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Molecular Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233183/restoring-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-pkr-inhibition
#1
Kyoung-Doo Hwang, Myeong Seong Bak, Sang Jeong Kim, Sangmyung Rhee, Yong-Seok Lee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity. While accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hyper-phosphorylation of tau are parts of the etiology, AD can be caused by a large number of different genetic mutations and other unknown factors. Considering such a heterogeneous nature of AD, it would be desirable to develop treatment strategies that can improve memory irrespective of the individual causes. Reducing the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) was shown to enhance long-term memory and synaptic plasticity in naïve mice...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233179/immature-morphological-properties-in-subcellular-scale-structures-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-schnurri-2-knockout-mice-a-model-for-schizophrenia-and-intellectual-disability
#2
Akito Nakao, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Koji Ohira, Hideo Hagihara, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Nobuteru Usuda, Shunsuke Ishii, Kazuyoshi Murata, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
Accumulating evidence suggests that subcellular-scale structures such as dendritic spine and mitochondria may be involved in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Previously, we proposed mice lacking Schnurri-2 (Shn2; also called major histocompatibility complex [MHC]-binding protein 2 [MBP-2], or human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein 2 [HIVEP2]) as a schizophrenia and intellectual disability model with mild chronic inflammation. In the mutants' brains, there are increases in C4b and C1q genes, which are considered to mediate synapse elimination during postnatal development...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221469/correction-to-the-role-of-melatonin-in-the-onset-and-progression-of-type-3-diabetes
#3
Juhyun Song, Daniel J Whitcomb, Byeong C Kim
MOLECULAR BRAIN (2017) 10:35 DOI: 10.1186/S13041-017-0315-X: In the original version of this article [1], published on 1 August 2017, Fig. 3 contains a typo. In this Correction the incorrect and correct version of Fig. 3 are shown. - Fig. 3 was originally published like this: - The correct version of Fig. 3 looks like this.
December 8, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202853/increased-pkm%C3%AE-activity-impedes-lateral-movement-of-glua2-containing-ampa-receptors
#4
Nam-Kyung Yu, Heesoo Uhm, Jaehoon Shim, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Sangsu Bae, Todd Charlton Sacktor, Sungchul Hohng, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ), a constitutively active, atypical protein kinase C isoform, maintains a high level of expression in the brain after the induction of learning and long-term potentiation (LTP). Further, its overexpression enhances long-term memory and LTP. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest a significant role for persistently elevated PKMζ levels in long-term memory. The molecular mechanisms of how synaptic properties are regulated by the increase in PKMζ, however, are still largely unknown...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187220/genomic-copy-number-variation-analysis-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#5
Yuka Hama, Masataka Katsu, Ichigaku Takigawa, Ichiro Yabe, Masaaki Matsushima, Ikuko Takahashi, Takayuki Katayama, Jun Utsumi, Hidenao Sasaki
Genomic variation includes single-nucleotide variants, small insertions or deletions (indels), and copy number variants (CNVs). CNVs affect gene expression by altering the genome structure and transposable elements within a region. CNVs are greater than 1 kb in size; hence, CNVs can produce more variation than can individual single-nucleotide variations that are detected by next-generation sequencing. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an α-synucleinopathy adult-onset disorder. Pathologically, it is characterized by insoluble aggregation of filamentous α-synuclein in brain oligodendrocytes...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187215/criteria-for-identifying-the-molecular-basis-of-the-engram-camkii-pkmzeta
#6
REVIEW
John Lisman
The engram refers to the molecular changes by which a memory is stored in the brain. Substantial evidence suggests that memory involves learning-dependent changes at synapses, a process termed long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, understanding the storages process that underlies LTP may provide insight into how the engram is stored. LTP involves induction, maintenance (storage), and expression sub-processes; special tests are required to specifically reveal properties of the storage process. The strongest of these is the Erasure test in which a transiently applied agent that attacks a putative storage molecule may lead to persistent erasure of previously induced LTP/memory...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183391/oxidative-stress-and-cellular-pathologies-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Lesly Puspita, Sun Young Chung, Jae-Won Shim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. The reason for the death of these neurons is unclear; however, studies have demonstrated the potential involvement of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, α-synuclein or dopamine levels in contributing to cellular oxidative stress as well as PD symptoms. Even though those papers had separately described the individual roles of each element leading to neurodegeneration, recent publications suggest that neurodegeneration is the product of various cellular interactions...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137683/tanshinone-i-alleviates-motor-and-cognitive-impairments-via-suppressing-oxidative-stress-in-the-neonatal-rats-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#8
Chunfang Dai, Yannan Liu, Zhifang Dong
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is one of the main reasons that cause neuronal damage and neonatal death. Several studies have shown that tanshinone I (TsI), one of the major ingredients of Danshen, exerts potential neuroprotective effect in adult mice exposed to permanent left cerebral ischemia. However, it is unclear whether administration of TsI has neuroprotective effect on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and if so, the potential mechanisms also remain unclear. Here, we reported that treatment with TsI (5 mg/kg, i...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121962/direct-interaction-with-14-3-3%C3%AE-promotes-surface-expression-of-best1-channel-in-astrocyte
#9
Soo-Jin Oh, Junsung Woo, Young-Sun Lee, Minhee Cho, Eunju Kim, Nam-Chul Cho, Jae-Yong Park, Ae Nim Pae, C Justin Lee, Eun Mi Hwang
BACKGROUND: Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel (CAAC) that is expressed broadly in mammalian tissues including the brain. We have previously reported that Best1 is expressed in hippocampal astrocytes at the distal peri-synaptic regions, called microdomains, right next to synaptic junctions, and that it disappears from the microdomains in Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Although Best1 appears to be dynamically regulated, the mechanism of its regulation and modulation is poorly understood...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084578/mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-is-necessary-for-changes-in-dendritic-spine-morphology-associated-with-long-term-potentiation
#10
Fredrick E Henry, William Hockeimer, Alex Chen, Shreesh P Mysore, Michael A Sutton
Alterations in the strength of excitatory synapses in the hippocampus is believed to serve a vital function in the storage and recall of new information in the mammalian brain. These alterations involve the regulation of both functional and morphological features of dendritic spines, the principal sites of excitatory synaptic contact. New protein synthesis has been implicated extensively in the functional changes observed following long-term potentiation (LTP), and changes to spine morphology have similarly been documented extensively following synaptic potentiation...
October 30, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037208/light-dark-phase-dependent-spontaneous-activity-is-maintained-in-dopamine-deficient-mice
#11
Masayo Fujita, Yoko Hagino, Taishi Takeda, Shinya Kasai, Miho Tanaka, Yukio Takamatsu, Kazuto Kobayashi, Kazutaka Ikeda
Dopamine is important for motor control and involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm. We previously found that dopamine-deficient (DD) mice became hyperactive in a novel environment 72 h after the last injection of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) when dopamine was almost completely depleted. DD mice did not initially exhibit hyperactivity in their home cages, but the animals exhibited hyperactivity several hours after the last L-DOPA injection. The regulation of motor activity in a novel environment and in home cages may be different...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985749/correction-to-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-lrrk2-phosphorylates-p53-and-induces-p21-waf1-cip1-expression
#12
Dong Hwan Ho, Hyejung Kim, Jisun Kim, Hyuna Sim, Hyunjun Ahn, Janghwan Kim, Hyemyung Seo, Kwang Chul Chung, Bum-Joon Park, Ilhong Son, Wongi Seol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982363/abnormalities-in-perineuronal-nets-and-behavior-in-mice-lacking-csgalnact1-a-key-enzyme-in-chondroitin-sulfate-synthesis
#13
Nozomu Yoshioka, Shinji Miyata, Atsushi Tamada, Yumi Watanabe, Asami Kawasaki, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Kosei Takeuchi, Michihiro Igarashi
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an important glycosaminoglycan and is mainly found in the extracellular matrix as CS proteoglycans. In the brain, CS proteoglycans are highly concentrated in perineuronal nets (PNNs), which surround synapses and modulate their functions. To investigate the importance of CS, we produced and precisely examined mice that were deficient in the CS synthesizing enzyme, CSGalNAcT1 (T1KO). Biochemical analysis of T1KO revealed that loss of this enzyme reduced the amount of CS by approximately 50% in various brain regions...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969660/novel-mir-b2122-regulates-several-als-related-rna-binding-proteins
#14
Zachary C E Hawley, Danae Campos-Melo, Michael J Strong
Common pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) include cytoplasmic aggregation of several RNA-binding proteins. Out of these RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43, FUS/TLS and RGNEF have been shown to co-aggregate with one another within motor neurons of sporadic ALS (sALS) patients, suggesting that there may be a common regulatory network disrupted. MiRNAs have been a recent focus in ALS research as they have been identified to be globally down-regulated in the spinal cord of ALS patients. The objective of this study was to identify if there are miRNA(s) dysregulated in sALS that are responsible for regulating the TDP-43, FUS/TLS and RGNEF network...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#15
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870222/general-anesthetics-protects-against-cardiac-arrest-induced-brain-injury-by-inhibiting-calcium-wave-propagation-in-zebrafish
#16
Dao-Jie Xu, Bin Wang, Xuan Zhao, Yi Zheng, Jiu-Lin Du, Ying-Wei Wang
Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although many victims are initially resuscitated, they often suffer from serious brain injury, even leading to a "persistent vegetative state". Therefore, it is need to explore therapies which restore and protect brain function after cardiac arrest. In the present study, using Tg (HuC:GCaMP5) zebrafish as a model, we found the zebrafish brain generated a burst of Ca(2+) wave after cardiac arrest by in vivo time-lapse confocal imaging. The Ca(2+) wave was firstly initiated at hindbrain and then sequentially propagated to midbrain and telencephalon, the neuron displayed Ca(2+) overload after Ca(2+) wave propagation...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870203/the-dlgap-family-neuronal-expression-function-and-role-in-brain-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Andreas H Rasmussen, Hanne B Rasmussen, Asli Silahtaroglu
The neurotransmitter glutamate facilitates neuronal signalling at excitatory synapses. Glutamate is released from the presynaptic membrane into the synaptic cleft. Across the synaptic cleft glutamate binds to both ion channels and metabotropic glutamate receptors at the postsynapse, which expedite downstream signalling in the neuron. The postsynaptic density, a highly specialized matrix, which is attached to the postsynaptic membrane, controls this downstream signalling. The postsynaptic density also resets the synapse after each synaptic firing...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865483/suppression-of-cortical-seizures-by-optic-stimulation-of-the-reticular-thalamus-in-pv-mhchr2-yfp-bac-transgenic-mice
#18
Wei Jen Chang, Wei Pang Chang, Bai Chuang Shyu
Deep brain stimulation in thalamic regions has been proposed as a treatment for epilepsy. The electrical current excites thalamocortical activity which is controlled by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRT). Previous studies showed that enhancing GABAergic inhibitory strength in the nRT reduces the duration and power of seizures, indicating that the thalamus plays an important role in modulating cortical seizures. The aim of the present study was to apply optogenetics to study the role of the nRT in modulating cortical seizures...
September 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851405/the-erm-protein-moesin-is-essential-for-neuronal-morphogenesis-and-long-term-memory-in-drosophila
#19
Patrick S Freymuth, Helen L Fitzsimons
Moesin is a cytoskeletal adaptor protein that plays an important role in modification of the actin cytoskeleton. Rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton drives both neuronal morphogenesis and the structural changes in neurons that are required for long-term memory formation. Moesin has been identified as a candidate memory gene in Drosophila, however, whether it is required for memory formation has not been evaluated. Here, we investigate the role of Moesin in neuronal morphogenesis and in short- and long-term memory formation in the courtship suppression assay, a model of associative memory...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851400/hiv-associated-synaptic-degeneration
#20
REVIEW
Wenjuan Ru, Shao-Jun Tang
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induces neuronal injuries, with almost 50% of infected individuals developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although highly activate antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced the incidence of severe dementia, the overall prevalence of HAND remains high. Synaptic degeneration is emerging as one of the most relevant neuropathologies associate with HAND. Previous studies have reported critical roles of viral proteins and inflammatory responses in this pathogenesis...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
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