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Molecular Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535795/turtle-interacts-with-borderless-in-regulating-glial-extension-and-axon-ensheathment
#1
Yixu Chen, Scott Cameron, Wen-Tzu Chang, Yong Rao
Proper recognition between axons and glial processes is required for the establishment of axon ensheathment in the developing nervous system. Recent studies have begun to reveal molecular events underlying developmental control of axon-glia recognition. In our previous work, we showed that the transmembrane protein Borderless (Bdl) is specifically expressed in wrapping glia (WG), and is required for the extension of glial processes and the ensheathment of photoreceptor axons in the developing Drosophila visual system...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521778/cortical-kainate-receptors-and-behavioral-anxiety
#2
REVIEW
Min Zhuo
The study of glutamatergic synapses mainly focuses on the memory-related hippocampus. Recent studies in the cortical areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) show that excitatory synapses can undergo long-term plastic changes in adult animals. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of cortical synapses may play important roles in chronic pain and anxiety. In addition to NMDA and AMPA receptors, kainate (KA) receptors have been found to play roles in synaptic transmission, regulation and presynaptic forms of LTP...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446243/targeting-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-for-novel-treatments-of-schizophrenia
#3
REVIEW
James Maksymetz, Sean P Moran, P Jeffrey Conn
Support for the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia has led to increasing focus on restoring proper glutamatergic signaling as an approach for treatment of this devastating disease. The ability of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors to modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission has thus attracted considerable attention for the development of novel antipsychotics. Consisting of eight subtypes classified into three groups based on sequence homology, signal transduction, and pharmacology, the mGlu receptors provide a wide range of targets to modulate NMDAR function as well as glutamate release...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427452/modeling-environmental-risk-factors-of-autism-in-mice-induces-ibd-related-gut-microbial-dysbiosis-and-hyperserotonemia
#4
Joon Seo Lim, Mi Young Lim, Yongbin Choi, GwangPyo Ko
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of neurodevelopmental conditions that are sharply increasing in prevalence worldwide. Intriguingly, ASD is often accompanied by an array of systemic aberrations including (1) increased serotonin, (2) various modes of gastrointestinal disorders, and (3) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), albeit the underlying cause for such comorbidities remains uncertain. Also, accumulating number of studies report that the gut microbial composition is significantly altered in children with ASD or patients with IBD...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407788/absence-of-neurological-abnormalities-in-mice-homozygous-for-the-polr3a-g672e-hypomyelinating-leukodystrophy-mutation
#5
Karine Choquet, Sharon Yang, Robyn D Moir, Diane Forget, Roxanne Larivière, Annie Bouchard, Christian Poitras, Nicolas Sgarioto, Marie-Josée Dicaire, Forough Noohi, Timothy E Kennedy, Joseph Rochford, Geneviève Bernard, Martin Teichmann, Benoit Coulombe, Ian M Willis, Claudia L Kleinman, Bernard Brais
Recessive mutations in the ubiquitously expressed POLR3A gene cause one of the most frequent forms of childhood-onset hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (HLD): POLR3-HLD. POLR3A encodes the largest subunit of RNA Polymerase III (Pol III), which is responsible for the transcription of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a large array of other small non-coding RNAs. In order to study the central nervous system pathophysiology of the disease, we introduced the French Canadian founder Polr3a mutation c.2015G > A (p.G672E) in mice, generating homozygous knock-in (KI/KI) as well as compound heterozygous mice for one Polr3a KI and one null allele (KI/KO)...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403881/glucocorticoid-receptor-represses-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-neuron-like-cells
#6
Hui Chen, Marc Lombès, Damien Le Menuet
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in many functions such as neuronal growth, survival, synaptic plasticity and memorization. Altered expression levels are associated with many pathological situations such as depression, epilepsy, Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is also crucial for neuron functions, via binding of glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). GR actions largely overlap those of BDNF. It has been proposed that GR could be a regulator of BDNF expression, however the molecular mechanisms involved have not been clearly defined yet...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385162/neuroligin-3-r451c-mutation-alters-electroencephalography-spectral-activity-in-an-animal-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Jackie J Liu, Kevin P Grace, Richard L Horner, Miguel A Cortez, Yiwen Shao, Zhengping Jia
Human studies demonstrate that sleep impairment is a concurrent comorbidity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but its etiology remains largely uncertain. One of the prominent theories of ASD suggests that an imbalance in synaptic excitation/inhibition may contribute to various aspects of ASD, including sleep impairments. Following the identification of Nlgn3(R451C) mutation in patients with ASD, its effects on synaptic transmission and social behaviours have been examined extensively in the mouse model. However, the contributory role of this mutation to sleep impairments in ASD remains unknown...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385157/comparative-analysis-of-a-to-i-editing-in-human-and-non-human-primate-brains-reveals-conserved-patterns-and-context-dependent-regulation-of-rna-editing
#8
Richard T O'Neil, Xiaojing Wang, Michael V Morabito, Ronald B Emeson
A-to-I RNA editing is an important process for generating molecular diversity in the brain through modification of transcripts encoding several proteins important for neuronal signaling. We investigated the relationships between the extent of editing at multiple substrate transcripts (5HT2C, MGLUR4, CADPS, GLUR2, GLUR4, and GABRA3) in brain tissue obtained from adult humans and rhesus macaques. Several patterns emerged from these studies revealing conservation of editing across primate species. Additionally, variability in the human population allows us to make novel inferences about the co-regulation of editing at different editing sites and even across different brain regions...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270169/molecules-in-pain-and-sex-a-developing-story
#9
REVIEW
Josiane C S Mapplebeck, Simon Beggs, Michael W Salter
Microglia are dynamic immune cells with diverse roles in maintaining homeostasis of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of microglia has been critically implicated in the genesis of neuropathic pain. Peripheral nerve injury, a common cause of neuropathic pain, engages microglia-neuronal signalling which causes disinhibition and facilitated excitation of spinal nociceptive pathways. However, recent literature indicates that the role of microglia in neuropathic pain is sexually dimorphic, and that female pain processing appears to be independent of microglia, depending rather on T cells...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253930/rapid-and-stable-changes-in-maturation-related-phenotypes-of-the-adult-hippocampal-neurons-by-electroconvulsive-treatment
#10
Yuki Imoto, Eri Segi-Nishida, Hidenori Suzuki, Katsunori Kobayashi
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and fast-acting treatment for depression. Despite a long history of clinical use, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Recently, a novel cellular mechanism of antidepressant action has been proposed: the phenotype of mature brain neurons is transformed to immature-like one by antidepressant drug treatments. We show here that electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS), an animal model of ECT, causes profound changes in maturation-related phenotypes of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mice...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196470/proteasome-impairment-in-neural-cells-derived-from-hmsn-p-patient-ipscs
#11
Nagahisa Murakami, Keiko Imamura, Yuishin Izumi, Naohiro Egawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Takuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji, Haruhisa Inoue
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a heterozygous mutation (P285L) in Tropomyosin-receptor kinase Fused Gene (TFG), histopathologically characterized by progressive spinal motor neuron loss with TFG cytosolic aggregates. Although the TFG protein, found as a type of fusion oncoprotein, is known to facilitate vesicle transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus at ER exit site, it is unclear how mutant TFG causes motor neuron degeneration...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173842/hypomethylation-of-intron1-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-gene-does-not-correlate-with-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Baggio A Evangelista, Susmita Ghosh, Sambuddha Basu, Yoon-Seong Kim
Deregulation of α-synuclein encoding gene (SNCA) is one of the important facets of Parkinson's disease (PD) research. DNA methylation status of SNCA-intron1 has been shown to regulate the α-synuclein expression. The present study is aimed at investigating whether methylation of SNCA-intron1 is associated with higher expression of α-synuclein in PD. We have investigated the intron1 methylation status from 16 post-mortem brain samples comprised of 8 PD and 8 control subjects using bisulfite sequencing. We further correlated this methylation status with α-synuclein protein levels in substantia nigra of that individual using western blot analysis...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148298/tbk1-a-new-player-in-als-linking-autophagy-and-neuroinflammation
#13
REVIEW
James A Oakes, Maria C Davies, Mark O Collins
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons, resulting in progressive muscle weakness and death by respiratory failure. Protein and RNA aggregates are a hallmark of ALS pathology and are thought to contribute to ALS by impairing axonal transport. Mutations in several genes known to contribute to ALS result in deposition of their protein products as aggregates; these include TARDBP, C9ORF72, and SOD1. In motor neurons, this can disrupt transport of mitochondria to areas of metabolic need, resulting in damage to cells and can elicit a neuroinflammatory response leading to further neuronal damage...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137266/the-neurotoxicity-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-oligomers-is-reversible-in-a-primary-neuron-model
#14
Daisuke Tanokashira, Naomi Mamada, Fumiko Yamamoto, Kaori Taniguchi, Akira Tamaoka, Madepalli K Lakshmana, Wataru Araki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Recent evidence suggests that soluble Aβ oligomers elicit neurotoxicity and synaptotoxicity, including tau abnormalities, and play an initiating role in the development of AD pathology. In this study, we focused on the unclarified issue of whether the neurotoxicity of Aβ oligomers is a reversible process. Using a primary neuron culture model, we examined whether the neurotoxic effects induced by 2-day treatment with Aβ42 oligomers (Aβ-O) are reversible during a subsequent 2-day withdrawal period...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069030/acute-stress-enhances-the-glutamatergic-transmission-onto-basoamygdala-neurons-embedded-in-distinct-microcircuits
#15
Chen Song, Wen-Hua Zhang, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Li Tian, Xiao-Ping Yin, Bing-Xing Pan
Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are integrated into distinct microcircuits and thus play divergent roles in amygdala-related behaviors. It remains unknown how stress regulates the individual amygdala PNs embedded in distinct microcircuits. Here, by using retrograde tracing and electrophysiological recording in in vitro slices, we explored the modulation of acute immobilization stress (AIS) on the basoamygdala (BA) PNs projecting either to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or elsewhere, which we designated as BA-mPFC and non-BA-mPFC PNs respectively...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057021/treatment-of-intermittent-hypoxia-increases-phosphorylated-tau-in-the-hippocampus-via-biological-processes-common-to-aging
#16
Sosuke Yagishita, Seiya Suzuki, Keisuke Yoshikawa, Keiko Iida, Ayako Hirata, Masahiko Suzuki, Akihiko Takashima, Kei Maruyama, Akira Hirasawa, Takeo Awaji
Sleep-disordered breathing produces cognitive impairments, and is possibly associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Intermittent hypoxia treatment (IHT), an experimental model for sleep-disordered breathing, results in cognitive impairments in animals via unknown mechanisms. Here, we exposed mice to IHT protocols, and performed biochemical analyses and microarray analyses regarding their hippocampal samples. In particular, we performed gene ontology (GO)-based microarray analysis to elucidate effects of IHT on hippocampal functioning, which were compared with the effects of various previously-reported experimental conditions on that (ref...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052764/tat-hsp22-inhibits-oxidative-stress-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-cell-death-by-regulation-of-the-mitochondrial-pathway
#17
Hyo Sang Jo, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Su Bin Cho, Jung Hwan Park, Chi Hern Lee, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Eun Jeong Sohn, Ora Son, Sung-Woo Cho, Duk-Soo Kim, Yeon Hee Yu, Keun Wook Lee, Jinseu Park, Won Sik Eum, Soo Young Choi
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of various neuronal diseases including ischemia. Heat shock protein 22 (HSP22) is known to protect cells against oxidative stress. However, the protective effects and mechanisms of HSP22 in hippocampal neuronal cells under oxidative stress remain unknown. In this study, we determined whether HSP22 protects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in HT-22 using Tat-HSP22 fusion protein. We found that Tat-HSP22 transduced into HT-22 cells and that H2O2-induced cell death, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were significantly reduced by Tat-HSP22...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998287/the-thalamic-mglur1-plc%C3%AE-4-pathway-is-critical-in-sleep-architecture
#18
Joohyeon Hong, Jungryun Lee, Kiyeong Song, Go Eun Ha, Yong Ryoul Yang, Ji Su Ma, Masahiro Yamamoto, Hee-Sup Shin, Pann-Ghill Suh, Eunji Cheong
The transition from wakefulness to a nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep state at the onset of sleep involves a transition from low-voltage, high-frequency irregular electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms to large-amplitude, low-frequency EEG waveforms accompanying synchronized oscillatory activity in the thalamocortical circuit. The thalamocortical circuit consists of reciprocal connections between the thalamus and cortex. The cortex sends strong excitatory feedback to the thalamus, however the function of which is unclear...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986089/the-anti-inflammatory-role-of-extranuclear-apurinic-apyrimidinic-endonuclease-1-redox-effector-factor-1-in-reactive-astrocytes
#19
Hyunjung Baek, Chae Seong Lim, Hee Sun Byun, Hyun Sil Cho, Yu Ran Lee, Yong Sup Shin, Hyun-Woo Kim, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Dong Woon Kim, Jinpyo Hong, Gang Min Hur, Jin Bong Park
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a ubiquitous multipurpose protein, is also known as redox effector factor-1 (Ref-1). It is involved in DNA repair and redox signaling and, in turn, oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. Although previous studies have demonstrated that APE1/Ref-1 functions as a negative regulator of inflammatory response via several mechanisms in neuronal cells, little is known about the roles of APE1/Ref-1 in glial cells. In this study, we found that cytoplasmic APE1/Ref-1 expression was upregulated in reactive astrocytes of the kainic acid- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected hippocampus...
December 16, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964758/expression-of-acid-sensing-ion-channels-and-selection-of-reference-genes-in-mouse-and-naked-mole-rat
#20
Laura-Nadine Schuhmacher, Ewan St John Smith
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Brain
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