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Journal of Innate Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068663/collectin-kidney-1-plays-an-important-role-in-innate-immunity-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#1
Insu Hwang, Kenichiro Mori, Katsuki Ohtani, Yasuyuki Matsuda, Nitai Roy, YounUck Kim, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Nobutaka Wakamiya
Collectins are C-type lectins that are involved in innate immunity as pattern recognition molecules. Recently, collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) has been discovered, and in vitro studies have shown that CL-K1 binds to microbes and activates the lectin complement pathway. However, in vivo functions of CL-K1 against microbes have not been elucidated. To investigate the biological functions of CL-K1, we generated CL-K1 knockout (CL-K1-/-) mice and then performed a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection analysis. First, we found that recombinant human CL-K1 bound to S...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052300/transmembrane-mucins-signaling-receptors-at-the-intersection-of-inflammation-and-cancer
#2
Jos P M van Putten, Karin Strijbis
Mucosal surfaces line our body cavities and provide the interaction surface between commensal and pathogenic microbiota and the host. The barrier function of the mucosal layer is largely maintained by gel-forming mucin proteins that are secreted by goblet cells. In addition, mucosal epithelial cells express cell-bound mucins that have both barrier and signaling functions. The family of transmembrane mucins consists of diverse members that share a few characteristics. The highly glycosylated extracellular mucin domains inhibit invasion by pathogenic bacteria and can form a tight mesh structure that protects cells in harmful conditions...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013312/mycobacteria-manipulate-g-protein-coupled-receptors-to-increase-mucosal-rac1-expression-in-the-lungs
#3
Nader Alaridah, Nataliya Lutay, Erik Tenland, Anna Rönnholm, Oskar Hallgren, Manoj Puthia, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Gabriela Godaly
Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the only approved vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). BCG mimics M. tuberculosis (Mtb) in its persistence in the body and is used as a benchmark to compare new vaccine candidates. BCG was originally designed for mucosal vaccination, but comprehensive knowledge about its interaction with epithelium is currently lacking. We used primary airway epithelial cells (AECs) and a murine model to investigate the initial events of mucosal BCG interactions...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006777/cellular-innate-immunity-an-old-game-with-new-players
#4
Georg Gasteiger, Andrea D'Osualdo, David A Schubert, Alexander Weber, Emanuela M Bruscia, Dominik Hartl
Innate immunity is a rapidly evolving field with novel cell types and molecular pathways being discovered and paradigms changing continuously. Innate and adaptive immune responses are traditionally viewed as separate from each other, but emerging evidence suggests that they overlap and mutually interact. Recently discovered cell types, particularly innate lymphoid cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, are gaining increasing attention. Here, we summarize and highlight current concepts in the field, focusing on innate immune cells as well as the inflammasome and DNA sensing which appear to be critical for the activation and orchestration of innate immunity, and may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treating autoimmune, autoinflammatory, and infectious diseases...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988511/pigs-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-are-impaired-in-controlling-influenza-a-virus-infection
#5
Daniela S Rajao, Crystal L Loving, Emily H Waide, Phillip C Gauger, Jack C M Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle, Amy L Vincent
Influenza A viruses (IAV) infect many host species, including humans and pigs. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a condition characterized by a deficiency of T, B, and/or natural killer (NK) cells. Animal models of SCID have great value for biomedical research. Here, we evaluated the pathogenesis and the innate immune response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic IAV (H1N1pdm09) using a recently identified line of naturally occurring SCID pigs deficient in T and B lymphocytes that still have functional NK cells...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915347/role-of-microrna-in-the-lung-s-innate-immune-response
#6
Taylor S Cohen
The immune response to respiratory pathogens must be robust enough to defend the host yet properly constrained such that inflammation-induced tissue damage is avoided. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small noncoding RNA which posttranscriptionally influence gene expression. In this review, we discuss recent experimental evidence of the contribution of miRNA to the lung's response to bacterial and viral pathogens.
December 3, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902980/gene-expression-profiling-and-functional-characterization-of-macrophages-in-response-to-circulatory-microparticles-produced-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-and-chagas-disease
#7
Imran H Chowdhury, Sue-Jie Koo, Shivali Gupta, Lisa Yi Liang, Bojlul Bahar, Laura Silla, Julio Nuñez-Burgos, Natalia Barrientos, Maria Paola Zago, Nisha Jain Garg
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM). In this study, we determined if microparticles (MPs) generated during Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection carry the host's signature of the inflammatory/oxidative state and provide information regarding the progression of clinical disease. METHODS: MPs were harvested from supernatants of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro incubated with Tc (control: LPS treated), plasma of seropositive humans with a clinically asymptomatic (CA) or symptomatic (CS) disease state (vs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866206/genome-wide-stat3-binding-analysis-after-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-reveals-novel-target-genes-in-dendritic-cells
#8
Yaping Sun, Matthew Iyer, Richard McEachin, Meng Zhao, Yi-Mi Wu, Xuhong Cao, Katherine Oravecz-Wilson, Cynthia Zajac, Nathan Mathewson, Shin-Rong Julia Wu, Corinne Rossi, Tomomi Toubai, Zhaohui S Qin, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Pavan Reddy
STAT3 is a master transcriptional regulator that plays an important role in the induction of both immune activation and immune tolerance in dendritic cells (DCs). The transcriptional targets of STAT3 in promoting DC activation are becoming increasingly understood; however, the mechanisms underpinning its role in causing DC suppression remain largely unknown. To determine the functional gene targets of STAT3, we compared the genome-wide binding of STAT3 using ChIP sequencing coupled with gene expression microarrays to determine STAT3-dependent gene regulation in DCs after histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855374/inflammatory-properties-and-adjuvant-potential-of-synthetic-glycolipids-homologous-to-mycolate-esters-of-the-cell-wall-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
Hermann Giresse Tima, Juma''a Raheem Al Dulayymi, Olivier Denis, Pauline Lehebel, Klarah Sherzad Baols, Mohsin Omar Mohammed, Laurent L'Homme, Mohaned Mohammed Sahb, Georges Potemberg, Sylvie Legrand, Roland Lang, Rudi Beyaert, Jacques Piette, Mark Stephen Baird, Kris Huygen, Marta Romano
The cell wall of mycobacteria is characterised by glycolipids composed of different classes of mycolic acids (MAs; alpha-, keto-, and methoxy-) and sugars (trehalose, glucose, and arabinose). Studies using mutant Mtb strains have shown that the structure of MAs influences the inflammatory potential of these glycolipids. As mutant Mtb strains possess a complex mixture of glycolipids, we analysed the inflammatory potential of single classes of mycolate esters of the Mtb cell wall using 38 different synthetic analogues...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820939/protease-activated-receptor-1-enhances-poly-i-c-induction-of-the-antiviral-response-in-macrophages-and-mice
#10
Silvio Antoniak, Kohei Tatsumi, Michael Bode, Swetha Vanja, Julie C Williams, Nigel Mackman
The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections as part of the host defense system. Coagulation proteases activate cells by cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Recently, we reported that the activation of PAR-1 enhanced interferon (IFN)β and CXCL10 expression in cardiac fibroblasts and in the hearts of mice infected with Coxsackievirus B3. In this study, we used the double-stranded RNA mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) to induce an antiviral response in macrophages and mice...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811478/deletion-of-irf3-and-irf7-genes-in-mice-results-in-altered-interferon-pathway-activation-and-granulocyte-dominated-inflammatory-responses-to-influenza-a-infection
#11
Bastian Hatesuer, Hang Thi Thu Hoang, Peggy Riese, Stephanie Trittel, Ingo Gerhauser, Husni Elbahesh, Robert Geffers, Esther Wilk, Klaus Schughart
The interferon (IFN) pathway plays an essential role in the innate immune response following viral infections and subsequent shaping of adaptive immunity. Infections with influenza A viruses (IAV) activate the IFN pathway after the recognition of pathogen-specific molecular patterns by respective pattern recognition receptors. The IFN regulatory factors IRF3 and IRF7 are key players in the regulation of type I and III IFN genes. In this study, we analyzed the role of IRF3 and IRF7 for the host response to IAV infections in Irf3-/-, Irf7-/-, and Irf3-/-Irf7-/- knockout mice...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923232/intracellular-clearance-by-nobel-laureates
#12
Heiko Herwald, Arne Egesten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820934/erratum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806369/virus-infected-human-mast-cells-enhance-natural-killer-cell-functions
#14
Liliana Portales-Cervantes, Ian D Haidl, Patrick W Lee, Jean S Marshall
Mucosal surfaces are protected from infection by both structural and sentinel cells, such as mast cells. The mast cell's role in antiviral responses is poorly understood; however, they selectively recruit natural killer (NK) cells following infection. Here, the ability of virus-infected mast cells to enhance NK cell functions was examined. Cord blood-derived human mast cells infected with reovirus (Reo-CBMC) and subsequent mast cell products were used for the stimulation of human NK cells. NK cells upregulated the CD69 molecule and cytotoxicity-related genes, and demonstrated increased cytotoxic activity in response to Reo-CBMC soluble products...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798934/vitronectin-binds-to-a-specific-stretch-within-the-head-region-of-yersinia-adhesin-a-and-thereby-modulates-yersinia-enterocolitica-host-interaction
#15
Melanie C Mühlenkamp, Teresia Hallström, Ingo B Autenrieth, Erwin Bohn, Dirk Linke, Janina Rinker, Kristian Riesbeck, Birendra Singh, Jack C Leo, Sven Hammerschmidt, Peter F Zipfel, Monika S Schütz
Complement resistance is an important virulence trait of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). The predominant virulence factor expressed by Ye is Yersinia adhesin A (YadA), which enables bacterial attachment to host cells and extracellular matrix and additionally allows the acquisition of soluble serum factors. The serum glycoprotein vitronectin (Vn) acts as an inhibitory regulator of the terminal complement complex by inhibiting the lytic pore formation. Here, we show YadA-mediated direct interaction of Ye with Vn and investigated the role of this Vn binding during mouse infection in vivo...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794581/non-pulmonary-immune-functions-of-surfactant-proteins-a-and-d
#16
Sylvia Ujma, William G C Horsnell, Arieh A Katz, Howard W Clark, Georgia Schäfer
Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) are established as essential components of our innate immune system for protecting the lung from pathogens and allergens. They essentially exert their protective functions by regulating pulmonary homeostasis. Both proteins are however widely expressed throughout the body, including the female reproductive tract, urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, the eye, ear, nasal compartment, central nervous system, the coronary artery and the skin. The functions of SP-A and SP-D at these sites are a relatively underinvestigated area, but it is emerging that both SP-A and SP-D contribute significantly to the regulation of inflammation and protection from infection at these sites...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784011/decreased-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-degradation-in-shiga-toxin-associated-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome
#17
Jonatan Leffler, Zoltán Prohászka, Bálint Mikes, György Sinkovits, Katarzyna Ciacma, Péter Farkas, Marienn Réti, Kata Kelen, György S Reusz, Attila J Szabó, Myriam Martin, Anna M Blom
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can stimulate thrombosis, and their degradation is decreased in several autoimmune disorders. It was recently reported that some patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) also fail to degrade NETs and that neutrophils from Shiga toxin-associated HUS are primed to form NETs. METHOD: We used a well-characterized cohort of 74 thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) patients, with a subset also providing follow-up samples, and 112 age-matched controls to investigate NET degradation and serum nuclease activity in TMA before, during and after treatment...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771727/thioester-containing-protein-4-regulates-the-drosophila-immune-signaling-and-function-against-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#18
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Despite important progress in identifying the molecules that participate in the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster to microbial infections, the involvement of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the antibacterial immunity of the fly is not fully clarified. Previous studies mostly focused on identifying the function of TEP2, TEP3 and TEP6 molecules in the D. melanogaster immune system. Here, we investigated the role of TEP4 in the regulation and function of D. melanogaster host defense against 2 virulent pathogens from the genus Photorhabdus, i...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723652/human-metapneumovirus-impairs-apoptosis-of-nasal-epithelial-cells-in-asthma-via-hsp70
#19
Engin Baturcam, Natale Snape, Tiong Han Yeo, Johanna Schagen, Emma Thomas, Jayden Logan, Sally Galbraith, Natasha Collinson, Simon Phipps, Emmanuelle Fantino, Peter D Sly, Kirsten M Spann
Asthmatics are highly susceptible to respiratory viral infections, possibly due to impaired innate immunity. However, the exact mechanisms of susceptibility are likely to differ amongst viruses. Therefore, we infected primary nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from adults with mild-to-moderate asthma, with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in vitro and investigated the antiviral response. NECs from these asthmatics supported elevated hMPV but not RSV infection, compared to non-asthmatic controls...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655219/hemin-and-cobalt-protoporphyrin-inhibit-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-enhancing-autophagy-a-novel-mechanism-of-inflammasome-regulation
#20
Katariina Nurmi, Ilona Kareinen, Juhani Virkanen, Kristiina Rajamäki, Vesa-Petteri Kouri, Kirsi Vaali, Anna-Liisa Levonen, Nanna Fyhrquist, Sampsa Matikainen, Petri T Kovanen, Kari K Eklund
Inflammasomes are intracellular protein platforms, which, upon activation, produce the highly proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Heme, hemin and their degradation products possess significant immunomodulatory functions. Here, we studied whether hemin regulates inflammasome function in macrophages. Both hemin and its derivative, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), significantly reduced IL-1β secretion by cultured human primary macrophages, the human monocytic leukemia cell line and also mouse bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
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