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Cell Adhesion & Migration

Yoshifumi Itoh
Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides cells scaffolding for cell migration and microenvironment for various cellular functions. Collagens are major ECM components in tissue and discoidin domain receptors (DDRs) are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) that recognise fibrillar collagens. Unlike other RTK, their ligands are solid ECM the that are abundantly present in the pericellular environment in various tissue, and thus its activation and regulations are unique amongst RTK family. It is emerging that DDRs may be the sensors that monitor and detects changes in ECM microenvironment and determines the cellular fates upon tissue injuries...
April 19, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Coralie Croissant, Adjanie Tuariihionoa, Marion Bacou, Wilfried Souleyreau, Margaux Sala, Elodie Henriet, Andreas Bikvalvi, Frederic Saltel, Patrick Auguste
Discoidin domain receptors 1 and 2 (DDR1 and DDR2) are members of the tyrosine kinase receptors activated after binding with collagen. DDRs are implicated in numerous physiological and pathological functions such as proliferation, adhesion and migration. Little is known about the expressions of the two receptors in normal and cancer cells and most of studies focus only on one receptor. Western blot analysis of DDR1 and DDR2 expression in different tumor cell lines shows an absence of high co-expression of the two receptors suggesting a deleterious effect of their presence at high amount...
April 4, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Metello Innocenti
Lamellipodia and ruffles are veil-shaped cell protrusions composed by a highly branched actin filament meshwork assembled by the Arp2/3 complex. They not only hallmark the leading edge of cells adopting the adhesion-based mesenchymal mode of migration but are also thought to drive cell movement. Although regarded as textbook knowledge, the mechanism of formation of lamellipodia and ruffles has been revisited in the last years leveraging new technologies. Furthermore, recent observations have also challenged our current view of the function of lamellipodia and ruffles in mesenchymal cell migration...
March 7, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Nuno M Coelho, Christopher A McCulloch
The preservation of tissue and organ architecture and function depends on tightly regulated interactions of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). These interactions are maintained in a dynamic equilibrium that balances intracellular, myosin-generated tension with extracellular resistance conferred by the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix. Disturbances of this equilibrium can lead to the development of fibrotic lesions that are associated with a wide repertoire of high prevalence diseases including obstructive cardiovascular diseases, muscular dystrophy and cancer...
March 7, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Chiara Ambrogio, Elodie Darbo, Sam W Lee, David Santamaría
The Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) receptor tyrosine kinase performs pleiotropic functions in the control of cell adhesion, proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Aberrant DDR1 function as a consequence of either mutations or increased expression has been associated with various human diseases including cancer. Pharmacological inhibition of DDR1 results in significant therapeutic benefit in several pre-clinical cancer models. Here, we discuss the potential implication of DDR1-dependent pro-survival functions in the development of cancer resistance to chemotherapeutic regimens and speculate on the molecular mechanisms that might mediate such important feature...
March 5, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Antonino Belfiore, Roberta Malaguarnera, Maria Luisa Nicolosi, Rosamaria Lappano, Marco Ragusa, Andrea Morrione, Veronica Vella
In the last decades increasing importance has been attributed to the Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor signaling (IIGFs) in cancer development, progression and resistance to therapy. In fact, IIGFs is often deregulated in cancer. In particular, the mitogenic insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) are frequently overexpressed in cancer together with their cognate ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2. Recently, we identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) as a new IR-A interacting protein...
February 28, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Asieh Heirani-Tabasi, Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin, Maryam M Matin, Mahdi Mirahmadi, Mina Shahriyari, Naghmeh Ahmadiankia, Nasser Sanjar Moussavi, Hamid Reza Bidkhori, Mahmood Raeesolmohaddeseen, Ahmad Reza Bahrami
Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been introduced as a promising tool, for structural and functional recovery of damaged tissues/organs. Studies have indicated that interactions between chemokine receptors and their ligands have a critical role in homing of MSCs to the site of injury. Although CXCR4 variants have been characterized, the exact role of each transcript in homing has remained unclear. In this study, cells were pretreated with various hypoxia-mimicking compounds (valproic acid, cobalt-chloride, and deferoxamine mesylate)...
February 22, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Aude Dorison, Christos Chantziantoniou
Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) belongs to a family of two non-integrin collagen receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, which display a tyrosine kinase activity. DDR1 has been widely studied in different kind of pathologies including chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The aims of this commentary are 1. to review the existing information about DDR1 expression in healthy and diseased kidney, 2. to comment the data highlighting DDR1 as a major actor in CKD, 3. to suggest areas of research which require further investigation to better characterize the signaling pathways regulating DDR1 role in CKD...
February 19, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Sonam Verma, Rahul Pal, Satish Kumar Gupta
Trophoblast invasion is one of the critical steps during embryo implantation. IFNG secreted during pregnancy by uterine NK cells acts as a negative regulator of invasion. IFNG in a dose dependent fashion inhibits invasion of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cells. It phosphorylates STAT1 both at tyr 701 and ser 727 residues. Silencing of STAT1 significantly increases invasion (∼59%) of the cells. Based on NGS data, out of 207 genes, BATF2 expression was significantly increased after IFNG treatment. Silencing of BATF2 significantly increases the invasion of cells with (∼53%) or without (∼44%) treatment with IFNG...
February 2, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Lea Roumazeilles, Nikolaos Dokalis, Eva Kaulich, Vincent Lelievre
Although it is known for long time that the peripheral nervous system has the capacity for self-regeneration, the molecular mechanisms by which Schwann cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) guide the injured axons to regrow along their original path, remains a poorly understood process. Due to the importance of ECM molecules during development, constitutive mutant organisms display increased lethality, therefore, conditional or inducible strategies have been used to increase the survival of the organisms and allow the study of the role of ECM proteins...
March 4, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Wataru Sugimoto, Katsuhiko Itoh, Yasumasa Mitsui, Takahiro Ebata, Hideaki Fujita, Hiroaki Hirata, Keiko Kawauchi
Extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness influences gene expression, leading to modulation of various cellular functions. While ROCK2 regulates actomyosin activity as well as cell migration and proliferation, expression of ROCK2 is increased in response to stiffening ECM. However, the mechanism underlying rigidity-dependent ROCK2 expression remains elusive. Here, we show that YAP, a mechanically regulated transcription coactivator, upregulates ROCK2 expression in an ECM rigidity-dependent manner. YAP interacted with the ROCK2 promoter region in an actomyosin activity-dependent manner...
March 4, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Joanna N Skhinas, Thomas R Cox
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a master regulator of cellular phenotype and behaviour. It plays a crucial role in both normal tissue homeostasis and complex diseases such as cancer. The interplay between the intrinsic factors of cancer cells themselves, including their genotype and signalling networks; and the extrinsic factors of the tumour stroma, such as the ECM and ECM remodelling; together determine the fate and behaviour of cancer cells. As a consequence, tumour progression, metastatic spread and response to therapy are ultimately controlled by ECM-driven fine-tuning of intracellular kinase signalling...
December 29, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Adelaide Ij Young, Paul Timpson, David Gallego-Ortega, Christopher J Ormandy, Samantha R Oakes
Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), closely related to B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), has a well-established role in cell survival and has emerged as an important target for cancer therapeutics. We have demonstrated that inhibiting MCL-1 is efficacious in suppressing tumour progression in pre-clinical models of breast cancer and revealed that in addition to its role in cell survival, MCL-1 modulated cellular invasion. Utilizing a MCL-1-specific genetic antagonist, we found two possible mechanisms; firstly MCL-1 directly binds to and alters the phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal remodeling protein, Cofilin, a protein important for cytoskeletal remodeling during invasion, and secondly MCL-1 modulates the levels SRC family kinases (SFKs) and their targets...
December 21, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Rachelle L O'Rourke, Roger J Daly
Sugen kinases (SgK)269 (also known as PEAK1), and SgK223, an orthologue of rat pragmin and mouse NACK, are human pseudokinases that are implicated in the progression of several cancers. Both are scaffolding proteins that recruit distinct repertoires of signalling proteins and regulate a variety of biological endpoints including cell migration and invasion. To date, SgK269 and SgK223 have been largely studied as separate signalling entities. However, recent work has demonstrated that SgK269 and SgK223 undergo homo- and heterotypic association that determines signal output and biological response...
December 21, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
A Multhaup, B Huppertz, C Göhner, M Böhringer, M Mai, U Markert, E Schleußner, T Groten
INTRODUCTION: Trophoblast homing to maternal spiral arteries is mandatory for successful placentation. Cell-cell adhesion molecules regulate this process and adhesion molecule expression is altered in impaired placentation. We hypothesize that, similar to immune cell recruitment, trophoblast cell adherence and rolling are primarily mediated by adhesion molecules like, cadherins, immunoglobulins, selectins and their partnering ligands. Here, the interdependence of adhesion molecule expression in trophoblastic cell lines of diverse origin was investigated in relation to their interaction with endothelial cell networks on Matrigel® co-cultures and the effect of specific adhesion molecule knockdown analyzed...
December 12, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
M Rampichová, E Košt'áková Kuželová, E Filová, J Chvojka, J Šafka, M Pelcl, J Daňková, E Prosecká, M Buzgo, M Plencner, D Lukáš, E Amler
Additive manufacturing, also called 3D printing, is an effective method for preparing scaffolds with defined structure and porosity. The disadvantage of the technique is the excessive smoothness of the printed fibers, which does not support cell adhesion. In the present study, a 3D printed scaffold was combined with electrospun classic or structured nanofibers to promote cell adhesion. Structured nanofibers were used to improve the infiltration of cells into the scaffold. Electrospun layers were connected to 3D printed fibers by gluing, thus enabling the fabrication of scaffolds with unlimited thickness...
November 13, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Duo Li, Ke Liu, Zhiyong Li, Jian Wang, Xiaofeng Wang
Previous studies indicate that TGFBR3 (transforming growth factor type III receptor, also known as betaglycan), a novel suppressor of progression in certain cancers, is down-regulated in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). However, the role of this factor as an upstream regulator in TSCC cells remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to elucidate whether TGFBR3 gene expression is regulated by two microRNA molecules, miR-19a and miR-424. The study also aimed to determine if these microRNAs promote migration of CAL-27 human oral squamous cells...
November 13, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Pablo A Mendoza, Patricio Silva, Jorge Díaz, Cecilia Arriagada, Jimena Canales, Oscar Cerda, Vicente A Torres
The early endosome protein Rab5 was recently shown to promote cell migration by enhancing focal adhesion disassembly through mechanisms that remain elusive. Focal adhesion disassembly is associated to proteolysis of talin, in a process that requires calpain2. Since calpain2 has been found at vesicles and endosomal compartments, we hypothesized that Rab5 stimulates calpain2 activity, leading to enhanced focal adhesion disassembly in migrating cells. We observed that calpain2 co-localizes with EEA1-positive early endosomes and co-immunoprecipitate with EEA1 and Rab5 in A549 lung carcinoma cells undergoing spreading, whereas Rab5 knock-down decreased the accumulation of calpain2 at early endosomal-enriched fractions...
November 3, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Sarvenaz Sarabipour, Feilim Mac Gabhann
All known splice isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) can bind to the receptor tyrosine kinases VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. We focus here on VEGF-A121a and VEGF-A165a, two of the most abundant VEGF-A splice isoforms in human tissue 1 , and their ability to bind the Neuropilin co-receptors NRP1 and NRP2. The Neuropilins are key vascular, immune, and nervous system receptors on endothelial cells, neuronal axons, and regulatory T cells respectively. They serve as co-receptors for the Plexins in Semaphorin binding on neuronal and vascular endothelial cells, and for the VEGFRs in VEGF binding on vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells, and thus regulate the initiation and coordination of cell signaling by Semaphorins and VEGFs...
November 2, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Hongyu Zhu, Mingming Gao, Xiangdong Gao, Yue Tong
Angiogenesis plays an important role in controlling tissue development and maintaining normal tissue function. Dysregulated angiogenesis is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, particularly diabetes, cancers, and neurodegenerative disorders. As the major regulator of angiogenesis, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family is composed of a group of crucial members including VEGF-B. While the physiological roles of VEGF-B remain debatable, increasing evidence suggests that this protein is able to protect certain type of cells from apoptosis under pathological conditions...
November 2, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
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