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Cell Adhesion & Migration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906605/current-drug-design-to-target-the-semaphorin-neuropilin-plexin-complexes
#1
Lionel A T Meyer, Justine Fritz, Marie Pierdant-Mancera, Dominique Bagnard
The Semaphorin/Neuropilin/Plexin (SNP) complexes control a wide range of biological processes. Consistently, activity deregulation of these complexes is associated with many diseases. The increasing knowledge on SNP had in turn validated these molecular complexes as novel therapeutic targets. Targeting SNP activities by small molecules, antibodies and peptides or by soluble Semaphorins have been proposed as new therapeutic approach. This review is focusing on the latest demonstration of this potential and discusses some of the key questions that need to be addressed before translating SNP targeting into clinically relevant approaches...
December 1, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893305/introduction
#2
Masahiko Taniguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875097/role-of-exosomes-in-the-protection-of-cellular-homeostasis
#3
Gabriela Desdín-Micó, María Mittelbrunn
Due to their ability to shuttle proteins, lipids and genetic material between distant cells, exosomes promote extensive phenotypic changes in recipient cells, modulating immune responses, cellular migration, cancer metastasis or the spreading of neurotoxic protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides intercellular communication, exosome biogenesis and secretion permit the rapid release of a selective repertoire of compounds, conferring cells with an additional mechanism to fight alterations in protein, lipid or RNA homeostasis during stress or pathological conditions...
November 22, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874296/cd44-mediates-the-catch-bond-activated-rolling-of-hepg2-epithelial-cancer-cells-on-hyaluronan
#4
Maximilian Hanke-Roos, Katharina Fuchs, Stojan Maleschlijski, Jonathan Sleeman, Véronique Orian-Rousseau, Axel Rosenhahn
Absrtract The attachment of cancer cells to the endothelium is an essential step during metastatic dissemination. The cell surface receptor CD44 is capable of binding to hyaluronan (HA) produced by tumor cells and by cells of the tumor microenvironment, including blood endothelial cells. Here, we investigated the role of CD44 in the interaction between the liver cancer cell line HepG2Iso and HA surfaces. The rolling interaction was quantitatively analyzed using a microfluidic shear force setup. It was found that rolling of the liver cancer cells on HA depends on CD44, which mediates a catch-bond interaction and thus a flow-induced rolling of the cells...
November 22, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860536/the-advantageous-role-of-annexin-a1-in-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Renske Johanna de Jong, Giovanna Leoni, Maik Drechsler, Oliver Soehnlein
The inflammatory response protects the human body against infection and injury. However, uncontrolled and unresolved inflammation can lead to tissue damage and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, active resolution of inflammation is essential to restore tissue homeostasis. This review focuses on the pro-resolving molecule annexin A1 (ANXA1) and its derived peptides. Mechanisms instructed by ANXA1 are multidisciplinary and affect leukocytes as well as endothelial cells and tissue resident cells like macrophages and mast cells...
November 18, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834582/hypoxia-regulates-anxa1-expression-to-support-prostate-cancer-cell-invasion-and-aggressiveness
#6
Valentina Bizzarro, Raffaella Belvedere, Vincenzo Migliaro, Elena Romano, Luca Parente, Antonello Petrella
Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein over-expressed in the invasive stages of prostate cancer (PCa) development; however, its role in this tumor metastatization is largely unknown. Moreover, hypoxic conditions in solid tumors have been related to poor prognosis in PCa patients. We have previously demonstrated that ANXA1 is implicated in the acquisition of chemo-resistant features in DU145 PCa cells conferring them a mesenchymal/metastatic phenotype. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms by which ANXA1 regulates metastatic behavior in LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 cells exposed to hypoxia...
November 11, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791462/deregulation-of-focal-adhesion-formation-and-cytoskeletal-tension-due-to-loss-of-a-type-lamins
#7
Tobias D J Corne, Tom Sieprath, Jonathan Vandenbussche, Danahe Mohammed, Mariska Te Lindert, Kris Gevaert, Sylvain Gabriele, Katarina Wolf, Winnok H De Vos
The nuclear lamina mechanically integrates the nucleus with the cytoskeleton and extracellular environment and regulates gene expression. These functions are exerted through direct and indirect interactions with the lamina's major constituent proteins, the A-type lamins, which are encoded by the LMNA gene. Using quantitative stable isotope labeling-based shotgun proteomics we have analyzed the proteome of human dermal fibroblasts in which we have depleted A-type lamins by means of a sustained siRNA-mediated LMNA knockdown...
October 28, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736304/the-role-of-sema4a-in-angiogenesis-immune-responses-carcinogenesis-and-retinal-systems
#8
Daisuke Ito, Atsushi Kumanogoh
Semaphorins were originally identified as axon guidance cues that regulate the functional activity of axons in the nervous system. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that semaphorins have multiple functions in physiological and pathogenic processes, including vascular development, tumor progression, and immune responses. Sema4A is a semaphorin expressed in immune cells, and is thus termed an "immune semaphorin." Sema4A has four types of receptors: Plexin D family, Plexin B family, Tim-2, and Nrp-1...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736300/spitting-out-the-demons-extracellular-vesicles-in-glioblastoma
#9
Gwennan André-Grégoire, Julie Gavard
Discovered decades ago, extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerge as dedicated organelles, able to deliver protected, specific cellular cues throughout the organism. While virtually every cell can release EVs, cancer cells co-opted this feature and efficiently unleashed them both in the tumor microenvironment and towards healthy tissues. This might contribute to tumor aggressiveness and spreading. Cancer-derived EVs that contain DNA, mRNA, miRNA, and packed and transmembrane proteins can operate locally or at distance...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736296/stem-cells-migration-during-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-the-role-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-and-sdf-1-cxcr7-axis
#10
Kamil Kowalski, Aleksandra Kołodziejczyk, Maria Helena Sikorska, Jagoda Płaczkiewicz, Paulina Cichosz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Marta Koblowska, Anna Fogtman, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Maria A Ciemerych, Edyta Brzoska
The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells - satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715396/understanding-force-generating-microtubule-systems-through-in-vitro-reconstitution
#11
Mathijs Vleugel, Maurits Kok, Marileen Dogterom
Microtubules switch between growing and shrinking states, a feature known as dynamic instability. The biochemical parameters underlying dynamic instability are modulated by a wide variety of microtubule-associated proteins that enable the strict control of microtubule dynamics in cells. The forces generated by controlled growth and shrinkage of microtubules drive a large range of processes, including organelle positioning, mitotic spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation. In the past decade, our understanding of microtubule dynamics and microtubule force generation has progressed significantly...
October 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715394/orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gprc5a-modulates-integrin-%C3%AE-1-mediated-epithelial-cell-adhesion
#12
Daria R Bulanova, Yevhen A Akimov, Anne Rokka, Teemu D Laajala, Tero Aittokallio, Petri Kouvonen, Teijo Pellinen, Sergey G Kuznetsov
G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR), Class C, Group 5, Member A (GPRC5A) has been implicated in several malignancies. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Using a panel of human cell lines, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout and RNAi-mediated depletion of GPRC5A impairs cell adhesion to integrin substrates: collagens I and IV, fibronectin, as well as to extracellular matrix proteins derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma (Matrigel). Consistent with the phenotype, knock-out of GPRC5A correlated with a reduced integrin β1 (ITGB1) protein expression, impaired phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and lower activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1...
October 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715393/expression-of-kindlin-3-in-melanoma-cells-impedes-cell-migration-and-metastasis
#13
Chen Feng, Wei-Kiat Wee, Huizhi Chen, Li-Teng Ong, Jing Qu, Hui-Foon Tan, Suet-Mien Tan
Kindlins are a small family of 4.1-ezrin-radixin-moesin (FERM)-containing cytoplasmic proteins. Kindlin-3 is expressed in platelets, hematopoietic cells, and endothelial cells. Kindlin-3 promotes integrin activation, clustering and outside-in signaling. Aberrant expression of kindlin-3 was reported in melanoma and breast cancer. Intriguingly, kindlin-3 has been reported to either positively or negatively regulate cancer cell metastasis. In this study, we sought to clarify the expression of kindlin-3 in melanoma cells and its role in melanoma metastasis...
October 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715392/contribution-of-semaphorins-to-the-formation-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system-in-higher-vertebrates
#14
Tomoyuki Masuda, Masahiko Taniguchi
Semaphorins are a large family of proteins characterized by sema domains and play a key role not only in the formation of neural circuits, but in the immune system, angiogenesis, tumor progression, and bone metabolism. To date, 15 semaphorins have been reported to be involved in the formation of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in higher vertebrates. A number of experiments have revealed their functions in the PNS, where they act mainly as axonal guidance cues (as repellents or attractants). Semaphorins also play an important role in the migration of neurons and formation of sensory-motor connections in the PNS...
October 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689411/mechanisms-and-functions-of-extracellular-vesicle-release-in-vivo-what-we-can-learn-from-flies-and-worms
#15
Katharina B Beer, Ann Marie Wehman
Cells from bacteria to man release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain signaling molecules like proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The content, formation, and signaling roles of these conserved vesicles are diverse, but the physiological relevance of EV signaling in vivo is still debated. Studies in classical genetic model organisms like C. elegans and Drosophila have begun to reveal the developmental and behavioral roles for EVs. In this review, we discuss the emerging evidence for the in vivo signaling roles of EVs...
September 30, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669405/aberrant-adhesion-impacts-early-development-in-a-dictyostelium-model-for-juvenile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#16
Robert J Huber, Michael A Myre, Susan L Cotman
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect children. The most common subtype of the disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which is conserved across model species from yeast to human. The precise function of the CLN3 protein is not known, which has made targeted therapy development challenging. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of Cln3 causes aberrant mid-to-late stage multicellular development...
September 26, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627890/hypobaric-hypoxia-down-regulated-junctional-protein-complex-implications-to-vascular-leakage
#17
Dangjai Souvannakitti, Paleerath Peerapen, Visith Thongboonkerd
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) can cause capillary hyper-permeability and vasogenic edema. However, its underlying mechanisms remained unclear and there is no previous in vitro study on AMS. We therefore conducted an in vitro study and examined whether continuous hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) could alter expression of junctional protein complex of vascular endothelial cells, causing hyper-permeabilization. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were exposed to either CHH or normoxia for up to 24 h. Flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide co-staining demonstrated that cell death had no significant difference at 12-h, but was increased by CHH at 24-h...
September 14, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589080/syntenin-key-player-in-cancer-exosome-biogenesis-and-uptake
#18
Joanna Fares, Rudra Kashyap, Pascale Zimmermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588930/involvement-of-rho-gap-graf1-in-maintenance-of-epithelial-phenotype
#19
Miriam Regev, Helena Sabanay, Elena Kartvelishvily, Zvi Kam, Alexander D Bershadsky
Adhesion of epithelial cell to each other and to extracellular matrix, as well as cell migration ability and cytoskeleton organization undergo significant alterations in the course of neoplastic transformation, but regulatory mechanisms involved in these processes are not fully understood. Here, we studied the role of a Rho GAP protein GRAF1 (GTPase Regulator Associated with Focal adhesion kinase-1) in the regulation of the epithelial phenotype in cells of breast derived, non-malignant, MCF10A cell line. GRAF1 was shown to be localized to cell-cell junctions, and its depletion resulted in accelerated cell migration velocity, elongation of the cells and cell colonies, impaired monolayer integrity and significant disruption of desmosomes with a loss of associated keratin filaments...
September 2, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588738/fibronectin-induces-macrophage-migration-through-a-sfk-fak-csf-1r-pathway
#20
Graziana Digiacomo, Ignazia Tusa, Marina Bacci, Maria Grazia Cipolleschi, Persio Dello Sbarba, Elisabetta Rovida
Integrins, following binding to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, laminin and fibronectin (FN), are able to transduce molecular signals inside the cells and to regulate several biological functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Besides activation of adaptor molecules and kinases, integrins transactivate Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK). In particular, adhesion to the ECM may promote RTK activation in the absence of growth factors. The Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) is a RTK that supports the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are essential components of innate immunity and cancer development...
September 2, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
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