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Obesity Facts

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May 19, 2017: Obesity Facts
Hans Hauner, Ljiljana Hastreiter, Dieter Werdier, Annette Chen-Stute, Jürgen Scholze, Matthias Blüher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of increasing doses of cathine (nor-pseudoephedrine) as a weight-lowering agent in patients with obesity. METHODS: Overweight and obese patients (n = 241, mean BMI 34.6 ± 3.4 kg/m²) were randomly allocated to one of three doses of cathine (16 mg, 32 mg, 53.3 mg) or placebo in addition to a multimodal lifestyle intervention program in a multicenter, double-blind, controlled, dose-finding study for 24 weeks. Primary outcome was weight loss...
2017: Obesity Facts
Louise Lylloff, Lise Bathum, Sten Madsbad, Josefine Liv Gilling Grundtvig, Inge Nordgaard-Lassen, Mogens Fenger
BACKGROUND: In obesity, which is a major contributor to insulin resistance and diabetes, the circulating level of S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) is elevated and declines after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). However, studies on S100A8/A9 and the pathophysiological mechanisms in insulin resistance and diabetes are few and contradictory. METHODS: We studied 48 subjects who underwent RYGB, comprising a non-diabetic control group and two diabetic groups in whom diabetes either regressed or persisted, 6-12 months post-surgically...
2017: Obesity Facts
Camille Dugas, Julie Perron, Michèle Kearney, Roxanne Mercier, André Tchernof, Isabelle Marc, S John Weisnagel, Julie Robitaille
Children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in utero are at high risk of developing many health problems such as obesity. There is an urgent need to find new strategies to prevent obesity development among high-risk populations such as those children. Accordingly, the aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge on the postnatal prevention of childhood obesity in offspring born from mothers with GDM. Specifically, this review addresses the impact of breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices as well as dietary intake and physical activity during childhood on obesity risk of children exposed to GDM in utero...
2017: Obesity Facts
Maaike Kruseman, Noémi Schmutz, Isabelle Carrard
OBJECTIVE: To assess dietary intake, eating patterns, physical activity and eating behaviors, and to explore strategies and perceptions of the experience of weight maintenance in weight loss maintainers (weight loss maintenance (WLM) ≥ 10% weight loss maintained for ≥1 year) and in matched controls with a lifetime stable normal weight. METHODS: Volunteers (32) were recruited by a snowball procedure in this cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. Diet, physical activity, and eating behaviors were assessed with validated questionnaires...
2017: Obesity Facts
Rocío San Martin, Julio Brito, Patricia Siques, Fabiola León-Velarde
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, has become a major health burden because it is usually accompanied by an increased risk for insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and even some kinds of cancer. It also results in associated increases in healthcare expenditures and labor and economic consequences. There are also other fields of medicine and biology where obesity or being overweight play a major role, such as high-altitude illnesses (acute mountain sickness, hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, and chronic mountain sickness), where an increasing relationship among these two morbid statuses has been demonstrated...
2017: Obesity Facts
Yvonne Mühlig, André Scherag, Annika Bickenbach, Ulrike Giesen, Reinhard Holl, Rolf Holle, Wieland Kiess, Belinda Lennerz, Diana Lütke Brintrup, Anja Moss, Madlen Neef, Claudia Ose, Thomas Reinehr, Christina M Teuner, Susanna Wiegand, Barbara Wolters, Martin Wabitsch, Johannes Hebebrand
BACKGROUND: To compare efficacy and safety of a manual-based low-level psychological intervention with treatment as usual (weight loss treatment). METHODS: A two-armed randomized controlled trial without blinding and computer-based stratified block randomization included adolescents and young adults (14.0-24.9 years) with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 at five German university hospitals. Primary outcomes were adherence (participation rate ≥ 5/6 sessions) and quality of life (DISABKIDS-37) 6 months after randomization...
2017: Obesity Facts
Lorena Del Rocio Ibarra-Reynoso, Hilda Lissette López-Lemus, Ma Eugenia Garay-Sevilla, Juan Manuel Malacara
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of restriction of foods with high fructose content in obese school children. METHODS: In a clinical study, we selected 54 obese children 6 to 11 years old with high fructose consumption (>70 g/day) in order indicate dietary fructose restriction (<20 g/day) for 6 weeks. Anthropometry, liver ultrasound as well as glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin, IGFBP1, and RBP4 serum levels were collected. RESULTS: The group of children had 80% adherence and reported decreased fructose consumption (110 ± 38...
2017: Obesity Facts
Orsolya Ács, Bálint Péterfia, Péter Hollósi, Andrea Luczay, Dóra Török, András Szabó
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide increasing childhood obesity is due to interactions between environmental and genetic factors, linked together by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. METHODS: 82 obese children (>95th BMI percentile , age: 3-18 years) were included. Anthropometric data, metabolic parameters, 25-OH vitamin D (25OHD), and pubertal status were recorded, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring was performed. BMI standard deviation score (SDS) was calculated...
2017: Obesity Facts
Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Mohamed Kacem Ben Fradj, Ikram Bezrati, Moncef Feki, Naziha Kaabachi, Anissa Bouassida
OBJECTIVES: Omentin-1 is a recently discovered adipokine, mainly produced by visceral adipose tissue, which is thought to improve insulin sensitivity. The study aimed to assess the association of plasma omentin-1 with cardiometabolic traits and physical performance and to test its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in obese and normal-weight subjects. METHODS: Nine overweight/obese (OG) and 9 normal-weight (NWG) young men performed an 8-week HIIT program...
2017: Obesity Facts
Fernanda Leite, Ângela Leite, Ana Santos, Margarida Lima, Joselina Barbosa, Marco Cosentino, Laura Ribeiro
OBJECTIVE: Predictors of subclinical inflammatory obesity (SIO) can be important tools for early therapeutic interventions in obesity-related comorbidities. Waist circumference (WC) and BMI have different SIO sensitivity. We aimed to i) identify SIO predictors and ii) investigate whether CD16+ monocytes are associated with BMI- (generally) or WC-defined (centrally) obesity. METHODS: Anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine (namely catecholamines, adrenaline and noradrenaline) parameters were evaluated, and CD16+ monocytes were studied by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood from 63 blood donors, and compared and correlated to each other...
2017: Obesity Facts
Johannes Hebebrand, Jens-Christian Holm, Euan Woodward, Jennifer Lyn Baker, Ellen Blaak, Dominique Durrer Schutz, Nathalie J Farpour-Lambert, Gema Frühbeck, Jason G C Halford, Lauren Lissner, Dragan Micic, Dana Mullerova, Gabriela Roman, Karin Schindler, Hermann Toplak, Tommy L S Visscher, Volkan Yumuk
Diagnostic criteria for complex medical conditions caused by a multitude of both genetic and environmental factors should be descriptive and avoid any attribution of causality. Furthermore, the wording used to describe a disorder should be evidence-based and avoid stigmatization of the affected individuals. Both terminology and categorizations should be readily comprehensible for healthcare professionals and guide clinical decision making. Uncertainties with respect to diagnostic issues and their implications may be addressed to direct future clinical research...
2017: Obesity Facts
Emilie Lacroix, Angela Alberga, Shelly Russell-Mathew, Lindsay McLaren, Kristin von Ranson
BACKGROUND: People living with overweight and obesity often experience weight-based stigmatization. Investigations of the prevalence and correlates of weight bias and evaluation of weight bias reduction interventions depend upon psychometrically-sound measurement. Our paper is the first to comprehensively evaluate the psychometric properties, use of people-first language within items, and suitability for use with various populations of available self-report measures of weight bias. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases to identify English-language self-report questionnaires of weight bias...
2017: Obesity Facts
Marcello Lucchese, Oleg Borisenko, Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani, Paolo Angelo Cortesi, Giancarlo Cesana, Daniel Adam, Elisabeth Burdukova, Vasily Lukyanov, Nicola Di Lorenzo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery in Italy from a third-party payer perspective over a medium-term (10 years) and a long-term (lifetime) horizon. METHODS: A state-transition Markov model was developed, in which patients may experience surgery, post-surgery complications, diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases or die. Transition probabilities, costs, and utilities were obtained from the Italian and international literature...
2017: Obesity Facts
Camilla B Jensen, Marika Lundqvist, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Berit L Heitmann
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D level in pregnancy may be associated with risk of overweight in the offspring later in life. METHODS: In a case-cohort study based on Danish biobanks and registers we examined the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) level at birth and overweight at 7 years. Cases of overweight (n = 871) were randomly selected among 7-year-old children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) with a BMI above the 90th percentile...
2017: Obesity Facts
Ismael Campos-Nonato, Lucia Hernandez, Simon Barquera
BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that protein-enriched diets can lead to greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MeS) than standard protein diets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of increased protein intake on weight loss in Mexican adults with MeS. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial in 118 adults aged 47.4 ± 11.5 years and meeting the established criteria for MeS were randomized to prescribed hypocaloric diets (500 kcal less than resting metabolic rate) providing either 0...
2017: Obesity Facts
André Hajek, Hans-Helmut König
AIMS: We aimed at determining the effect of BMI on functional health among older Germans longitudinally. METHODS: Data from four waves (2002-2014) of the German Ageing Survey ('Deutscher Alterssurvey'; DEAS), a representative sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years and above, were used. Functional health was quantified by the subscale 'physical functioning' of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Fixed effects regressions were used to estimate the predictors of functional health...
2017: Obesity Facts
Jeroen Lakerveld, Joreintje Mackenbach
Over-consumption of high-energy foods and a lack of physical activity are the main behavioural risk factors for people to develop obesity. These behaviours are influenced by a range of individual-level factors which are nested within contexts that contain influencing characteristics further upstream. In this paper, we define these upstream determinants. We also provide a historical background, summarise the current evidence base regarding these determinants across various types of environments and put them in perspective...
2017: Obesity Facts
Qi-Ying Song, Jie-Yun Song, Yang Wang, Shuo Wang, Yi-De Yang, Xiang-Rui Meng, Jun Ma, Hai-Jun Wang, Yan Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine associations of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. These SNPs were identified by a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study among European children. Given that varied genetic backgrounds across different ethnicity may result in different association, it is necessary to study these associations in a different ethnic population. METHODS: A total of 3,922 children, including 2,191 normal-weight, 873 overweight and 858 obese children, from three independent studies were included in the study...
2017: Obesity Facts
Song Mu, Jiayu Liu, Wei Guo, Shuping Zhang, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Zhihong Wang, Jun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study was initiated to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on hepatic glucose metabolism and hepatic expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in obese rats. METHODS: Body weight, glucose, intraperitoneal glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance tests were performed pre- and postoperatively, and plasma lipid, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were measured. The mRNA levels of G6Pase, Pepck, Gsk-3β and Gys-2, and the expression levels of PTP1B mRNA, protein, and other components of the insulin signaling pathway were measured by using RT-PCR and western blotting...
2017: Obesity Facts
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