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Journal of Innate Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768268/antifungal-innate-immunity-a-perspective-from-the-last-10-years
#1
REVIEW
Fabián Salazar, Gordon D Brown
Fungal pathogens can rarely cause diseases in immunocompetent individuals. However, commensal and normally nonpathogenic environmental fungi can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. Over the last few decades, there has been a huge increase in the incidence of invasive opportunistic fungal infections along with a worrying increase in antifungal drug resistance. As a consequence, research focused on understanding the molecular and cellular basis of antifungal immunity has expanded tremendously in the last few years...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763894/the-understanding-and-management-of-organism-toxicity-in-septic-shock
#2
Kelly Roveran Genga, Tadanaga Shimada, John H Boyd, Keith R Walley, James A Russell
The toxicity caused by different organisms in septic shock is substantially complex and characterized by an intricate pathogenicity that involves several systems and pathways. Immune cells' pattern recognition receptors initiate the host response to pathogens after the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In essence, the subsequent activation of downstream pathways may progress to infection resolution or to a dysregulated host response that represents the hallmark of organ injury in septic shock...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742516/influence-of-commensal-microbiota-on-the-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Kristina Endres, Karl-Herbert Schäfer
When thinking about neurodegenerative diseases, the first symptoms that come to mind are loss of memory and learning capabilities, which all resemble hallmarks of manifestation of such diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the gut comprises the largest nervous system outside the CNS that is autonomously active and in close interplay with its microbiota. Therefore, the enteric nervous system (ENS) might serve as an indicator of degenerative pathomechanisms that also affect the CNS. On the other hand, it might offer an entry point for devastating influences from the microbial community or - conversely - for therapeutic approaches via gut commensals...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669334/the-ins-and-outs-of-myeloid-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#4
Ariane Schumski, Carla Winter, Yvonne Döring, Oliver Soehnlein
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the arterial vessel wall that arises from an imbalanced lipid metabolism. A growing body of literature describes leukocyte recruitment as a critical step in the initiation and progression of lesion development. By contrast, the role of leukocytes during plaque regression has been described in less detail. Leukocyte egress might be an important step to resolving chronic inflammation and therefore it may be a promising target for limiting advanced lesion development...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642066/neutrophils-and-bacterial-immune-evasion
#5
Scott D Kobayashi, Natalia Malachowa, Frank R DeLeo
Neutrophils are an important component of the innate immune system and provide a front line of defense against bacterial infection. Although most bacteria are killed readily by neutrophils, some bacterial pathogens have the capacity to circumvent destruction by these host leukocytes. The ability of bacterial pathogens to avoid killing by neutrophils often involves multiple attributes or characteristics, including the production of virulence molecules. These molecules are diverse in composition and function, and collectively have the potential to alter or inhibit neutrophil recruitment, phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and/or apoptosis...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617698/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-adaptation-to-innate-immune-clearance-mechanisms-in-the-lung
#6
Sebastian A Riquelme, Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
Many different species of gram-negative bacteria are associated with infection in the lung, causing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), and ventilator-associated pneumonias. These airway pathogens must adapt to common host clearance mechanisms that include killing by antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, oxidative stress, and phagocytosis by leukocytes. Bacterial adaptation to the host is often evident phenotypically, with increased extracellular polysaccharide production characteristic of some biofilm-associated organisms...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478057/neuroinflammation-in-response-to-intracerebral-injections-of-different-hmgb1-redox-isoforms
#7
Hannah Aucott, Johan Lundberg, Henna Salo, Lena Klevenvall, Peter Damberg, Lars Ottosson, Ulf Andersson, Staffan Holmin, Helena Erlandsson Harris
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation triggered by infection or trauma is the cause of central nervous system dysfunction. High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), released from stressed and dying brain cells, is a potent neuroinflammatory mediator. The proinflammatory functions of HMGB1 are tightly regulated by post-translational redox modifications, and we here investigated detailed neuroinflammatory responses induced by the individual redox isoforms. METHODS: Male Dark Agouti rats received a stereotactic injection of saline, lipopolysaccharide, disulfide HMGB1, or fully reduced HMGB1, and were accessed for blood-brain barrier modifications using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455206/a-potential-mechanism-for-immune-suppression-by-beta-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-following-traumatic-injury
#8
Nicholas J Shubin, Tam N Pham, Kristan Lea Staudenmayer, Brodie A Parent, Qian Qiu, Grant E O'Keefe
BACKGROUND: β-Adrenergic agents suppress inflammation and may play an important role in posttraumatic infections. Mechanisms may include inhibition of MAP kinase signaling. We sought to determine whether MKP-1 contributed to catecholamine suppression of innate immunity and also wanted to know whether early catecholamine treatment after traumatic injury increases the risk of later nosocomial infection. METHODS: We performed experiments using THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439264/innate-immunity-of-the-lung-from-basic-mechanisms-to-translational-medicine
#9
Dominik Hartl, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Julie Laval, Catherine M Greene, David Habiel, Lokesh Sharma, Ali Önder Yildirim, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cory M Hogaboam
The respiratory tract is faced daily with 10,000 L of inhaled air. While the majority of air contains harmless environmental components, the pulmonary immune system also has to cope with harmful microbial or sterile threats and react rapidly to protect the host at this intimate barrier zone. The airways are endowed with a broad armamentarium of cellular and humoral host defense mechanisms, most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of host-pathogen, host-allergen, and host-particle interactions within the mucosal airway compartment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393221/the-synergy-of-endotoxin-and-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-from-gut-translocation-worsens-sepsis-severity-in-a-lupus-model-of-fc-gamma-receptor-iib-deficient-mice
#10
Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Saowapha Surawut, Navaporn Worasilchai, Arthid Thim-Uam, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Nattiya Hirankarn, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Asada Leelahavanichkul
We investigated the influence of spontaneous gut leakage upon polymicrobial sepsis in a lupus model with Fc gamma receptor IIb-deficient (FcGRIIb-/-) mice aged 8 and 40 weeks, as representing asymptomatic and symptomatic lupus, respectively. Spontaneous gut leakage, determined by (i) the presence of FITC-dextran, (ii) elevated serum endotoxin, and (iii) elevated serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG), was demonstrated in symptomatic lupus but not in the asymptomatic group. In parallel, spontaneous gut leakage, detected by elevated serum BG without fungal infection, was demonstrated in patients with active lupus nephritis...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334679/the-il20-genetic-polymorphism-is-associated-with-altered-clinical-outcome-in-septic-shock
#11
Taka-Aki Nakada, Petch Wacharasint, James A Russell, John H Boyd, Emiri Nakada, Simone A Thair, Tadanaga Shimada, Keith R Walley
BACKGROUND: The IL10 family of genes includes crucial immune regulators. We tested the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10, IL19, IL20, and IL24 of the IL10 family gene cluster alter the clinical outcome of septic shock. METHODS: Patients with septic shock (n = 1,193) were genotyped for 13 tag SNPs of IL10, IL19, IL20, and IL24. IL20 gene expression was measured in genotyped lymphoblastoid cells in vitro. Cardiac surgical ICU patients (n = 981) were genotyped for IL20 rs2981573 A/G...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510384/full-complement
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393212/toll-interacting-protein-tollip-inhibits-il-13-mediated-pulmonary-eosinophilic-inflammation-in-mice
#13
Yoko Ito, Niccolette Schaefer, Amelia Sanchez, David Francisco, Rafeul Alam, Richard J Martin, Julie G Ledford, Connor Stevenson, Di Jiang, Liwu Li, Monica Kraft, Hong Wei Chu
Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) is a key negative regulator of innate immunity by preventing excessive proinflammatory responses. Tollip genetic variation has been associated with airflow limitation in asthma subjects and Tollip expression. Whether Tollip regulates lung inflammation in a type 2 cytokine milieu (e.g., IL-13) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the in vivo role of Tollip in IL-13-mediated lung eosinophilic inflammation and the underlying mechanisms. Tollip-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were inoculated intranasally with recombinant mouse IL-13 protein to examine lung inflammation...
2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393206/erratum
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320784/going-fishing
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306950/immune-consequences-of-in-vitro-infection-of-human-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-with-vesicular-stomatitis-virus
#16
Tomasz Tomczyk, Grażyna Wróbel, Radosław Chaber, Iwona Siemieniec, Egbert Piasecki, Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Beata U Orzechowska
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be delivered intravenously to target primary and metastatic lesions, but the interaction between human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and VSV remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to assess the overall immunological consequences of ex vivo infection of PBLs with VSV. METHODS: Phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subsets and apoptosis were evaluated with flow cytometry. Caspase 3/7 activity was detected by luminescence assay...
2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248928/differential-kinetics-of-aspergillus-nidulans-and-aspergillus-fumigatus-phagocytosis
#17
Mark S Gresnigt, Katharina L Becker, Floris Leenders, M Fernanda Alonso, Xiaowen Wang, Jacques F Meis, Judith M Bain, Lars P Erwig, Frank L van de Veerdonk
Invasive aspergillosis mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients and is commonly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, while A.nidulans is rarely the causative agent. However, in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients, A. nidulans is a frequent cause of invasive aspergillosis and is associated with higher mortality. Immune recognition of A. nidulans was compared to A. fumigatus to offer an insight into why A. nidulans infections are prevalent in CGD. Live cell imaging with J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and LC3-GFP-mCherry bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) revealed that phagocytosis of A...
2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237166/kallikrein-cleaves-c3-and-activates-complement
#18
Sarah Irmscher, Nadia Döring, Luke D Halder, Emeraldo A H Jo, Isabell Kopka, Christine Dunker, Ilse D Jacobsen, Shanshan Luo, Hortense Slevogt, Stefan Lorkowski, Niklas Beyersdorf, Peter F Zipfel, Christine Skerka
The human plasma contact system is an immune surveillance system activated by the negatively charged surfaces of bacteria and fungi and includes the kallikrein-kinin, the coagulation, and the fibrinolytic systems. Previous work shows that the contact system also activates complement, and that plasma enzymes like kallikrein, plasmin, thrombin, and FXII are involved in the activation process. Here, we show for the first time that kallikrein cleaves the central complement component C3 directly to yield active components C3b and C3a...
2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176319/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf125-activates-interleukin-36-receptor-signaling-and-contributes-to-its-turnover
#19
Siddhartha S Saha, Gary Caviness, Guanghui Yi, Ernest L Raymond, M Lamine Mbow, C Cheng Kao
Signaling by the interleukin-36 receptor (IL-36R) is linked to inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. However, the regulation of IL-36R signaling is poorly understood. Activation of IL-36R signaling in cultured cells results in an increased polyubiquitination of the receptor subunit, IL-1Rrp2. Treatment with deubiquitinases shows that the receptor subunit of IL-36R, IL-1Rrp2, is primarily polyubiquitinated at the K63 position, which is associated with endocytic trafficking and signal transduction. A minor amount of ubiquitination is at the K48 position that is associated with protein degradation...
2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069656/cyclosporine-a-induces-micrornas-controlling-innate-immunity-during-renal-bacterial-infection
#20
Malick Sadio, Emilie Tourneur, Marcelle Bens, Jean-Michel Goujon, Alain Vandewalle, Cécilia Chassin
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) mainly due to uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are one of the most frequent complications in kidney-transplanted patients, causing significant morbidity. However, the mechanisms underlying UTI in renal grafts remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed the effects of the potent immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) on the activation of collecting duct cells that represent a preferential site of adhesion and translocation for UPEC. CsA induced the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide- induced activation of collecting duct cells due to the downregulation of the expression of TLR4 via the microRNA Let-7i...
2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
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