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Journal of Innate Immunity

Nicholas Graves, Vivek P Venu, Bryan G Yipp, Björn Petri, Simon Hirota, John Gilleard, Derek M McKay, Fernando Lopes
It has emerged that neutrophils can play important roles in the host response following infection with helminth parasites. Mice infected with the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, are protected from some inflammatory conditions, accompanied by reduced neutrophil tissue infiltration. Thus, the ability of a phosphate-buffered saline-soluble extract of the worm (H. diminuta extract [HdE]) was tested for (1) its ability to activate murine neutrophils (Ca2+ mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine production); and (2) affect neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro to the penta-peptide, WKYMVm, the chemokine, KC, and leukotriene B4...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Abbie Francis, Erika Bosio, Shelley F Stone, Daniel M Fatovich, Glenn Arendts, Stephen P J MacDonald, Sally Burrows, Simon G A Brown
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified the upregulation of the innate immune response, neutrophil activation, and apoptosis during anaphylaxis using a microarray approach. This study aimed to validate the differential gene expression and investigate protein concentrations of "hub genes" and upstream regulators during anaphylaxis. METHODS: Samples were collected from patients with anaphylaxis on their arrival at the emergency department, and after 1 and 3 h...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
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September 3, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Franziska Rademacher, Maren Simanski, Bettina Hesse, Gregor Dombrowsky, Nikolas Vent, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
Bacterial challenge of keratinocytes with the abundant skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis induces distinct innate immune responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still emerging. We report that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was activated in human primary keratinocytes infected with S. epidermidis, leading to induction of the AhR-responsive gene cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). In addition, functional AhR was required for S. epidermidis-mediated induction of IL-1β expression in keratinocytes...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Claudia Eberl, Cornelia Speth, Ilse D Jacobsen, Martin Hermann, Magdalena Hagleitner, Hemalata Deshmukh, Christoph G Ammann, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Günter Rambach
Over the last 2 decades, platelets have been recognized as versatile players of innate immunity. The interaction of platelets with fungal pathogens and subsequent processes may critically influence the clinical outcome of invasive mycoses. Since the role of platelets in Candida infections is poorly characterized and controversially discussed, we studied interactions of human platelets with yeast cells, (pseudo-)hyphae, biofilms and secretory products of human pathogenic Candida species applying platelet rich plasma and a whole blood model...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Sergio M Pontejo, Philip M Murphy, James E Pease
Viruses use diverse molecular mechanisms to exploit and evade the immune response. Herpesviruses, in particular, encode functional chemokine and chemokine receptor homologs pirated from the host, as well as secreted chemokine-binding proteins with unique structures. Multiple functions have been described for herpesvirus chemokine components, including attraction of target cells, blockade of leukocyte migration, and modulation of gene expression and cell entry by the virus. Here we review current concepts about how human herpesvirus chemokines, chemokine receptors, and chemokine-binding proteins may be used to shape a proviral state in the host...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Dani A C Heesterbeek, Mathieu L Angelier, Richard A Harrison, Suzan H M Rooijakkers
Complement is a complex protein network of plasma, and an integral part of the innate immune system. Complement activation results in the rapid clearance of bacteria by immune cells, and direct bacterial killing via large pore-forming complexes. Here we review important recent discoveries in the complement field, focusing on interactions relevant for the defense against bacteria. Understanding the molecular interplay between complement and bacteria is of great importance for future therapies for infectious and inflammatory diseases...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Melanie Dostert, Corrie R Belanger, Robert E W Hancock
Highly antibiotic resistant, microbial communities, referred to as biofilms, cause various life-threatening infections in humans. At least two-thirds of all clinical infections are biofilm associated, and antibiotic therapy regularly fails to cure patients. Anti-biofilm peptides represent a promising approach to treat these infections by targeting biofilm-specific characteristics such as highly conserved regulatory mechanisms. They are being considered for clinical application and we discuss here key factors in discovery, design, and application, particularly the implementation of host-mimicking conditions, that are required to enable the successful advancement of potent anti-biofilm peptides from the bench to the clinic...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Xiao-Xiao Hou, Guangjie Chen, Amir M Hossini, Tingting Hu, Lanqi Wang, Zhanyan Pan, Lingyi Lu, Ke Cao, Ying Ma, Christos C Zouboulis, Longqing Xia, Qiang Ju
Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and subsequent inflammatory response contribute to lesion development in acne vulgaris. A cross-talk between aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a cytosolic receptor protein that responds to environmental and physiological stress, and TLRs has recently been reported. In this study, we explored the possible role of AhR in the effects induced on cultured human SZ95 sebocytes by peptidoglycan (PGN), a classic TLR2 agonist. PGN-induced secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-8 in human SZ95 sebocytes was suppressed after knockdown of AhR and pretreatment with the AhR antagonist CH223191...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Mayuri Gogoi, Meghanashree M Shreenivas, Dipshikha Chakravortty
Salmonella is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing and underdeveloped nations. Being a foodborne disease, Salmonella infection is primarily contracted through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, or due to close contact with infected/carrier individuals. It is an intracellular pathogen, which can survive and replicate in various cells including macrophages, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and other white blood cells. Once Salmonella crosses the intestinal barrier, it disseminates to various systemic sites by circulation via immune cells...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Xi-Qiu Xu, Le Guo, Xu Wang, Yu Liu, Hang Liu, Run-Hong Zhou, Jun Gu, Jin-Biao Liu, Pei Xu, Li Zhou, Wen-Zhe Ho
The female reproductive tract is a major site of HIV sexual transmission. We here examined whether human cervical epithelial cells (HCEs) can be immunologically activated and produce antiviral factors against HIV. We demonstrated that HCEs (End1/E6E7 cells) possess the functional toll-like receptor (TLR)3 signaling system, which could be activated by Poly I:C and induce multiple cellular HIV restriction factors. The treatment of primary human macrophages with supernatant (SN) from TLR3-activated End1/E6E7 cell cultures resulted in HIV inhibition...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Susanne Mommert, Derya Aslan, Lisanne Ratz, Holger Stark, Ralf Gutzmer, Thomas Werfel
The anaphylatoxin C3a triggers inflammation by binding to its specific G-protein-coupled C3a receptor (C3aR). Since the number of C3aR, which is expressed on the cell surface, affects the response to C3a, we investigated the expression levels of C3aR on human M2 macrophages in allergic situations where high levels of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 and histamine are present in a local microenvironment. The histamine H1 receptor (H1R), H2R and the H4R mRNA expressions were induced or up-regulated during the differentiation process of M2 macrophages...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Yu Kusaka, Chiaki Kajiwara, Sho Shimada, Yoshikazu Ishii, Yasunari Miyazaki, Naohiko Inase, Theodore J Standiford, Kazuhiro Tateda
In this study, we analyzed interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells and M1/M2 macrophage polarization in Legionella pneumophila pneumonia following anti-Gr-1 antibody treatment. Anti-Gr-1 treatment induced an M1-to-M2 shift of macrophage subtypes in the lungs and weakly in the peripheral blood, which was associated with increased mortality in legionella-infected mice. CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer cells were the dominant sources of IFN-γ in the acute phase, and anti-Gr-1 treatment reduced the number of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T lymphocytes...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Xiaoxiao Gao, Dan Chen, Xue Hu, Yuan Zhou, Yun Wang, Chunchen Wu, Jizheng Chen, Yanyi Wang, Rongjuan Pei, Xinwen Chen
As a key molecule in the antiviral innate immune response, the activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is under tight regulation. In this report, we identified phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase PLA1A as a host factor that modulates the TBK1 activation. Knockdown of PLA1A expression suppressed the innate immune signaling induced by RNA viruses, while PLA1A overexpression enhanced the signaling. PLA1A functioned at the TBK1 level of the signaling pathway, as PLA1A silencing blocked TBK1, but not interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) induced interferon-β (IFN-β) promoter activity...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Suzanne Faure-Dupuy, Serena Vegna, Ludovic Aillot, Laura Dimier, Knud Esser, Mathias Broxtermann, Marc Bonnin, Nathalie Bendriss-Vermare, Michel Rivoire, Guillaume Passot, Mickaël Lesurtel, Jean-Yves Mabrut, Christian Ducerf, Anna Salvetti, Ulrike Protzer, Fabien Zoulim, David Durantel, Julie Lucifora
Different liver cell types are endowed with immunological properties, including cell-intrinsic innate immune functions that are important to initially control pathogen infections. However, a full landscape of expression and functionality of the innate immune signaling pathways in the major human liver cells is still missing. In order to comparatively characterize these pathways, we purified primary human hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), and Kupffer cells (KC) from human liver resections...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Robin Ireland, Benjamin Schwarz, Glenn Nardone, Tara D Wehrly, Corey D Broeckling, Abhilash I Chiramel, Sonja M Best, Catharine M Bosio
Virulent Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt) is a dynamic, intracellular, bacterial pathogen. Its ability to evade and rapidly suppress host inflammatory responses is considered a key element for its profound virulence. We previously established that Ftt lipids play a role in inhibiting inflammation, but we did not determine the lipid species mediating this process. Here, we show that a unique, abundant, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), present in Francisella, contributes to driving the suppression of inflammatory responses in human and mouse cells...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Eva Medina, Dominik Hartl
After initial infection, the immune response that serves to restrict the invading pathogen needs to be tightly calibrated in order to avoid collateral immunopathological damage. This calibration is performed by specialized suppressor mechanisms, which are capable of dampening overwhelming or unremitting inflammation in order to prevent tissue damage. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are emerging as key players in counter-balancing inflammatory responses and pathogenesis during infection. However, some pathogens are able to exploit the suppressive activities of MDSC to favor pathogen persistence and chronic infections...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Alaa Alhazmi
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase which associates directly with extracellular receptors, and is critically involved in signal transduction pathways in a variety of cell types for the regulation of cellular responses. SYK is expressed ubiquitously in immune and nonimmune cells, and has a much wider biological role than previously recognized. Several studies have highlighted SYK as a key player in the pathogenesis of a multitude of diseases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen, which is responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals, accounting for a major cause of severe chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients and subsequently resulting in a progressive deterioration of lung function...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Scott A Lindsay, Samuel J H Lin, Steven A Wasserman
The Bomanins (Boms) are a family of a dozen secreted peptides that mediate the innate immune response governed by the Drosophila Toll receptor. We recently showed that deleting a cluster of 10 Bom genes blocks Toll-mediated defenses against a range of fungi and gram-positive bacteria. Here, we characterize the activity of individual Bom family members. We provide evidence that the Boms overlap in function and that a single Bom gene encoding a mature peptide of just 16 amino acids can act largely or entirely independent of other family members to provide phenotypic rescue in vivo...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Volker Brinkmann
Nearly 15 years after the first description of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), our knowledge concerning this structure has expanded considerably. Initially, NETs were considered solely an elaborate function of the innate immune system to combat invading microorganisms. Successively it became clear that NETs have farther-reaching capabilities. They are involved in a series of pathophysiological mechanisms ranging from inflammation to thrombosis where they fulfill essential functions when produced at the right site and the right time but can have a serious impact when generation or clearance of NETs is inadequately controlled...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
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