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Innate Immunity

Mathieu Garand, Bing Cai, Tobias R Kollmann
Susceptibility to infection and response to vaccination differ between populations and as a function of age. The underlying mechanisms for this age- and population-dependent variation are not known. Specifically, it is unclear if these variations are due to differences in genetically encoded host programs or driven by environmental influences or a combination of both. To address the relationship between gene and environment regarding immune ontogeny, we determined the innate cytokine responses following PRR stimulation of blood mononuclear cells at birth, 1, and 2 yr of age in infants from Caucasian vs...
October 3, 2016: Innate Immunity
Alexander G Laman, Richard Lathe, Anna O Shepelyakovskaya, Alexandra Gartseva, Feodor A Brovko, Svetlana Guryanova, Ludmila Alekseeva, Elena A Meshcheryakova, Vadim T Ivanov
Bacterial cell wall muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and glucosaminyl-MDP (GMDP) are potent activators of innate immunity. Two receptor targets, NOD2 and YB1, have been reported; we investigated potential overlap of NOD2 and YB1 pathways. Separate knockdown of NOD2 and YB1 demonstrates that both contribute to GMDP induction of NF-κB expression, a marker of innate immunity, although excess YB1 led to induction in the absence of NOD2. YB1 and NOD2 co-migrated on sucrose gradient centrifugation, and GMDP addition led to the formation of higher molecular mass complexes containing both YB1 and NOD2...
September 30, 2016: Innate Immunity
Qin Yang, Maren J Pröll, Dessie Salilew-Wondim, Rui Zhang, Dawit Tesfaye, Huitao Fan, Mehmet U Cinar, Christine Große-Brinkhaus, Ernst Tholen, Mohammad A Islam, Michael Hölker, Karl Schellander, Muhammad J Uddin, Christiane Neuhoff
Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AMs) are important in defense against bacterial lung inflammation. Cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is involved in recognizing bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through MyD88-dependent and TRIF pathways of innate immunity. Sulforaphane (SFN) shows anti-inflammatory activity and suppresses DNA methylation. To identify CD14 epigenetic changes by SFN in the LPS-induced TRIF pathway, an AMs model was investigated in vitro CD14 gene expression was induced by 5 µg/ml LPS at the time point of 12 h and suppressed by 5 µM SFN...
September 29, 2016: Innate Immunity
Li-Li Sha, Huan Wang, Chen Wang, Hong-Ying Peng, Min Chen, Ming-Hui Zhao
Dysregulated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation contributes to the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic Ab (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is involved in the process of NETs formation. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether ANCA could induce autophagy in the process of NETs formation. Autophagy was detected using live cell imaging, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) accumulation and Western blotting. The results showed that autophagy vacuolization was detected in neutrophils treated with ANCA-positive IgG by live cell imaging...
September 26, 2016: Innate Immunity
Yishan Chuang, Michelle E Hung, Brianne K Cangelose, Joshua N Leonard
Macrophages are ubiquitous innate immune cells that play a central role in health and disease by adopting distinct phenotypes, which are broadly divided into classical inflammatory responses and alternative responses that promote immune suppression and wound healing. Although macrophages are attractive therapeutic targets, incomplete understanding of this functional choice limits clinical manipulation. While individual stimuli, pathways, and genes involved in macrophage functional responses have been identified, how macrophages evaluate complex in vivo milieus comprising multiple divergent stimuli remains poorly understood...
September 26, 2016: Innate Immunity
Xiangyu Chen, Lingyun Li, Muhammad Noman Khan, Lifeng Shi, Zhongyan Wang, Fang Zheng, Feili Gong, Min Fang
In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), as an endogenous inflammatory molecule, can promote inflammatory cytokines secretion by acting on TLR2/4 resulting in tissue damage. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report a novel role of HMGB1 in controlling the maintenance and function of intestine-resident group-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) that are important innate effector cells implicated in mucosal homeostasis and IBD pathogenesis. We showed that mice treated with anti-HMGB1 Ab, or genetically deficient for TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice, displayed reduced intestinal inflammation...
September 26, 2016: Innate Immunity
Renee M Potera, Melissa J Jensen, Brieanna M Hilkin, Gina K South, Jessica S Hook, Emily A Gross, Jessica G Moreland
Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte) activation with release of granule contents plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, prompting clinical trials of inhibitors of neutrophil elastase. Despite mounting evidence for neutrophil-mediated host tissue damage in a variety of disease processes, mechanisms regulating azurophilic granule exocytosis at the plasma membrane, and thus release of elastase and other proteases, are poorly characterized. We hypothesized that azurophilic granule exocytosis would be enhanced under priming conditions similar to those seen during acute inflammatory events and during chronic inflammatory disease, and selected the cytokine TNF-α to model this in vitro Neutrophils stimulated with TNF-α alone elicited intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mobilization of secretory vesicles, specific, and gelatinase granules...
September 21, 2016: Innate Immunity
Chang Gun Cho, Kwang Pak, Nicholas Webster, Arwa Kurabi, Allen F Ryan
A major aspect of pathology in otitis media (OM), the most common childhood bacterial disease, is hyperplasia of the middle ear mucosa. Activation of innate immune receptors during OM leads to the activation of NF-κB, a pleiotropic transcription factor involved both in inflammation and tissue growth. To explore the role of NF-κB in mucosal hyperplasia during OM, we evaluated the expression of genes involved in two modes of NF-κB activation during a complete episode of acute, bacterial OM in mice. We also determined the effects of inhibitors of each pathway on infection-stimulated mucosal growth in vitro A majority of the genes that mediate both the canonical and the non-canonical pathways of NF-κB activation were regulated during OM, many with kinetics related to the time course of mucosal hyperplasia...
September 21, 2016: Innate Immunity
Bodo Wonnenberg, Christopher Jungnickel, Anja Honecker, Lisa Wolf, Meike Voss, Markus Bischoff, Thomas Tschernig, Christian Herr, Robert Bals, Christoph Beisswenger
IL-17A-dependent immunity is of importance in the protection against extracellular bacterial pathogens. However, IL-17A is also suggested to mediate the pathogenesis of lung diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here, we studied the role of IL-17A in a mouse model of acute pneumonia. IL-17A mediated the expression of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and the recruitment of inflammatory cells in mice infected with a sub-lethal dose of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IL-17A deficiency protected mice from lethal P...
September 15, 2016: Innate Immunity
Lukas Martin, Carsten Peters, Lena Heinbockel, Julia Moellmann, Antons Martincuks, Klaus Brandenburg, Michael Lehrke, Gerhard Müller-Newen, Gernot Marx, Tobias Schuerholz
Septic cardiomyopathy affects up to 70% of patients with septic shock and the derangement of cardiac mitochondrial function contributes to the likelihood of death. However, at present, there is no specific therapeutic drug available. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and coactivator-1β (PGC-1β) modulate members of the PPARs, which regulate mitochondrial energy metabolism and the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the heart. This study investigated the potential of the newly developed synthetic antimicrobial peptide 19-2...
September 13, 2016: Innate Immunity
Joao Ac Souza, Marcell C Medeiros, Fernanda Rg Rocha, Sabrina G de Aquino, Mario J Ávila-Campos, Luis C Spolidorio, Dario S Zamboni, Dana T Graves, Carlos Rossa
NOD2 is a member of the NLR family of proteins that participate in the activation of the innate immune response. RIP2 is a downstream kinase activated by both NOD1 and NOD2. There is scarcity of information regarding the relevance of NOD2 in periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by inflammatory bone resorption. We used NOD2-KO and RIP2-KO mice in a model of microbial-induced periodontitis. Heat-killed Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was injected in the gingival tissues three times/wk for 4 wk...
September 7, 2016: Innate Immunity
Shaokui Chen, Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Haibo Wang, Shuang Li, Haifeng Shi, Huiling Zhu, Jing Zhang, Dingan Pi, Chien-An Andy Hu, Xi Lin, Jack Odle
Asparagine (Asn), an activator of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), stimulates cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial cells. We hypothesized that Asn can mitigate LPS-induced injury of intestinal structure and barrier function by regulating inflammatory signaling pathways. We executed the following experiment using weanling pigs for each of the groups: (1) non-challenged control; (2) LPS-challenged control; (3) LPS + 0.5% Asn; (4) LPS + 1.0% Asn. After 21-d feeding, pigs received an i.p. injection of either saline or LPS...
August 22, 2016: Innate Immunity
Yinxia Huang, Yumiko Matsumura, Shinya Hatano, Naoto Noguchi, Tesshin Murakami, Yoichiro Iwakura, Xun Sun, Naoya Ohara, Yasunobu Yoshikai
Innate γδ T cells expressing Vγ6 produce IL-17A at an early stage following infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In this study, we used IL-21 receptor knockout (IL-21R KO) mice and IL-21-producing recombinant BCG mice (rBCG-Ag85B-IL-21) to examine the role of IL-21 in the regulation of IL-17A-producing innate γδ T-cell response following BCG infection. IL-17A-producing Vγ6(+) γδ T cells increased in the peritoneal cavity of IL-21R KO mice more than in wild type mice after BCG infection...
August 22, 2016: Innate Immunity
Ramiro López-Medrano, José Manuel Guerra-Laso, Eduardo López-Fidalgo, Cristina Diez-Tascón, Silvia García-García, Sara Blanco-Conde, Octavio Miguel Rivero-Lezcano
The whole blood model for infection has proven useful to analyze the immunological response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, because it exerts a significant antimicrobial activity. Although this activity has been generally assumed to be cellular, we have found that the leukocyte fraction of blood from healthy volunteers did not kill the bacilli. We have discovered that plasma was responsible for a large proportion, but not all, of the antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, infected monocytes controlled the mycobacterial multiplication when cultivated in the presence of plasma...
October 2016: Innate Immunity
Susanne Janum, Signe T Nielsen, Mads U Werner, Jesper Mehlsen, Henrik Kehlet, Kirsten Møller
We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two separate trial days, with or without a nicotine patch applied 10 h previously. Pain perception at baseline, and 2 and 6 h after LPS was assessed by pressure algometry and tonic heat stimulation at an increasing temperature (45-48℃) during both trials...
October 2016: Innate Immunity
Annette R Rodriguez, Jieh-Juen Yu, Christopher Navara, James P Chambers, M Neal Guentzel, Bernard P Arulanandam
Understanding innate immune intercellular communication following microbial infection remains a key biological issue. Using live cell imaging, we demonstrate that mast cells actively extend cellular projections to sample the macrophage periphery during Francisella tularensis LVS infection. Mast cell MHCII(hi) expression was elevated from less than 1% to 13% during LVS infection. Direct contact during co-culture with macrophages further increased mast cell MHCII(hi) expression to approximately 87%. Confocal analyses of the cellular perimeter revealed mast cell caspase-1 was localized in close proximity with FcɛRI in uninfected mast cells, and repositioned to clustered regions upon LVS infection...
October 2016: Innate Immunity
Bassem Refaat, Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Sarah Abdullah Batwa, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris, Seham Yahia Kutbi, Faizah Ahmed Malibary, Fadi Fayez Kamfar
This was a prospective case-control study that measured the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) by an IVD CE multiplex PCR kit in fresh Fallopian tubes (FT) obtained from 96 ectopic pregnancies (EP) and 61 controls in the midluteal phase of the cycle. We later measured the expression profile of IL-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and their signalling molecules, in respect to the type and number of infections, by immunohistochemistry, ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR...
October 2016: Innate Immunity
Chia-Chen Lu, Ya-Jing Hsu, Chih-Jung Chang, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Jan Martel, David M Ojcius, Yun-Fei Ko, Hsin-Chih Lai, John D Young
Medicinal mushrooms have been used for centuries in Asian countries owing to their beneficial effects on health and longevity. Previous studies have reported that a single medicinal mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on conditions, but the factors responsible for this apparent dichotomy remain obscure. We show here that water and ethanol extracts of cultured mycelium from various species (Agaricus blazei Murrill, Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum and Hirsutella sinensis) produce opposite effects on NK cells...
October 2016: Innate Immunity
Afsar Raza Naqvi, Jezrom B Fordham, Salvador Nares
Phagocytosis commences with particle internalization and culminates with the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the role of miRNAs in phagocytosis remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the role of miR-24, miR-30b and miR-142-3p in Ab Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages (MΦ) and dendritic cells (DC). The expression of these miRNAs was reduced following phagocytosis of both IgG-opsonized beads and Escherichia coli, indicating their regulatory role in the process...
October 2016: Innate Immunity
Xiangxuan Zhao, Mengde Cao, Zaiming Lu, Ton Wang, Ying Ren, Chen Liu, David Nelson
Sorafenib has been used for the treatment of liver cancer. However, its clinical impact on human immunity system remains poorly known. Our previous study has shown that sorafenib modulates immunosuppressive cell populations in murine liver cancer models. Here, we continue to report that low doses of sorafenib promotes the survival of murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) in a dose-dependent manner by up-regulating the anti-apoptotic protein survivin. Sorafenib induces differentiation of BMCs into suppressive dendritic cells that inhibit autologous T-cell proliferation and stimulate CD4(+) T cells to express increased IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α, and reduced levels of IL-6 and CD25, which indicates that sorafenib-induced dendritic cells represent a distinct cellular subset with unique properties...
October 2016: Innate Immunity
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