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Cell Adhesion & Migration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168660/the-interplay-between-extracellular-matrix-remodelling-and-kinase-signalling-in-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#1
Joanna N Skhinas, Thomas R Cox
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a master regulator of cellular phenotype and behaviour. It plays a crucial role in both normal tissue homeostasis and complex diseases such as cancer. The interplay between the intrinsic factors of cancer cells themselves, including their genotype and signalling networks; and the extrinsic factors of the tumour stroma, such as the ECM and ECM remodelling; together determine the fate and behaviour of cancer cells. As a consequence, tumour progression, metastatic spread and response to therapy are ultimately controlled by ECM-driven fine-tuning of intracellular kinase signalling...
November 23, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166822/myeloid-cell-leukemia-1-mcl-1-an-unexpected-modulator-of-protein-kinase-signaling-during-invasion
#2
Adelaide Ij Young, Paul Timpson, David Gallego-Ortega, Christopher J Ormandy, Samantha R Oakes
Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), closely related to B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), has a well-established role in cell survival and has emerged as an important target for cancer therapeutics. We have demonstrated that inhibiting MCL-1 is efficacious in suppressing tumour progression in pre-clinical models of breast cancer and revealed that in addition to its role in cell survival, MCL-1 modulated cellular invasion. Utilizing a MCL-1-specific genetic antagonist, we found two possible mechanisms; firstly MCL-1 directly binds to and alters the phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal remodeling protein, Cofilin, a protein important for cytoskeletal remodeling during invasion, and secondly MCL-1 modulates the levels SRC family kinases (SFKs) and their targets...
November 23, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130836/composite-3d-printed-scaffold-with-structured-electrospun-nanofibers-promotes-chondrocyte-adhesion-and-infiltration
#3
M Rampichová, E Košt'áková Kuželová, E Filová, J Chvojka, J Šafka, M Pelcl, J Daňková, E Prosecká, M Buzgo, M Plencner, D Lukáš, E Amler
Additive manufacturing, also called 3D printing, is an effective method for preparing scaffolds with defined structure and porosity. The disadvantage of the technique is the excessive smoothness of the printed fibers, which does not support cell adhesion. In the present study, a 3D printed scaffold was combined with electrospun classic or structured nanofibers to promote cell adhesion. Structured nanofibers were used to improve the infiltration of cells into the scaffold. Electrospun layers were connected to 3D printed fibers by gluing, thus enabling the fabrication of scaffolds with unlimited thickness...
November 13, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130787/mir-19a-and-mir-424-target-tgfbr3-to-promote-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-migration-of-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#4
Duo Li, Ke Liu, Zhiyong Li, Jian Wang, Xiaofeng Wang
Previous studies indicate that TGFBR3 (transforming growth factor type III receptor, also known as betaglycan), a novel suppressor of progression in certain cancers, is down-regulated in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). However, the role of this factor as an upstream regulator in TSCC cells remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to elucidate whether TGFBR3 gene expression is regulated by two microRNA molecules, miR-19a and miR-424. The study also aimed to determine if these microRNAs promote migration of CAL-27 human oral squamous cells...
November 13, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105536/the-pseudokinases-sgk269-and-sgk223-a-novel-oncogenic-alliance-in-human-cancer
#5
Rachelle L O'Rourke, Roger J Daly
Sugen kinases (SgK)269 (also known as PEAK1), and SgK223, an orthologue of rat pragmin and mouse NACK, are human pseudokinases that are implicated in the progression of several cancers. Both are scaffolding proteins that recruit distinct repertoires of signalling proteins and regulate a variety of biological endpoints including cell migration and invasion. To date, SgK269 and SgK223 have been largely studied as separate signalling entities. However, recent work has demonstrated that SgK269 and SgK223 undergo homo- and heterotypic association that determines signal output and biological response...
November 6, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099266/calpain2-mediates-rab5-driven-focal-adhesion-disassembly-and-cell-migration
#6
Pablo A Mendoza, Patricio Silva, Jorge Díaz, Cecilia Arriagada, Jimena Canales, Oscar Cerda, Vicente A Torres
The early endosome protein Rab5 was recently shown to promote cell migration by enhancing focal adhesion disassembly through mechanisms that remain elusive. Focal adhesion disassembly is associated to proteolysis of talin, in a process that requires calpain2. Since calpain2 has been found at vesicles and endosomal compartments, we hypothesized that Rab5 stimulates calpain2 activity, leading to enhanced focal adhesion disassembly in migrating cells. We observed that calpain2 co-localizes with EEA1-positive early endosomes and co-immunoprecipitate with EEA1 and Rab5 in A549 lung carcinoma cells undergoing spreading, whereas Rab5 knock-down decreased the accumulation of calpain2 at early endosomal-enriched fractions...
November 3, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095088/vegf-a121a-binding-to-neuropilins-a-concept-revisited
#7
Sarvenaz Sarabipour, Feilim Mac Gabhann
All known splice isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) can bind to the receptor tyrosine kinases VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. We focus here on VEGF-A121a and VEGF-A165a, two of the most abundant VEGF-A splice isoforms in human tissue 1 , and their ability to bind the Neuropilin co-receptors NRP1 and NRP2. The Neuropilins are key vascular, immune, and nervous system receptors on endothelial cells, neuronal axons, and regulatory T cells respectively. They serve as co-receptors for the Plexins in Semaphorin binding on neuronal and vascular endothelial cells, and for the VEGFRs in VEGF binding on vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells, and thus regulate the initiation and coordination of cell signaling by Semaphorins and VEGFs...
November 2, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095085/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-impact-on-physiology-and-pathology
#8
Hongyu Zhu, Mingming Gao, Xiangdong Gao, Yue Tong
Angiogenesis plays an important role in controlling tissue development and maintaining normal tissue function. Dysregulated angiogenesis is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, particularly diabetes, cancers, and neurodegenerative disorders. As the major regulator of angiogenesis, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family is composed of a group of crucial members including VEGF-B. While the physiological roles of VEGF-B remain debatable, increasing evidence suggests that this protein is able to protect certain type of cells from apoptosis under pathological conditions...
November 2, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091577/laminin-laminin-entactin-and-extracellular-matrix-are-equally-appropriate-adhesive-substrates-for-isolated-adult-rat-cardiomyocyte-culture-and-experimentation
#9
D Lumkwana, A Botha, E Samodien, S Hanser, J Lopes
Although techniques for isolating and culturing adult cardiomyocytes were developed four decades ago, it still remains a challenge to isolate high yields of healthy viable cardiomyocytes, to maintain them in culture, and to use them successfully in experiments. This is due to the difficulty in deciding which adhesive substrate and buffer composition to use. Therefore this study aimed to (1) identify a robust experimental buffer to sustain survival of cultured adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARCMs) during control normoxic conditions, and (2) to identify an adhesive substrate that provides optimal cell adherence, not only during normoxia, but especially during simulated ischemia-reperfusion (SIR) experiments...
November 1, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873015/periodontal-pathogens-promote-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-oral-squamous-carcinoma-cells-in-vitro
#10
A A Abdulkareem, R M Shelton, G Landini, P R Cooper, M R Milward
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is potentially involved in increasing metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Periodontal pathogens are well-known for their ability to induce intense immune responses and here we investigated whether they are involved in inducing EMT. Cultures of OSCC cell line (H400) were treated separately with heat-killed periodontal pathogens F. nucleatum, or P. gingivalis or E. coli LPS for 8 days. EMT-associated features were assayed using sq-PCR and PCR-arrays, for EMT-related markers, and ELISAs for TGF-β1, TNF-α, and EGF...
September 5, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820294/k-deficiency-caused-defects-in-renal-tubular-cell-proliferation-oxidative-stress-response-tissue-repair-and-tight-junction-integrity-but-enhanced-energy-production-proteasome-function-and-cellular-k-uptake
#11
Chompunoot Kapincharanon, Visith Thongboonkerd
Hypokalemia is a common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and those with chronic diseases and is associated with renal tubular injury. Our recent expression proteomics study revealed changes in levels of several proteins in renal tubular cells during K(+) deficiency. However, functional significance and mechanisms underlying such changes remained unclear. The present study, thus, aimed to investigate functional changes of renal tubular cells induced by K(+) deficiency. MDCK cells were maintained in normal-K(+) (ANK; [K(+)] = 5...
August 18, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795878/effects-of-prisma%C3%A2-skin-dermal-regeneration-device-containing-glycosaminoglycans-on-human-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts
#12
Raffaella Belvedere, Valentina Bizzarro, Luca Parente, Francesco Petrella, Antonello Petrella
Prisma® Skin is a new pharmaceutical device developed by Mediolanum Farmaceutici S.p.a. It includes alginates, hyaluronic acid and mainly mesoglycan. The latter is a natural glycosaminoglycan preparation containing chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate and heparin and it is used in the treatment of vascular disease. Glycosaminoglycans may contribute to the re-epithelialization in the skin wound healing, as components of the extracellular matrix. Here we describe, for the first time, the effects of Prisma® Skin in in vitro cultures of adult epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts...
August 10, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759306/skeletal-muscle-regeneration-involves-macrophage-myoblast-bonding
#13
Laura Cristina Ceafalan, Tudor Emanuel Fertig, Alexandru Cristian Popescu, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu, Mihail Eugen Hinescu, Mihaela Gherghiceanu
Regeneration in adult skeletal muscle relies on the activation, proliferation, and fusion of myogenic precursor cells (MPC), mostly resident satellite cells (SC). However, the regulatory mechanism during this process is still under evaluation, with the final aim to manipulate regeneration when the intrinsic mechanism is corrupted. Furthermore, intercellular connections during skeletal muscle regeneration have not been previously thoroughly documented. Our hypothesis was that a direct and close cellular interaction between SC/MPC and invading myeloid cells is a key step to control regeneration...
July 31, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686514/substrate-rigidity-dependent-positive-feedback-regulation-between-yap-and-rock2
#14
Wataru Sugimoto, Katsuhiko Itoh, Yasumasa Mitsui, Takahiro Ebata, Hideaki Fujita, Hiroaki Hirata, Keiko Kawauchi
Extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness influences gene expression, leading to modulation of various cellular functions. While ROCK2 regulates actomyosin activity as well as cell migration and proliferation, expression of ROCK2 is increased in response to stiffening ECM. However, the mechanism underlying rigidity-dependent ROCK2 expression remains elusive. Here, we show that YAP, a mechanically regulated transcription coactivator, upregulates ROCK2 expression in an ECM rigidity-dependent manner. YAP interacted with the ROCK2 promoter region in an actomyosin activity-dependent manner...
July 7, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678601/adhesion-structures-in-leukemia-cells-and-their-regulation-by-src-family-kinases
#15
Pavla Röselová, Adam Obr, Aleš Holoubek, Dana Grebeňová, Kateřina Kuželová
Interaction of leukemia blasts with the bone marrow extracellular matrix often results in protection of leukemia cells from chemotherapy and in persistence of the residual disease which is on the basis of subsequent relapses. The adhesion signaling pathways have been extensively studied in adherent cells as well as in mature hematopoietic cells, but the adhesion structures and signaling in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, either normal or malignant, are much less explored. We analyzed the interaction of leukemia cells with fibronectin (FN) using interference reflection microscopy, immunofluorescence, measurement of adherent cell fraction, real-time microimpedance measurement and live cell imaging...
July 5, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678595/the-unc-53-gene-negatively-regulates-rac-gtpases-to-inhibit-unc-5-activity-during-distal-tip-cell-migrations-in-c-elegans
#16
Amita Pandey, Vipul Yadav, Aditi Sharma, Jitendra P Khurana, Girdhar K Pandey
The unc-53/NAV2 gene encodes for an adaptor protein required for cell migrations along the anteroposterior (AP) axes of C. elegans. This study identifies unc-53 as a novel component of signaling pathways regulating distal tip cell (DTC) migrations along the AP and dorsoventral (DV) axes. unc-53 negatively regulates and functions downstream of ced-10/Rac pathway genes; ced-10/Rac and mig-2/RhoG, which are required for proper DTC migration. Moreover, unc-53 exhibits genetic interaction with abl-1 and unc-5, the two known negative regulators of ced-10/Rac signaling...
July 5, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736296/stem-cells-migration-during-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-the-role-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-and-sdf-1-cxcr7-axis
#17
Kamil Kowalski, Aleksandra Kołodziejczyk, Maria Sikorska, Jagoda Płaczkiewicz, Paulina Cichosz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Władysława Stremińska, Katarzyna Jańczyk-Ilach, Marta Koblowska, Anna Fogtman, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Maria A Ciemerych, Edyta Brzoska
The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells - satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro...
July 4, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715399/proteolytic-fragments-of-fibronectin-function-as-matrikines-driving-the-chemotactic-affinity-of-prostate-cancer-cells-to-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-via-the-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrin
#18
Raghav Joshi, Edi Goihberg, Wenying Ren, Monika Pilichowska, Paul Mathew
The haematopoietic niche is contributed to by bone marrow-resident mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and subverted by prostate cancer cells. To study mechanisms by which BM-MSCs and prostate cancer cells may interact, we assessed the migration, invasion, adhesion and proliferation of bone-derived prostate cancer cells (PC-3) in co-culture with pluripotent human BM-MSCs. We observed a strong adhesive, migratory and invasive phenotype of PC-3 cells with BM- MSC-co-culture and set out to isolate and characterize the bioactive principle...
July 4, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669405/aberrant-adhesion-impacts-early-development-in-a-dictyostelium-model-for-juvenile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#19
Robert J Huber, Michael A Myre, Susan L Cotman
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect children. The most common subtype of the disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which is conserved across model species from yeast to human. The precise function of the CLN3 protein is not known, which has made targeted therapy development challenging. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of Cln3 causes aberrant mid-to-late stage multicellular development...
July 4, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627890/hypobaric-hypoxia-down-regulated-junctional-protein-complex-implications-to-vascular-leakage
#20
Dangjai Souvannakitti, Paleerath Peerapen, Visith Thongboonkerd
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) can cause capillary hyper-permeability and vasogenic edema. However, its underlying mechanisms remained unclear and there is no previous in vitro study on AMS. We therefore conducted an in vitro study and examined whether continuous hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) could alter expression of junctional protein complex of vascular endothelial cells, causing hyper-permeabilization. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were exposed to either CHH or normoxia for up to 24 h. Flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide co-staining demonstrated that cell death had no significant difference at 12-h, but was increased by CHH at 24-h...
July 4, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
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