, Bao Lu, Sanjay Ram, Robin R Ingalls
Complement is an important arm of the innate immune system. Recent studies have shown that products of complement pathway activation can interact directly with other innate immune signaling molecules, including TLRs and inflammasome family members, during some infectious and chronic inflammatory disorders. Activation of the complement system generates anaphylatoxins, such as C3a and C5a, which modulate inflammation. However, the biological effects of interactions between the anaphylatoxins with their receptors may vary across species...
January 2018: Innate Immunity
Ji-Ae Choi, Soo-Na Cho, Yun-Ji Lim, Junghwan Lee, Dam Go, Seon-Hwa Kim, Chang-Hwa Song
Ajoene, a garlic-derived sulfur-containing compound, has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. To assess the potential of ajoene for treating tuberculosis (TB), we determined whether it induces the stress response of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which plays an important role in TB. We showed that ajoene stimulation induced the production of ER stress sensor molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Ajoene-induced ROS production was dependent on c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Interestingly, the inhibition of JNK activity and suppression of ROS production reduced ajoene-induced CHOP production in macrophages...
January 2018: Innate Immunity
Chun Chun Wang, Huan Wu, Fang Hui Lin, Rong Gong, Fei Xie, Yan Peng, Jie Feng, Cai Hong Hu
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate on the intestinal barrier and mast cell activation, as well as inflammatory mediator production, and determine whether mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways are involved in these processes. A total of 72 piglets, weaned at 28 ± 1 d age, were allotted to two dietary treatments (control vs. 450 mg/kg sodium butyrate) for 2 wk. The results showed that supplemental sodium butyrate increased daily gain, improved intestinal morphology, as indicated by greater villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and intestinal barrier function reflected by increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased paracellular flux of dextran (4 kDa)...
January 2018: Innate Immunity
Jun Dai, Ajinkya Kumbhare, Danielle A Williams, Dima Youssef, Zhi Q Yao, Charles E McCall, Mohamed El Gazzar
Sepsis-induced immunosuppression increases the risk of chronic infection and reduces survival. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expand in the bone marrow and spleen during murine polymicrobial sepsis, contributing to immunosuppression. A better understanding of molecular controls of MDSC production is needed to identify treatment targets. We previously reported that miR-21 and miR-181b couple with transcription factor NFI-A to induce MDSCs during murine sepsis. Here, we expand upon these observations by showing that conditional deletion of the Nfia gene in the myeloid lineage precludes MDSC development...
January 2018: Innate Immunity
Sajad Shahbazi, Jagdeep Kaur, Shikha Singh, K Gopinath Achary, Sameena Wani, Sobhagyalaxmi Jema, Jabed Akhtar, Ranbir Chander Sobti
NO donor drugs showed a significant therapeutic effect in the treatment of many diseases, such as arteriopathies, various acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, and several degenerative diseases. NO-releasing anti-inflammatory drugs are the prototypes of a novel class of compounds, combining the pharmacological activities of anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive of drugs with those of NO, thus possessing potential therapeutic applications in a great variety of diseases. In this study, we designed and predicted biological activity by targeting cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) and NF-κB subunits and pharmacological profiling along with toxicity predictions of various N-aryl piperamides linked via an ester bond to a spacer that is bound to a NO-releasing moiety (-ONO2)...
January 2018: Innate Immunity
Anna Di Vito, Gianluca Santise, Chiara Mignogna, Eusebio Chiefari, Gabriella Cardillo, Ivan Presta, Franco Arturi, Natalia Malara, Francesco Brunetti, Annalidia Donato, Domenico Maisano, Stefania Leonetti, Daniele Maselli, Tullio Barni, Giuseppe Donato
Cardiac myxomas are the most common benign cardiac tumor. We investigated the immunohistochemical properties of 11 surgically excised cardiac myxomas, in order to analyze the correlation between macrophages and mast cell populations and clinical parameters. CD68+ /CD163- /iNOS- (M0) cells represent the most abundant macrophage phenotype; however, CD68+ /CD163+ cells (M2) were also frequent. CD68+ /iNOS+ (M1) elements were rare. Mast cells, defined as a population of c-kit (CD117)+ and/or tryptase+ cells were also detected...
January 2018: Innate Immunity
Suneesh Kumar Pachathundikandi, Steffen Backert
Inflammasome-mediated production of mature IL-1β and IL-18 cytokines represents an important innate immune response against infecting pathogens. Helicobacter pylori, one of the most successful and persistent human pathogens, induces severe inflammation leading to gastritis and more serious gastric diseases. H. pylori modulates different immune responses for its survival and inflammasome signaling is manipulated by the cag pathogenicity island ( cagPAI), urease and VacA cytotoxin. Here we report that H. pylori regulates NLRP3 expression, an inflammasome forming regulator, in infected THP-1 monocytes...
January 2018: Innate Immunity
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