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Journal of Innate Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715804/oligopeptide-transporters-of-the-slc15-family-are-dispensable-for-peptidoglycan-sensing-and-transport-in-drosophila
#1
Florence Capo, Delphine Chaduli, Annelise Viallat-Lieutaud, Bernard Charroux, Julien Royet
Peptidoglycan (PGN) detection by PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) is the main trigger of the antibacterial immune response in Drosophila. Depending on the type of immune cell, PGN can be sensed either at the cell membrane by PGRP-LC or inside the cell by PGRP-LE, which plays a role similar to that of Nod2 in mammals. Previous work, mainly in cell cultures, has shown that oligopeptide transporters of the SLC15 family are essential for the delivery of PGN for Nod2 detection inside of the cells, and that this function might be conserved in flies...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697503/update-of-sepsis-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#2
Kelly Roveran Genga, James A Russell
Sepsis, the most common cause of admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), has had an increased incidence and prevalence over the last years with a simultaneous decrease in its short-term mortality. Sepsis survivors are more frequently discharged from hospital and often experience long-term outcomes such as late mortality, immune dysfunction, secondary infections, impaired quality of life, and unplanned readmissions. Early recognition and management of sepsis have challenged emergency care and critical care physicians and nurses...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675904/in-vivo-lipopolysaccharide-tolerance-recruits-cd11b-macrophages-to-the-liver-with-enhanced-bactericidal-activity-and-low-tumor-necrosis-factor-releasing-capability-resulting-in-drastic-resistance-to-lethal-septicemia
#3
Manabu Kinoshita, Hiromi Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Nakashima, Masahiro Nakashima, Makoto Nishikawa, Takuya Ishikiriyama, Shoichiro Kato, Keiichi Iwaya, Sadayuki Hiroi, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Shuhji Seki
OBJECTIVES: In vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tolerance on bacterial infection was investigated, focusing on liver macrophages. METHODS: LPS tolerance was induced by intraperitoneal injections with 5 μg/kg of LPS for 3 consecutive days, and then mice were intravenously infected with Escherichia coli. RESULTS: All LPS-primed mice survived lethal bacterial infection. Drastic enhancement of bactericidal activity of liver macrophages strongly contributed to bacterial clearance...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658674/endothelial-interferon-regulatory-factor-1-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-vcam-1-expression-independent-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#4
Rui Yan, Matijs van Meurs, Eliane R Popa, Rianne M Jongman, Peter J Zwiers, Anita E Niemarkt, Timara Kuiper, Jan A Kamps, Peter Heeringa, Jan G Zijlstra, Grietje Molema, Jill Moser
Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory response to infection. Endothelial activation and dysfunction play a critical role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and represent an important therapeutic target to reduce sepsis mortality. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) was recently identified as a downstream target of TNF-α-mediated signal transduction in endothelial cells. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of IRF-1 as a regulator of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial proinflammatory activation...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651250/a-role-for-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-gastrointestinal-immunity
#5
Ethan Stolzenberg, Deborah Berry, De Yang, Ernest Y Lee, Alexander Kroemer, Stuart Kaufman, Gerard C L Wong, Joost J Oppenheim, Supti Sen, Thomas Fishbein, Ad Bax, Brent Harris, Denise Barbut, Michael A Zasloff
BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (αS) is a nerve cell protein associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Accumulation of αS within the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its traffic from the gut to the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. αS has no known function in humans and the reason for its accumulation within the ENS is unknown. Several recent studies conducted in rodents have linked αS to immune cell activation in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that αS in the ENS might play a role in the innate immune defenses of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641299/monocyte-subsets-are-differentially-lost-from-the-circulation-during-acute-inflammation-induced-by-human-experimental-endotoxemia
#6
Tamar Tak, Roger van Groenendael, Peter Pickkers, Leo Koenderman
Three human monocyte subsets are recognized with different functions in the immune system: CD14++/CD16- classical monocytes (CM), CD14++/CD16+ intermediate monocytes (IM) and CD14+/CD16++ non-classical monocytes (NCM). Increased IM and NCM percentages have been reported under inflammatory conditions, yet little is known about monocyte subsets at the onset of inflammation. The human endotoxemia model is uniquely capable of studying the first phases of acute inflammation induced by intravenous injection of 2 ng/kg bodyweight lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into healthy volunteers...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633138/combined-stimulation-with-interleukin-18-and-interleukin-12-potently-induces-interleukin-8-production-by-natural-killer-cells
#7
Sophie M Poznanski, Amanda J Lee, Tina Nham, Evan Lusty, Margaret J Larché, Dean A Lee, Ali A Ashkar
The combination of interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-12 (IL-18+IL-12) potently stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, triggering an innate immune response to infections and cancers. Strategies exploiting the effects of IL-18+IL-12 have shown promise for cancer immunotherapy. However, studies have primarily characterized the NK cell response to IL-18+IL-12 in terms of interferon (IFN)-γ production, with little focus on other cytokines produced. IL-8 plays a critical role in activating and recruiting immune cells, but it also has tumor-promoting functions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605742/endotoxin-exposure-increases-ll-37-but-not-calprotectin-in-healthy-human-airways
#8
Margaretha E Smith, Marit Stockfelt, Sara Tengvall, Peter Bergman, Anders Lindén, Ingemar Qvarfordt
RATIONALE: The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) LL-37 and calprotectin are important players in the innate immunity of human airways. In patients with diseases characterized by bacterial colonization, the airway concentrations of these AMPs are increased. Less is known about their presence and release patterns in healthy humans. Our aim was to determine whether LL-37 and calprotectin are released after the activation of the innate immune response in the peripheral airways. METHODS: Healthy volunteers underwent exposure to endotoxin and vehicle in contralateral segment bronchi...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637042/visions-and-the-progress-of-science
#9
Arne Egesten, Heiko Herwald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601872/il-37-causes-excessive-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-in-murine-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#10
Anja E Schauer, Tilman E Klassert, Carolin von Lachner, Diana Riebold, Anne Schneeweiß, Magdalena Stock, Mario M Müller, Sven Hammerschmidt, Philip Bufler, Ulrike Seifert, Kristina Dietert, Charles A Dinarello, Marcel F Nold, Achim D Gruber, Claudia A Nold-Petry, Hortense Slevogt
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections can lead to severe complications with excessive immune activation and tissue damage. Interleukin-37 (IL-37) has gained importance as a suppressor of innate and acquired immunity, and its effects have been therapeutic as they prevent tissue damage in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. By using RAW macrophages, stably transfected with human IL-37, we showed a 70% decrease in the cytokine levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and a 2.2-fold reduction of the intracellular killing capacity of internalized pneumococci in response to pneumococcal infection...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494453/the-peptidoglycan-recognition-proteins-pgrpla-and-pgrplb-regulate-anopheles-immunity-to-bacteria-and-affect-infection-by-plasmodium
#11
Mathilde Gendrin, Fanny Turlure, Faye H Rodgers, Anna Cohuet, Isabelle Morlais, George K Christophides
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) form a family of immune regulators that is conserved from insects to mammals. In the malaria vector mosquito Anophelescoluzzii, the peptidoglycan receptor PGRPLC activates the immune-deficiency (Imd) pathway limiting both the microbiota load and Plasmodium infection. Here, we carried out an RNA interference screen to examine the role of all 7 Anopheles PGRPs in infections with Plasmodium berghei and P. falciparum. We show that, in addition to PGRPLC, PGRPLA and PGRPS2/PGRPS3 also participate in antiparasitic defenses, and that PGRPLB promotes mosquito permissiveness to P...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467984/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-stimulate-proinflammatory-responses-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#12
Florencia Sabbione, Irene A Keitelman, Leonardo Iula, Mariana Ferrero, Mirta N Giordano, Pablo Baldi, Martín Rumbo, Carolina Jancic, Analía S Trevani
Tissue injury leads to the release of uric acid (UA). At high local concentrations, UA can form monosodium urate crystals (MSU). MSU and UA stimulate neutrophils to release extracellular traps (NET). Here, we investigated whether these NET could be involved in the development of inflammation by stimulating cytokine release by airway epithelial cells. We found that NET significantly increased the secretion of CXCL8/IL-8 and IL-6 by alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. These effects were not observed when NETosis was inhibited by Diphenyleneiodonium, elastase inhibitor, or Cl-amidine...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376501/inducible-gbp5-mediates-the-antiviral-response-via-interferon-related-pathways-during-influenza-a-virus-infection
#13
Jian Feng, Zhongying Cao, Li Wang, Yushun Wan, Nanfang Peng, Qing Wang, Xueyuan Chen, Yaqin Zhou, Ying Zhu
Guanylate binding protein (GBP) 5 belongs to the GBP family, which is involved in important cellular processes, including signal transduction, translation, vesicle trafficking, and exocytosis. Structurally, GBPs display a high degree of homology and share highly conserved GTP-binding or hydrolysis domains. GBP5 was reported to be a critical cellular factor in inflammasome assembly. However, little is known about its role in the host antiviral innate immune response. In this study, we found that GBP5 expression was significantly elevated in influenza patients and influenza A virus-infected A549 human lung epithelial cells...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288457/interferon-dependent-induction-of-clr-b-during-mouse-cytomegalovirus-infection-protects-bystander-cells-from-natural-killer-cells-via-nkr-p1b-mediated-inhibition
#14
Christina L Kirkham, Oscar A Aguilar, Tao Yu, Miho Tanaka, Aruz Mesci, Kuan-Lun Chu, Jason H Fine, Karen L Mossman, Rod Bremner, David S J Allan, James R Carlyle
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that aid in self-nonself discrimination by recognizing cells undergoing pathological alterations. The NKR-P1B inhibitory receptor recognizes Clr-b, a self-encoded marker of cell health downregulated during viral infection. Here, we show that Clr-b loss during mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection is predicated by a loss of Clr-b (Clec2d) promoter activity and nascent transcripts, driven in part by MCMV ie3 (M122) activity. In contrast, uninfected bystander cells near MCMV-infected fibroblasts reciprocally upregulate Clr-b expression due to paracrine type-I interferon (IFN) signaling...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259885/participation-of-host-determinants-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pneumonia
#15
Alice Prince
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253517/in-memoriam-a-tribute-to-professor-niels-borregaard
#16
Peter Garred, Lars Kjeldsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249256/searching-for-a-lifeline-transcriptome-profiling-studies-of-influenza-susceptibility-and-resistance
#17
Lester Kobzik
Excess or dysregulated host inflammatory responses cause much of the morbidity and mortality caused by severe influenza. Given the limitations of vaccines and antiviral drugs, novel therapeutics to modulate host responses and improve outcomes in severe influenza are needed. One strategy is to learn from the direct comparison of high-survivor versus high-mortality animal models. This review surveys the results of lung transcriptome profiling studies in murine models that directly compare susceptible versus resistant hosts challenged with identical influenza infections...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241127/vitamin-d-promotes-pneumococcal-killing-and-modulates-inflammatory-responses-in-primary-human-neutrophils
#18
Karthik Subramanian, Peter Bergman, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis worldwide. Despite clinical studies linking vitamin D deficiency and pneumonia, molecular mechanisms behind these observations remain unclear. In particular, the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil responses remain unknown. Using pneumococcal strains, primary neutrophils isolated from human blood, and sera from patients with frequent respiratory tract infections (RTIs), we investigated the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil bactericidal and inflammatory responses, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokine regulation...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231567/innate-lung-defense-during-invasive-aspergillosis-new-mechanisms
#19
Jaleesa M Garth, Chad Steele
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most difficult to treat and, consequently, one of the most lethal fungal infections known to man. Continued use of immunosuppressive agents during chemotherapy and organ transplantation often leads to the development of neutropenia, the primary risk factor for IA. However, IA is also becoming more appreciated in chronic diseases associated with corticosteroid therapy. The innate immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the primary agent in IA, plays a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of organisms from the pulmonary system...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222444/inflammation-a-double-edged-sword-in-the-response-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#20
Christina K Lin, Barbara I Kazmierczak
The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa exploits failures of barrier defense and innate immunity to cause acute infections at a range of anatomic sites. We review the defense mechanisms that normally protect against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection, as well as the bacterial products and activities that trigger their activation. Innate immune recognition of P. aeruginosa is critical for pathogen clearance; nonetheless, inflammation is also associated with pathogen persistence and poor host outcomes...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
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