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Journal of Neuropsychology

Stefan Van der Stigchel, Tanja C W Nijboer
Visuospatial neglect is not a unitary phenomenon, but can be better considered a syndrome, consisting of a multitude of different spatial and non-spatial components. In this study, we used a temporal order judgement (TOJ) test in a large sample of stroke patients (n = 73) to scrutinize the contribution of a spatial bias to the performance on shape cancellation and line bisection tests. In the TOJ test, patients were presented with two elements, one in each visual field, after which the one needed to indicate which of the two elements was presented earlier...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Dane A Rowley, Miles Rogish, Timothy Alexander, Kevin J Riggs
Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Giulia Prete, Mara Fabri, Nicoletta Foschi, Luca Tommasi
A right-hemispheric superiority in spatial encoding based on geometric cues has been largely documented in a variety of species, together with a left-hemispheric specialization for encoding based on landmarks. In humans, hemispheric asymmetries for spatial encoding have been little explored. In this study, we compared a patient with a complete callosal resection (D.D.C.) and a patient with a wide callosal resection saving the splenium (A.P.), with healthy participants. In two 2D versions of the 'reorientation task', participants were asked to find the target corner of a rectangle-shaped environment, by exploiting either geometric information alone or the combination of geometric and landmark information...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Maria Giovanna Lombardi, Roberta Perri, Lucia Fadda, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
INTRODUCTION: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) are deficient in storing memory traces relative to recollective forms of declarative memory. Controversial data have, instead, been reported concerning the storage of new memory traces relative to familiarity, with some studies reporting impairment and others sparing of the storage of this form of memory. No data have been reported concerning the consolidation of recollection and familiarity memory traces subsequent to their storage...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Katherine Osborne-Crowley, Skye McDonald
Acquired social disinhibition refers to a debilitating behavioural syndrome commonly reported after a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is characterized by inappropriate social behaviour, often described as immaturity and insensitivity towards others. These behaviours can have enduring effects on the social capability of the individual and their relationships with others. However, research into socially disinhibited behaviour after TBI has been thwarted by a lack of consensus in the literature on definition and measurement...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Jessica Simon, Christine Bastin, Eric Salmon, Sylvie Willems
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is now well established that recollection is impaired from the beginning of the disease, whereas findings are less clear concerning familiarity. One of the most important mechanisms underlying familiarity is the sense of familiarity driven by processing fluency. In this study, we attempted to attenuate recognition memory deficits in AD by maximizing the salience of fluency cues in two conditions of a recognition memory task. In one condition, targets and foils have been created from the same pool of letters (Overlap condition)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Lisanne M Jenkins, David G Andrewes, Christian L Nicholas, Katharine J Drummond, Bradford A Moffat, Pramit M Phal, Patricia Desmond
We aimed to elicit emotion in patients with surgically circumscribed lesions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in order to elucidate the precise functional roles in emotion processing of the discrete subregions comprising the ventromedial PFC, including the medial PFC and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Three components of emotional reactivity were measured: subjective experience, behaviour, and physiological response. These included measures of self-reported emotion, observer-rated facial expression of emotion and measurements of heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) during film viewing, and a measure of subjective emotional change since surgery...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Muireann Irish, Jody Kamminga, Donna Rose Addis, Stephen Crain, Rosalind Thornton, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
Compromised retrieval of autobiographical memory (ABM) is well established in neurodegenerative disorders. The recounting of autobiographical events is inextricably linked to linguistic knowledge, yet no study to date has investigated whether tense use during autobiographical narration is disrupted in dementia syndromes. This study investigated the incidence of correct past tense use during ABM narration in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 10) and semantic dementia (SD, n = 10) in comparison with healthy older Controls (n = 10)...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Elizabeth Shephard, Georgina M Jackson, Madeleine J Groom
Efficient cognitive control is implicated in tic control in young people with Tourette syndrome (TS). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with TS and is associated with impaired cognitive control. Young people with TS and ADHD (TS+ADHD) show poorer cognitive control performance than those with TS, but how co-occurring ADHD affects underlying neural activity is unknown. We investigated this issue by examining behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of cognitive control in young people with these conditions...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Carly S Molloy, Peter J Anderson, Vicki A Anderson, Lex W Doyle
BACKGROUND: Severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with an increased risk for ophthalmologic morbidity, but the long-term impact in other domains is less clear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether severe ROP was related to poorer visual, cognitive, and educational outcomes in a representative sample of EP adolescents, and whether this persisted after adjusting for confounding neonatal risk factors. METHOD: One hundred and eighty extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks) adolescents (17-18 years) were assessed on a range of neurodevelopmental measures, including visual processing, IQ, visual learning, visual-motor integration, and academic achievement...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Sara García-Herranz, M Carmen Díaz-Mardomingo, Herminia Peraita
In the field of neuropsychology, it is essential to determine which neuropsychological tests predict Alzheimer's disease (AD) in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and which cut-off points should be used to identify people at greater risk for converting to dementia. The aim of the present study was to analyse the predictive value of the cognitive tests included in a neuropsychological battery for conversion to AD among MCI participants and to analyse the influence of some sociodemographic variables - sex, age, schooling - and others, such as follow-up time and emotional state...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Antonia F Ten Brink, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Tanja C W Nijboer
Disorders in spatial exploration can be expressed in a disorganized fashion of target cancellation. There is debate regarding whether disorganized search is related to stroke in general, to right brain damage or to unilateral spatial neglect (USN) in particular. In this study, 280 stroke patients and 37 healthy control subjects performed a computerized shape cancellation test. We investigated the number of perseverations and several outcome measures regarding disorganized search: Consistency of search direction (best r), distance between consecutive cancelled targets and intersections with paths between previous cancelled targets...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Paul Hoffman
There are a number of long-standing theories on how the cognitive processing of abstract words, like 'life', differs from that of concrete words, like 'knife'. This review considers current perspectives on this debate, focusing particularly on insights obtained from patients with language disorders and integrating these with evidence from functional neuroimaging studies. The evidence supports three distinct and mutually compatible hypotheses. (1) Concrete and abstract words differ in their representational substrates, with concrete words depending particularly on sensory experiences and abstract words on linguistic, emotional, and magnitude-based information...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Carmelo M Vicario, Mariangela Gulisano, Davide Martino, Renata Rizzo
In this study, we have tested the effects of the dopamine D2 receptor blocker pimozide on timing performance in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Nine children with TS were tested off-medication and following 3 months of daily treatment with pimozide. Subjects completed a time reproduction and a time production task using supra-second temporal intervals. We show that pimozide improves motor timing performance by reducing the patients' variability in reproducing the duration of visual stimuli. On the other hand, this medication has no effect on the reproduction accuracy and on both variability and accuracy of the performance on the time production task...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Hileen Boosman, Thamar J H Bovend'Eerdt, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Tanja C W Nijboer, Caroline M van Heugten
Dynamic testing includes procedures that examine the effects of brief training on test performance where pre- to post-training change reflects patients' learning potential. The objective of this systematic review was to provide clinicians and researchers insight into the concept and methodology of dynamic testing and to explore its predictive validity in adult patients with cognitive impairments. The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, PsychINFO, and Embase/Medline. Of 1141 potentially relevant articles, 24 studies met the inclusion criteria...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Linda Clare, Christopher J Whitaker, Fergus I M Craik, Ellen Bialystok, Anthony Martyr, Pamela A Martin-Forbes, Alexandra J M Bastable, Kirstie L Pye, Catherine Quinn, Enlli M Thomas, Virginia C Mueller Gathercole, John V Hindle
The observation of a bilingual advantage in executive control tasks involving inhibition and management of response conflict suggests that being bilingual might contribute to increased cognitive reserve. In support of this, recent evidence indicates that bilinguals develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) later than monolinguals, and may retain an advantage in performance on executive control tasks. We compared age at the time of receiving an AD diagnosis in bilingual Welsh/English speakers (n = 37) and monolingual English speakers (n = 49), and assessed the performance of bilinguals (n = 24) and monolinguals (n = 49) on a range of executive control tasks...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Mohammad A Nazari, Mohammad M Mirloo, Mazaher Rezaei, Mojtaba Soltanlou
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different emotional stimuli (neutral, positive, and negative) on time perception in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normal children in dual-task form. Five hundred and ninety-nine students from primary schools were randomly selected. The Conner's Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS) questionnaire was completed by teachers. A total of 100 children with a score above the cut-off point for the CTRS were further assessed using the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4)...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Hannah Rosenberg, Skye McDonald, Jacob Rosenberg, R Frederick Westbrook
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether people with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) display a specific or a general impairment in emotion recognition compared with matched controls, whether these deficits might be accounted for by deficits in other cognitive processes, and whether emotion recognition predicts social functioning following TBI. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two participants with TBI and 32 matched controls took part in this study. DESIGN: Participants completed the Complex Audio-Visual Emotion Assessment Task (CAVEAT), a novel measure of emotion recognition, alongside measures of neuropsychological functioning...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Katrine W Rasmussen, Dorthe Berntsen
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies suggest that remembering the past and imagining the future engage a common brain network including several areas of the prefrontal cortex. Although patients with prefrontal damage often are described as blind to the future consequences of their decisions, and inclined to 'live in the here and now', little is known as to how the prefrontal cortex mediates past and future mental time travel. METHOD: Nine patients with prefrontal lesions and nine healthy controls generated past and future events in response to different time periods...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
Annabelle Arnould, Lucien Rochat, Emilie Dromer, Philippe Azouvi, Martial Van der Linden
Apathy is frequently described in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); its negative consequences particularly affect functional independence. Among apathetic manifestations, lack of initiative and lack of interest have mainly been associated with cognitive impairments. However, few studies have been conducted to precisely identify the underlying cognitive processes. Our aims were (1) to determine the best predictor of apathy from among several cognitive processes, including episodic memory and attention/executive mechanisms and multitasking, and (2) to examine to what extent multitasking could mediate the relationships between specific cognitive processes and lack of initiative/interest...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychology
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