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Journal of Innate Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494453/the-peptidoglycan-recognition-proteins-pgrpla-and-pgrplb-regulate-anopheles-immunity-to-bacteria-and-affect-infection-by-plasmodium
#1
Mathilde Gendrin, Fanny Turlure, Faye H Rodgers, Anna Cohuet, Isabelle Morlais, George K Christophides
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) form a family of immune regulators that is conserved from insects to mammals. In the malaria vector mosquito Anophelescoluzzii, the peptidoglycan receptor PGRPLC activates the immune-deficiency (Imd) pathway limiting both the microbiota load and Plasmodium infection. Here, we carried out an RNA interference screen to examine the role of all 7 Anopheles PGRPs in infections with Plasmodium berghei and P. falciparum. We show that, in addition to PGRPLC, PGRPLA and PGRPS2/PGRPS3 also participate in antiparasitic defenses, and that PGRPLB promotes mosquito permissiveness to P...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467984/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-stimulate-proinflammatory-responses-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#2
Florencia Sabbione, Irene A Keitelman, Leonardo Iula, Mariana Ferrero, Mirta N Giordano, Pablo Baldi, Martín Rumbo, Carolina Jancic, Analía S Trevani
Tissue injury leads to the release of uric acid (UA). At high local concentrations, UA can form monosodium urate crystals (MSU). MSU and UA stimulate neutrophils to release extracellular traps (NET). Here, we investigated whether these NET could be involved in the development of inflammation by stimulating cytokine release by airway epithelial cells. We found that NET significantly increased the secretion of CXCL8/IL-8 and IL-6 by alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. These effects were not observed when NETosis was inhibited by Diphenyleneiodonium, elastase inhibitor, or Cl-amidine...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376501/inducible-gbp5-mediates-the-antiviral-response-via-interferon-related-pathways-during-influenza-a-virus-infection
#3
Jian Feng, Zhongying Cao, Li Wang, Yushun Wan, Nanfang Peng, Qing Wang, Xueyuan Chen, Yaqin Zhou, Ying Zhu
Guanylate binding protein (GBP) 5 belongs to the GBP family, which is involved in important cellular processes, including signal transduction, translation, vesicle trafficking, and exocytosis. Structurally, GBPs display a high degree of homology and share highly conserved GTP-binding or hydrolysis domains. GBP5 was reported to be a critical cellular factor in inflammasome assembly. However, little is known about its role in the host antiviral innate immune response. In this study, we found that GBP5 expression was significantly elevated in influenza patients and influenza A virus-infected A549 human lung epithelial cells...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288457/interferon-dependent-induction-of-clr-b-during-mouse-cytomegalovirus-infection-protects-bystander-cells-from-natural-killer-cells-via-nkr-p1b-mediated-inhibition
#4
Christina L Kirkham, Oscar A Aguilar, Tao Yu, Miho Tanaka, Aruz Mesci, Kuan-Lun Chu, Jason H Fine, Karen L Mossman, Rod Bremner, David S J Allan, James R Carlyle
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that aid in self-nonself discrimination by recognizing cells undergoing pathological alterations. The NKR-P1B inhibitory receptor recognizes Clr-b, a self-encoded marker of cell health downregulated during viral infection. Here, we show that Clr-b loss during mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection is predicated by a loss of Clr-b (Clec2d) promoter activity and nascent transcripts, driven in part by MCMV ie3 (M122) activity. In contrast, uninfected bystander cells near MCMV-infected fibroblasts reciprocally upregulate Clr-b expression due to paracrine type-I interferon (IFN) signaling...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241127/vitamin-d-promotes-pneumococcal-killing-and-modulates-inflammatory-responses-in-primary-human-neutrophils
#5
Karthik Subramanian, Peter Bergman, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis worldwide. Despite clinical studies linking vitamin D deficiency and pneumonia, molecular mechanisms behind these observations remain unclear. In particular, the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil responses remain unknown. Using pneumococcal strains, primary neutrophils isolated from human blood, and sera from patients with frequent respiratory tract infections (RTIs), we investigated the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil bactericidal and inflammatory responses, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokine regulation...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171878/antibacterial-defense-of-human-airway-epithelial-cells-from-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-induced-by-acute-exposure-to-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-modulation-by-cigarette-smoke
#6
Gimano D Amatngalim, Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Almira Henic, Esther Dronkers, Renate M Verhoosel, Soledad R Ordonez, Henk P Haagsman, Maria E Fuentes, Sriram Sridhar, Jamil Aarbiou, Richard A J Janssen, Annemarie N Lekkerkerker, Pieter S Hiemstra
Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) are a central component of the antibacterial activity of airway epithelial cells. It has been proposed that a decrease in antibacterial lung defense contributes to an increased susceptibility to microbial infection in smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, whether reduced AMP expression in the epithelium contributes to this lower defense is largely unknown. We investigated the bacterial killing activity and expression of AMPs by air-liquid interface-cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients and non-COPD (ex-)smokers that were stimulated with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259885/participation-of-host-determinants-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pneumonia
#7
Alice Prince
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253517/in-memoriam-a-tribute-to-professor-niels-borregaard
#8
Peter Garred, Lars Kjeldsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249256/searching-for-a-lifeline-transcriptome-profiling-studies-of-influenza-susceptibility-and-resistance
#9
Lester Kobzik
Excess or dysregulated host inflammatory responses cause much of the morbidity and mortality caused by severe influenza. Given the limitations of vaccines and antiviral drugs, novel therapeutics to modulate host responses and improve outcomes in severe influenza are needed. One strategy is to learn from the direct comparison of high-survivor versus high-mortality animal models. This review surveys the results of lung transcriptome profiling studies in murine models that directly compare susceptible versus resistant hosts challenged with identical influenza infections...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231567/innate-lung-defense-during-invasive-aspergillosis-new-mechanisms
#10
Jaleesa M Garth, Chad Steele
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most difficult to treat and, consequently, one of the most lethal fungal infections known to man. Continued use of immunosuppressive agents during chemotherapy and organ transplantation often leads to the development of neutropenia, the primary risk factor for IA. However, IA is also becoming more appreciated in chronic diseases associated with corticosteroid therapy. The innate immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the primary agent in IA, plays a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of organisms from the pulmonary system...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222444/inflammation-a-double-edged-sword-in-the-response-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#11
Christina K Lin, Barbara I Kazmierczak
The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa exploits failures of barrier defense and innate immunity to cause acute infections at a range of anatomic sites. We review the defense mechanisms that normally protect against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection, as well as the bacterial products and activities that trigger their activation. Innate immune recognition of P. aeruginosa is critical for pathogen clearance; nonetheless, inflammation is also associated with pathogen persistence and poor host outcomes...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171866/selective-biological-responses-of-phagocytes-and-lungs-to-purified-histones
#12
Fatemeh Fattahi, Jamison J Grailer, Hope Lu, Rachel S Dick, Michella Parlett, Firas S Zetoune, Gabriel Nuñez, Peter A Ward
Histones invoke strong proinflammatory responses in many different organs and cells. We assessed biological responses to purified or recombinant histones, using human and murine phagocytes and mouse lungs. H1 had the strongest ability in vitro to induce cell swelling independent of requirements for toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 or 4. These responses were also associated with lactate dehydrogenase release. H3 and H2B were the strongest inducers of [Ca2+]i elevations in phagocytes. Cytokine and chemokine release from mouse and human phagocytes was predominately a function of H2A and H2B...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147354/cells-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-a-matter-of-class
#13
Heiko Herwald, Arne Egesten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125817/participation-of-necroptosis-in-the-host-response-to-acute-bacterial-pneumonia
#14
Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
Common pulmonary pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the host-adapted pathogens responsible for health care-associated pneumonias, such as the carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcecsens, are able to activate cell death through the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL cascade that causes necroptosis. Necroptosis can influence the pathogenesis of pneumonia through several mechanisms. Activation of this pathway can result in the loss of specific types of immune cells, especially macrophages, and, in so doing, contribute to host pathology through the loss of their critical immunoregulatory functions...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068663/collectin-kidney-1-plays-an-important-role-in-innate-immunity-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#15
Insu Hwang, Kenichiro Mori, Katsuki Ohtani, Yasuyuki Matsuda, Nitai Roy, YounUck Kim, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Nobutaka Wakamiya
Collectins are C-type lectins that are involved in innate immunity as pattern recognition molecules. Recently, collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) has been discovered, and in vitro studies have shown that CL-K1 binds to microbes and activates the lectin complement pathway. However, in vivo functions of CL-K1 against microbes have not been elucidated. To investigate the biological functions of CL-K1, we generated CL-K1 knockout (CL-K1-/-) mice and then performed a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection analysis. First, we found that recombinant human CL-K1 bound to S...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052300/transmembrane-mucins-signaling-receptors-at-the-intersection-of-inflammation-and-cancer
#16
Jos P M van Putten, Karin Strijbis
Mucosal surfaces line our body cavities and provide the interaction surface between commensal and pathogenic microbiota and the host. The barrier function of the mucosal layer is largely maintained by gel-forming mucin proteins that are secreted by goblet cells. In addition, mucosal epithelial cells express cell-bound mucins that have both barrier and signaling functions. The family of transmembrane mucins consists of diverse members that share a few characteristics. The highly glycosylated extracellular mucin domains inhibit invasion by pathogenic bacteria and can form a tight mesh structure that protects cells in harmful conditions...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013312/mycobacteria-manipulate-g-protein-coupled-receptors-to-increase-mucosal-rac1-expression-in-the-lungs
#17
Nader Alaridah, Nataliya Lutay, Erik Tenland, Anna Rönnholm, Oskar Hallgren, Manoj Puthia, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Gabriela Godaly
Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the only approved vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). BCG mimics M. tuberculosis (Mtb) in its persistence in the body and is used as a benchmark to compare new vaccine candidates. BCG was originally designed for mucosal vaccination, but comprehensive knowledge about its interaction with epithelium is currently lacking. We used primary airway epithelial cells (AECs) and a murine model to investigate the initial events of mucosal BCG interactions...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006777/cellular-innate-immunity-an-old-game-with-new-players
#18
Georg Gasteiger, Andrea D'Osualdo, David A Schubert, Alexander Weber, Emanuela M Bruscia, Dominik Hartl
Innate immunity is a rapidly evolving field with novel cell types and molecular pathways being discovered and paradigms changing continuously. Innate and adaptive immune responses are traditionally viewed as separate from each other, but emerging evidence suggests that they overlap and mutually interact. Recently discovered cell types, particularly innate lymphoid cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, are gaining increasing attention. Here, we summarize and highlight current concepts in the field, focusing on innate immune cells as well as the inflammasome and DNA sensing which appear to be critical for the activation and orchestration of innate immunity, and may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treating autoimmune, autoinflammatory, and infectious diseases...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988511/pigs-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-are-impaired-in-controlling-influenza-a-virus-infection
#19
Daniela S Rajao, Crystal L Loving, Emily H Waide, Phillip C Gauger, Jack C M Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle, Amy L Vincent
Influenza A viruses (IAV) infect many host species, including humans and pigs. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a condition characterized by a deficiency of T, B, and/or natural killer (NK) cells. Animal models of SCID have great value for biomedical research. Here, we evaluated the pathogenesis and the innate immune response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic IAV (H1N1pdm09) using a recently identified line of naturally occurring SCID pigs deficient in T and B lymphocytes that still have functional NK cells...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923232/intracellular-clearance-by-nobel-laureates
#20
Heiko Herwald, Arne Egesten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
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