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Journal of Innate Immunity

Engin Baturcam, Natale Snape, Tiong Han Yeo, Johanna Schagen, Emma Thomas, Jayden Logan, Sally Galbraith, Natasha Collinson, Simon Phipps, Emmanuelle Fantino, Peter D Sly, Kirsten M Spann
Asthmatics are highly susceptible to respiratory viral infections, possibly due to impaired innate immunity. However, the exact mechanisms of susceptibility are likely to differ amongst viruses. Therefore, we infected primary nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from adults with mild-to-moderate asthma, with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in vitro and investigated the antiviral response. NECs from these asthmatics supported elevated hMPV but not RSV infection, compared to non-asthmatic controls...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Katariina Nurmi, Ilona Kareinen, Juhani Virkanen, Kristiina Rajamäki, Vesa-Petteri Kouri, Kirsi Vaali, Anna-Liisa Levonen, Nanna Fyhrquist, Sampsa Matikainen, Petri T Kovanen, Kari K Eklund
Inflammasomes are intracellular protein platforms, which, upon activation, produce the highly proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Heme, hemin and their degradation products possess significant immunomodulatory functions. Here, we studied whether hemin regulates inflammasome function in macrophages. Both hemin and its derivative, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), significantly reduced IL-1β secretion by cultured human primary macrophages, the human monocytic leukemia cell line and also mouse bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Bethany M Biron, Chun-Shiang Chung, Xian M O'Brien, Yaping Chen, Jonathan S Reichner, Alfred Ayala
Sepsis refers to the presence of a serious infection that correlates with systemic and uncontrolled immune activation. Posttranslational histone modification plays an important role in chromatin decondensation, which is regulated by citrullination. Citrullinated histone H3 (H3cit) has been identified as a component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are released into the extracellular space as part of the neutrophil response to infection. The conversion of arginine to citrulline residues on histones is catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Wagdi Almishri, Tania Santodomingo-Garzon, Tyson Le, Danuta Stack, Christopher H Mody, Mark G Swain
NK cells play a central role in innate immunity, acting directly through cell-mediated cytotoxicity and by secreting cytokines. TNFα activation of TNFR2 enhances NK cell cytotoxicity, but its effects on the other essential function of NK cells - cytokine production, for which IFNγ is paramount - are poorly defined. We identify the expression of both TNFα receptors on human peripheral blood NK cells (TNFR2 > TNFR1) and show that TNFα significantly augments IFNγ production from IL-2-/IL-12-treated NK cells in vitro, an effect mimicked by a TNFR2 agonistic antibody...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Afiat Berbudi, Jayagopi Surendar, Jesuthas Ajendra, Fabian Gondorf, David Schmidt, Anna-Lena Neumann, Ajeng P F Wardani, Laura E Layland, Linda S Hoffmann, Alexander Pfeifer, Achim Hoerauf, Marc P Hübner
Helminths induce type 2 immune responses and establish an anti-inflammatory milieu in their hosts. This immunomodulation was previously shown to improve diet-induced insulin resistance which is linked to chronic inflammation. In the current study, we demonstrate that infection with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis increased the eosinophil number and alternatively activated macrophage abundance within epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) and improved glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice in an eosinophil-dependent manner...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Hasan-Halit Öz, Dominik Hartl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Ramona Nitzsche, Juliane Köhler, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Sonja Oehmcke-Hecht
Histones are small basic proteins and highly conserved among eukaryotes. Their main function is binding, packaging and organizing of DNA in the nucleus, but extracellular histones are also potent antimicrobial proteins. Here we found that Streptococcus pyogenes - an important human pathogen - protects itself from histone-killing by the acquisition of plasminogen. Plasminogen, bound to the streptococcal surface, efficiently prevents histone-mediated killing. Moreover, the streptokinase/plasminogen complex degrades all classes of histones and abrogates their antibacterial and hemolytic effects...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Ewelina Dobosz, Mateusz Wilamowski, Maciej Lech, Beata Bugara, Jolanta Jura, Jan Potempa, Joanna Koziel
Pattern recognition receptors are critical for the detection of invading microorganisms. They activate multiple pathways that lead to the induction of proinflammatory responses and pathogen clearance. The intensity and duration of this immune reaction must be tightly controlled spatially and temporally in every tissue by different negative regulators. We hypothesized that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced protein-1 (MCPIP-1) might play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis in the epithelium both under physiological conditions and upon bacterial infection...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Ninette Genster, Elisabeth Præstekjær Cramer, Anne Rosbjerg, Katrine Pilely, Jack Bernard Cowland, Peter Garred
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes severe invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. Innate immunity plays a major role in protection against A. fumigatus. The ficolins are a family of soluble pattern recognition receptors that are capable of activating the lectin pathway of complement. Previous in vitro studies reported that ficolins bind to A. fumigatus, but their part in host defense against fungal infections in vivo is unknown. In this study, we used ficolin-deficient mice to investigate the role of ficolins during lung infection with A...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Anjali Ralhan, Julie Laval, Felipe Lelis, Marlene Ballbach, Charlotte Grund, Andreas Hector, Dominik Hartl
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by chronic infection and inflammation. The inflammatory response in CF is dominated by the activation of the innate immune system. Bacteria and fungi represent the key pathogens chronically colonizing the CF airways. In response, innate immune pattern recognition receptors, expressed by airway epithelial and myeloid cells, sense the microbial threat and release chemoattractants to recruit large numbers of neutrophils into CF airways. However, neutrophils fail to efficiently clear the invading pathogens, but instead release harmful proteases and oxidants and finally cause tissue injury...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Emanuela M Bruscia, Tracey L Bonfield
Cystic fibrosis (CF) pathophysiology is hallmarked by excessive inflammation and the inability to efficiently resolve lung infections, contributing to major morbidity and eventually the mortality of patients with this disease. Macrophages (MΦs) are major players in lung homeostasis through their diverse contributions to both the innate and adaptive immune networks. The setting of MΦ function and activity in CF is multifaceted, encompassing the response to the unique environmental cues in the CF lung as well as the intrinsic changes resulting from CFTR dysfunction...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Sebastian F Vencken, Catherine M Greene
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors that are particularly expressed in the sentinel and epithelial cells in the body, including the lung. They are central players in the innate immune system in response to microbial infection, and are the triggers of a complex pathway network that both promotes the inflammatory response and influences the adaptive immune response. These pathways are transiently and finely tuned by cellular factors, including a cell's microRNA response program...
April 5, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Heiko Herwald, Arne Egesten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Sailen Barik
RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene 1) is an archetypal member of the cytoplasmic DEAD-box dsRNA helicase family (RIG-I-like receptors or RLRs), the members of which play essential roles in the innate immune response of the metazoan cell. RIG-I functions as a pattern recognition receptor that detects nonself RNA as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). However, the exact molecular nature of the viral RNAs that act as a RIG-I ligand has remained a mystery and a matter of debate. In this article, we offer a critical review of the actual viral RNAs that act as PAMPs to activate RIG-I, as seen from the perspective of a virologist, including a recent report that the viral Leader-read-through transcript is a novel and effective RIG-I ligand...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Cheryl C Collins, Kathleen Bashant, Cuixia Erikson, Phyu Myat Thwe, Karen A Fortner, Hong Wang, Craig T Morita, Ralph C Budd
γδ T cells function at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity and have well-demonstrated roles in response to infection, autoimmunity and tumors. A common characteristic of these seemingly disparate conditions may be cellular stress or death. However, the conditions under which ligands for γδ T cells are induced or exposed remain largely undefined. We observed that induction of necroptosis of murine or human dendritic cells (DC) by inhibition of caspase activity paradoxically augments their ability to activate γδ T cells...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Andrew E Armitage, Pei Jin Lim, Joe N Frost, Sant-Rayn Pasricha, Elizabeth J Soilleux, Emma Evans, Alireza Morovat, Ana Santos, Rebeca Diaz, Daniel Biggs, Benjamin Davies, Uzi Gileadi, Peter A Robbins, Samira Lakhal-Littleton, Hal Drakesmith
Withdrawal of iron from serum (hypoferraemia) is a conserved innate immune antimicrobial strategy that can withhold this critical nutrient from invading pathogens, impairing their growth. Hepcidin (Hamp1) is the master regulator of iron and its expression is induced by inflammation. Mice lacking Hamp1 from birth rapidly accumulate iron and are susceptible to infection by blood-dwelling siderophilic bacteria such as Vibrio vulnificus. In order to study the innate immune role of hepcidin against a background of normal iron status, we developed a transgenic mouse model of tamoxifen-sensitive conditional Hamp1 deletion (termed iHamp1-KO mice)...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Vedrana Mijošek, Felix Lasitschka, Arne Warth, Heike Zabeck, Alexander H Dalpke, Michael Weitnauer
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. We hypothesized that the combined activation of both Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and ER stress might increase inflammatory reactions in otherwise tolerant airway epithelial cells. Indeed, ER stress resulted in an increased response of BEAS-2B and human primary bronchial epithelial cells to pathogen-associated molecular pattern stimulation with respect to IL6 and IL8 production. ER stress elevated p38 and ERK MAP kinase activation, and pharmacological inhibition of these kinases could inhibit the boosting effect...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Spyridon Makris, Monika Bajorek, Fiona J Culley, Michelle Goritzka, Cecilia Johansson
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract infections. Immunity to RSV is initiated upon detection of the virus by pattern recognition receptors, such as RIG-I-like receptors. RIG-I-like receptors signal via MAVS to induce the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, including type I interferons (IFNs), which trigger and shape antiviral responses and protect cells from infection. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are amongst the first cells to encounter invading viruses and the ones producing type I IFNs...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Marco B Hansen, Lars S Rasmussen, Katrine Pilely, Dorthe Hellemann, Estrid Hein, Martin B Madsen, Ole Hyldegaard, Peter Garred
BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins are pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) that play an important role during infection through activation of the lectin complement pathway. We assessed whether plasma PRM levels were associated with mortality in patients with necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI). METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study over 25 months involving 135 NSTI patients with a maximum follow-up of 2.7 years. Blood samples were taken upon admission...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Marlene Ballbach, Tobias Hall, Alina Brand, Davide Neri, Anurag Singh, Iris Schaefer, Eva Herrmann, Sandra Hansmann, Rupert Handgretinger, Jasmin Kuemmerle-Deschner, Dominik Hartl, Nikolaus Rieber
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are caused by mutations in the NLRP3 gene leading to overproduction of IL-1β and other NLRP3 inflammasome products. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent a novel innate immune cell subset capable of suppressing T-cell responses. As inflammasome products were previously found to induce MDSCs, we hypothesized that NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent factors induce the generation of MDSCs in CAPS. We studied neutrophilic MDSCs, their clinical relevance, and MDSC-inducing factors in a unique cohort of CAPS patients under anti-IL-1 therapy...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
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