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Molecular Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661253/activity-dependent-decrease-in-contact-areas-between-subsurface-cisterns-and-plasma-membrane-of-hippocampal-neurons
#1
Jung-Hwa Tao-Cheng
Subsurface cistern (SSC) in neuronal soma and primary dendrites is a specialized compartment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is in close apposition (10 nm) with the plasma membrane (PM). ER-PM contact areas are thought to be involved in intracellular calcium regulation. Here, structural changes of SSC in hippocampal neurons were examined by electron microscopy upon depolarization with high K+ (90 mM) or application of NMDA (50 μM) in rat dissociated cultures as well as organotypic slice cultures. The number and average length of SSC-PM contact areas in neuronal somas significantly decreased within 30 s under excitatory condition...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650024/vglut1-or-vglut2-mrna-positive-neurons-in-spinal-trigeminal-nucleus-provide-collateral-projections-to-both-the-thalamus-and-the-parabrachial-nucleus-in-rats
#2
Chun-Kui Zhang, Zhi-Hong Li, Yu Qiao, Ting Zhang, Ya-Cheng Lu, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Yun-Qing Li, Jin-Lian Li
The trigemino-thalamic (T-T) and trigemino-parabrachial (T-P) pathways are strongly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and affective/emotional aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. These T-T and T-P projection fibers originate from the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vsp). We previously determined that many vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1 and/or VGLUT2) mRNA-positive neurons were distributed in the Vsp of the adult rat, and most of these neurons sent their axons to the thalamus or cerebellum. However, whether VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 mRNA-positive projection neurons exist that send their axons to both the thalamus and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) has not been reported...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636075/identification-of-lncrna-expression-profiles-and-cerna-analysis-in-the-spinal-cord-of-morphine-tolerant-rats
#3
Jiali Shao, Jian Wang, Jiangju Huang, Chang Liu, Yundan Pan, Qulian Guo, Wangyuan Zou
Morphine tolerance is a challenging clinical problem that limits the use of morphine in pain treatment, but the mechanisms of morphine tolerance remain unclear. Recent research indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) might be a novel and promising target in the pathogeneses of diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that lncRNAs might play a role in the development of morphine tolerance. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intrathecally injected with 10 μg morphine twice daily for 7 consecutive days. The animals were then sacrificed for lncRNA microarray tests, and the results were validated by RT-qPCR...
April 10, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631635/autophagy-is-increased-following-either-pharmacological-or-genetic-silencing-of-mglur5-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-models
#4
Khaled S Abd-Elrahman, Alison Hamilton, Maryam Vasefi, Stephen S G Ferguson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neurotoxicity mediated by the accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, causing neuronal loss and progressive cognitive decline. Genetic deletion or chronic pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 by the negative allosteric modulator CTEP, rescues cognitive function and reduces Aβ aggregation in both APPswe/PS1ΔE9 and 3xTg-AD mouse models of AD. In late onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD, defects arise at different stages of the autophagy pathway. Here, we show that mGluR5 cell surface expression is elevated in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 and 3xTg-AD mice...
April 10, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631601/biological-function-of-lemur-tyrosine-kinase-2-lmtk2-implications-in-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
János Bencze, Gábor Miklós Mórotz, Woosung Seo, Viktor Bencs, János Kálmán, Christopher Charles John Miller, Tibor Hortobágyi
Neurodegenerative disorders are frequent, incurable diseases characterised by abnormal protein accumulation and progressive neuronal loss. Despite their growing prevalence, the underlying pathomechanism remains unclear. Lemur tyrosine kinase 2 (LMTK2) is a member of a transmembrane serine/threonine-protein kinase family. Although it was described more than a decade ago, our knowledge on LMTK2's biological functions is still insufficient. Recent evidence has suggested that LMTK2 is implicated in neurodegeneration...
April 10, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551090/early-life-stress-depression-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-new-approach
#6
REVIEW
Ernest Dallé, Musa V Mabandla
This review aims to shed light on the relationship that involves exposure to early life stress, depression and Parkinson's disease (PD). A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed, MEDLINE, EBSCOHost and Google Scholar and relevant data were submitted to a meta-analysis . Early life stress may contribute to the development of depression and patients with depression are at risk of developing PD later in life. Depression is a common non-motor symptom preceding motor symptoms in PD. Stimulation of regions contiguous to the substantia nigra as well as dopamine (DA) agonists have been shown to be able to attenuate depression...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544505/superresolution-fluorescence-microscopy-for-3d-reconstruction-of-thick-samples
#7
Sangjun Park, Wooyoung Kang, Yeong-Dae Kwon, Jaehoon Shim, Siyong Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Sungchul Hohng
Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of thick samples using superresolution fluorescence microscopy remains challenging due to high level of background noise and fast photobleaching of fluorescence probes. We develop superresolution fluorescence microscopy that can reconstruct 3D structures of thick samples with both high localization accuracy and no photobleaching problem. The background noise is reduced by optically sectioning the sample using line-scan confocal microscopy, and the photobleaching problem is overcome by using the DNA-PAINT (Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography)...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540218/duox-mediates-ultraviolet-injury-induced-nociceptive-sensitization-in-drosophila-larvae
#8
Wijeong Jang, Minwoo Baek, Yeon Soo Han, Changsoo Kim
BACKGROUND: Nociceptive sensitization is an increase in pain perception in response to stimulus. Following brief irradiation of Drosophila larvae with UV, nociceptive sensitization occurs in class IV multiple dendritic (mdIV) neurons, which are polymodal sensory nociceptors. Diverse signaling pathways have been identified that mediate nociceptive sensitization in mdIV neurons, including TNF, Hedgehog, BMP, and Tachykinin, yet the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. RESULTS: Here we report that duox heterozygous mutant larvae, which have normal basal nociception, exhibit an attenuated hypersensitivity response to heat and mechanical force following UV irradiation...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534734/vitamin-a-bio-modulates-apoptosis-via-the-mitochondrial-pathway-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#9
Wei Jiang, Min Guo, Min Gong, Li Chen, Yang Bi, Yun Zhang, Yuan Shi, Ping Qu, Youxue Liu, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li
Our previous studies demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can impair the postnatal cognitive function of rats by damaging the hippocampus. The present study examined the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on apoptosis induced by hypoxic-ischemic damage in vivo and in vitro, and investigated the possible signaling pathway involved in the neuroprotective anti-apoptotic effects of RA. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining and behavioral tests were used to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of RA...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534733/targeting-nmda-receptors-in-stroke-new-hope-in-neuroprotection
#10
REVIEW
Qiu Jing Wu, Michael Tymianski
NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in excitotoxic neuronal death caused by ischemic stroke, but NMDAR channel blockers have failed to be translated into clinical stroke treatments. However, recent research on NMDAR-associated signaling complexes has identified important death-signaling pathways linked to NMDARs. This led to the generation of inhibitors that inhibit these pathways downstream from the receptor without necessarily blocking NMDARs. This therapeutic approach may have fewer side effects and/or provide a wider therapeutic window for stroke as compared to the receptor antagonists...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523177/inhibition-of-dream-atf6-interaction-delays-onset-of-cognition-deficit-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#11
Alejandro López-Hurtado, Daniel F Burgos, Paz González, Xose M Dopazo, Valentina González, Alberto Rábano, Britt Mellström, Jose R Naranjo
The transcriptional repressor DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a multifunctional neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) that controls Ca2+ and protein homeostasis through gene regulation and protein-protein interactions. Downregulation of DREAM is part of an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism that improves ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) processing, neuronal survival in the striatum, and motor coordination in R6/2 mice, a model of Huntington's disease (HD). Whether modulation of DREAM activity can also ameliorate cognition deficits in HD mice has not been studied...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506545/antidepressant-like-effects-of-translocator-protein-18-kda-ligand-zbd-2-in-mouse-models-of-postpartum-depression
#12
Xu-Bo Li, An Liu, Le Yang, Kun Zhang, Yu-Mei Wu, Ming-Gao Zhao, Shui-Bing Liu
The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is primarily localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid-synthesizing cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems. One of the protein's main functions is transporting substrate cholesterol into the mitochondria in a prerequisite process for steroid synthesis. Clinical trials have indicated that TSPO ligands might be valuable in treating some neuropathies and psychopathies. However, limited information is known about the role of TSPO in postpartum depression (PPD)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486776/tlr4-mediated-autophagic-impairment-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-in-chronic-constriction-injury-mice
#13
Yibo Piao, Do Hyeong Gwon, Dong-Wook Kang, Tae Woong Hwang, Nara Shin, Hyeok Hee Kwon, Hyo Jung Shin, Yuhua Yin, Jwa-Jin Kim, Jinpyo Hong, Hyun-Woo Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Sang Ryong Kim, Sang-Ha Oh, Dong Woon Kim
Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia, and spontaneous pain. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and autophagy are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, but their relationship and role in neuropathic pain remain unclear. In this study, we examined TLR4 and its association with autophagic activity using a chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain model in wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (KO) mice...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463281/soluble-a%C3%AE-1-42-increases-the-heterogeneity-in-synaptic-vesicle-pool-size-among-synapses-by-suppressing-intersynaptic-vesicle-sharing
#14
Daehun Park, Sunghoe Chang
Growing evidence has indicated that prefibrillar form of soluble amyloid beta (sAβ1-42 ) is the major causative factor in the synaptic dysfunction associated with AD. The molecular changes leading to presynaptic dysfunction caused by sAβ1-42 , however, still remains elusive. Recently, we found that sAβ1-42 inhibits chemically induced long-term potentiation-induced synaptogenesis by suppressing the intersynaptic vesicle trafficking through calcium (Ca2+ ) dependent hyperphosphorylation of synapsin and CaMKIV...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458391/down-regulation-of-ghrelin-receptors-on-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-substantia-nigra-contributes-to-parkinson-s-disease-like-motor-dysfunction
#15
Yukari Suda, Naoko Kuzumaki, Takefumi Sone, Michiko Narita, Kenichi Tanaka, Yusuke Hamada, Chizuru Iwasawa, Masahiro Shibasaki, Aya Maekawa, Miri Matsuo, Wado Akamatsu, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano, Minoru Narita
Ghrelin exerts a wide range of physiological actions throughout the body and appears to be a promising target for disease therapy. Endogenous ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) are present in extrahypothalamic sites including the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), which is related to phenotypic dysregulation or frank degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we found a dramatic decrease in the expression of GHSR in PD-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DAnergic) neurons generated from patients carrying parkin gene (PARK2) mutations compared to those from healthy controls...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439730/resolvin-d2-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#16
Gang Zuo, Dongping Zhang, Rutao Mu, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Zhong Wang, Haiying Li, Gang Chen
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a critical factor leading to a poor prognosis for ischemic stroke patients. ω-3 fatty acid supplements taken as part of a daily diet have been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with ischemic stroke. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential effects of resolvin D2 (RvD2), a derivative of ω-3 fatty acids, and its possible advantage on cerebral I/R injury in rats. Cerebral I/R caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) was established in Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426354/lentivirus-mediated-expression-of-human-secreted-amyloid-precursor-protein-alpha-prevents-development-of-memory-and-plasticity-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Valerie T Y Tan, Bruce G Mockett, Shane M Ohline, Karen D Parfitt, Hollie E Wicky, Katie Peppercorn, Lucia Schoderboeck, Mohamad Fairuz Bin Yahaya, Warren P Tate, Stephanie M Hughes, Wickliffe C Abraham
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease driven in large part by accumulated deposits in the brain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage product amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, AD is also characterised by reductions in secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα), an alternative cleavage product of APP. In contrast to the neurotoxicity of accumulated Αβ, sAPPα has many neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. Increasing sAPPα levels has the potential to serve as a therapeutic treatment that mitigates the effects of Aβ and rescue cognitive function...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426351/poly-arginine-r18-and-r18d-d-enantiomer-peptides-reduce-infarct-volume-and-improves-behavioural-outcomes-following-perinatal-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-in-the-p7-rat
#18
Adam B Edwards, Jane L Cross, Ryan S Anderton, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
We examined the neuroprotective efficacy of the poly-arginine peptide R18 and its D-enantiomer R18D in a perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) model in P7 Sprague-Dawley rats. R18 and R18D peptides were administered intraperitoneally at doses of 30, 100, 300 or 1000 nmol/kg immediately after HI (8% O2/92%N2 for 2.5 h). The previously characterised neuroprotective JNKI-1-TATD peptide at a dose of 1000 nmol/kg was used as a control. Infarct volume and behavioural outcomes were measured 48 h after HI. For the R18 and R18D doses examined, total infarct volume was reduced by 25...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394901/foxg1-deletion-impairs-the-development-of-the-epithalamus
#19
Bin Liu, Kaixing Zhou, Xiaojing Wu, Chunjie Zhao
The epithalamus, which is dorsal to the thalamus, consists of the habenula, pineal gland and third ventricle choroid plexus and plays important roles in the stress response and sleep-wake cycle in vertebrates. During development, the epithalamus arises from the most dorsal part of prosomere 2. However, the mechanism underlying epithalamic development remains largely unknown. Foxg1 is critical for the development of the telencephalon, but its role in diencephalic development has been under-investigated. Patients suffering from FOXG1-related disorders exhibit severe anxiety, sleep disturbance and choroid plexus cysts, indicating that Foxg1 likely plays a role in epithalamic development...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370841/expression-of-functional-inhibitory-neurotransmitter-transporters-glyt1-gat-1-and-gat-3-by-astrocytes-of-inferior-colliculus-and-hippocampus
#20
Elsa Ghirardini, Simon L Wadle, Vanessa Augustin, Jasmin Becker, Sina Brill, Julia Hammerich, Gerald Seifert, Jonathan Stephan
Neuronal inhibition is mediated by glycine and/or GABA. Inferior colliculus (IC) neurons receive glycinergic and GABAergic inputs, whereas inhibition in hippocampus (HC) predominantly relies on GABA. Astrocytes heterogeneously express neurotransmitter transporters and are expected to adapt to the local requirements regarding neurotransmitter homeostasis. Here we analyzed the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitter transporters in IC and HC astrocytes using whole-cell patch-clamp and single-cell reverse transcription-PCR...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Brain
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