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Neuroethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881473/the-moral-importance-of-reflective-empathy
#1
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
This is a reply to Jesse Prinz and Paul Bloom's skepticism about the moral importance of empathy. It concedes that empathy is spontaneously biased to individuals who are spatio-temporally close, as well as discriminatory in other ways, and incapable of accommodating large numbers of individuals. But it is argued that we could partly correct these shortcomings of empathy by a guidance of reason because empathy for others consists in imagining what they feel, and, importantly, such acts of imagination can be voluntary - and, thus, under the influence of reflection - as well as automatic ...
July 2018: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706571/is-addiction-a-brain-disease
#2
Kent C Berridge
Where does normal brain or psychological function end, and pathology begin? The line can be hard to discern, making disease sometimes a tricky word. In addiction, normal 'wanting' processes become distorted and excessive, according to the incentive-sensitization theory. Excessive 'wanting' results from drug-induced neural sensitization changes in underlying brain mesolimbic systems of incentive. 'Brain disease' was never used by the theory, but neural sensitization changes are arguably extreme enough and problematic enough to be called pathological...
April 2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890740/public-attitudes-towards-moral-enhancement-evidence-that-means-matter-morally
#3
Jona Specker, Maartje H N Schermer, Peter B Reiner
To gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants (N = 293) from the United States were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk and were randomly assigned to read one of several contrastive vignettes in which a 13-year-old child is described as bullying another student in school and then is offered an empathy-enhancing program...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890739/towards-a-moral-ecology-of-pharmacological-cognitive-enhancement-in-british-universities
#4
Meghana Kasturi Vagwala, Aude Bicquelet, Gabija Didziokaite, Ross Coomber, Oonagh Corrigan, Ilina Singh
Few empirical studies in the UK have examined the complex social patterns and values behind quantitative estimates of the prevalence of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE). We conducted a qualitative investigation of the social dynamics and moral attitudes that shape PCE practices among university students in two major metropolitan areas in the UK. Our thematic analysis of eight focus groups (n = 66) suggests a moral ecology that operates within the social infrastructure of the university. We find that PCE resilience among UK university students is mediated by normative and cultural judgments disfavoring competitiveness and prescription drug taking...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890738/moral-enhancement-should-target-self-interest-and-cognitive-capacity
#5
Rafael Ahlskog
Current suggestions for capacities that should be targeted for moral enhancement has centered on traits like empathy, fairness or aggression. The literature, however, lacks a proper model for understanding the interplay and complexity of moral capacities, which limits the practicability of proposed interventions. In this paper, I integrate some existing knowledge on the nature of human moral behavior and present a formal model of prosocial motivation. The model provides two important results regarding the most friction-free route to moral enhancement...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890737/from-hard-neuro-tools-to-soft-neuro-toys-refocussing-the-neuro-enhancement-debate
#6
Jonna Brenninkmeijer, Hub Zwart
Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725289/amnestic-mci-patients-perspectives-toward-disclosure-of-amyloid-pet-results-in-a-research-context
#7
Gwendolien Vanderschaeghe, Jolien Schaeverbeke, Rik Vandenberghe, Kris Dierickx
BACKGROUND: Researchers currently are not obligated to share individual research results (IRR) with participants. This non-disclosure policy has been challenged on the basis of participants' rights to be aware and in control of their personal medical information. Here, we determined how patients view disclosure of research PET results of brain amyloid and why they believe it is advantageous or disadvantageous to disclose. METHOD: As a part of a larger diagnostic trial, we conducted semi-structured interviews with patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI)...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725288/views-of-caregivers-on-the-ethics-of-assistive-technology-used-for-home-surveillance-of-people-living-with-dementia
#8
Maurice Mulvenna, Anton Hutton, Vivien Coates, Suzanne Martin, Stephen Todd, Raymond Bond, Anne Moorhead
This paper examines the ethics of using assistive technology such as video surveillance in the homes of people living with dementia. Ideation and concept elaboration around the introduction of a camera-based surveillance service in the homes of people with dementia, typically living alone, is explored. The paper reviews relevant literature on surveillance of people living with dementia, and summarises the findings from ideation and concept elaboration workshops, designed to capture the views of those involved in the care of people living with dementia at home...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725287/how-to-recover-from-a-brain-disease-is-addiction-a-disease-or-is-there-a-disease-like-stage-in-addiction
#9
Anke Snoek
People struggling with addiction are neither powerless over their addiction, nor are they fully in control. Lewis vigorously objects to the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), because it makes people lose belief in their self-efficacy, and hence hinders their recovery. Although he acknowledges that there is a compulsive state in addiction, he objects to the claim that this compulsion is carved in stone. Lewis argues that the BDMA underestimates the agency of addicted people, and hence hinder their recovery...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725286/responsibility-without-blame-for-addiction
#10
Hanna Pickard
Drug use and drug addiction are severely stigmatised around the world. Marc Lewis does not frame his learning model of addiction as a choice model out of concern that to do so further encourages stigma and blame. Yet the evidence in support of a choice model is increasingly strong as well as consonant with core elements of his learning model. I offer a responsibility without blame framework that derives from reflection on forms of clinical practice that support change and recovery in patients who cause harm to themselves and others...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725285/free-will-black-swans-and-addiction
#11
Ted Fenton, Reinout W Wiers
The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725284/addiction-and-moralization-the-role-of-the-underlying-model-of-addiction
#12
Lily E Frank, Saskia K Nagel
Addiction appears to be a deeply moralized concept. To understand the entwinement of addiction and morality, we briefly discuss the disease model and its alternatives in order to address the following questions: Is the disease model the only path towards a 'de-moralized' discourse of addiction? While it is tempting to think that medical language surrounding addiction provides liberation from the moralized language, evidence suggests that this is not necessarily the case. On the other hand non-disease models of addiction may seem to resuscitate problematic forms of the moralization of addiction, including, invoking blame, shame, and the wholesale rejection of addicts as people who have deep character flaws, while ignoring the complex biological and social context of addiction...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725283/q-is-addiction-a-brain-disease-or-a-moral-failing-a-neither
#13
Nick Heather
This article uses Marc Lewis' work as a springboard to discuss the socio-political context of the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA). The claim that promotion of the BDMA is the only way the general public can be persuaded to withhold blame and punishment from addicts is critically examined. After a discussion of public understandings of the disease concept of addiction, it is pointed out that it is possible to develop a scientific account of addiction which is neither a disease nor a moral model but which the public could understand...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725282/addiction-and-the-brain-development-not-disease
#14
Marc Lewis
I review the brain disease model of addiction promoted by medical, scientific, and clinical authorities in the US and elsewhere. I then show that the disease model is flawed because brain changes in addiction are similar to those generally observed when recurrent, highly motivated goal seeking results in the development of deep habits, Pavlovian learning, and prefrontal disengagement. This analysis relies on concepts of self-organization, neuroplasticity, personality development, and delay discounting. It also highlights neural and behavioral parallels between substance addictions, behavioral addictions, normative compulsive behaviors, and falling in love...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725281/introduction-testing-and-refining-marc-lewis-s-critique-of-the-brain-disease-model-of-addiction
#15
Anke Snoek, Steve Matthews
In this introduction we set out some salient themes that will help structure understanding of a complex set of intersecting issues discussed in this special issue on the work of Marc Lewis: (1) conceptual foundations of the disease model, (2) tolerating the disease model given socio-political environments, and (3) A third wave: refining conceptualization of addiction in the light of Lewis's model.
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917247/moral-blindness-the-gift-of-the-god-machine
#16
John Harris
The continuing debate between Persson and Savulescu and myself over moral enhancement concerns two dimensions of a very large question. The large question is: what exactly makes something a moral enhancement? This large question needs a book length study and this I provide in my How to be Good, Oxford 2016. (JH 2016). In their latest paper Moral Bioenhancement, Freedom and Reason take my book as their point of departure and the first dimension of the big question they address is one that emphasizes a distinction, not highlighted in their original 2008 paper, between a moral enhancement that will ensure an improvement in morality and one that will simply make people more motivated to be moral...
2016: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917246/moral-bioenhancement-freedom-and-reason
#17
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
In this paper we reply to the most important objections to our advocacy of moral enhancement by biomedical means - moral bioenhancement - that John Harris advances in his new book How to be Good . These objections are to effect that such moral enhancement undercuts both moral reasoning and freedom. The latter objection is directed more specifically at what we have called the God Machine, a super-duper computer which predicts our decisions and prevents decisions to perpertrate morally atrocious acts. In reply, we argue first that effective moral bioenhancement presupposes moral reasoning rather than undermines it...
2016: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429669/the-movement-of-research-from-the-laboratory-to-the-living-room-a-case-study-of-public-engagement-with-cognitive-science
#18
Tineke Broer, Martyn Pickersgill, Ian J Deary
Media reporting of science has consequences for public debates on the ethics of research. Accordingly, it is crucial to understand how the sciences of the brain and the mind are covered in the media, and how coverage is received and negotiated. The authors report here their sociological findings from a case study of media coverage and associated reader comments of an article ('Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging?') from Annals of Neurology. The media attention attracted by the article was high for cognitive science; further, as associates/members of the Centre where it was produced, the authors of the research reported here had rare insight into how the scientists responsible for the Annals of Neurology article interacted with the media...
2016: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594257/moral-evaluations-of-organ-transplantation-influence-judgments-of-death-and-causation
#19
Michael Nair-Collins, Mary A Gerend
Two experiments investigated whether moral evaluations of organ transplantation influence judgments of death and causation. Participants' beliefs about whether an unconscious organ donor was dead and whether organ removal caused death in a hypothetical vignette varied depending on the moral valence of the vignette. Those who were randomly assigned to the good condition (vs. bad) were more likely to believe that the donor was dead prior to organ removal and that organ removal did not cause death. Furthermore, attitudes toward euthanasia and organ donation independently predicted judgments of death and causation, regardless of experimental condition...
2015: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594256/the-ethics-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa
#20
Hannah Maslen, Jonathan Pugh, Julian Savulescu
There is preliminary evidence, from case reports and investigational studies, to suggest that Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) could be used to treat some patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Although this research is at an early stage, the invasive nature of the intervention and the vulnerability of the potential patients are such that anticipatory ethical analysis is warranted. In this paper, we first show how different treatment mechanisms raise different philosophical and ethical questions. We distinguish three potential mechanisms alluded to in the neuroscientific literature, relating to desire, control, and emotion, respectively...
2015: Neuroethics
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