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Neuroethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706571/is-addiction-a-brain-disease
#1
Kent C Berridge
Where does normal brain or psychological function end, and pathology begin? The line can be hard to discern, making disease sometimes a tricky word. In addiction, normal 'wanting' processes become distorted and excessive, according to the incentive-sensitization theory. Excessive 'wanting' results from drug-induced neural sensitization changes in underlying brain mesolimbic systems of incentive. 'Brain disease' was never used by the theory, but neural sensitization changes are arguably extreme enough and problematic enough to be called pathological...
April 2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725289/amnestic-mci-patients-perspectives-toward-disclosure-of-amyloid-pet-results-in-a-research-context
#2
Gwendolien Vanderschaeghe, Jolien Schaeverbeke, Rik Vandenberghe, Kris Dierickx
BACKGROUND: Researchers currently are not obligated to share individual research results (IRR) with participants. This non-disclosure policy has been challenged on the basis of participants' rights to be aware and in control of their personal medical information. Here, we determined how patients view disclosure of research PET results of brain amyloid and why they believe it is advantageous or disadvantageous to disclose. METHOD: As a part of a larger diagnostic trial, we conducted semi-structured interviews with patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI)...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725288/views-of-caregivers-on-the-ethics-of-assistive-technology-used-for-home-surveillance-of-people-living-with-dementia
#3
Maurice Mulvenna, Anton Hutton, Vivien Coates, Suzanne Martin, Stephen Todd, Raymond Bond, Anne Moorhead
This paper examines the ethics of using assistive technology such as video surveillance in the homes of people living with dementia. Ideation and concept elaboration around the introduction of a camera-based surveillance service in the homes of people with dementia, typically living alone, is explored. The paper reviews relevant literature on surveillance of people living with dementia, and summarises the findings from ideation and concept elaboration workshops, designed to capture the views of those involved in the care of people living with dementia at home...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725287/how-to-recover-from-a-brain-disease-is-addiction-a-disease-or-is-there-a-disease-like-stage-in-addiction
#4
Anke Snoek
People struggling with addiction are neither powerless over their addiction, nor are they fully in control. Lewis vigorously objects to the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), because it makes people lose belief in their self-efficacy, and hence hinders their recovery. Although he acknowledges that there is a compulsive state in addiction, he objects to the claim that this compulsion is carved in stone. Lewis argues that the BDMA underestimates the agency of addicted people, and hence hinder their recovery...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725286/responsibility-without-blame-for-addiction
#5
Hanna Pickard
Drug use and drug addiction are severely stigmatised around the world. Marc Lewis does not frame his learning model of addiction as a choice model out of concern that to do so further encourages stigma and blame. Yet the evidence in support of a choice model is increasingly strong as well as consonant with core elements of his learning model. I offer a responsibility without blame framework that derives from reflection on forms of clinical practice that support change and recovery in patients who cause harm to themselves and others...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725285/free-will-black-swans-and-addiction
#6
Ted Fenton, Reinout W Wiers
The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725284/addiction-and-moralization-the-role-of-the-underlying-model-of-addiction
#7
Lily E Frank, Saskia K Nagel
Addiction appears to be a deeply moralized concept. To understand the entwinement of addiction and morality, we briefly discuss the disease model and its alternatives in order to address the following questions: Is the disease model the only path towards a 'de-moralized' discourse of addiction? While it is tempting to think that medical language surrounding addiction provides liberation from the moralized language, evidence suggests that this is not necessarily the case. On the other hand non-disease models of addiction may seem to resuscitate problematic forms of the moralization of addiction, including, invoking blame, shame, and the wholesale rejection of addicts as people who have deep character flaws, while ignoring the complex biological and social context of addiction...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725283/q-is-addiction-a-brain-disease-or-a-moral-failing-a-neither
#8
Nick Heather
This article uses Marc Lewis' work as a springboard to discuss the socio-political context of the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA). The claim that promotion of the BDMA is the only way the general public can be persuaded to withhold blame and punishment from addicts is critically examined. After a discussion of public understandings of the disease concept of addiction, it is pointed out that it is possible to develop a scientific account of addiction which is neither a disease nor a moral model but which the public could understand...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725282/addiction-and-the-brain-development-not-disease
#9
Marc Lewis
I review the brain disease model of addiction promoted by medical, scientific, and clinical authorities in the US and elsewhere. I then show that the disease model is flawed because brain changes in addiction are similar to those generally observed when recurrent, highly motivated goal seeking results in the development of deep habits, Pavlovian learning, and prefrontal disengagement. This analysis relies on concepts of self-organization, neuroplasticity, personality development, and delay discounting. It also highlights neural and behavioral parallels between substance addictions, behavioral addictions, normative compulsive behaviors, and falling in love...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725281/introduction-testing-and-refining-marc-lewis-s-critique-of-the-brain-disease-model-of-addiction
#10
Anke Snoek, Steve Matthews
In this introduction we set out some salient themes that will help structure understanding of a complex set of intersecting issues discussed in this special issue on the work of Marc Lewis: (1) conceptual foundations of the disease model, (2) tolerating the disease model given socio-political environments, and (3) A third wave: refining conceptualization of addiction in the light of Lewis's model.
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917247/moral-blindness-the-gift-of-the-god-machine
#11
John Harris
The continuing debate between Persson and Savulescu and myself over moral enhancement concerns two dimensions of a very large question. The large question is: what exactly makes something a moral enhancement? This large question needs a book length study and this I provide in my How to be Good, Oxford 2016. (JH 2016). In their latest paper Moral Bioenhancement, Freedom and Reason take my book as their point of departure and the first dimension of the big question they address is one that emphasizes a distinction, not highlighted in their original 2008 paper, between a moral enhancement that will ensure an improvement in morality and one that will simply make people more motivated to be moral...
2016: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917246/moral-bioenhancement-freedom-and-reason
#12
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
In this paper we reply to the most important objections to our advocacy of moral enhancement by biomedical means - moral bioenhancement - that John Harris advances in his new book How to be Good. These objections are to effect that such moral enhancement undercuts both moral reasoning and freedom. The latter objection is directed more specifically at what we have called the God Machine, a super-duper computer which predicts our decisions and prevents decisions to perpertrate morally atrocious acts. In reply, we argue first that effective moral bioenhancement presupposes moral reasoning rather than undermines it...
2016: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429669/the-movement-of-research-from-the-laboratory-to-the-living-room-a-case-study-of-public-engagement-with-cognitive-science
#13
Tineke Broer, Martyn Pickersgill, Ian J Deary
Media reporting of science has consequences for public debates on the ethics of research. Accordingly, it is crucial to understand how the sciences of the brain and the mind are covered in the media, and how coverage is received and negotiated. The authors report here their sociological findings from a case study of media coverage and associated reader comments of an article ('Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging?') from Annals of Neurology. The media attention attracted by the article was high for cognitive science; further, as associates/members of the Centre where it was produced, the authors of the research reported here had rare insight into how the scientists responsible for the Annals of Neurology article interacted with the media...
2016: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594257/moral-evaluations-of-organ-transplantation-influence-judgments-of-death-and-causation
#14
Michael Nair-Collins, Mary A Gerend
Two experiments investigated whether moral evaluations of organ transplantation influence judgments of death and causation. Participants' beliefs about whether an unconscious organ donor was dead and whether organ removal caused death in a hypothetical vignette varied depending on the moral valence of the vignette. Those who were randomly assigned to the good condition (vs. bad) were more likely to believe that the donor was dead prior to organ removal and that organ removal did not cause death. Furthermore, attitudes toward euthanasia and organ donation independently predicted judgments of death and causation, regardless of experimental condition...
2015: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594256/the-ethics-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa
#15
Hannah Maslen, Jonathan Pugh, Julian Savulescu
There is preliminary evidence, from case reports and investigational studies, to suggest that Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) could be used to treat some patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Although this research is at an early stage, the invasive nature of the intervention and the vulnerability of the potential patients are such that anticipatory ethical analysis is warranted. In this paper, we first show how different treatment mechanisms raise different philosophical and ethical questions. We distinguish three potential mechanisms alluded to in the neuroscientific literature, relating to desire, control, and emotion, respectively...
2015: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26203309/while-you-were-sleepwalking-science-and-neurobiology-of-sleep-disorders-the-enigma-of-legal-responsibility-of-violence-during-parasomnia
#16
REVIEW
Shreeya Popat, William Winslade
In terms of medical science and legal responsibility, the sleep disorder category of parasomnias, chiefly REM sleep behavior disorder and somnambulism, pose an enigmatic dilemma. During an episode of parasomnia, individuals are neither awake nor aware, but their actions appear conscious. As these actions move beyond the innocuous, such as eating and blurting out embarrassing information, and enter the realm of rape and homicide, their degree of importance and relevance increases exponentially. Parasomnias that result in illegal activity, particularly violence, are puzzling phenomena for medicine and the law...
2015: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26203308/a-young-scientists-perspective-on-dbs-a-plea-for-an-international-dbs-organization
#17
Rowan P Sommers, Roy Dings, Koen I Neijenhuijs, Hannah Andringa, Sebastian Arts, Daphne van de Bult, Laura Klockenbusch, Emiel Wanningen, Leon C de Bruin, Pim F G Haselager
Our think tank tasked by the Dutch Health Council, consisting of Radboud University Nijmegen Honours Academy students with various backgrounds, investigated the implications of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for psychiatric patients. During this investigation, a number of methodological, ethical and societal difficulties were identified. We consider these difficulties to be a reflection of a still fragmented field of research that can be overcome with improved organization and communication. To this effect, we suggest that it would be useful to found a centralized DBS organization...
2015: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25431632/delusions-and-responsibility-for-action-insights-from-the-breivik-case
#18
Lisa Bortolotti, Matthew R Broome, Matteo Mameli
What factors should be taken into account when attributing criminal responsibility to perpetrators of severe crimes? We discuss the Breivik case, and the considerations which led to holding Breivik accountable for his criminal acts. We put some pressure on the view that experiencing certain psychiatric symptoms or receiving a certain psychiatric diagnosis is sufficient to establish criminal insanity. We also argue that the presence of delusional beliefs, often regarded as a key factor in determining responsibility, is neither necessary nor sufficient for criminal insanity...
2014: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25431631/cognitive-enhancement-perceptions-among-parents-of-children-with-disabilities
#19
Natalie Ball, Gregor Wolbring
Cognitive enhancement is an increasingly discussed topic and policy suggestions have been put forward. We present here empirical data of views of parents of children with and without cognitive disabilities. Analysis of the interviews revealed six primary overarching themes: meanings of health and treatment; the role of medicine; harm; the 'good' parent; normality and self-perception; and ability. Interestingly none of the parents used the term ethics and only one parent used the term moral twice.
2014: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25045410/autonomy-and-enhancement
#20
G Owen Schaefer, Guy Kahane, Julian Savulescu
Some have objected to human enhancement on the grounds that it violates the autonomy of the enhanced. These objections, however, overlook the interesting possibility that autonomy itself could be enhanced. How, exactly, to enhance autonomy is a difficult problem due to the numerous and diverse accounts of autonomy in the literature. Existing accounts of autonomy enhancement rely on narrow and controversial conceptions of autonomy. However, we identify one feature of autonomy common to many mainstream accounts: reasoning ability...
2014: Neuroethics
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