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Cell Adhesion & Migration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060564/annexin-a8-promotes-vegf-a-driven-endothelial-cell-sprouting
#1
Nicole Heitzig, Benjamin F Brinkmann, Sophia N Koerdt, Gonzalo Rosso, Victor Shahin, Ursula Rescher
The physiological and pathological process of angiogenesis relies on orchestrated endothelial cell (EC) adhesion, migration and formation of new vessels. Here we report that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) deficient in Annexin A8 (AnxA8), a member of the annexin family of Ca(2+)- and membrane binding proteins, are strongly deficient in their ability to sprout in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and are strongly impaired in their ability to migrate and adhere to β1 integrin-binding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins...
January 6, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060548/annexin-a6-a-multifunctional-scaffold-in-cell-motility
#2
Thomas Grewal, Monira Hoque, James R W Conway, Meritxell Reverter, Mohamed Wahba, Syed S Beevi, Paul Timpson, Carlos Enrich, Carles Rentero
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) belongs to a highly conserved protein family characterized by their calcium (Ca(2+)) -dependent binding to phospholipids. Over the years, immunohistochemistry, subcellular fractionations, and live cell microscopy established that AnxA6 is predominantly found at the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments. In these locations, AnxA6 acts as a multifunctional scaffold protein, recruiting signaling proteins, modulating cholesterol and membrane transport and influencing actin dynamics. These activities enable AnxA6 to contribute to the formation of multifactorial protein complexes and membrane domains relevant in signal transduction, cholesterol homeostasis and endo-/exocytic membrane transport...
January 6, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059594/annexin-a6-a-multifunctional-scaffold-in-cell-motility
#3
Thomas Grewal, Monira Hoque, James R W Conway, Meritxell Reverter, Mohamed Wahba, Syed S Beevi, Paul Timpson, Carlos Enrich, Carles Rentero
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) belongs to a highly conserved protein family characterized by their calcium (Ca(2+)) -dependent binding to phospholipids. Over the years, immunohistochemistry, subcellular fractionations, and live cell microscopy established that AnxA6 is predominantly found at the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments. In these locations, AnxA6 acts as a multifunctional scaffold protein, recruiting signaling proteins, modulating cholesterol and membrane transport and influencing actin dynamics. These activities enable AnxA6 to contribute to the formation of multifactorial protein complexes and membrane domains relevant in signal transduction, cholesterol homeostasis and endo-/exocytic membrane transport...
January 6, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924678/a-novel-role-for-14-kda-phosphohistidine-phosphatase-in-lamellipodia-formation
#4
Anjian Xu, Xiaojin Li, Siwen Li, Lan Sun, Shanna Wu, Bei Zhang, Jian Huang
Cell migration involves dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which exhibits rapid actin polymerization at the leading edge of migrating cells. This process relies on regulated recruitment of actin nucleators and actin-binding proteins to the leading edge to polymerize new actin filaments. Many of these proteins have been identified, including the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex, which has emerged as the core player in the initiation of actin polymerization. However, the functional coordination of these proteins is unclear...
December 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875097/role-of-exosomes-in-the-protection-of-cellular-homeostasis
#5
Gabriela Desdín-Micó, María Mittelbrunn
Due to their ability to shuttle proteins, lipids and genetic material between distant cells, exosomes promote extensive phenotypic changes in recipient cells, modulating immune responses, cellular migration, cancer metastasis or the spreading of neurotoxic protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides intercellular communication, exosome biogenesis and secretion permit the rapid release of a selective repertoire of compounds, conferring cells with an additional mechanism to fight alterations in protein, lipid or RNA homeostasis during stress or pathological conditions...
November 22, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874296/cd44-mediates-the-catch-bond-activated-rolling-of-hepg2-epithelial-cancer-cells-on-hyaluronan
#6
Maximilian Hanke-Roos, Katharina Fuchs, Stojan Maleschlijski, Jonathan Sleeman, Véronique Orian-Rousseau, Axel Rosenhahn
Absrtract The attachment of cancer cells to the endothelium is an essential step during metastatic dissemination. The cell surface receptor CD44 is capable of binding to hyaluronan (HA) produced by tumor cells and by cells of the tumor microenvironment, including blood endothelial cells. Here, we investigated the role of CD44 in the interaction between the liver cancer cell line HepG2Iso and HA surfaces. The rolling interaction was quantitatively analyzed using a microfluidic shear force setup. It was found that rolling of the liver cancer cells on HA depends on CD44, which mediates a catch-bond interaction and thus a flow-induced rolling of the cells...
November 22, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860536/the-advantageous-role-of-annexin-a1-in-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Renske Johanna de Jong, Giovanna Leoni, Maik Drechsler, Oliver Soehnlein
The inflammatory response protects the human body against infection and injury. However, uncontrolled and unresolved inflammation can lead to tissue damage and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, active resolution of inflammation is essential to restore tissue homeostasis. This review focuses on the pro-resolving molecule annexin A1 (ANXA1) and its derived peptides. Mechanisms instructed by ANXA1 are multidisciplinary and affect leukocytes as well as endothelial cells and tissue resident cells like macrophages and mast cells...
November 18, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834582/hypoxia-regulates-anxa1-expression-to-support-prostate-cancer-cell-invasion-and-aggressiveness
#8
Valentina Bizzarro, Raffaella Belvedere, Vincenzo Migliaro, Elena Romano, Luca Parente, Antonello Petrella
Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein overexpressed in the invasive stages of prostate cancer (PCa) development; however, its role in this tumor metastatization is largely unknown. Moreover, hypoxic conditions in solid tumors have been related to poor prognosis in PCa patients. We have previously demonstrated that ANXA1 is implicated in the acquisition of chemo-resistant features in DU145 PCa cells conferring them a mesenchymal/metastatic phenotype. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms by which ANXA1 regulates metastatic behavior in LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 cells exposed to hypoxia...
November 11, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791462/deregulation-of-focal-adhesion-formation-and-cytoskeletal-tension-due-to-loss-of-a-type-lamins
#9
Tobias D J Corne, Tom Sieprath, Jonathan Vandenbussche, Danahe Mohammed, Mariska Te Lindert, Kris Gevaert, Sylvain Gabriele, Katarina Wolf, Winnok H De Vos
The nuclear lamina mechanically integrates the nucleus with the cytoskeleton and extracellular environment and regulates gene expression. These functions are exerted through direct and indirect interactions with the lamina's major constituent proteins, the A-type lamins, which are encoded by the LMNA gene. Using quantitative stable isotope labeling-based shotgun proteomics we have analyzed the proteome of human dermal fibroblasts in which we have depleted A-type lamins by means of a sustained siRNA-mediated LMNA knockdown...
October 28, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906605/current-drug-design-to-target-the-semaphorin-neuropilin-plexin-complexes
#10
Lionel A T Meyer, Justine Fritz, Marie Pierdant-Mancera, Dominique Bagnard
The Semaphorin/Neuropilin/Plexin (SNP) complexes control a wide range of biological processes. Consistently, activity deregulation of these complexes is associated with many diseases. The increasing knowledge on SNP had in turn validated these molecular complexes as novel therapeutic targets. Targeting SNP activities by small molecules, antibodies and peptides or by soluble semaphorins have been proposed as new therapeutic approach. This review is focusing on the latest demonstration of this potential and discusses some of the key questions that need to be addressed before translating SNP targeting into clinically relevant approaches...
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893305/foreword-special-focus-issue-on-semaphorins
#11
Masahiko Taniguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736304/the-role-of-sema4a-in-angiogenesis-immune-responses-carcinogenesis-and-retinal-systems
#12
Daisuke Ito, Atsushi Kumanogoh
Semaphorins were originally identified as axon guidance cues that regulate the functional activity of axons in the nervous system. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that semaphorins have multiple functions in physiological and pathogenic processes, including vascular development, tumor progression, and immune responses. Sema4A is a semaphorin expressed in immune cells, and is thus termed an "immune semaphorin." Sema4A has 4 types of receptors: Plexin D family, Plexin B family, Tim-2, and Nrp-1. Recent studies suggest that Sema4A plays critical roles in many processes including cell-cell interactions, immune-cell activation, differentiation, and migration...
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715429/integration-of-tooth-morphogenesis-and-innervation-by-local-tissue-interactions-signaling-networks-and-semaphorin-3a
#13
Keijo Luukko, Päivi Kettunen
The tooth, like many other organs, develops from both epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, and has proven to be a valuable tool with which to investigate organ formation and peripheral innervation. Tooth formation is regulated by local epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions, and is closely integrated with stereotypic dental nerve navigation and patterning. Recent analyses of the function and regulation of semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) have shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate organogenesis and innervation at the tissue and molecular levels...
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715392/contribution-of-semaphorins-to-the-formation-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system-in-higher-vertebrates
#14
Tomoyuki Masuda, Masahiko Taniguchi
Semaphorins are a large family of proteins characterized by sema domains and play a key role not only in the formation of neural circuits, but in the immune system, angiogenesis, tumor progression, and bone metabolism. To date, 15 semaphorins have been reported to be involved in the formation of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in higher vertebrates. A number of experiments have revealed their functions in the PNS, where they act mainly as axonal guidance cues (as repellents or attractants). Semaphorins also play an important role in the migration of neurons and formation of sensory-motor connections in the PNS...
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533782/the-role-of-the-semaphorins-in-cancer
#15
Gera Neufeld, Yelena Mumblat, Tatyana Smolkin, Shira Toledano, Inbal Nir-Zvi, Keren Ziv, Ofra Kessler
The semaphorins were initially characterized as axon guidance factors, but have subsequently been implicated also in the regulation of immune responses, angiogenesis, organ formation, and a variety of additional physiological and developmental functions. The semaphorin family contains more then 20 genes divided into 7 subfamilies, all of which contain the signature sema domain. The semaphorins transduce signals by binding to receptors belonging to the neuropilin or plexin families. Additional receptors which form complexes with these primary semaphorin receptors are also frequently involved in semaphorin signaling...
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532244/commissural-axon-navigation-control-of-midline-crossing-in-the-vertebrate-spinal-cord-by-the-semaphorin-3b-signaling
#16
Aurora Pignata, Hugo Ducuing, Valérie Castellani
The mechanisms governing the navigation of commissural axons during embryonic development have been extensively investigated in the past years, often using the drosophila ventral nerve cord and the spinal cord as model systems. Similarities but also specificities in the general strategies, the molecular signals as well as in the regulatory pathways controlling the response of commissural axons to the guidance cues have been found between species. Whether the semaphorin signaling contributes to midline crossing in the fly nervous system remains unknown, while in contrast, it does play a prominent contribution in vertebrates...
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439112/class-3-semaphorins-in-cardiovascular-development
#17
Donatella Valdembri, Donatella Regano, Federica Maione, Enrico Giraudo, Guido Serini
Secreted class 3 semaphorins (Sema3), which signal through holoreceptor complexes that are formed by different subunits, such as neuropilins (Nrps), proteoglycans, and plexins, were initially characterized as fundamental regulators of axon guidance during embryogenesis. Subsequently, Sema3A, Sema3C, Sema3D, and Sema3E were discovered to play crucial roles in cardiovascular development, mainly acting through Nrp1 and Plexin D1, which funnels the signal of multiple Sema3 in vascular endothelial cells. Mechanistically, Sema3 proteins control cardiovascular patterning through the enzymatic GTPase-activating-protein activity of the cytodomain of Plexin D1, which negatively regulates the function of Rap1, a small GTPase that is well-known for its ability to drive vascular morphogenesis and to elicit the conformational activation of integrin adhesion receptors...
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392015/regulation-of-dendritic-development-by-semaphorin-3a-through-novel-intracellular-remote-signaling
#18
Yoshio Goshima, Naoya Yamashita, Fumio Nakamura, Yukio Sasaki
Numerous cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins and axon guidance molecules participate in neuronal network formation through local effects at axo-dendritic, axo-axonic or dendro-dendritic contact sites. In contrast, neurotrophins and their receptors play crucial roles in neural wiring by sending retrograde signals to remote cell bodies. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a prototype of secreted type 3 semaphorins, is implicated in axon repulsion, dendritic branching and synapse formation via binding protein neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and the signal transducing protein PlexinAs (PlexAs) complex...
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295627/transmembrane-semaphorins-multimodal-signaling-cues-in-development-and-cancer
#19
Sreeharsha Gurrapu, Luca Tamagnone
Semaphorins constitute a large family of membrane-bound and secreted proteins that provide guidance cues for axon pathfinding and cell migration. Although initially discovered as repelling cues for axons in nervous system, they have been found to regulate cell adhesion and motility, angiogenesis, immune function and tumor progression. Notably, semaphorins are bifunctional cues and for instance can mediate both repulsive and attractive functions in different contexts. While many studies focused so far on the function of secreted family members, class 1 semaphorins in invertebrates and class 4, 5 and 6 in vertebrate species comprise around 14 transmembrane semaphorin molecules with emerging functional relevance...
November 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736300/spitting-out-the-demons-extracellular-vesicles-in-glioblastoma
#20
Gwennan André-Grégoire, Julie Gavard
Discovered decades ago, extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerge as dedicated organelles, able to deliver protected, specific cellular cues throughout the organism. While virtually every cell can release EVs, cancer cells co-opted this feature and efficiently unleashed them both in the tumor microenvironment and towards healthy tissues. This might contribute to tumor aggressiveness and spreading. Cancer-derived EVs that contain DNA, mRNA, miRNA, and packed and transmembrane proteins can operate locally or at distance...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
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