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Cell Adhesion & Migration

Daisuke Ito, Atsushi Kumanogoh
Semaphorins were originally identified as axon guidance cues that regulate the functional activity of axons in the nervous system. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that semaphorins have multiple functions in physiological and pathogenic processes, including vascular development, tumor progression, and immune responses. Sema4A is a semaphorin expressed in immune cells, and is thus termed an "immune semaphorin." Sema4A has four types of receptors: Plexin D family, Plexin B family, Tim-2, and Nrp-1...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Gwennan André-Grégoire, Julie Gavard
Discovered decades ago, extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerge as dedicated organelles, able to deliver protected, specific cellular cues throughout the organism. While virtually every cell can release EVs, cancer cells co-opted this feature and efficiently unleashed them both in the tumor microenvironment and towards healthy tissues. This might contribute to tumor aggressiveness and spreading. Cancer-derived EVs that contain DNA, mRNA, miRNA, and packed and transmembrane proteins can operate locally or at distance...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Kamil Kowalski, Aleksandra Kołodziejczyk, Maria Helena Sikorska, Jagoda Płaczkiewicz, Paulina Cichosz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Marta Koblowska, Anna Fogtman, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Maria A Ciemerych, Edyta Brzoska
The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells - satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Mathijs Vleugel, Maurits Kok, Marileen Dogterom
Microtubules switch between growing and shrinking states, a feature known as dynamic instability. The biochemical parameters underlying dynamic instability are modulated by a wide variety of microtubule-associated proteins that enable the strict control of microtubule dynamics in cells. The forces generated by controlled growth and shrinkage of microtubules drive a large range of processes, including organelle positioning, mitotic spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation. In the past decade, our understanding of microtubule dynamics and microtubule force generation has progressed significantly...
October 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Daria R Bulanova, Yevhen A Akimov, Anne Rokka, Teemu D Laajala, Tero Aittokallio, Petri Kouvonen, Teijo Pellinen, Sergey G Kuznetsov
G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR), Class C, Group 5, Member A (GPRC5A) has been implicated in several malignancies. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Using a panel of human cell lines, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout and RNAi-mediated depletion of GPRC5A impairs cell adhesion to integrin substrates: collagens I and IV, fibronectin, as well as to extracellular matrix proteins derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma (Matrigel). Consistent with the phenotype, knock-out of GPRC5A correlated with a reduced integrin β1 (ITGB1) protein expression, impaired phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and lower activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1...
October 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Chen Feng, Wei-Kiat Wee, Huizhi Chen, Li-Teng Ong, Jing Qu, Hui-Foon Tan, Suet-Mien Tan
Kindlins are a small family of 4.1-ezrin-radixin-moesin (FERM)-containing cytoplasmic proteins. Kindlin-3 is expressed in platelets, hematopoietic cells, and endothelial cells. Kindlin-3 promotes integrin activation, clustering and outside-in signaling. Aberrant expression of kindlin-3 was reported in melanoma and breast cancer. Intriguingly, kindlin-3 has been reported to either positively or negatively regulate cancer cell metastasis. In this study, we sought to clarify the expression of kindlin-3 in melanoma cells and its role in melanoma metastasis...
October 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Tomoyuki Masuda, Masahiko Taniguchi
Semaphorins are a large family of proteins characterized by sema domains and play a key role not only in the formation of neural circuits, but in the immune system, angiogenesis, tumor progression, and bone metabolism. To date, 15 semaphorins have been reported to be involved in the formation of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in higher vertebrates. A number of experiments have revealed their functions in the PNS, where they act mainly as axonal guidance cues (as repellents or attractants). Semaphorins also play an important role in the migration of neurons and formation of sensory-motor connections in the PNS...
October 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Katharina B Beer, Ann Marie Wehman
Cells from bacteria to man release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain signaling molecules like proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The content, formation, and signaling roles of these conserved vesicles are diverse, but the physiological relevance of EV signaling in vivo is still debated. Studies in classical genetic model organisms like C. elegans and Drosophila have begun to reveal the developmental and behavioral roles for EVs. In this review, we discuss the emerging evidence for the in vivo signaling roles of EVs...
September 30, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Robert J Huber, Michael A Myre, Susan L Cotman
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect children. The most common subtype of the disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which is conserved across model species from yeast to human. The precise function of the CLN3 protein is not known, which has made targeted therapy development challenging. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of Cln3 causes aberrant mid-to-late stage multicellular development...
September 26, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Dangjai Souvannakitti, Paleerath Peerapen, Visith Thongboonkerd
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) can cause capillary hyper-permeability and vasogenic edema. However, its underlying mechanisms remained unclear and there is no previous in vitro study on AMS. We therefore conducted an in vitro study and examined whether continuous hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) could alter expression of junctional protein complex of vascular endothelial cells, causing hyper-permeabilization. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were exposed to either CHH or normoxia for up to 24 h. Flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide co-staining demonstrated that cell death had no significant difference at 12-h, but was increased by CHH at 24-h...
September 14, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Joanna Fares, Rudra Kashyap, Pascale Zimmermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Miriam Regev, Helena Sabanay, Elena Kartvelishvily, Zvi Kam, Alexander D Bershadsky
Adhesion of epithelial cell to each other and to extracellular matrix, as well as cell migration ability and cytoskeleton organization undergo significant alterations in the course of neoplastic transformation, but regulatory mechanisms involved in these processes are not fully understood. Here, we studied the role of a Rho GAP protein GRAF1 (GTPase Regulator Associated with Focal adhesion kinase-1) in the regulation of the epithelial phenotype in cells of breast derived, non-malignant, MCF10A cell line. GRAF1 was shown to be localized to cell-cell junctions, and its depletion resulted in accelerated cell migration velocity, elongation of the cells and cell colonies, impaired monolayer integrity and significant disruption of desmosomes with a loss of associated keratin filaments...
September 2, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Graziana Digiacomo, Ignazia Tusa, Marina Bacci, Maria Grazia Cipolleschi, Persio Dello Sbarba, Elisabetta Rovida
Integrins, following binding to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, laminin and fibronectin (FN), are able to transduce molecular signals inside the cells and to regulate several biological functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Besides activation of adaptor molecules and kinases, integrins transactivate Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK). In particular, adhesion to the ECM may promote RTK activation in the absence of growth factors. The Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) is a RTK that supports the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are essential components of innate immunity and cancer development...
September 2, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Daria Petrov, Inbal Dahan, Einav Cohen-Kfir, Shoshana Ravid
Cell motility is an essential cellular process for a variety of biological events. It requires cross-talk between the signaling and the cytoskeletal systems. Despite the recognized importance of aPKCζ for cell motility, there is little understanding of the mechanism by which aPKCζ mediates extracellular signals to the cytoskeleton. In the present study, we report that aPKCζ is required for the cellular organization of acto-non-muscle myosin II (NMII) cytoskeleton, for proper cell adhesion and directed cell migration...
August 19, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Gera Neufeld, Yelena Mumblat, Tatyana Smolkin, Shira Toledano, Inbal Nir-Zvi, Keren Ziv, Ofra Kessler
The semaphorins were initially characterized as axon guidance factors, but have subsequently been implicated also in the regulation of immune responses, angiogenesis, organ formation, and a variety of additional physiological and developmental functions. The semaphorin family contains more then 20 genes divided into 7 subfamilies, all of which contain the signature sema domain. The semaphorins transduce signals by binding to receptors belonging to the neuropilin or plexin families. Additional receptors which form complexes with these primary semaphorin receptors are also frequently involved in semaphorin signaling...
August 17, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Yantao Chen, Kunshui Zhang, Yang Li, Qing He
Osteosarcoma patients often exhibit pulmonary metastasis, which results in high patient mortality. Understanding the mechanisms of advanced metastasis in osteosarcoma cell is important for the targeted treatment and drug development. Our present study revealed that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) treatment can significantly promote the in vitro migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma MG-63 and HOS cells. The loss of epithelial characteristics E-cadherin (E-Cad) and up regulation of mesenchymal markers Vimentin (Vim) suggested TGF-β induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of osteosarcoma cells...
August 17, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Aurora Pignata, Hugo Ducuing, Valérie Castellani
ASBTRACT The mechanisms governing the navigation of commissural axons during embryonic development have been extensively investigated in the past years, often using the drosophila ventral nerve cord and the spinal cord as model systems. Similarities but also specificities in the general strategies, the molecular signals as well as in the regulatory pathways controlling the response of commissural axons to the guidance cues have been found between species. Whether the Semaphorin signaling contributes to midline crossing in the fly nervous system remains unknown, while in contrast, it does play a prominent contribution in vertebrates...
August 17, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Raghav Joshi, Edi Goihberg, Wenying Ren, Monika Pilichowska, Paul Mathew
: The haematopoietic niche is contributed to by bone marrow-resident mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and subverted by prostate cancer cells. To study mechanisms by which BM-MSCs and prostate cancer cells may interact, we assessed the migration, invasion, adhesion and proliferation of bone-derived prostate cancer cells (PC-3) in co-culture with pluripotent human BM-MSCs. We observed a strong adhesive, migratory and invasive phenotype of PC-3 cells with BM- MSC-co-culture and set out to isolate and characterize the bioactive principle...
August 11, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Keijo Luukko, Päivi Kettunen
The tooth, like many other organs, develops from both epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, and has proven to be a valuable tool with which to investigate organ formation and peripheral innervation. Tooth formation is regulated by local epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions, and is closely integrated with stereotypic dental nerve navigation and patterning. Recent analyses of the function and regulation of semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) have shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate organogenesis and innervation at the tissue and molecular levels...
August 9, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Yukinori Endo, Hiroko Ishiwata-Endo, Kenneth M Yamada
Anosmin is an extracellular matrix protein, and genetic defects in anosmin result in human Kallmann syndrome. It functions in neural crest formation, cell adhesion, and neuronal migration. Anosmin consists of multiple domains, and it has been reported to bind heparan sulfate, FGF receptor, and UPA. In this study, we establish cell adhesion/spreading assays for anosmin and use them for antibody inhibition analyses to search for an integrin adhesion receptor. We find that α5β1, α4β1, and α9β1 integrins are needed for effective adhesive receptor function in cell adhesion and cell spreading on anosmin; adhesion is inhibited by both RGD and α4β1 CS1-based peptides...
August 9, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
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