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Obesity Facts

Sabrina Maestrini, Chiara Mele, Stefania Mai, Roberta Vietti, Annamaria Di Blasio, Luigi Castello, Daniela Surico, Gianluca Aimaretti, Massimo Scacchi, Paolo Marzullo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between oxytocin, menopause and obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis on 56 obese (OB; 28 premenopausal) and 53 normal-weight women (NW; 27 premenopausal) was performed by measurement of oxytocin, leptin, adiponectin, gonadotropins, sex steroids, glucose, and lipid homeostasis as well as DXA assessment of fat mass (%FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). RESULTS: Women from NW and OB groups were comparable for age but differed in anthropometric measures...
2018: Obesity Facts
Salahedeen Abusnana, Mohammad Fargaly, Shaima Hasan Alfardan, Fatema Hasan Al Hammadi, Alaaeldin Bashier, Ghaida Kaddaha, Barbara McGowan, Rita Nawar, Amena Sadiya
With rapid urbanisation and improved living conditions as a result of rising incomes in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, obesity has become a major and growing health problem for the region. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a resident population of 9.3 million (in 2016), many of whom (85.5%) lived in urban areas and led sedentary lifestyles. Based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates for 2010, 25% of Emirati men and 40% of the women were obese. Obesity rates in this country has doubled from 16 to 34% compared to the year 2000, and severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) has risen dramatically from 2 to 11%...
2018: Obesity Facts
Daniel König, Jenny Hörmann, Hans-Georg Predel, Aloys Berg
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the effects of a 12-month interdisciplinary standardized lifestyle program addressing physical activity and changes in dietary and lifestyle behavior in 2,227 obese prediabetic participants. METHODS: Measures of obesity (BMI, waist circumference), cardiopulmonary fitness, and metabolic parameters were determined before and after the intervention period. RESULTS: From the 2,227 participants who were initially prediabetic, 839 participants (-37...
2018: Obesity Facts
Antje Wienecke, Hannelore Neuhauser, Klaus Kraywinkel, Benjamin Barnes
OBJECTIVE: In order to quantify the preventive potential of body weight reduction in Germany, population-attributable risks (PARs) were estimated for 13 cancer types. METHODS: PARs were calculated using body weight prevalence from a nationwide survey from 1998, cancer incidence estimates for 2010 from cancer registry data and relative risk estimates from published meta-analyses. Three counterfactual scenarios were evaluated: reducing BMI to maximally 21 kg/m² (main analysis) and weight reductions among overweight and obese persons of 5% and 10%...
2018: Obesity Facts
Ofelia C Flores, Yasna Z Orellana, Bárbara D Leyton, Rodrigo B Valenzuela, Cynthia R Barrera, Atilio F Almagià, Víctor C Martínez, Daniza Ivanovic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between overnutrition and scholastic achievement (SA). METHODS: A representative and proportional sample of 477 children of the 5th elementary school grade of both genders was randomly chosen during 2010, in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. SA was measured through the 2009 Education Quality Measurement System (SIMCE) tests of language (LSA), mathematics (MSA) and understanding of the natural environment (UNESA)...
2018: Obesity Facts
Elisa Pineda, Luz Maria Sanchez-Romero, Martin Brown, Abbygail Jaccard, Jo Jewell, Gauden Galea, Laura Webber, João Breda
OBJECTIVE: To project the prevalence of obesity across the WHO European region and examine whether the WHO target of halting obesity at 2010 levels by 2025 is achievable. METHODS: BMI data were collected from online databases and the literature. Past and present BMI trends were extrapolated to 2025 using a non-linear categorical regression model fitted to nationally representative survey data. Where only 1 year of data was available, a flat trend was assumed. Where no data were available, proxy country data was used adjusted for demographics...
2018: Obesity Facts
Marisa da Silva, Elisabete Weiderpass, Idlir Licaj, Charlotta Rylander
AIM: To identify factors associated with high weight gain and obesity duration in a representative sample of Norwegian women. METHODS: 66,618 Norwegian women aged 34-70 years at baseline were included in the analysis. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires completed in 1991-2011 provided information on height, weight as well as sociodemographic, lifestyle and reproductive factors. We assessed the association with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Women gained on average 0...
2018: Obesity Facts
Nanna Julie Olsen, Jeanett Friis Rohde, Mina Nicole Händel, Maria Stougaard, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann
OBJECTIVE: Parental and child co-sleeping has been suggested as a risk factor for short sleep duration and poor sleep quality that may lead to overweight. We examined if joining parent's bed during night was associated with child overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 'Healthy Start' study including 635 2- to 6-year-old Danish children, who were all considered obesity prone. Of these, 496 children had complete information on BMI and whether the child joined parents' bed during night and if so, how frequently...
2018: Obesity Facts
Nathaly Torres-Castillo, Jorge Antonio Silva-Gómez, Wendy Campos-Perez, Elisa Barron-Cabrera, Ivan Hernandez-Cañaveral, Mary Garcia-Cazarin, Yolanda Marquez-Sandoval, Karina Gonzalez-Becerra, Carlos Barron-Gallardo, Erika Martinez-Lopez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze dietary ω-6:ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio and its association with adiposity and serum adiponectin levels in a Mexican population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, individuals with a BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2, were classified using four methods to measure adiposity. Parameters of body composition were measured by InBody 3.0. Diet intake was evaluated prospectively using a 3-day written food record. Serum high-molecular weight adiponectin isoform was measured using an ELISA assay...
2018: Obesity Facts
Ivan Ivanovich Dedov, Galina Afanasievna Melnichenko, Ekaterina Anatolievna Troshina, Natalya Valentinovna Mazurina, Marina Olegovna Galieva
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of long-term sibutramine therapy in routine clinical practice. METHODS: In total, 98,774 patients (82.3% women, 17.7% men) from 142 cities of the Russian Federation were enrolled in the PRIMAVERA program. The mean age of the patients was 39.39 ± 10.38 years, the mean body weight was 99.1 ± 14.28 kg, and the mean BMI was 35.7 ± 4.41 kg/m2. The duration of the sibutramine therapy was determined by physicians: 59...
2018: Obesity Facts
Dorien Reijnders, Gijs H Goossens, Gerben D A Hermes, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Ellen E Blaak
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of gut microbiota manipulation on fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle metabolism in humans. METHODS: 40 obese, insulin-resistant males were randomized to amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (narrow-spectrum antibiotic), or placebo (7 days, 1,500 mg/day). Before and after treatment, forearm blood flow and metabolite fluxes across forearm muscle were measured under fasting and postprandial (high-fat mixed-meal) conditions...
2018: Obesity Facts
Xin Zhou, Bingfeng Xing, Guanheng He, Xiaozhou Lyu, Yi Zeng
OBJECTIVE: Aging which is accompanied by loss of skeletal muscle and increase of body fat in some adults older than 60 years does not only result in remarkable influences on daily life function but also increases the risk of cardiovascular events. This study used electrical acupuncture together with essential amino acid supplementation to treat sarcopenic obesity (SO) in male older adults. METHODS: A total of 48 male participants with SO (>60 years old) were randomized to electrical acupuncture with oral essential amino acids (EA + AA) or oral essential amino acids alone (AA)...
2018: Obesity Facts
Hagen Wulff, Petra Wagner
BACKGROUND: To address the challenge of juvenile obesity, effective therapeutic concepts focusing on lifestyle changes are necessary. A relevant aspect is the media use, which is associated with nutrition and physical activity patterns and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. To optimise obesity therapy, the use of media depending on these socio-demographic factors needs to be analysed to adjust the aims, content and methods of interventions as well as to harness the potential of media use in obesity therapy...
2018: Obesity Facts
Rocco Barazzoni, Stephan Bischoff, Yves Boirie, Luca Busetto, Tommy Cederholm, Dror Dicker, Hermann Toplak, Andre Van Gossum, Volkan Yumuk, Roberto Vettor
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide due to increasingly pervasive obesogenic lifestyle changes. Obesity poses unprecedented individual, social, and multidisciplinary medical challenges by increasing the risk for metabolic diseases, chronic organ failures, and cancer as well as complication rates in the presence of acute disease conditions. Whereas reducing excess adiposity remains the fundamental pathogenic treatment for obese individuals, complex metabolic and lifestyle abnormalities as well as weight reduction therapies per se may also compromise the ability to preserve muscle function and mass, especially when chronic disease co-exists with obesity...
2018: Obesity Facts
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Obesity Facts
Rafaela Rosário, Renata Barros, Patrícia Padrão, Rute Santos, Vitor Hugo Teixeira, Oscar Lopes, Nelson Andrade, Andre Moreira, Pedro Moreira
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associations between height and BMI categories in a Portuguese representative sample. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 32,644 Portuguese adults (52.4% females). Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics were obtained along with self-reported height and weight. We performed generalized linear models to assess the differences in attained height across BMI categories; analyses were adjusted for age, gender, education, family income per month, proxy reporting information, dietary patterns, and smoking...
2018: Obesity Facts
Elisabeth Leehr, Katrin Elisabeth Giel, Norbert Schaeffeler, Isabelle Mack, Ansgar Thiel, Guido Zurstiege, Stephan Zipfel
OBJECTIVE: We investigated how individuals with normal weight (NW) versus individuals with obesity (OB) visually explore human bodies varying in BMI. METHODS: 16 OB (BMI 37.5 ± 7.7 kg/m²) and 35 NW (BMI 21.5 ± 1.6 kg/m²) visually explored 35 natural photographs and 25 avatars depicting male and female bodies ranging from normal weight to obesity. Gaze behaviour was assessed using eye tracking technology. Additionally, participants rated the attractiveness of all body stimuli...
2018: Obesity Facts
Susann Weihrauch-Blüher, Kartin Kromeyer-Hauschild, Christine Graf, Kurt Widhalm, Ulrike Korsten-Reck, Birgit Jödicke, Jana Markert, Manfred James Müller, Anja Moss, Martin Wabitsch, Susanna Wiegand
OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines for prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence are discussed. METHODS: A literature search was performed in Medline via PubMed, and appropriate studies were analyzed. RESULTS: Programs to prevent childhood obesity have so far remained mainly school-based and effects have been limited. Analyses by age group show that prevention programs have the best results in younger children (<12 years). Evidence-based recommendations for pre-school- and early school-aged children indicate the need for interventions that address parents and teachers alike...
2018: Obesity Facts
Kurt Widhalm, Oliver Helk, Otmar Pachinger
OBJECTIVES: Obesity in children and adolescents is a worldwide dramatic health problem, for which treatment is mostly unsuccessful. Therefore, prevention is the most important measure to tackle this problem. The 'EDDY' study as an interventional cohort study with a 1-year lifestyle intervention aimed to affect the lifestyle and nutrition habits of adolescents by intervention with nutritional training and sports programs to prevent obesity. METHODS: Four Viennese schools were cluster-randomized into an intervention group and a control group...
2018: Obesity Facts
Kurt Widhalm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Obesity Facts
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