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Innate Immunity

Huapei Zhu, Hanwei Jiao, Xin Nie, Baobao Li, Kailian Xu, Feng Pang, Ruiyong Cao, Shu Zhu, Xiaojian Yang, Zhenxing Zhang, Dongmei Peng, Yaying Li, Guohua Li, Haifeng Huang, Chuangfu Chen, Li Du, Fengyang Wang
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Brucella species and represents a serious threat to both human and animal health. Omp25 is an important immunogenic and protective antigen in Brucella species; however, the functional mechanism of Omp25 in macrophages has not yet been elucidated. Here, we constructed a Brucella melitensis omp25 deletion mutant (M5-90-Δ omp25) and performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of infected RAW264.7 cells. Eight differentially expressed miRNAs ( mmu-miR-146a-5p, mmu-miR-155-5p, mmu-miR-3473a, mmu-miR-149-3p, mmu-miR-671-5p, mmu-miR-1224-5p, mmu-miR-1895, and mmu-miR-5126) were identified, with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirming the up-regulation of mmu-miR-146-a-5p and mmu-miR-155-5p and down-regulation of mmu-miR-149-3p and mmu-miR-5126...
August 9, 2018: Innate Immunity
Sabari Nath Neerukonda, Sanjana Mahadev-Bhat, Bridget Aylward, Casey Johnson, Chandrashekhar Charavaryamath, Ryan J Arsenault
Exacerbated inflammation upon persistent barn organic dust exposure is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of lung inflammation and lung function decline. Barn dust constituents and the mechanisms contributing to the exacerbated inflammation are not clearly known. We set out to understand the inflammatory effects of Swine Barn Dust Extracts (SBDE) on human lung epithelial (BEAS2B) and macrophage (THP-1 monocyte derived) cell lines on a kinome array to determine phosphorylation events in the inflammatory signaling pathways...
August 9, 2018: Innate Immunity
Matthew E Long, Ke-Qin Gong, Joseph S Volk, William E Eddy, Mary Y Chang, Charles W Frevert, William A Altemeier, Michael Gale, W Conrad Liles, Anne M Manicone
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are transcriptionally regulated proteases that have multiple roles in modifying the extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammatory response. Our previous work identified Mmp28 as a key regulator of inflammation and macrophage polarization during experimental models of pulmonary infection, fibrosis, and chronic smoke exposure. However, the signaling pathways responsible for regulation of macrophage Mmp28 expression remain undefined. This study utilized murine macrophages obtained from wild type, Tlr2-/- , Tlr4-/- , MyD88-/- , Ticam1 Lps2 ( Trifmutant ), and Ifnar1-/- mice to test the hypothesis that macrophage Mmp28 expression was dependent on TRIF and type I IFN...
August 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Carsten Deppermann, Paul Kubes
Platelets are the main players in thrombosis and hemostasis; however they also play important roles during inflammation and infection. Through their surface receptors, platelets can directly interact with pathogens and immune cells. Platelets form complexes with neutrophils to modulate their capacities to produce reactive oxygen species or form neutrophil extracellular traps. Furthermore, they release microbicidal factors and cytokines that kill pathogens and influence the immune response, respectively. Platelets also maintain the vascular integrity during inflammation by a mechanism that is different from classical platelet activation...
July 26, 2018: Innate Immunity
Jelena Patrnogic, Christa Heryanto, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an exceptional model for dissecting innate immunity. However, our knowledge on responses to parasitic nematode infections still lags behind. Recent studies have demonstrated that the well-conserved TGF-β signaling pathway participates in immune processes of the fly, including the anti-nematode response. To elucidate the molecular basis of TGF-β anti-nematode activity, we performed a transcript level analysis of different TGF-β signaling components following infection of D...
July 26, 2018: Innate Immunity
Colin Martin, Mikita Patel, Sparkle Williams, Hamish Arora, Brian Sims
Human breast milk has been shown to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Breast milk has many components (immunoglobulins, proteins, fat, and, of recent interest, exosomes), but the specific component that affords protection against NEC is not known. Exosomes are small-nanometer vesicles that are rich in protein, lipid, and microRNA. Here, we hypothesized that human breast milk-derived exosomes can protect intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from cell death. Human breast milk was collected, separated using ultracentrifugation, and quantified using NanoSight tracking analysis...
July 2018: Innate Immunity
Jiwei Wang, Peng Wang, Hao Tian, Feng Tian, Ying Zhang, Li Zhang, Xuejin Gao, Xinying Wang
Compelling evidence demonstrates the crucial role of the commensal microbiota in host physiology and the detrimental effects of its perturbations following antibiotic treatment. However, the effects of commensal microbiota on intestinal mucosa antimicrobial molecules have not been elucidated systematically. Here, we investigate the impacts of antibiotic-induced depletion and subsequent restoration of the intestinal microbiota on the murine antimicrobial molecules in intestinal mucosa. Our results demonstrate that depletion of commensal microbiota leads to intestinal mucosa atrophy and reduction of antimicrobial molecules, including lysozyme, regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ), and cryptdin 5 mRNA, whereas subsequent reconstitution of intestinal microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) rescues mucosa morphology and antimicrobials...
July 2018: Innate Immunity
Qiong-Feng Chen, Xiao-Dong Kuang, Qi-Feng Yuan, Hua Hao, Ting Zhang, Yong-Hong Huang, Xiao-Yan Zhou
Previous studies have reported that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and the angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], and its receptor Mas [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] axis play important protective roles in acute lung injury (ALI). However, there is still no direct evidence of LXA4-mediated protection via the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis during ALI. This work was performed using an LPS-induced ALI mouse model and the data indicated the following. First, the animal model was established successfully and LXA4 ameliorated LPS-induced ALI...
July 2018: Innate Immunity
Junhui He, Mingchong Sun, Sujian Tian
Lupus nephritis (LN) is a multifactorial event that contributes to the long-term mortality of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has been known to play a role in SLE pathogenesis. We evaluated the renal protection effects of procyanidin B2 (PCB2) and the involvement of NLRP3 in a mouse model involving MRL/lpr and MRL/MpJ mice. Kidney injury was evaluated by measuring the renal clinical and pathological features, renal immune complex deposition, and serum anti-double-stranded (anti-dsDNA) Abs...
July 2018: Innate Immunity
Yohei Takeda, Masahiro Azuma, Ryoko Hatsugai, Yukari Fujimoto, Masahito Hashimoto, Koichi Fukase, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya
The TLR2 agonist, dipalmitoyl lipopeptide (Pam2LP), has been used as an immune adjuvant without much success. Pam2LP is recognised by TLR2/6 receptors in humans and in mice. This study examined the proliferative activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) using mouse Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and OT-I assay system, where a library of synthetic Pam2LP was utilised from the Staphylococcus aureus database. Ag-specific CTL expansion and IFN-γ levels largely depended on the Pam2LP peptide sequence. The first Aa is cysteine (Cys), which has an active SH residue to bridge fatty acids, and the second and third Aa are hydrophilic or non-polar...
July 2018: Innate Immunity
Qing He, Hua Gao, Li-Ming Xu, Yan Lu, Chong Wang, Jing Rui, Hua Fan, Xiu-Ying Wang, Jun-Zhi Wang
To overcome the lack of availability of fresh human whole blood for pyrogen detection, we explored the feasibility of utilizing cryopreserved pooled human blood to detect the responses of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β to LPS. Whole blood was obtained from five donors and incubated with LPS. The quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured using ELISA, and the results were compared among the samples. After the blood was cryopreserved with Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (10% v/v) and stored for 4 mo at -196℃, the detection limits of the IL-6/IL-1β responses to LPS were 0...
July 2018: Innate Immunity
Hamid Shegarfi, Kevin P Kane, Janne Nestvold
Murine NK cell Ly49 receptors, functionally analogous to KIRs in humans recognize MHC class I molecules and play a key role in controlling NK cell function. We have previously shown that the paired activating Ly49s4 and inhibitory Ly49i4 receptors recognize undefined non-classical MHC-Ib ligands from the RT1-CE region in rats. Here, the RT1-CE16 gene of the RT1d haplotype was stably transfected into the mouse RAW macrophage cell line, termed RAW-CE16d cells. Combining RAW-CE16d cells with Ly49 expressing reporter cells demonstrated Ly49i4 and Ly49s4 specificity for CE16d ...
May 2018: Innate Immunity
Daniel Busch, Amar Kapoor, Pia Rademann, Frank Hildebrand, Soheyl Bahrami, Christoph Thiemermann, Marcin F Osuchowski
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-β/δ reduces tissue injury in murine endotoxemia. We hypothesized that the PPAR-β/δ-agonist GW0742 improves long-term outcome after sepsis caused by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Fifty-one CD-1 female mice underwent CLP and received either vehicle (control), GW0742 (0.03 mg/kg/injection; five post-CLP i.v. injections), GSK0660 (PPAR-β/δ-antagonist) or both and were monitored for 28 d. Another 20 CLP mice treated with GW0742 and vehicle were sacrificed 24 h post-CLP to assess coagulopathy...
May 2018: Innate Immunity
Qirui Li, Lingyun Li, Xiaoyuan Fei, Yuanyue Zhang, Chang Qi, Shuyao Hua, Feili Gong, Min Fang
Here, the regulatory role of autophagy is examined in both an LPS-induced lethal endotoxic shock mouse model and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mouse model. Autophagy-inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and autophagy-enhancer rapamycin were administrated to mice challenged with LPS or CLP. Animals challenged with LPS or CLP combined with 3-MA displayed increased survival after endotoxemia, but LPS combined with rapamycin worsened the endotoxic shock of the mice. Among the different organs studied, the lungs and intestines exhibited significant differences among LPS alone, LPS combined with 3-MA and LPS combined with rapamycin...
May 2018: Innate Immunity
Naveen Surendran, Andrea Simmons, Michael E Pichichero
Each year millions of neonates die due to vaccine preventable infectious diseases. Our study seeks to develop novel neonatal vaccines and improve immunogenicity of early childhood vaccines by incorporating TLR agonist-adjuvant combinations that overcome the inherent neonatal Th2 bias and stimulate Th1 polarizing response from neonatal APCs. We systematically stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells with single and multiple combinations of TLR agonists and measured levels of IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IFN-α, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β from cell culture supernatants...
May 2018: Innate Immunity
Cortney L Armstrong, Christopher K Klaes, Aruna Vashishta, Richard J Lamont, Silvia M Uriarte
Neutrophils operate at the site of injury or inflammation in the periodontal pocket to ensure periodontal health and clearance of bacterial pathogens. Filifactor alocis is recently identified as a potential periodontal pathogen, and in this study, we assessed the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), in response to the presence of the organism . NET formation by human neutrophils was not induced when challenged with F. alocis, independent of opsonization, viability, time, or bacterial dose. F...
May 2018: Innate Immunity
Shuting Cao, Qianhui Zhang, ChunChun Wang, Huan Wu, Lefei Jiao, Qihua Hong, Caihong Hu
Here we investigated the influence of LPS-induced gut injury on antioxidant homeostasis, mitochondrial (mt) function and the level of mitophagy in piglets. The results showed that LPS-induced intestinal injury decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance, increased the paracellular permeability of F1TC dextran 4 kDa, and decreased the expression of claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens-1 in the jejunum compared with the control group. LPS decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and increased the content of malondialdehyde in the jejunum...
May 2018: Innate Immunity
Jingzhu Lv, Xiaojie Zhang, Caizhi Wang, Hongtao Wang, Ting Wang, Zhongqing Qian
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy disorder with a high mortality rate. Patients with PE exhibit systemic high oxidative stress status and inflammatory immune activation. This study aims to define the role of H2 O2 in the activation of neutrophils and T lymphocytes in PE patients. CD3+ /HLA-DR+ cells in blood from PE patients are remarkably increased compared with those of normal non-pregnancies or normal pregnancies, while the percentage of CD3+ /CD62L+ cells is significantly reduced in PE patients compared to normal pregnancies...
May 2018: Innate Immunity
Muki Shehu Shey, Avuyonke Balfour, Katalin Andrea Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes
APCs such as monocytes and dendritic cells are among the first cells to recognize invading pathogens and initiate an immune response. The innate response can either eliminate the pathogen directly, or through presentation of Ags to T cells, which can help to clear the infection. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are among the unconventional T cells whose activation does not involve the classical co-stimulation during Ag presentation. MAIT cells can be activated either via presentation of unconventional Ags (such as riboflavin metabolites) through the evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility class I-like molecule, MR1, or directly by cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-18...
May 2018: Innate Immunity
Reham Hammad Mahmoud Hammad, Dina Hossam El Dine Hamed, Mona Abd El Rahman Eldosoky, Ashraf Abd Elmonem Sayed Ahmad, Hanan Mohsen Osman, Heba Mohamed Abd Elgalil, Mahmoud Mohsen Mahmoud Hassan
Childhood asthma represents a worldwide problem, involving genetic, immune defense and environmental components. MicroRNAs (miRs) are non-coding, single-stranded RNAs involved in immune regulation. The aim was to evaluate clinical potential of plasma miR-21 and miR-146a involved in T helper differentiation in childhood asthma and non-asthmatic controls. Group 1 consisted of 27 asthmatic children receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), which was compared to group 2 with 21 healthy control children. All patients were assessed by pulmonary function tests...
April 2018: Innate Immunity
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