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Journal of Neuropsychology

Elizabeth Shephard, Madeleine J Groom, Georgina M Jackson
Impaired habit-learning has been proposed to underlie the tic symptoms of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, accounts differ in terms of how habit-learning is altered in TS, with some authors proposing habit formation is impaired due to a deficient 'chunking' mechanism, and others proposing habit-learning is overactive and tics reflect hyperlearned behaviours. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with TS and is known to affect cognitive function in young people with co-occurring TS and ADHD (TS + ADHD)...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Roberta Perri, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo, Marco Monaco, Carlo Caltagirone, Gian Daniele Zannino
Experiments with semantic priming (SP) paradigms have documented early hypopriming in patients with AD when concepts are used as primes and attribute concept features as targets, suggesting that concept attributes are vulnerable to damage very early in the disease course. The aims of this study were to confirm early priming reduction in the attribute condition in patients with AD and to determine which of several semantic indexes (such as the level of distinctiveness, correlation or feature dominance of concept features) best predicts the priming effect size in AD...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Ferenc Kemény, Gyula Demeter, Mihály Racsmány, István Valálik, Ágnes Lukács
The striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been associated with deficits in skill learning in numerous studies, but some of the findings remain controversial. Our aim was to explore the generality of the learning deficit using two widely reported skill learning tasks in the same group of Parkinson's patients. Thirty-four patients with PD (mean age: 62.83 years, SD: 7.67) were compared to age-matched healthy adults. Two tasks were employed: the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRT), testing the learning of motor sequences, and the Weather Prediction (WP) task, testing non-sequential probabilistic category learning...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Bruno Rossion
The sudden inability to recognize individual faces following brain damage was first reported in a scientific journal 150 years ago and termed 'prosopagnosia' 70 years ago. While the term originally identified a face-selective neurological condition, it is now obscured by a sequence of imprecisions. First, prosopagnosia is routinely used to define symptoms of individual face recognition (IFR) difficulties in the context of visual object agnosia or other neurological conditions, or even in the normal population...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Cherie Strikwerda-Brown, Annu Mothakunnel, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
Autobiographical memory (ABM) is typically held to comprise episodic and semantic elements, with the vast majority of studies to date focusing on profiles of episodic details in health and disease. In this context, 'non-episodic' elements are often considered to reflect semantic processing or are discounted from analyses entirely. Mounting evidence suggests that rather than reflecting one unitary entity, semantic autobiographical information may contain discrete subcomponents, which vary in their relative degree of semantic or episodic content...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Margherita Bechi, Marco Spangaro, Giulia Agostoni, Francesca Bosinelli, Mariachiara Buonocore, Laura Bianchi, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Marta Bosia, Roberto Cavallaro
Intellectual abilities display high heterogeneity in patients with schizophrenia that might depend on the interaction among neurodevelopmental processes, environmental factors and neurocognitive decline. This study aimed to disentangle the interplay between intellectual level, cognitive status and each cognitive domain, with a focus on speed-related abilities, also including pre-morbid factors. In details, by means of cluster analysis, we identified both in global sample of 452 patients affected by schizophrenia and in a subsample with high pre-morbid functioning, different profiles based on current intellectual level and global cognitive status, analysing the distribution of deficits in each cognitive domains between groups...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Hannah E Thompson, Azizah Almaghyuli, Krist A Noonan, Ohr Barak, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies
Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Susannah Pick, John D C Mellers, Laura H Goldstein
People with dissociative seizures (DS) report a range of difficulties in emotional functioning and exhibit altered responding to emotional facial expressions in experimental tasks. We extended this research by investigating subjective and autonomic reactivity (ratings of emotional valence, arousal and skin conductance responses [SCRs]) to general emotional images in 39 people with DS relative to 42 healthy control participants, whilst controlling for anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning and, where relevant, medication use...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Judith Bek, Emma Gowen, Stefan Vogt, Trevor Crawford, Ellen Poliakoff
Observation of movement activates the observer's own motor system, influencing the performance of actions and facilitating social interaction. This motor resonance is demonstrated behaviourally through visuomotor priming, whereby response latencies are influenced by the compatibility between an intended action and an observed (task-irrelevant) action. The impact of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) on motor resonance is unclear, as previous studies of visuomotor priming have not separated imitative compatibility (specific to human movement) from general stimulus-response compatibility effects...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Trevor T-J Chong, Valerie Bonnelle, Kai-Riin Veromann, Julius Juurmaa, Pille Taba, Olivia Plant, Masud Husain
Methcathinone-induced Parkinsonism is a recently described extrapyramidal syndrome characterized by globus pallidus and substantia nigra lesions, which provides a unique model of basal ganglia dysfunction. We assessed motivated behaviour in this condition using a novel cost-benefit decision-making task, in which participants decided whether it was worth investing effort for reward. Patients showed a dissociation between reward and effort sensitivity, such that pallidonigral complex dysfunction caused them to become less sensitive to rewards, while normal sensitivity to effort costs was maintained...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Jurka R Meichtry, Dario Cazzoli, Silvia Chaves, Sebastian von Arx, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Roger Kalla, Claudio L Bassetti, Klemens Gutbrod, René M Müri
Goodale and Milner's two visual system hypothesis is an influential model for the understanding of the primate visual system. Lesions of either the ventral (occipito-temporal) or the dorsal (occipito-parietal) stream produce distinct and dissociated syndromes in humans: visual agnosia is typical for ventral damage, whereas optic ataxia (OA) for dorsal damage. We studied the case of a 59-year-old left-handed woman with a circumscribed lesion around the left posterior occipital sulcus, extending to the underlying white matter...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Dane A Rowley, Miles Rogish, Timothy Alexander, Kevin J Riggs
Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Giulia Prete, Mara Fabri, Nicoletta Foschi, Luca Tommasi
A right-hemispheric superiority in spatial encoding based on geometric cues has been largely documented in a variety of species, together with a left-hemispheric specialization for encoding based on landmarks. In humans, hemispheric asymmetries for spatial encoding have been little explored. In this study, we compared a patient with a complete callosal resection (D.D.C.) and a patient with a wide callosal resection saving the splenium (A.P.), with healthy participants. In two 2D versions of the 'reorientation task', participants were asked to find the target corner of a rectangle-shaped environment, by exploiting either geometric information alone or the combination of geometric and landmark information...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Maria Giovanna Lombardi, Roberta Perri, Lucia Fadda, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
INTRODUCTION: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) are deficient in storing memory traces relative to recollective forms of declarative memory. Controversial data have, instead, been reported concerning the storage of new memory traces relative to familiarity, with some studies reporting impairment and others sparing of the storage of this form of memory. No data have been reported concerning the consolidation of recollection and familiarity memory traces subsequent to their storage...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Katherine Osborne-Crowley, Skye McDonald
Acquired social disinhibition refers to a debilitating behavioural syndrome commonly reported after a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is characterized by inappropriate social behaviour, often described as immaturity and insensitivity towards others. These behaviours can have enduring effects on the social capability of the individual and their relationships with others. However, research into socially disinhibited behaviour after TBI has been thwarted by a lack of consensus in the literature on definition and measurement...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Jessica Simon, Christine Bastin, Eric Salmon, Sylvie Willems
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is now well established that recollection is impaired from the beginning of the disease, whereas findings are less clear concerning familiarity. One of the most important mechanisms underlying familiarity is the sense of familiarity driven by processing fluency. In this study, we attempted to attenuate recognition memory deficits in AD by maximizing the salience of fluency cues in two conditions of a recognition memory task. In one condition, targets and foils have been created from the same pool of letters (Overlap condition)...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Mohammad A Nazari, Mohammad M Mirloo, Mazaher Rezaei, Mojtaba Soltanlou
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different emotional stimuli (neutral, positive, and negative) on time perception in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normal children in dual-task form. Five hundred and ninety-nine students from primary schools were randomly selected. The Conner's Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS) questionnaire was completed by teachers. A total of 100 children with a score above the cut-off point for the CTRS were further assessed using the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4)...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Hannah Rosenberg, Skye McDonald, Jacob Rosenberg, R Frederick Westbrook
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether people with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) display a specific or a general impairment in emotion recognition compared with matched controls, whether these deficits might be accounted for by deficits in other cognitive processes, and whether emotion recognition predicts social functioning following TBI. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two participants with TBI and 32 matched controls took part in this study. DESIGN: Participants completed the Complex Audio-Visual Emotion Assessment Task (CAVEAT), a novel measure of emotion recognition, alongside measures of neuropsychological functioning...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Michitaka Funayama, Akihiro Koreki, Taro Muramatsu, Masaru Mimura, Motoichiro Kato, Takayuki Abe
Although neuroimaging studies have provided evidence for an association between moral emotions and the orbitofrontal cortex, studies on patients with focal lesions using experimental probes of moral emotions are scarce. Here, we addressed this topic by presenting a moral emotion judgement task to patients with focal brain damage. Four judgement tasks in a simple pairwise choice paradigm were given to 72 patients with cerebrovascular disease. These tasks consisted of a perceptual line judgement task as a control task; the objects' preference task as a basic preference judgement task; and two types of moral emotion judgement task, an anger task and a guilt task...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Laura Smith, David Wilkinson, Mayur Bodani, Rowena Bicknell, S S Surenthiran
Vestibular dysfunction is associated with visual short-term memory impairment; however, it remains unclear if this impairment arises as a direct result of the vestibular dysfunction or is a consequence of comorbid changes in mood, affect, fatigue, and/or sleep. To this end, we assessed the concurrence and interdependence of these comorbidities in 101 individuals recruited from a tertiary balance clinic with a neuro-otological diagnosis. Over fifty per cent of the sample showed reduced visuospatial short-term memory, 60% and 37% exceeded cut-off on the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories, respectively, 70% exceeded cut-off on the Fatigue Severity Scale, 44% reported daytime sleepiness on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and 78% scored above cut-off on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
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