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Journal of Innate Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212075/echinochrome-a-release-by-red-spherule-cells-is-an-iron-withholding-strategy-of-sea-urchin-innate-immunity
#1
Christopher J Coates, Claire McCulloch, Joshua Betts, Tim Whalley
Cellular immune defences in sea urchins are shared amongst the coelomocytes - a heterogeneous population of cells residing in the coelomic fluid (blood equivalent) and tissues. The most iconic coelomocyte morphotype is the red spherule cell (or amebocyte), so named due to the abundance of cytoplasmic vesicles containing the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome A. Despite their identification over a century ago, and evidence of antiseptic properties, little progress has been made in characterising the immunocompetence of these cells...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186718/interferon-stimulated-genes-as-enhancers-of-antiviral-innate-immune-signaling
#2
Keaton M Crosse, Ebony A Monson, Michael R Beard, Karla J Helbig
The ability of a host to curb a viral infection is heavily reliant on the effectiveness of an initial antiviral innate immune response, resulting in the upregulation of interferon (IFN) and, subsequently, IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). ISGs serve to mount an antiviral state within a host cell, and although the specific antiviral function of a number of ISGs has been characterized, the function of many of these ISGs remains to be determined. Recent research has uncovered a novel role for a handful of ISGs, some of them directly induced by IFN regulatory factor 3 in the absence of IFN itself...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176319/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf125-activates-interleukin-36-receptor-signaling-and-contributes-to-its-turnover
#3
Siddhartha S Saha, Gary Caviness, Guanghui Yi, Ernest L Raymond, M Lamine Mbow, C Cheng Kao
Signaling by the interleukin-36 receptor (IL-36R) is linked to inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. However, the regulation of IL-36R signaling is poorly understood. Activation of IL-36R signaling in cultured cells results in an increased polyubiquitination of the receptor subunit, IL-1Rrp2. Treatment with deubiquitinases shows that the receptor subunit of IL-36R, IL-1Rrp2, is primarily polyubiquitinated at the K63 position, which is associated with endocytic trafficking and signal transduction. A minor amount of ubiquitination is at the K48 position that is associated with protein degradation...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131106/gut-microbiota-dependent-modulation-of-energy-metabolism
#4
Christina N Heiss, Louise E Olofsson
The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the host's energy balance. It increases the host's ability to harvest energy from the digested food, and produces metabolites and microbial products such as short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolites and microbial products act as signaling molecules that modulate appetite, gut motility, energy uptake and storage, and energy expenditure. Several findings suggest that the gut microbiota can affect the development of obesity...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069656/cyclosporine-a-induces-micrornas-controlling-innate-immunity-during-renal-bacterial-infection
#5
Malick Sadio, Emilie Tourneur, Marcelle Bens, Jean-Michel Goujon, Alain Vandewalle, Cécilia Chassin
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) mainly due to uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are one of the most frequent complications in kidney-transplanted patients, causing significant morbidity. However, the mechanisms underlying UTI in renal grafts remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed the effects of the potent immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) on the activation of collecting duct cells that represent a preferential site of adhesion and translocation for UPEC. CsA induced the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide- induced activation of collecting duct cells due to the downregulation of the expression of TLR4 via the microRNA Let-7i...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069650/dnajb1-hsp40-suppresses-melanoma-differentiation-associated-gene-5-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-function-in-conjunction-with-hsp70
#6
Ken Takashima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes cytoplasmic viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and initiates rapid innate antiviral responses. MDA5 forms a filament-like multimer along the dsRNA leading to oligomerization, which in turn activates the adaptor protein mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) to provide a signal platform for the induction of type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. The conformational switch of MDA5 causes antiviral defense, but excessive activation of the MDA5-MAVS pathway may result in autoimmune diseases...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035888/nitric-oxide-mediates-insect-cellular-immunity-via-phospholipase-a2-activation
#7
Md Sadekuzzaman, David Stanley, Yonggyun Kim
After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids, and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Separate treatments with an insect cytokine, 2 biogenic amines, and an eicosanoid lead to a single result, hemocyte spreading, understood in terms of intracellular cross-talk among these signaling systems. This study focuses on the cross-talk between NO and eicosanoid signaling in our model insect, Spodoptera exigua...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035880/immunoregulation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-by-endothelial-derived-p33-gc1q-receptor
#8
Ariane Neumann, Praveen Papareddy, Johannes Westman, Ole Hyldegaard, Johanna Snäll, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Heiko Herwald
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a host defence mechanism, known to facilitate the entrapment and growth inhibition of many bacterial pathogens. It has been implicated that the translocation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from neutrophilic granules to the nucleus is crucial to this process. Under disease conditions, however, excessive NET formation can trigger self-destructive complications by releasing pathologic levels of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs). To counteract such devastating immune reactions, the host has to rely on precautions that help circumvent these deleterious effects...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988241/macrophage-extracellular-traps-a-scoping-review
#9
Ryan S Doster, Lisa M Rogers, Jennifer A Gaddy, David M Aronoff
Tissue macrophages are derived from either circulating blood monocytes that originate in the bone marrow, or embryonic precursors that establish residence in tissues and are maintained independent of bone marrow progenitors. Macrophages perform diverse functions including tissue repair, the maintenance of homeostasis, and immune regulation. Recent studies have demonstrated that macrophages produce extracellular traps (ETs). ETs are an immune response by which a cell undergoes "ETosis" to release net-like material, with strands composed of cellular DNA that is studded with histones and cellular proteins...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131042/bystander-cells-taking-action
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977785/innate-immunity-protein-tag7-induces-3-distinct-populations-of-cytotoxic-cells-that-use-different-mechanisms-to-exhibit-their-antitumor-activity-on-human-leukocyte-antigen-deficient-cancer-cells
#11
Tatiana N Sharapova, Olga K Ivanova, Natalia V Soshnikova, Elena A Romanova, Lidia P Sashchenko, Denis V Yashin
The search for new immune response mechanisms capable of controlling immune-evasive tumor cells devoid of the MHC antigen is a challenging task for immunologists. In this study, we found that the treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the innate immunity protein Tag7 (PGRP-S, PGLYRP1) induces differentiation of the populations of NK (natural killer) cells and CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes that are cytotoxic for human leukocyte antigen-negative tumor cells. These populations employ different mechanisms of tumor cell lysis (based on the release of granzymes in the case of NK cells and on the FasL-Fas interaction in the case of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes) and induce different death pathways (apoptosis or necroptosis) in tumor cells...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889122/galectin-9-produced-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-enhances-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-dendritic-cells-in-a-pi3k-and-p38-dependent-manner
#12
Sander de Kivit, Atanaska I Kostadinova, JoAnn Kerperien, Veronica Ayechu Muruzabal, Mary E Morgan, Leon M J Knippels, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette E M Willemsen
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) drive regulatory T cell (Treg) responses by promoting the differentiation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-expressing CD103+ dendritic cells (DC). Apical stimulation of TLR9 by CpG DNA on IEC supports galectin-9 expression by IEC, which is promoted by short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (GF). While galectin-9 can induce the maturation of monocyte-derived DC (moDC), the contribution of galectin-9 on the induction of ALDH activity in DC is not known...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877527/epstein-barr-virus-mir-bart6-3p-inhibits-the-rig-i-pathway
#13
Yuanjun Lu, Zailong Qin, Jia Wang, Xiang Zheng, Jianhong Lu, Xuemei Zhang, Lingyu Wei, Qiu Peng, Ying Zheng, Chunlin Ou, Qiurong Ye, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Yuxin Fu, Qun Yan, Jian Ma
Recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is the first step in the initiation of a host innate immune response. As a PRR, RIG-I detects either viral RNA or replication transcripts. Avoiding RIG-I recognition is a strategy employed by viruses for immune evasion. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects the majority of the human population worldwide. During the latent infection period there are only a few EBV proteins expressed, whereas EBV-encoded microRNAs, such as BART microRNAs, are highly expressed...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866688/alpha-synuclein-to-the-rescue-immune-cell-recruitment-by-alpha-synuclein-during-gastrointestinal-infection
#14
Viviane Labrie, Patrik Brundin
Intraneuronal accumulation of misfolded alpha-synuclein in the central and peripheral nervous systems is strongly linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and other related synucleinopathies. In rare inherited forms of PD, point mutations or gene multiplications mediate the formation of alpha-synuclein protein aggregates. However, in most PD cases it is presumed that the combined effects of ageing and environmental factors drive the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates. Despite advances regarding alpha-synuclein pathobiology, the normal functions of this protein and factors that regulate its expression are not well understood...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858870/the-tlr2-antagonist-staphylococcal-superantigen-like-protein-3-acts-as-a-virulence-factor-to-promote-bacterial-pathogenicity-in-vivo
#15
Kirsten J Koymans, Oliver Goldmann, Christofer A Q Karlsson, Wiedjai Sital, Robert Thänert, Adinda Bisschop, Manouk Vrieling, Johan Malmström, Kok P M van Kessel, Carla J C de Haas, Jos A G van Strijp, Eva Medina
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is important in the initiation of immune responses and subsequent instigation of adaptive immunity. TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins and plays a central role in the host defense against bacterial infections, including those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of TLR2 in murine S. aureus infection. S. aureus evades TLR2 activation by secreting two proteins, staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3 (SSL3) and 4 (SSL4). In this study, we demonstrate that antibodies against SSL3 and SSL4 are found in healthy individuals, indicating that humans are exposed to these proteins during S...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813715/induction-of-cyclooxygenase-2-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-is-mediated-by-cytolysins
#16
Ulrike Blaschke, Andreas Beineke, Johanna Klemens, Eva Medina, Oliver Goldmann
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an arachidonic acid metabolite regulating a broad range of physiological activities, is an important modulator of the severity of infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we investigated the role of streptococcal cytolysin S (SLS) and streptococcal cytolysin O (SLO) in the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins, in in vitro cultured macrophages and during in vivo infection. Macrophages were infected with S. pyogenes wild type or with the isogenic mutant strains deficient in SLS (ΔSLS), SLO (ΔSLO), or both (ΔSLS/ΔSLO), and the expression of COX-2 was determined at the transcriptional and the protein level...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772263/collectin-11-is-an-important-modulator-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-phagocytosis-and-cytokine-production
#17
Xia Dong, Weiju Wu, Liang Ma, Chengfei Liu, Mohajeet B Bhuckory, Liping Wang, Emeline F Nandrot, Heping Xu, Ke Li, Yizhi Liu, Wuding Zhou
In this paper, we report previously unknown roles for collectin-11 (CL-11, a soluble C-type lectin) in modulating the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell functions of phagocytosis and cytokine production. We found that CL-11 and its carbohydrate ligand are expressed in both the murine and human neural retina; these resemble each other in terms of RPE and photoreceptor cells. Functional analysis of murine RPE cells showed that CL-11 facilitates the opsonophagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments and apoptotic cells, and also upregulates IL-10 production...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715804/oligopeptide-transporters-of-the-slc15-family-are-dispensable-for-peptidoglycan-sensing-and-transport-in-drosophila
#18
Florence Capo, Delphine Chaduli, Annelise Viallat-Lieutaud, Bernard Charroux, Julien Royet
Peptidoglycan (PGN) detection by PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) is the main trigger of the antibacterial immune response in Drosophila. Depending on the type of immune cell, PGN can be sensed either at the cell membrane by PGRP-LC or inside the cell by PGRP-LE, which plays a role similar to that of Nod2 in mammals. Previous work, mainly in cell cultures, has shown that oligopeptide transporters of the SLC15 family are essential for the delivery of PGN for Nod2 detection inside of the cells, and that this function might be conserved in flies...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697503/update-of-sepsis-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#19
Kelly Roveran Genga, James A Russell
Sepsis, the most common cause of admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), has had an increased incidence and prevalence over the last years with a simultaneous decrease in its short-term mortality. Sepsis survivors are more frequently discharged from hospital and often experience long-term outcomes such as late mortality, immune dysfunction, secondary infections, impaired quality of life, and unplanned readmissions. Early recognition and management of sepsis have challenged emergency care and critical care physicians and nurses...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675904/in-vivo-lipopolysaccharide-tolerance-recruits-cd11b-macrophages-to-the-liver-with-enhanced-bactericidal-activity-and-low-tumor-necrosis-factor-releasing-capability-resulting-in-drastic-resistance-to-lethal-septicemia
#20
Manabu Kinoshita, Hiromi Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Nakashima, Masahiro Nakashima, Makoto Nishikawa, Takuya Ishikiriyama, Shoichiro Kato, Keiichi Iwaya, Sadayuki Hiroi, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Shuhji Seki
OBJECTIVES: In vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tolerance on bacterial infection was investigated, focusing on liver macrophages. METHODS: LPS tolerance was induced by intraperitoneal injections with 5 μg/kg of LPS for 3 consecutive days, and then mice were intravenously infected with Escherichia coli. RESULTS: All LPS-primed mice survived lethal bacterial infection. Drastic enhancement of bactericidal activity of liver macrophages strongly contributed to bacterial clearance...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
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