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Journal of Innate Immunity

Imran H Chowdhury, Sue-Jie Koo, Shivali Gupta, Lisa Yi Liang, Bojlul Bahar, Laura Silla, Julio Nuñez-Burgos, Natalia Barrientos, Maria Paola Zago, Nisha Jain Garg
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM). In this study, we determined if microparticles (MPs) generated during Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection carry the host's signature of the inflammatory/oxidative state and provide information regarding the progression of clinical disease. METHODS: MPs were harvested from supernatants of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro incubated with Tc (control: LPS treated), plasma of seropositive humans with a clinically asymptomatic (CA) or symptomatic (CS) disease state (vs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Yaping Sun, Matthew Iyer, Richard McEachin, Meng Zhao, Yi-Mi Wu, Xuhong Cao, Katherine Oravecz-Wilson, Cynthia Zajac, Nathan Mathewson, Shin-Rong Julia Wu, Corinne Rossi, Tomomi Toubai, Zhaohui S Qin, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Pavan Reddy
STAT3 is a master transcriptional regulator that plays an important role in the induction of both immune activation and immune tolerance in dendritic cells (DCs). The transcriptional targets of STAT3 in promoting DC activation are becoming increasingly understood; however, the mechanisms underpinning its role in causing DC suppression remain largely unknown. To determine the functional gene targets of STAT3, we compared the genome-wide binding of STAT3 using ChIP sequencing coupled with gene expression microarrays to determine STAT3-dependent gene regulation in DCs after histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Hermann Giresse Tima, Juma''a Raheem Al Dulayymi, Olivier Denis, Pauline Lehebel, Klarah Sherzad Baols, Mohsin Omar Mohammed, Laurent L'Homme, Mohaned Mohammed Sahb, Georges Potemberg, Sylvie Legrand, Roland Lang, Rudi Beyaert, Jacques Piette, Mark Stephen Baird, Kris Huygen, Marta Romano
The cell wall of mycobacteria is characterised by glycolipids composed of different classes of mycolic acids (MAs; alpha-, keto-, and methoxy-) and sugars (trehalose, glucose, and arabinose). Studies using mutant Mtb strains have shown that the structure of MAs influences the inflammatory potential of these glycolipids. As mutant Mtb strains possess a complex mixture of glycolipids, we analysed the inflammatory potential of single classes of mycolate esters of the Mtb cell wall using 38 different synthetic analogues...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Silvio Antoniak, Kohei Tatsumi, Michael Bode, Swetha Vanja, Julie C Williams, Nigel Mackman
The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections as part of the host defense system. Coagulation proteases activate cells by cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Recently, we reported that the activation of PAR-1 enhanced interferon (IFN)β and CXCL10 expression in cardiac fibroblasts and in the hearts of mice infected with Coxsackievirus B3. In this study, we used the double-stranded RNA mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) to induce an antiviral response in macrophages and mice...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Bastian Hatesuer, Hang Thi Thu Hoang, Peggy Riese, Stephanie Trittel, Ingo Gerhauser, Husni Elbahesh, Robert Geffers, Esther Wilk, Klaus Schughart
The interferon (IFN) pathway plays an essential role in the innate immune response following viral infections and subsequent shaping of adaptive immunity. Infections with influenza A viruses (IAV) activate the IFN pathway after the recognition of pathogen-specific molecular patterns by respective pattern recognition receptors. The IFN regulatory factors IRF3 and IRF7 are key players in the regulation of type I and III IFN genes. In this study, we analyzed the role of IRF3 and IRF7 for the host response to IAV infections in Irf3-/-, Irf7-/-, and Irf3-/-Irf7-/- knockout mice...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Liliana Portales-Cervantes, Ian D Haidl, Patrick W Lee, Jean S Marshall
Mucosal surfaces are protected from infection by both structural and sentinel cells, such as mast cells. The mast cell's role in antiviral responses is poorly understood; however, they selectively recruit natural killer (NK) cells following infection. Here, the ability of virus-infected mast cells to enhance NK cell functions was examined. Cord blood-derived human mast cells infected with reovirus (Reo-CBMC) and subsequent mast cell products were used for the stimulation of human NK cells. NK cells upregulated the CD69 molecule and cytotoxicity-related genes, and demonstrated increased cytotoxic activity in response to Reo-CBMC soluble products...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Melanie C Mühlenkamp, Teresia Hallström, Ingo B Autenrieth, Erwin Bohn, Dirk Linke, Janina Rinker, Kristian Riesbeck, Birendra Singh, Jack C Leo, Sven Hammerschmidt, Peter F Zipfel, Monika S Schütz
Complement resistance is an important virulence trait of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). The predominant virulence factor expressed by Ye is Yersinia adhesin A (YadA), which enables bacterial attachment to host cells and extracellular matrix and additionally allows the acquisition of soluble serum factors. The serum glycoprotein vitronectin (Vn) acts as an inhibitory regulator of the terminal complement complex by inhibiting the lytic pore formation. Here, we show YadA-mediated direct interaction of Ye with Vn and investigated the role of this Vn binding during mouse infection in vivo...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Sylvia Ujma, William G C Horsnell, Arieh A Katz, Howard W Clark, Georgia Schäfer
Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) are established as essential components of our innate immune system for protecting the lung from pathogens and allergens. They essentially exert their protective functions by regulating pulmonary homeostasis. Both proteins are however widely expressed throughout the body, including the female reproductive tract, urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, the eye, ear, nasal compartment, central nervous system, the coronary artery and the skin. The functions of SP-A and SP-D at these sites are a relatively underinvestigated area, but it is emerging that both SP-A and SP-D contribute significantly to the regulation of inflammation and protection from infection at these sites...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Jonatan Leffler, Zoltán Prohászka, Bálint Mikes, György Sinkovits, Katarzyna Ciacma, Péter Farkas, Marienn Réti, Kata Kelen, György S Reusz, Attila J Szabó, Myriam Martin, Anna M Blom
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can stimulate thrombosis, and their degradation is decreased in several autoimmune disorders. It was recently reported that some patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) also fail to degrade NETs and that neutrophils from Shiga toxin-associated HUS are primed to form NETs. METHOD: We used a well-characterized cohort of 74 thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) patients, with a subset also providing follow-up samples, and 112 age-matched controls to investigate NET degradation and serum nuclease activity in TMA before, during and after treatment...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Despite important progress in identifying the molecules that participate in the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster to microbial infections, the involvement of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the antibacterial immunity of the fly is not fully clarified. Previous studies mostly focused on identifying the function of TEP2, TEP3 and TEP6 molecules in the D. melanogaster immune system. Here, we investigated the role of TEP4 in the regulation and function of D. melanogaster host defense against 2 virulent pathogens from the genus Photorhabdus, i...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Engin Baturcam, Natale Snape, Tiong Han Yeo, Johanna Schagen, Emma Thomas, Jayden Logan, Sally Galbraith, Natasha Collinson, Simon Phipps, Emmanuelle Fantino, Peter D Sly, Kirsten M Spann
Asthmatics are highly susceptible to respiratory viral infections, possibly due to impaired innate immunity. However, the exact mechanisms of susceptibility are likely to differ amongst viruses. Therefore, we infected primary nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from adults with mild-to-moderate asthma, with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in vitro and investigated the antiviral response. NECs from these asthmatics supported elevated hMPV but not RSV infection, compared to non-asthmatic controls...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Katariina Nurmi, Ilona Kareinen, Juhani Virkanen, Kristiina Rajamäki, Vesa-Petteri Kouri, Kirsi Vaali, Anna-Liisa Levonen, Nanna Fyhrquist, Sampsa Matikainen, Petri T Kovanen, Kari K Eklund
Inflammasomes are intracellular protein platforms, which, upon activation, produce the highly proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Heme, hemin and their degradation products possess significant immunomodulatory functions. Here, we studied whether hemin regulates inflammasome function in macrophages. Both hemin and its derivative, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), significantly reduced IL-1β secretion by cultured human primary macrophages, the human monocytic leukemia cell line and also mouse bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Bethany M Biron, Chun-Shiang Chung, Xian M O'Brien, Yaping Chen, Jonathan S Reichner, Alfred Ayala
Sepsis refers to the presence of a serious infection that correlates with systemic and uncontrolled immune activation. Posttranslational histone modification plays an important role in chromatin decondensation, which is regulated by citrullination. Citrullinated histone H3 (H3cit) has been identified as a component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are released into the extracellular space as part of the neutrophil response to infection. The conversion of arginine to citrulline residues on histones is catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Wagdi Almishri, Tania Santodomingo-Garzon, Tyson Le, Danuta Stack, Christopher H Mody, Mark G Swain
NK cells play a central role in innate immunity, acting directly through cell-mediated cytotoxicity and by secreting cytokines. TNFα activation of TNFR2 enhances NK cell cytotoxicity, but its effects on the other essential function of NK cells - cytokine production, for which IFNγ is paramount - are poorly defined. We identify the expression of both TNFα receptors on human peripheral blood NK cells (TNFR2 > TNFR1) and show that TNFα significantly augments IFNγ production from IL-2-/IL-12-treated NK cells in vitro, an effect mimicked by a TNFR2 agonistic antibody...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Afiat Berbudi, Jayagopi Surendar, Jesuthas Ajendra, Fabian Gondorf, David Schmidt, Anna-Lena Neumann, Ajeng P F Wardani, Laura E Layland, Linda S Hoffmann, Alexander Pfeifer, Achim Hoerauf, Marc P Hübner
Helminths induce type 2 immune responses and establish an anti-inflammatory milieu in their hosts. This immunomodulation was previously shown to improve diet-induced insulin resistance which is linked to chronic inflammation. In the current study, we demonstrate that infection with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis increased the eosinophil number and alternatively activated macrophage abundance within epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) and improved glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice in an eosinophil-dependent manner...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Hasan-Halit Öz, Dominik Hartl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Ninette Genster, Elisabeth Præstekjær Cramer, Anne Rosbjerg, Katrine Pilely, Jack Bernard Cowland, Peter Garred
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes severe invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. Innate immunity plays a major role in protection against A. fumigatus. The ficolins are a family of soluble pattern recognition receptors that are capable of activating the lectin pathway of complement. Previous in vitro studies reported that ficolins bind to A. fumigatus, but their part in host defense against fungal infections in vivo is unknown. In this study, we used ficolin-deficient mice to investigate the role of ficolins during lung infection with A...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Anjali Ralhan, Julie Laval, Felipe Lelis, Marlene Ballbach, Charlotte Grund, Andreas Hector, Dominik Hartl
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by chronic infection and inflammation. The inflammatory response in CF is dominated by the activation of the innate immune system. Bacteria and fungi represent the key pathogens chronically colonizing the CF airways. In response, innate immune pattern recognition receptors, expressed by airway epithelial and myeloid cells, sense the microbial threat and release chemoattractants to recruit large numbers of neutrophils into CF airways. However, neutrophils fail to efficiently clear the invading pathogens, but instead release harmful proteases and oxidants and finally cause tissue injury...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Sebastian F Vencken, Catherine M Greene
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors that are particularly expressed in the sentinel and epithelial cells in the body, including the lung. They are central players in the innate immune system in response to microbial infection, and are the triggers of a complex pathway network that both promotes the inflammatory response and influences the adaptive immune response. These pathways are transiently and finely tuned by cellular factors, including a cell's microRNA response program...
April 5, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
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