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Molecular Brain

Jing-Shan Lu, Qi-Yu Chen, Sibo Zhou, Kaoru Inokuchi, Min Zhuo
Human and animal studies indicate that some brain regions are activated during painful and pleasant situations, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In the present study, we wanted to determine if some of the same neurons in the ACC may be activated by both pain and pleasure. We labeled neurons activated by two stimuli by using two immediate early genes (IEGs), Arc and Homer1a, and detected the intranuclear transcription of the IEG mRNA in situ. We found that there are double-labeling neurons in the ACC after the mice received pain and sexual attraction stimulation...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Brain
Chunmei Jin, Hyojin Kang, Shinhyun Kim, Yinhua Zhang, Yeunkum Lee, Yoonhee Kim, Kihoon Han
Various mutations in the SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) gene are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus far, synaptic abnormalities in multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and ventral tegmental area, have been investigated in several lines of Shank3 mutant mice. However, although some reports have shown loss and gain of body weight in Shank3 knock-out and overexpressing transgenic (TG) mice, respectively, the potential functions of Shank3 in the hypothalamus, a brain region critically involved in energy intake and expenditure, are unknown...
November 27, 2018: Molecular Brain
Jongjin Lee, Sangjun Park, Sungchul Hohng
Recent development of FRET-PAINT microscopy significantly improved the imaging speed of DNA-PAINT, the previously reported super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with no photobleaching problem. Here we try to achieve the ultimate speed limit of FRET-PAINT by optimizing the camera speed, dissociation rate of DNA probes, and bleed-through of the donor signal to the acceptor channel, and further increase the imaging speed of FRET-PAINT by 8-fold. Super-resolution imaging of COS-7 microtubules shows that high-quality 40-nm resolution images can be obtained in just tens of seconds...
November 22, 2018: Molecular Brain
James R Tribble, Pete A Williams, Bruce Caterson, Frank Sengpiel, James E Morgan
Retinal ganglion cell dendritic atrophy is an early feature of glaucoma, and the recovery of retinal ganglion cell dendrites is a viable option for vision improvement in glaucoma. Retinal ganglion cell neurites are surrounded by a specialised glycosaminoglycan extracellular matrix which inhibits dendritic plasticity. Since digestion of the extracellular matrix by chondroitinase ABC has been reported to have neuro-regenerative and neuro-plastic effects within the central nervous system, we explored its potential for dendritic recovery in a rat model of ocular hypertension...
November 21, 2018: Molecular Brain
Catherine Fleitas, Gerard Piñol-Ripoll, Pau Marfull, Daniel Rocandio, Isidro Ferrer, Claire Rampon, Joaquim Egea, Carme Espinet
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex pathology related to multiple causes including oxidative stress. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neutrotrophic factor essential for the survival and differentiation of neurons and is considered a key target in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases, as for example AD. Contrarily to BDNF, the precursor form of BDNF (proBDNF) induces apoptosis through the specific interaction with p75 and its co-receptor, Sortilin.We used hippocampal tissue and cerebrospinal fluid from AD patients and controls...
November 14, 2018: Molecular Brain
Weonjin Yu, Jong-Woo Sohn, Jaehan Kwon, Suk-Ho Lee, Sooyun Kim, Won-Kyung Ho
Timing and temporal precision of action potential generation are thought to be important for encoding of information in the brain. The ability of single neurons to transform their input into output action potential is primarily determined by intrinsic excitability. Particularly, plastic changes in intrinsic excitability represent the cellular substrate for spatial memory formation in CA1 pyramidal neurons (CA1-PNs). Here, we report that synaptically activated mGluR5-signaling can modulate the intrinsic excitability of CA1-PNs...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
Terence K Y Lai, Ping Su, Hailong Zhang, Fang Liu
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive disorder characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, working memory deficits and impulsivity. Its worldwide prevalence is estimated to be 3-5% in children and adolescents. The mainstay treatment for ADHD is stimulant medications (e.g. methylphenidate), which increase synaptic dopamine by directly blocking dopamine transporter (DAT). Although these pharmacological agents are effective, they are often associated with various side effects including risks for future substance use disorders in ADHD patients...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
Adan Hernandez, Chunfeng Tan, Florian Plattner, Aric F Logsdon, Karine Pozo, Mohammad A Yousuf, Tanvir Singh, Ryan C Turner, Brandon P Luke-Wold, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen, James A Bibb
Direct or indirect exposure to an explosion can induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) of various severity levels. Primary TBI from blast exposure is commonly characterized by internal injuries, such as vascular damage, neuronal injury, and contusion, without external injuries. Current animal models of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) have helped to understand the deleterious effects of moderate to severe blast forces. However, the neurological effects of mild blast forces remain poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effects caused by mild blast forces combining neuropathological, histological, biochemical and neurophysiological analysis...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
Nathalie Lombaert, Maroussia Hennes, Sara Gilissen, Giel Schevenels, Laetitia Aerts, Ria Vanlaer, Lieve Geenen, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Julie Nys, Lutgarde Arckens
Visual cortical areas show enhanced tactile responses in blind individuals, resulting in improved behavioral performance. Induction of unilateral vision loss in adult mice, by monocular enucleation (ME), is a validated model for such cross-modal brain plasticity. A delayed whisker-driven take-over of the medial monocular zone of the visual cortex is preceded by so-called unimodal plasticity, involving the potentiation of the spared-eye inputs in the binocular cortical territory. Full reactivation of the sensory-deprived contralateral visual cortex is accomplished by 7 weeks post-injury...
November 6, 2018: Molecular Brain
Tayo Katano, Keizo Takao, Manabu Abe, Maya Yamazaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Kenji Sakimura, Seiji Ito
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK)-interacting protein 1 (Caskin1) is a direct binding partner of the synaptic adaptor protein CASK. Because Caskin1 forms homo-multimers and binds not only CASK but also other neuronal proteins in vitro, it is anticipated to have neural functions; but its exact role in mammals remains unclear. Previously, we showed that the concentration of Caskin1 in the spinal dorsal horn increases under chronic pain. To characterize this protein, we generated Caskin1-knockout (Caskin1-KO) mice and specific anti-Caskin1 antibodies...
October 25, 2018: Molecular Brain
Sun Huang, Lina Chen, Chris Bladen, Peter K Stys, Gerald W Zamponi
N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are two major types of ionotropic glutamate receptors involved in synaptic transmission. However, excessive activity of these receptors can be cytotoxic and thus their function must be precisely controlled. We have previously reported that NMDA receptor activity is dysregulated following genetic knockout of cellular prion protein (PrPC ), and that PrPC regulation of NMDA receptors is copper-dependent...
October 25, 2018: Molecular Brain
Yasuha Noda, Akira Kuzuya, Kyousuke Tanigawa, Mitsugu Araki, Ryoko Kawai, Biao Ma, Yoko Sasakura, Masato Maesako, Yoshitaka Tashiro, Masakazu Miyamoto, Kengo Uemura, Yasushi Okuno, Ayae Kinoshita
The deposition of Amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) is detected at an earlier stage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Thus, the approach toward Aβ metabolism is considered to play a critical role in the onset and progression of AD. Mounting evidence suggests that lifestyle-related diseases are closely associated with AD, and exercise is especially linked to the prevention and the delayed progression of AD. We previously showed that exercise is more effective than diet control against Aβ pathology and cognitive deficit in AD mice fed a high-fat diet; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood...
October 24, 2018: Molecular Brain
Vinicius M Gadotti, Gerald W Zamponi
Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels are important for the signaling of nociceptive information in the primary afferent pain pathway. During neuropathy and peripheral inflammation, Cav3.2 channels are upregulated due to an increased association with the deubiquitinase USP5. Disrupting these interactions in male mice by the use of cell permeant peptides reverses mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Here we explore the effects of interfering with USP5 binding to the channel in female mice with synchronized estrous cycle...
October 19, 2018: Molecular Brain
Jing Liu, Lili Tong, Shuangshuang Song, Yue Niu, Jun Li, Xiu Wu, Jie Zhang, Clement C Zai, Fang Luo, Jian Wu, Haiyin Li, Albert H C Wong, Ruopeng Sun, Fang Liu, Baomin Li
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that one of the authors' names is spelled incorrectly.
October 16, 2018: Molecular Brain
Chunmei Jin, Yinhua Zhang, Shinhyun Kim, Yoonhee Kim, Yeunkum Lee, Kihoon Han
The SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) gene encodes core scaffolds in neuronal excitatory postsynapses. SHANK3 duplications have been identified in patients with hyperkinetic disorders and early-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Consistently, Shank3 transgenic (TG) mice, which mildly overexpress Shank3 proteins exhibit hyperkinetic behavior and spontaneous seizures. However, the seizure phenotype of Shank3 TG mice has only been investigated in adults of the seizure-sensitive strain FVB/N...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Brain
Ruixia Zhu, Xu Liu, Zhiyi He
Objectives Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as key regulators in the development of atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of ischemic stroke. However, to date, there are no reports on the association between lncRNA gene variation and the risk of ischemic stroke. Therefore, we assessed the association between H19 and MALAT1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to ischemic stroke in a northern Chinese Han population. Methods In our study, we genotyped four genetic variations in lncRNA-H19 and -MALAT1 (rs217727, rs2251375, rs619586, and rs3200401) in a case-control study of 567 ischemic stroke patients and 552 control subjects...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Brain
Katsunori Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Shunsuke Ishii, Hidenori Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus has been implicated in the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. We have identified several mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders with robust molecular and functional defects in the dentate gyrus. Among them, mice lacking Schnurri-2 (Shn2 or HIVEP2) have been proposed as a model of schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Shn2 knockout mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities resembling symptoms of schizophrenia and HIVEP2-related intellectual disability as well as marked functional alterations in the soma and output synapse of the dentate granule cells (GCs)...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Brain
Tzu-Hao Harry Chao, Jyh-Horng Chen, Chen-Tung Yen
Neuropathic pain is a major worldwide health problem. Although central sensitization has been reported in well-established neuropathic conditions, information on the acute brain activation patterns in response to peripheral nerve injury is lacking. This study first mapped the brain activity in rats immediately following spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve. Using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), we observed sustained activation in the bilateral insular cortices (ICs), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and cingulate cortex...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Brain
Shuang Qiu, Yu Wu, Xinyou Lv, Xia Li, Min Zhuo, Kohei Koga
Fragile X syndrome is caused by the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Kainate receptor (KAR) is a subfamily of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR) that acts mainly as a neuromodulator of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. However, little is known about the changes of synaptic KAR in the cortical area of Fmr1 KO mice. In this study, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in the insular cortex of Fmr1 KO mice. We found that KARs mediated currents were reduced in Fmr1 KO mice...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Brain
Karen M Jiménez, Angela J Pereira-Morales, Ana Adan, Sandra Lopez-Leon, Diego A Forero
Genetic studies of major depressive disorder and its associated endophenotypes are useful for the identification of candidate genes. In recent years, variations in non-coding RNA genes, such as miRNAs, have been explored as novel candidates for psychiatric disorders and related endophenotypes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between a functional polymorphism (rs12720208) in the FGF20 gene, which regulates its modulation by miR-433, and depressive symptoms in young adults...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Brain
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