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Obesity Facts

Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Daniela Fangmann, Nike Müller, Dominik M Schulte, Malte C Rühlemann, Kathrin Türk, Ute Settgast, Wolfgang Lieb, John F Baines, Stefan Schreiber, Andre Franke, Matthias Laudes
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD)-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. METHODS: Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0...
November 30, 2016: Obesity Facts
Honglin Sun, Ningjian Wang, Zhen Cang, Chaoxia Zhu, Li Zhao, Xiaomin Nie, Jing Cheng, Fangzhen Xia, Hualing Zhai, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not berberine could improve metabolic status of high-fat-fed rats through modulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis. METHODS: Berberine was administered on high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain-gut hormones were detected, and changes of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Berberine could reduce weight gain and lipolysis in the high-fat diet-fed group. Moreover, trends of ameliorated insulin resistance and decreased endogenous glucose production were observed...
November 30, 2016: Obesity Facts
Vojtech Hainer, Constantine Tsigos, Hermann Toplak, Dragan Micic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Obesity Facts
Hans Hauner, Euan Woodward
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Obesity Facts
Zhi Song, Lingling Qiu, Zhongyang Hu, Jia Liu, Ding Liu, Deren Hou
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke. The aim of the study was to explore whether obesity genes, such as MC4R and FTO, contribute to LAA stroke risk in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: 322 LAA stroke patients and 473 controls were recruited. Gene polymorphism of MC4R (rs17782313) and FTO (rs8050136 and rs9939609) were genotyped. RESULTS: No differences were observed in genotype frequencies of variants of FTO (rs8050136 and rs9939609) or MC4R (rs17782313) between LAA stroke patients and control subjects...
October 5, 2016: Obesity Facts
Marjolein Haftenberger, Gert B M Mensink, Susanne Vogt, Barbara Thorand, Annette Peters, Beatrice Herzog, Saskia Hartwig, Karin Halina Greiser, Till Ittermann, Sabine Schipf, Henry Völzke, Benedikt Merz, Ute Nöthlings, Manja Koch, Jasmine Neamat-Allah, Verena Katzke, Rudolf Kaaks, Heiner Boeing, Ursula Bachlechner, Christa Scheidt-Nave, Anja Schienkiewitz
AIM: This study aims to quantify longitudinal changes in waist circumference (WC) among adults aged 45-64 years in Germany. METHODS: Data of 15,444 men and 17,207 women from one nationwide and six regional prospective German cohort studies were analyzed. The sex-specific mean change in WC per year of follow-up was assessed for each study separately. Findings from the cohort-by-cohort analysis were combined by applying meta-analytic methods. Progression to central obesity (WC ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 88 cm in women) within a standardized period of 10 years was described for each study...
October 5, 2016: Obesity Facts
Timo Brockmeyer, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Mudan Wu, Annika Woehning, Gottfried Rudofsky, Hans-Christoph Friederich
OBJECTIVE: Low inhibitory control and strong hedonic response towards food are considered to contribute to overeating and obesity. Based on previous research, the present study aimed at examining the potentially crucial interplay between these two factors in terms of long-term weight loss in people with obesity. METHODS: BMI, inhibitory control towards food, and food liking were assessed in obese adults prior to a weight reduction programme (OPTIFAST® 52). After the weight reduction phase (week 13) and the weight loss maintenance phase (week 52), participants' BMI was re-assessed...
October 5, 2016: Obesity Facts
Givan F Paulus, Gerdy Konings, Nicole D Bouvy, L W Ernest van Heurn, Jan Willem Greve
BACKGROUND: Adolescent obesity is rapidly becoming more prevalent and is associated with chronic health conditions and psychosocial morbidity. Lifestyle intervention is often ineffective in morbidly obese adolescents, and bariatric surgery is gradually becoming an accepted treatment. However, little is known about long-term results. METHODS: Hospital charts of patients who had undergone gastric banding more than 5 years ago at an age of 18 years or younger, were retrospectively analyzed...
October 5, 2016: Obesity Facts
Valérie Julian, David Thivel, Bruno Pereira, Frédéric Costes, Ruddy Richard, Martine Duclos
OBJECTIVE: The effects of a training program (TP) on muscle microvascularization during exercise remained to be explored in adolescents with obesity. We hypothesized that a TP would lead to better microvascular adaptations to exercise in skeletal muscle. METHODS: 15 inactive adolescents followed a 12-week TP where both peripheral (muscular microvascularization) and central (cardiac) adaptations to exercise (40 min exercise set at 70% V̇O2peak) were assessed before and after intervention...
October 4, 2016: Obesity Facts
Edoardo Vitolo, Eleonora Santini, Antonio Salvati, Duccio Volterrani, Valerio Duce, Rosa Maria Bruno, Anna Solini
OBJECTIVE: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm) perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. METHODS: We measured GFR (mGFR) by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF) by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects...
2016: Obesity Facts
Gema Frühbeck, Paolo Sbraccia, Enzo Nisoli, Euan Woodward, Volkan Yumuk, Nathalie J Farpour-Lambert, Jason G C Halford, Hermann Toplak, Michele O Carruba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Obesity Facts
Dorthe Corfitzen Pedersen, Julie Aarestrup, Seija Pearson, Jennifer Lyn Baker
BACKGROUND: The stabilization in levels of childhood overweight has masked increasing gaps among different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in several countries. OBJECTIVE: To examine if levels and trends in childhood overweight and obesity differed by ethnicity and socioeconomic areas in Copenhagen schoolchildren. METHODS: From measured heights and weights of 32,951 children 5-8 and 14-16 years of age, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) and obesity were estimated using International Obesity Task Force criteria...
2016: Obesity Facts
Magdalena F Uerlich, Volkan Yumuk, Nick Finer, Arnaud Basdevant, Tommy L S Visscher
OBJECTIVE: This study aims at assessing the status of obesity management in the European region and identifying future goals and objectives of professionals working in the field of obesity. METHODS: Presidents of all 31 EASO-affiliated (EASO = European Association for the Study of Obesity) national associations for the study of obesity were asked to invite 5 obesity experts from their country to participate in a survey. A total of 74 obesity professionals out of 23 countries participated...
2016: Obesity Facts
Kaspar Staub, Nicole Bender, Joël Floris, Christian Pfister, Frank J Rühli
OBJECTIVE: The global obesity epidemic continues, new approaches are needed to understand the causes. We analyzed data from an evolutionary perspective, stressing developmental plasticity. METHODS: We present diachronical height, weight, and BMI data for 702,902 Swiss male conscripts aged 18-20 years, a representative, standardized and unchanged data source. RESULTS: From 1875 to 1879, the height distribution was slightly left-skewed; 12.1% of the conscripts were underweight, overweight and obesity were rare...
2016: Obesity Facts
Luisa Gilardini, Gabriella Redaelli, Marina Croci, Antonio Conti, Lucia Pasqualinotto, Cecilia Invitti
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP) levels in hypertensive (controlled or not) obese patients. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP < 140/90 mm Hg; CH) and 101 uncontrolled (BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg; UH) attended a 3-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after the intervention we assessed weight, waist circumference, fat mass, BP, metabolic and renal variables, and physical activity...
2016: Obesity Facts
Katarina Sedej, Lara Lusa, Tadej Battelino, Primoz Kotnik
BACKGROUND/AIM: To estimate overweight and obesity prevalence trends in Slovenian adolescents entering secondary schools in the years 2004, 2009 and 2014 and differences in the prevalence between different types of secondary schools. METHODS: Data from 17,538 adolescents entering secondary schools (mean age ± standard deviation 15.4 ± 0.5 years) collected during obligatory medical examination in years 2004, 2009 and 2014 was analyzed. Overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Task Force criteria...
2016: Obesity Facts
Christina Holzapfel, Melissa Merl, Lynne Stecher, Hans Hauner
OBJECTIVE: Telephone-based weight loss programs are offered as an alternative to face-to-face obesity treatments, but data on the effectiveness regarding weight loss are limited. Therefore, we evaluated a telephone-based lifestyle program in a real-world setting. METHODS: The telephone-based intervention consists of regular phone calls providing individualized lifestyle recommendations, and delivery of printed materials. Anthropometric and metabolic data are collected by general practitioners or are self-reported...
2016: Obesity Facts
Yu Jen Wang, Kun-Long Hung, Jui-Neng Yang, Tien-Cheng Wang, Chih-Hui Chin
OBJECTIVE: To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. METHODS: 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI); the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic types 1 through 6 based on gastric morphology...
2016: Obesity Facts
Adela Chirita-Emandi, Carmen Gabriela Barbu, Elena Eliza Cinteza, Bianca Ioana Chesaru, Mihai Gafencu, Veronica Mocanu, Ionela M Pascanu, Simona Alexandra Tatar, Mihaela Balgradean, Michaela Dobre, Simona Vasilica Fica, Gabriela Edita Ichim, Raluca Pop, Maria Puiu
AIM: High-quality national representative data on obesity in Romanian children are needed to shape public health policies. To provide a unified data landscape on national prevalence, trends and other factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in Romanian children aged 6-19 years, across the last decade (2006-2015). METHODS: Using a common protocol, we selected published and unpublished studies that measured Romanian children in schools between 2006 and 2015...
2016: Obesity Facts
Manfred James Müller, Wiebke Braun, Janna Enderle, Anja Bosy-Westphal
BMI is widely used as a measure of weight status and disease risks; it defines overweight and obesity based on statistical criteria. BMI is a score; neither is it biologically sound nor does it reflect a suitable phenotype worthwhile to study. Because of its limited value, BMI cannot provide profound insight into obesity biology and its co-morbidity. Alternative assessments of weight status include detailed phenotyping by body composition analysis (BCA). However, predicting disease risks, fat mass, and fat-free mass as assessed by validated techniques (i...
2016: Obesity Facts
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