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Journal of Innate Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035888/nitric-oxide-mediates-insect-cellular-immunity-via-phospholipase-a2-activation
#1
Md Sadekuzzaman, David Stanley, Yonggyun Kim
After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids, and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Separate treatments with an insect cytokine, 2 biogenic amines, and an eicosanoid lead to a single result, hemocyte spreading, understood in terms of intracellular cross-talk among these signaling systems. This study focuses on the cross-talk between NO and eicosanoid signaling in our model insect, Spodoptera exigua...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035880/immunoregulation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-by-endothelial-derived-p33-gc1q-receptor
#2
Ariane Neumann, Praveen Papareddy, Johannes Westman, Ole Hyldegaard, Johanna Snäll, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Heiko Herwald
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a host defence mechanism, known to facilitate the entrapment and growth inhibition of many bacterial pathogens. It has been implicated that the translocation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from neutrophilic granules to the nucleus is crucial to this process. Under disease conditions, however, excessive NET formation can trigger self-destructive complications by releasing pathologic levels of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs). To counteract such devastating immune reactions, the host has to rely on precautions that help circumvent these deleterious effects...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988241/macrophage-extracellular-traps-a-scoping-review
#3
Ryan S Doster, Lisa M Rogers, Jennifer A Gaddy, David M Aronoff
Tissue macrophages are derived from either circulating blood monocytes that originate in the bone marrow, or embryonic precursors that establish residence in tissues and are maintained independent of bone marrow progenitors. Macrophages perform diverse functions including tissue repair, the maintenance of homeostasis, and immune regulation. Recent studies have demonstrated that macrophages produce extracellular traps (ETs). ETs are an immune response by which a cell undergoes "ETosis" to release net-like material, with strands composed of cellular DNA that is studded with histones and cellular proteins...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977785/innate-immunity-protein-tag7-induces-3-distinct-populations-of-cytotoxic-cells-that-use-different-mechanisms-to-exhibit-their-antitumor-activity-on-human-leukocyte-antigen-deficient-cancer-cells
#4
Tatiana N Sharapova, Olga K Ivanova, Natalia V Soshnikova, Elena A Romanova, Lidia P Sashchenko, Denis V Yashin
The search for new immune response mechanisms capable of controlling immune-evasive tumor cells devoid of the MHC antigen is a challenging task for immunologists. In this study, we found that the treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the innate immunity protein Tag7 (PGRP-S, PGLYRP1) induces differentiation of the populations of NK (natural killer) cells and CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes that are cytotoxic for human leukocyte antigen-negative tumor cells. These populations employ different mechanisms of tumor cell lysis (based on the release of granzymes in the case of NK cells and on the FasL-Fas interaction in the case of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes) and induce different death pathways (apoptosis or necroptosis) in tumor cells...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889122/galectin-9-produced-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-enhances-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-dendritic-cells-in-a-pi3k-and-p38-dependent-manner
#5
Sander de Kivit, Atanaska I Kostadinova, JoAnn Kerperien, Veronica Ayechu Muruzabal, Mary E Morgan, Leon M J Knippels, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette E M Willemsen
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) drive regulatory T cell (Treg) responses by promoting the differentiation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-expressing CD103+ dendritic cells (DC). Apical stimulation of TLR9 by CpG DNA on IEC supports galectin-9 expression by IEC, which is promoted by short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (GF). While galectin-9 can induce the maturation of monocyte-derived DC (moDC), the contribution of galectin-9 on the induction of ALDH activity in DC is not known...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877527/epstein-barr-virus-mir-bart6-3p-inhibits-the-rig-i-pathway
#6
Yuanjun Lu, Zailong Qin, Jia Wang, Xiang Zheng, Jianhong Lu, Xuemei Zhang, Lingyu Wei, Qiu Peng, Ying Zheng, Chunlin Ou, Qiurong Ye, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Yuxin Fu, Qun Yan, Jian Ma
Recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is the first step in the initiation of a host innate immune response. As a PRR, RIG-I detects either viral RNA or replication transcripts. Avoiding RIG-I recognition is a strategy employed by viruses for immune evasion. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects the majority of the human population worldwide. During the latent infection period there are only a few EBV proteins expressed, whereas EBV-encoded microRNAs, such as BART microRNAs, are highly expressed...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858870/the-tlr2-antagonist-staphylococcal-superantigen-like-protein-3-acts-as-a-virulence-factor-to-promote-bacterial-pathogenicity-in-vivo
#7
Kirsten J Koymans, Oliver Goldmann, Christofer A Q Karlsson, Wiedjai Sital, Robert Thänert, Adinda Bisschop, Manouk Vrieling, Johan Malmström, Kok P M van Kessel, Carla J C de Haas, Jos A G van Strijp, Eva Medina
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is important in the initiation of immune responses and subsequent instigation of adaptive immunity. TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins and plays a central role in the host defense against bacterial infections, including those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of TLR2 in murine S. aureus infection. S. aureus evades TLR2 activation by secreting two proteins, staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3 (SSL3) and 4 (SSL4). In this study, we demonstrate that antibodies against SSL3 and SSL4 are found in healthy individuals, indicating that humans are exposed to these proteins during S...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813715/induction-of-cyclooxygenase-2-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-is-mediated-by-cytolysins
#8
Ulrike Blaschke, Andreas Beineke, Johanna Klemens, Eva Medina, Oliver Goldmann
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an arachidonic acid metabolite regulating a broad range of physiological activities, is an important modulator of the severity of infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we investigated the role of streptococcal cytolysin S (SLS) and streptococcal cytolysin O (SLO) in the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins, in in vitro cultured macrophages and during in vivo infection. Macrophages were infected with S. pyogenes wild type or with the isogenic mutant strains deficient in SLS (ΔSLS), SLO (ΔSLO), or both (ΔSLS/ΔSLO), and the expression of COX-2 was determined at the transcriptional and the protein level...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772263/collectin-11-is-an-important-modulator-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-phagocytosis-and-cytokine-production
#9
Xia Dong, Weiju Wu, Liang Ma, Chengfei Liu, Mohajeet B Bhuckory, Liping Wang, Emeline F Nandrot, Heping Xu, Ke Li, Yizhi Liu, Wuding Zhou
In this paper, we report previously unknown roles for collectin-11 (CL-11, a soluble C-type lectin) in modulating the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell functions of phagocytosis and cytokine production. We found that CL-11 and its carbohydrate ligand are expressed in both the murine and human neural retina; these resemble each other in terms of RPE and photoreceptor cells. Functional analysis of murine RPE cells showed that CL-11 facilitates the opsonophagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments and apoptotic cells, and also upregulates IL-10 production...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658674/endothelial-interferon-regulatory-factor-1-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-vcam-1-expression-independent-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#10
Rui Yan, Matijs van Meurs, Eliane R Popa, Rianne M Jongman, Peter J Zwiers, Anita E Niemarkt, Timara Kuiper, Jan A Kamps, Peter Heeringa, Jan G Zijlstra, Grietje Molema, Jill Moser
Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory response to infection. Endothelial activation and dysfunction play a critical role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and represent an important therapeutic target to reduce sepsis mortality. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) was recently identified as a downstream target of TNF-α-mediated signal transduction in endothelial cells. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of IRF-1 as a regulator of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial proinflammatory activation...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866688/alpha-synuclein-to-the-rescue-immune-cell-recruitment-by-alpha-synuclein-during-gastrointestinal-infection
#11
Viviane Labrie, Patrik Brundin
Intraneuronal accumulation of misfolded alpha-synuclein in the central and peripheral nervous systems is strongly linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and other related synucleinopathies. In rare inherited forms of PD, point mutations or gene multiplications mediate the formation of alpha-synuclein protein aggregates. However, in most PD cases it is presumed that the combined effects of ageing and environmental factors drive the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates. Despite advances regarding alpha-synuclein pathobiology, the normal functions of this protein and factors that regulate its expression are not well understood...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715804/oligopeptide-transporters-of-the-slc15-family-are-dispensable-for-peptidoglycan-sensing-and-transport-in-drosophila
#12
Florence Capo, Delphine Chaduli, Annelise Viallat-Lieutaud, Bernard Charroux, Julien Royet
Peptidoglycan (PGN) detection by PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) is the main trigger of the antibacterial immune response in Drosophila. Depending on the type of immune cell, PGN can be sensed either at the cell membrane by PGRP-LC or inside the cell by PGRP-LE, which plays a role similar to that of Nod2 in mammals. Previous work, mainly in cell cultures, has shown that oligopeptide transporters of the SLC15 family are essential for the delivery of PGN for Nod2 detection inside of the cells, and that this function might be conserved in flies...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697503/update-of-sepsis-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#13
Kelly Roveran Genga, James A Russell
Sepsis, the most common cause of admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), has had an increased incidence and prevalence over the last years with a simultaneous decrease in its short-term mortality. Sepsis survivors are more frequently discharged from hospital and often experience long-term outcomes such as late mortality, immune dysfunction, secondary infections, impaired quality of life, and unplanned readmissions. Early recognition and management of sepsis have challenged emergency care and critical care physicians and nurses...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675904/in-vivo-lipopolysaccharide-tolerance-recruits-cd11b-macrophages-to-the-liver-with-enhanced-bactericidal-activity-and-low-tumor-necrosis-factor-releasing-capability-resulting-in-drastic-resistance-to-lethal-septicemia
#14
Manabu Kinoshita, Hiromi Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Nakashima, Masahiro Nakashima, Makoto Nishikawa, Takuya Ishikiriyama, Shoichiro Kato, Keiichi Iwaya, Sadayuki Hiroi, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Shuhji Seki
OBJECTIVES: In vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tolerance on bacterial infection was investigated, focusing on liver macrophages. METHODS: LPS tolerance was induced by intraperitoneal injections with 5 μg/kg of LPS for 3 consecutive days, and then mice were intravenously infected with Escherichia coli. RESULTS: All LPS-primed mice survived lethal bacterial infection. Drastic enhancement of bactericidal activity of liver macrophages strongly contributed to bacterial clearance...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651250/a-role-for-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-gastrointestinal-immunity
#15
Ethan Stolzenberg, Deborah Berry, De Yang, Ernest Y Lee, Alexander Kroemer, Stuart Kaufman, Gerard C L Wong, Joost J Oppenheim, Supti Sen, Thomas Fishbein, Ad Bax, Brent Harris, Denise Barbut, Michael A Zasloff
BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (αS) is a nerve cell protein associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Accumulation of αS within the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its traffic from the gut to the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. αS has no known function in humans and the reason for its accumulation within the ENS is unknown. Several recent studies conducted in rodents have linked αS to immune cell activation in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that αS in the ENS might play a role in the innate immune defenses of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641299/monocyte-subsets-are-differentially-lost-from-the-circulation-during-acute-inflammation-induced-by-human-experimental-endotoxemia
#16
Tamar Tak, Roger van Groenendael, Peter Pickkers, Leo Koenderman
Three human monocyte subsets are recognized with different functions in the immune system: CD14++/CD16- classical monocytes (CM), CD14++/CD16+ intermediate monocytes (IM) and CD14+/CD16++ non-classical monocytes (NCM). Increased IM and NCM percentages have been reported under inflammatory conditions, yet little is known about monocyte subsets at the onset of inflammation. The human endotoxemia model is uniquely capable of studying the first phases of acute inflammation induced by intravenous injection of 2 ng/kg bodyweight lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into healthy volunteers...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637042/visions-and-the-progress-of-science
#17
Arne Egesten, Heiko Herwald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633138/combined-stimulation-with-interleukin-18-and-interleukin-12-potently-induces-interleukin-8-production-by-natural-killer-cells
#18
Sophie M Poznanski, Amanda J Lee, Tina Nham, Evan Lusty, Margaret J Larché, Dean A Lee, Ali A Ashkar
The combination of interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-12 (IL-18+IL-12) potently stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, triggering an innate immune response to infections and cancers. Strategies exploiting the effects of IL-18+IL-12 have shown promise for cancer immunotherapy. However, studies have primarily characterized the NK cell response to IL-18+IL-12 in terms of interferon (IFN)-γ production, with little focus on other cytokines produced. IL-8 plays a critical role in activating and recruiting immune cells, but it also has tumor-promoting functions...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605742/endotoxin-exposure-increases-ll-37-but-not-calprotectin-in-healthy-human-airways
#19
Margaretha E Smith, Marit Stockfelt, Sara Tengvall, Peter Bergman, Anders Lindén, Ingemar Qvarfordt
RATIONALE: The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) LL-37 and calprotectin are important players in the innate immunity of human airways. In patients with diseases characterized by bacterial colonization, the airway concentrations of these AMPs are increased. Less is known about their presence and release patterns in healthy humans. Our aim was to determine whether LL-37 and calprotectin are released after the activation of the innate immune response in the peripheral airways. METHODS: Healthy volunteers underwent exposure to endotoxin and vehicle in contralateral segment bronchi...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601872/il-37-causes-excessive-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-in-murine-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#20
Anja E Schauer, Tilman E Klassert, Carolin von Lachner, Diana Riebold, Anne Schneeweiß, Magdalena Stock, Mario M Müller, Sven Hammerschmidt, Philip Bufler, Ulrike Seifert, Kristina Dietert, Charles A Dinarello, Marcel F Nold, Achim D Gruber, Claudia A Nold-Petry, Hortense Slevogt
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections can lead to severe complications with excessive immune activation and tissue damage. Interleukin-37 (IL-37) has gained importance as a suppressor of innate and acquired immunity, and its effects have been therapeutic as they prevent tissue damage in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. By using RAW macrophages, stably transfected with human IL-37, we showed a 70% decrease in the cytokine levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and a 2.2-fold reduction of the intracellular killing capacity of internalized pneumococci in response to pneumococcal infection...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
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