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Journal of Innate Immunity

Yu Kusaka, Chiaki Kajiwara, Sho Shimada, Yoshikazu Ishii, Yasunari Miyazaki, Naohiko Inase, Theodore J Standiford, Kazuhiro Tateda
In this study, we analyzed interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells and M1/M2 macrophage polarization in Legionella pneumophila pneumonia following anti-Gr-1 antibody treatment. Anti-Gr-1 treatment induced an M1-to-M2 shift of macrophage subtypes in the lungs and weakly in the peripheral blood, which was associated with increased mortality in legionella-infected mice. CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer cells were the dominant sources of IFN-γ in the acute phase, and anti-Gr-1 treatment reduced the number of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T lymphocytes...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Xiaoxiao Gao, Dan Chen, Xue Hu, Yuan Zhou, Yun Wang, Chunchen Wu, Jizheng Chen, Yanyi Wang, Rongjuan Pei, Xinwen Chen
As a key molecule in the antiviral innate immune response, the activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is under tight regulation. In this report, we identified phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase PLA1A as a host factor that modulates the TBK1 activation. Knockdown of PLA1A expression suppressed the innate immune signaling induced by RNA viruses, while PLA1A overexpression enhanced the signaling. PLA1A functioned at the TBK1 level of the signaling pathway, as PLA1A silencing blocked TBK1, but not interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) induced interferon-β (IFN-β) promoter activity...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Suzanne Faure-Dupuy, Serena Vegna, Ludovic Aillot, Laura Dimier, Knud Esser, Mathias Broxtermann, Marc Bonnin, Nathalie Bendriss-Vermare, Michel Rivoire, Guillaume Passot, Mickaël Lesurtel, Jean-Yves Mabrut, Christian Ducerf, Anna Salvetti, Ulrike Protzer, Fabien Zoulim, David Durantel, Julie Lucifora
Different liver cell types are endowed with immunological properties, including cell-intrinsic innate immune functions that are important to initially control pathogen infections. However, a full landscape of expression and functionality of the innate immune signaling pathways in the major human liver cells is still missing. In order to comparatively characterize these pathways, we purified primary human hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), and Kupffer cells (KC) from human liver resections...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Robin Ireland, Benjamin Schwarz, Glenn Nardone, Tara D Wehrly, Corey D Broeckling, Abhilash I Chiramel, Sonja M Best, Catharine M Bosio
Virulent Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt) is a dynamic, intracellular, bacterial pathogen. Its ability to evade and rapidly suppress host inflammatory responses is considered a key element for its profound virulence. We previously established that Ftt lipids play a role in inhibiting inflammation, but we did not determine the lipid species mediating this process. Here, we show that a unique, abundant, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), present in Francisella, contributes to driving the suppression of inflammatory responses in human and mouse cells...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Eva Medina, Dominik Hartl
After initial infection, the immune response that serves to restrict the invading pathogen needs to be tightly calibrated in order to avoid collateral immunopathological damage. This calibration is performed by specialized suppressor mechanisms, which are capable of dampening overwhelming or unremitting inflammation in order to prevent tissue damage. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are emerging as key players in counter-balancing inflammatory responses and pathogenesis during infection. However, some pathogens are able to exploit the suppressive activities of MDSC to favor pathogen persistence and chronic infections...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Alaa Alhazmi
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase which associates directly with extracellular receptors, and is critically involved in signal transduction pathways in a variety of cell types for the regulation of cellular responses. SYK is expressed ubiquitously in immune and nonimmune cells, and has a much wider biological role than previously recognized. Several studies have highlighted SYK as a key player in the pathogenesis of a multitude of diseases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen, which is responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals, accounting for a major cause of severe chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients and subsequently resulting in a progressive deterioration of lung function...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Scott A Lindsay, Samuel J H Lin, Steven A Wasserman
The Bomanins (Boms) are a family of a dozen secreted peptides that mediate the innate immune response governed by the Drosophila Toll receptor. We recently showed that deleting a cluster of 10 Bom genes blocks Toll-mediated defenses against a range of fungi and gram-positive bacteria. Here, we characterize the activity of individual Bom family members. We provide evidence that the Boms overlap in function and that a single Bom gene encoding a mature peptide of just 16 amino acids can act largely or entirely independent of other family members to provide phenotypic rescue in vivo...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Volker Brinkmann
Nearly 15 years after the first description of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), our knowledge concerning this structure has expanded considerably. Initially, NETs were considered solely an elaborate function of the innate immune system to combat invading microorganisms. Successively it became clear that NETs have farther-reaching capabilities. They are involved in a series of pathophysiological mechanisms ranging from inflammation to thrombosis where they fulfill essential functions when produced at the right site and the right time but can have a serious impact when generation or clearance of NETs is inadequately controlled...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Ioannis Mitroulis, Lydia Kalafati, George Hajishengallis, Triantafyllos Chavakis
An intact and fully functional innate immune system is critical in the defense against pathogens. Indeed, during systemic infection, the ability of the organism to cope with the increased demand for phagocytes depends heavily on sufficient replenishment of mature myeloid cells. This process, designated emergency or demand-adapted myelopoiesis, requires the activation of hematopoietic progenitors in the bone marrow (BM), resulting in their proliferation and differentiation toward the myeloid lineage. Failure of BM progenitors to adapt to the enhanced need for mature cells in the periphery can be life-threatening, as indicated by the detrimental effect of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression on the outcome of systemic infection...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Hiromi Takaki, Shingo Ichimiya, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya
The nasal administration of vaccines directed against diseases caused by upper respiratory tract infections of pathogens, such as the influenza virus, mimics the natural infection of pathogens and induces immunoglobulin A (IgA) production in the nasal cavity to effectively protect viral entry. Therefore, the development of a nasally administered vaccine is a research objective. Because the antigenicity of influenza split vaccines is low, nasal inoculation with the vaccine alone does not induce strong IgA production in the nasal cavity...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Katja Kriebel, Cathleen Hieke, Robby Engelmann, Jan Potempa, Brigitte Müller-Hilke, Hermann Lang, Bernd Kreikemeyer
Periodontitis (PD) is a widespread chronic inflammatory disease in the human population. Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with PD and can citrullinate host proteins via P. gingivalis peptidyl arginine deiminase (PPAD). Here, we hypothesized that infection of human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSCs) with P. gingivalis and subsequent interaction with neutrophils will alter the neutrophil phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we established and analyzed a triple-culture system of neutrophils and hDFSCs primed with P...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Thomas Stravinskas Durigon, BreAnne MacKenzie, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Alana Santos-Dias, Kátia De Angelis, Christiano Malfitano, Renata Kelly da Palma, Juliana Moreno Guerra, Nilsa Regina Damaceno-Rodrigues, Elia Garcia Caldini, Francine Maria de Almeida, Helida Cristina Aquino-Santos, Nicole Cristine Rigonato-Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de Oliveira, Flavio Aimbire, Ana Paula Ligeiro de Oliveira, Luiz Vicente Franco de Oliveira, Edison Luiz Durigon, Pieter S Hiemstra, Rodolfo P Vieira
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PS) infection results in severe morbidity and mortality, especially in immune-deficient populations. Aerobic exercise (AE) modulates the immune system, but its effects on the outcomes of pulmonary PS infection in elderly mice are unknown. METHODS: BALB/c mice (24 weeks old) were randomized to sedentary, exercise (EX), PS, and PS + EX groups for the acute experimental setting, and PS and PS + EX groups for the chronic setting. Low-intensity AE was performed for 5 weeks, 60 min/day; 24 h after the final AE session, mice were inoculated with 5 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) of PS, and 24 h and 14 days after PS inoculation, mice were studied...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Fabián Salazar, Gordon D Brown
Fungal pathogens can rarely cause diseases in immunocompetent individuals. However, commensal and normally nonpathogenic environmental fungi can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. Over the last few decades, there has been a huge increase in the incidence of invasive opportunistic fungal infections along with a worrying increase in antifungal drug resistance. As a consequence, research focused on understanding the molecular and cellular basis of antifungal immunity has expanded tremendously in the last few years...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Kelly Roveran Genga, Tadanaga Shimada, John H Boyd, Keith R Walley, James A Russell
The toxicity caused by different organisms in septic shock is substantially complex and characterized by an intricate pathogenicity that involves several systems and pathways. Immune cells' pattern recognition receptors initiate the host response to pathogens after the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In essence, the subsequent activation of downstream pathways may progress to infection resolution or to a dysregulated host response that represents the hallmark of organ injury in septic shock...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Ariane Schumski, Carla Winter, Yvonne Döring, Oliver Soehnlein
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the arterial vessel wall that arises from an imbalanced lipid metabolism. A growing body of literature describes leukocyte recruitment as a critical step in the initiation and progression of lesion development. By contrast, the role of leukocytes during plaque regression has been described in less detail. Leukocyte egress might be an important step to resolving chronic inflammation and therefore it may be a promising target for limiting advanced lesion development...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Scott D Kobayashi, Natalia Malachowa, Frank R DeLeo
Neutrophils are an important component of the innate immune system and provide a front line of defense against bacterial infection. Although most bacteria are killed readily by neutrophils, some bacterial pathogens have the capacity to circumvent destruction by these host leukocytes. The ability of bacterial pathogens to avoid killing by neutrophils often involves multiple attributes or characteristics, including the production of virulence molecules. These molecules are diverse in composition and function, and collectively have the potential to alter or inhibit neutrophil recruitment, phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and/or apoptosis...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Sebastian A Riquelme, Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
Many different species of gram-negative bacteria are associated with infection in the lung, causing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), and ventilator-associated pneumonias. These airway pathogens must adapt to common host clearance mechanisms that include killing by antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, oxidative stress, and phagocytosis by leukocytes. Bacterial adaptation to the host is often evident phenotypically, with increased extracellular polysaccharide production characteristic of some biofilm-associated organisms...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Hannah Aucott, Johan Lundberg, Henna Salo, Lena Klevenvall, Peter Damberg, Lars Ottosson, Ulf Andersson, Staffan Holmin, Helena Erlandsson Harris
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation triggered by infection or trauma is the cause of central nervous system dysfunction. High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), released from stressed and dying brain cells, is a potent neuroinflammatory mediator. The proinflammatory functions of HMGB1 are tightly regulated by post-translational redox modifications, and we here investigated detailed neuroinflammatory responses induced by the individual redox isoforms. METHODS: Male Dark Agouti rats received a stereotactic injection of saline, lipopolysaccharide, disulfide HMGB1, or fully reduced HMGB1, and were accessed for blood-brain barrier modifications using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Nicholas J Shubin, Tam N Pham, Kristan Lea Staudenmayer, Brodie A Parent, Qian Qiu, Grant E O'Keefe
BACKGROUND: β-Adrenergic agents suppress inflammation and may play an important role in posttraumatic infections. Mechanisms may include inhibition of MAP kinase signaling. We sought to determine whether MKP-1 contributed to catecholamine suppression of innate immunity and also wanted to know whether early catecholamine treatment after traumatic injury increases the risk of later nosocomial infection. METHODS: We performed experiments using THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Dominik Hartl, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Julie Laval, Catherine M Greene, David Habiel, Lokesh Sharma, Ali Önder Yildirim, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cory M Hogaboam
The respiratory tract is faced daily with 10,000 L of inhaled air. While the majority of air contains harmless environmental components, the pulmonary immune system also has to cope with harmful microbial or sterile threats and react rapidly to protect the host at this intimate barrier zone. The airways are endowed with a broad armamentarium of cellular and humoral host defense mechanisms, most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of host-pathogen, host-allergen, and host-particle interactions within the mucosal airway compartment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
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