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Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology

Paul Edmund Smith, Ian Thuan Hien Luong, Andrew Hans van der Vliet
Percutaneous nephrostomy insertion has, in recent times, become a subspecialised skill performed by an interventional trained Radiologist. However, this creates access issues, particularly in remote and regional medical centres. In this article, we describe a simple and effective method for computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous nephrostomy insertion, utilising the CT interventional skills of the general radiologist.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Dakshika A Gunaratne, Michael J Veness
Radiation oncologists are increasingly tasked with the management of elderly patients with non-melanoma skin cancer, unsuitable for surgical intervention due to inoperable lesions and/or poor performance status. In this cohort, hypofractionated radiotherapy, delivered either daily, alternative daily or once weekly is highly effective. A systematic literature search was conducted of PUBMED, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using the algorithm ('radiotherapy' OR 'radiation therapy' OR 'brachytherapy') AND ('hypofraction' OR 'hypofractionated' OR 'hypofractionation') AND ('skin neoplasms' OR 'carcinoma' OR 'malignancy') AND ('skin' OR 'epidermis' OR 'epidermal' OR 'cutaneous')...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Arian Lasocki, Rodney J Hicks
Technological advances have increased the ability of imaging to provide an accurate preoperative diagnosis of an intracranial mass. We present the case of a patient with metastatic paraganglioma, who presented with headache and depressed conscious state. We had chronic tachycardia and low-grade fevers due to increased catecholamine secretion, which limited his clinical assessment. The combination of novel positron emission tomography tracers and advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques was able to provide a confident preoperative diagnosis of a pyogenic intracranial abscess, which was not suspected clinically...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Victoria Jean Earl, Mohamed Khaldoun Badawy
Following nuclear medicine scans a patient can be a source of radiation exposure to the hospital staff, including sonographers. Sonographers are not routinely monitored for occupational radiation exposure as they do not commonly interact with radioactive patients or other sources of ionizing radiation. This review aims to find evidence relating to the risk and amount of radiation the sonographer is exposed to from nuclear medicine patients. It is established in the literature that the radiation exposure to the sonographer following diagnostic nuclear medicine studies is low and consequently the risk is not significant...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Nathalie M Falkner, Dana Hince, Gareth Porter, Ben Dessauvagie, Sanjay Jeganathan, Max Bulsara, Glen Lo
INTRODUCTION: There is controversy on the optimal work-up of screen-detected widespread breast calcifications: whether to biopsy a single target or multiple targets. This study evaluates agreement between multiple biopsy targets within the same screen-detected widespread (≥25 mm) breast calcification to determine if the second biopsy adds value. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of women screened in a statewide general population risk breast cancer mammographic screening program from 2009 to 2016...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Mustafa Resorlu, Ozan Karatag, Canan A Toprak, Muhsin O Ozturk
INTRODUCTION: This study, investigated the para-aortic adipose tissue cross-sectional area, a novel predictor of cardiovascular diseases and degenerative changes in the paravertebral muscles, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHOD: One hundred cases diagnosed as COPD and 50 healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics were evaluated. Para-aortic adipose tissue cross-sectional area (mm2 ), subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (mm), paravertebral muscle area (mm2 ) and fat deposition in muscle tissue were assessed radiologically...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Melissa James, Sami Swadi, Ma Yi, Lisa Johansson, Bridget Robinson, Ashutosh Dixit
INTRODUCTION: We report the incidence of ischaemic cardiac toxicity in a contemporary cohort of patients receiving conventional (CFRT) or hypofractionated (HFRT) radiation after surgery for early breast cancer and investigate the interplay of cardiac risk factors and fractionation. METHODS: Included were patients receiving external beam radiation treatment from 2002 to 2006 at the Christchurch public hospital. Hospital coding databases, oncology databases and medical records were reviewed for baseline characteristics, treatment details and outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Chiara Paganelli, Danny Lee, John Kipritidis, Brendan Whelan, Peter B Greer, Guido Baroni, Marco Riboldi, Paul Keall
INTRODUCTION: In-room MRI is a promising image guidance strategy in external beam radiotherapy to acquire volumetric information for moving targets. However, limitations in spatio-temporal resolution led several authors to use 2D orthogonal images for guidance. The aim of this work is to present a method to concurrently compensate for non-rigid tumour motion and provide an approach for 3D reconstruction from 2D orthogonal cine-MRI slices for MRI-guided treatments. METHODS: Free-breathing sagittal/coronal interleaved 2D cine-MRI were acquired in addition to a pre-treatment 3D volume in two patients...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Jan Yj Riley, Parm Naidoo
Rounded atelectasis is an increasingly recognized but under-diagnosed and sometimes misdiagnosed pulmonary entity. This pictorial essay will present a broad range of examples of rounded atelectasis across different imaging modalities with inclusion of typical and atypical presentations. These examples will highlight imaging features that allow confident diagnosis and those that warrant further management, such as imaging surveillance, alternate imaging or invasive procedures for histological evaluation.
February 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Michael Poulsen, David Macfarlane, Michael Veness, Venessa Estall, George Hruby, Mahesh Kumar, Andrew Pullar, Lee Tripcony, Danny Rischin
INTRODUCTION: TROG 09.03 prospectively studied the utility of Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) PET in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma of skin. METHODS: Following consent and registration, a pre-treatment FDG-PET/CT was performed. Sites of avid disease were confirmed by cytology where practicable. Following surgery, patients with AJCCv7 Stages IIA-IIIB disease were treated with chemo-radiotherapy and reassessed with a post-treatment PET. RESULTS: Fifty-eight subjects (45 males and 13 females, median age 68 years) were enrolled between 2011 and 2015, 43 patients of whom went on to receive chemo-radiotherapy...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
John J Kellett, Gregory A Lovell, David A Eriksen, Matthew J Sampson
Literature on the various techniques for imaging injuries to the ankle syndesmosis to determine the most appropriate imaging modality for diagnosing syndesmosis ligament disruption and instability was reviewed using the following data sources: Pubmed, Google scholar, SportsDiscus, E-journals and PLOSone. Search terms used were: syndesmosis paired with injury, imaging, radiology, X-ray, stress X-ray, arthrography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine scan, CT scan, MRI and arthroscopy. Articles were selected by reading abstracts and the full article if indicated...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Penni Blazak, Craig Hacking, Jeffrey Presneill, Michael Reade
INTRODUCTION: Computed tomographic (CT) imaging is widely available in Australian rural and remote hospitals and is often performed prior to patient transfer to definitive tertiary hospital care. We hypothesised that critically ill trauma and neurosurgical patients might have CT scans repeated after interhospital transfer and that the utility of this practice might be low in relation to the additional financial cost and radiation exposure. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of clinical records to determine the proportion of trauma and neurosurgical patients transferred to our tertiary ICU from other hospitals between 1 June 2013 and 30 June 2014 who underwent a repeat CT scan...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Tingliang Zhuang, Neil M Woody, Han Liu, Sheen Cherian, Chandana A Reddy, Peng Qi, Anthony Magnelli, Toufik Djemil, Kevin L Stephans, Ping Xia, Gregory Mm Videtic
INTRODUCTION: Concerns were raised about the accuracy of pencil beam (PB) calculation and potential underdosing of medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). From our institutional series, we designed a matched-pair study where each local failure and controlled patient was matched based upon several clinical factors, to investigate the dose difference between the matched-pair. METHODS: Eighteen pairs of NSCLC patients, treated with 50 Gy in five fractions, were selected...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Hiroaki Takagi, Jinichi Sakamoto, Yasuhiro Osaka, Takeo Shibata, Satoko Fujita, Toshiyuki Sasagawa
INTRODUCTION: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) involving 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used for systemic cancer and recurrence diagnosis. However, the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours according to FDG accumulation is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the intensity of FDG uptake/metabolic activity for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological tumours. METHODS: This study included seven patients with physiological phenomena, 34 with benign tumours, 13 with borderline malignant tumours and 119 with malignant tumours who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Christoph Werner, Amelie Lupp, Robert Drescher, Martin Freesmeyer, Masoud Mireskandari, Christian Stoykow, Astrid Bauschke, Ulrich A Müller
This case report of a young man suffering from recurring hypoglycaemia illustrates a rare condition of a neuroendocrine tumour, predominantly secreting proinsulin and invisible to conventional imaging approaches. Only a GLP-1 receptor PET/CT using Exendin-4 visualized the pancreatic lesion and enabled curative therapy, confirming the diagnostic value of this tracer for detection of neuroendocrine tumours. As only few publications on this topic are available, an overview of the available data is also given. The known cut-off value of 60% for proinsulin level indicating malignancy is critically discussed...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
David I Pryor, Sandra L Turner, Keen Hun Tai, Colin Tang, Giuseppe Sasso, Marcus Dreosti, Henry H Woo, Lee Wilton, Jarad M Martin
Three large randomised controlled trials have been published in the last year demonstrating the non-inferiority of moderate hypofractionation compared to conventional fractionation for localised prostate cancer with respect to both disease control and late toxicity at 5 years. Furthermore, no clinically significant differences in patient-reported outcomes have emerged. More mature follow-up data are now also available from phase 2 studies confirming that moderate hypofractionation is associated with low rates of significant toxicity at 10 years...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Ningning Di, Chenjun Yao, Wenna Cheng, Yan Ren, Jianxun Qu, Bin Wang, Zhenwei Yao
INTRODUCTION: To ascertain if the volume transfer constant (Ktrans ) derived from T1 dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) correlates with the immunohistological markers of angiogenesis in high-grade gliomas. METHODS: Fifty-one image-guided biopsy specimens in 34 patients with newly presenting high-grade gliomas (grade III = 16; grade IV = 18) underwent preoperative imaging (conventional imaging and T1 DCE-MRI). We correlated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the microvessel density (MVD) of MRI-guided biopsy specimens with the corresponding DCE-derived Ktrans ...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Julian Maingard, Leonid Churilov, Peter Mitchell, Richard Dowling, Bernard Yan
INTRODUCTION: Endovascular clot retrieval (ECR) following intravenous thrombolysis is superior to intravenous thrombolysis alone for acute stroke with large vessel occlusion. However, trial selection criteria may exclude potentially salvageable patients. We investigated the impact of published selection criteria on the different proportions of patients excluded and clinical outcome. METHODS: We included patients with anterior circulation stroke treated with ECR from a single centre...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Natalie Ly Ngu, James Lisik, Dinesh Varma, Gerard S Goh
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and surgical bypass (BYP) are treatment options for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD). PTA and BYP have different clinical outcomes and cost implications. This paper aims to compare hospital-related costs of PTA and BYP for PAD of the lower limbs in an Australian health service. METHODS: A retrospective cost analysis using clinical and financial data from an urban, tertiary hospital was performed...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Bruno R De Carvalho, Gerard M Eagar
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to assess the degree of PICC tip migration with breathing and arm movement to determine whether accurate positioning is feasible or futile. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 218 consecutive patients undergoing PICC insertion at our institution between January and August 2015 was selected, of which 129 met inclusion criteria. The position of insertion was used as control with the arm at 90° during inspiration, followed by three study images: expiration with arm unchanged, inspiration with arm fully adducted and inspiration with arm fully abducted...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
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