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Journal of Neuropsychology

Cherie Strikwerda-Brown, Annu Mothakunnel, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
Autobiographical memory (ABM) is typically held to comprise episodic and semantic elements, with the vast majority of studies to date focusing on profiles of episodic details in health and disease. In this context, 'non-episodic' elements are often considered to reflect semantic processing or are discounted from analyses entirely. Mounting evidence suggests that rather than reflecting one unitary entity, semantic autobiographical information may contain discrete subcomponents, which vary in their relative degree of semantic or episodic content...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Margherita Bechi, Marco Spangaro, Giulia Agostoni, Francesca Bosinelli, Mariachiara Buonocore, Laura Bianchi, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Marta Bosia, Roberto Cavallaro
Intellectual abilities display high heterogeneity in patients with schizophrenia that might depend on the interaction among neurodevelopmental processes, environmental factors and neurocognitive decline. This study aimed to disentangle the interplay between intellectual level, cognitive status and each cognitive domain, with a focus on speed-related abilities, also including pre-morbid factors. In details, by means of cluster analysis, we identified both in global sample of 452 patients affected by schizophrenia and in a subsample with high pre-morbid functioning, different profiles based on current intellectual level and global cognitive status, analysing the distribution of deficits in each cognitive domains between groups...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Michitaka Funayama, Akihiro Koreki, Taro Muramatsu, Masaru Mimura, Motoichiro Kato, Takayuki Abe
Although neuroimaging studies have provided evidence for an association between moral emotions and the orbitofrontal cortex, studies on patients with focal lesions using experimental probes of moral emotions are scarce. Here, we addressed this topic by presenting a moral emotion judgement task to patients with focal brain damage. Four judgement tasks in a simple pairwise choice paradigm were given to 72 patients with cerebrovascular disease. These tasks consisted of a perceptual line judgement task as a control task; the objects' preference task as a basic preference judgement task; and two types of moral emotion judgement task, an anger task and a guilt task...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Laura Smith, David Wilkinson, Mayur Bodani, Rowena Bicknell, S S Surenthiran
Vestibular dysfunction is associated with visual short-term memory impairment; however, it remains unclear if this impairment arises as a direct result of the vestibular dysfunction or is a consequence of comorbid changes in mood, affect, fatigue, and/or sleep. To this end, we assessed the concurrence and interdependence of these comorbidities in 101 individuals recruited from a tertiary balance clinic with a neuro-otological diagnosis. Over fifty per cent of the sample showed reduced visuospatial short-term memory, 60% and 37% exceeded cut-off on the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories, respectively, 70% exceeded cut-off on the Fatigue Severity Scale, 44% reported daytime sleepiness on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and 78% scored above cut-off on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Paul Hoffman
Effective use of semantic knowledge requires a set of conceptual representations and control processes which ensure that currently relevant aspects of this knowledge are retrieved and selected. It is well-established that levels of semantic knowledge increase across the lifespan. However, the effects of ageing on semantic control processes have not been assessed. I addressed this issue by comparing the performance profiles of young and older people on a verbal comprehension test. Two sets of variables were used to predict accuracy and RT in each group: (1) the psycholinguistic properties of words probed in each trial and (2) the performance on each trial by two groups of semantically impaired neuropsychological patients...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Riadh Ouerchefani, Naoufel Ouerchefani, Philippe Allain, Mohamed Riadh Ben Rejeb, Didier Le Gall
The results of previous studies are inconsistent in regard to the relationship between the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), working-memory (WM), and executive tasks, and whether these cognitive processes could be considered as mechanisms underlying a decision-making deficit. Moreover, the relationship between the IGT and executive measures is examined based on a limited number of executive tasks, within different populations showing diffuse damage. In addition, there are fewer studies carried out within control participants, with those studies also being inconclusive...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Stefanie Roberts, Julie D Henry, Pascal Molenberghs
Despite the apparent sociability of human kind, immoral behaviour is ever present in society. The term 'immoral behaviour' represents a complex array of conduct, ranging from insensitivity to topics of conversation through to violent assault and murder. To better understand the neuroscience of immoral behaviour, this review investigates two clinical populations that commonly present with changes in moral behaviour - behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia and acquired brain injuries. Based on evidence from these groups, it is argued that rather than a single underlying cause, immoral behaviour can result from three distinct types of cognitive failure: (1) problems understanding others; (2) difficulties controlling behaviour; or (3) deficits in the capacity to make appropriate emotional contributions...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Giorgia Cona, Gianvito Laera, Nicola Edelstyn, Patrizia S Bisiacchi
Identifying the neurocognitive mechanisms that lead individuals remembering to execute an intention at the right moment (prospective memory, PM) and how such mechanisms are influenced by the features of that intention is a fundamental theoretical challenge. In particular, the functional contribution of subcortical regions to PM is still unknown. This study was aimed at investigating the role of the medial subdivision of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (mMDT) in PM, with particular focus on the processes that are mediated by the projections from/to this structure...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Miranda Smit, Haike E Van Stralen, Bart Van den Munckhof, Tom J Snijders, Hendrik Christiaan Dijkerman
Reports on patients who lack ownership over their entire body are extremely rare. Here, we present patient SA who suffered from complete body disownership after a tumour resection in the right temporoparietal cortex. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed selective bilateral ownership problems, despite intact primary visual and somatosensory senses. SA's disownership seems to stem from a suboptimal multimodal integration, as shown by the rubber hand illusion and the beneficial effect during and after simple exercises aiming at multisensory recalibration...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Lisanne M Jenkins, David G Andrewes, Christian L Nicholas, Katharine J Drummond, Bradford A Moffat, Pramit M Phal, Patricia Desmond
We aimed to elicit emotion in patients with surgically circumscribed lesions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in order to elucidate the precise functional roles in emotion processing of the discrete subregions comprising the ventromedial PFC, including the medial PFC and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Three components of emotional reactivity were measured: subjective experience, behaviour, and physiological response. These included measures of self-reported emotion, observer-rated facial expression of emotion and measurements of heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) during film viewing, and a measure of subjective emotional change since surgery...
March 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Katrine W Rasmussen, Dorthe Berntsen
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies suggest that remembering the past and imagining the future engage a common brain network including several areas of the prefrontal cortex. Although patients with prefrontal damage often are described as blind to the future consequences of their decisions, and inclined to 'live in the here and now', little is known as to how the prefrontal cortex mediates past and future mental time travel. METHOD: Nine patients with prefrontal lesions and nine healthy controls generated past and future events in response to different time periods...
March 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Annabelle Arnould, Lucien Rochat, Emilie Dromer, Philippe Azouvi, Martial Van der Linden
Apathy is frequently described in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); its negative consequences particularly affect functional independence. Among apathetic manifestations, lack of initiative and lack of interest have mainly been associated with cognitive impairments. However, few studies have been conducted to precisely identify the underlying cognitive processes. Our aims were (1) to determine the best predictor of apathy from among several cognitive processes, including episodic memory and attention/executive mechanisms and multitasking, and (2) to examine to what extent multitasking could mediate the relationships between specific cognitive processes and lack of initiative/interest...
March 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Roberto Esposito, Filippo Cieri, Massimo di Giannantonio, Armando Tartaro
Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric illness characterized by intense fear of gaining weight, relentless pursuit of thinness, deep concerns about food and a pervasive disturbance of body image. Functional magnetic resonance imaging tries to shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa. This review aims to evaluate the empirical neuroimaging literature about self-perception in anorexia nervosa. This narrative review summarizes a number of task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in anorexia nervosa about body image and self-perception...
March 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Virginia M Borsa, Pasquale A Della Rosa, Eleonora Catricalà, Matteo Canini, Antonella Iadanza, Andrea Falini, Jubin Abutalebi, Sandro Iannaccone
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition characterized by memory impairment in the absence of any other cognitive impairment and is commonly associated with high conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence shows that executive functions and selective attention mechanisms could also be impaired in aMCI. In this study, we investigated performance differences (i.e., reaction times [RTs] and accuracy) between a group of aMCI participants and a group of age-matched healthy individuals on the attentional network task (ANT) focusing on situations with increased interference...
March 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Gabrielle Lalonde, Annie Bernier, Cindy Beaudoin, Jocelyn Gravel, Miriam H Beauchamp
The young brain is particularly vulnerable to injury due to inherent physiological and developmental factors, and even mild forms of traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can sometimes result in cognitive and behavioural difficulties. Despite the high prevalence of paediatric mTBI, little is known of its impact on children's social functioning. Parent-child relationships represent the centre of young children's social environments and are therefore ideal contexts for studying the potential effects of mTBI on children's social functioning...
March 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Liselotte De Wit, Antonia F Ten Brink, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Tanja C W Nijboer
Prism adaptation (PA) is a widely used intervention for (visuo-)spatial neglect. PA-induced improvements can be assessed by visual search tasks. It remains unclear which outcome measures are the most sensitive for the effects of PA in neglect. In this review, we aimed to evaluate PA effects on visual search measures. A systematic literature search was completed regarding PA intervention studies focusing on patients with neglect using visual search tasks. Information about study content and effectiveness was extracted...
March 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Anna Sedda, Ettore Ambrosini, Giada Dirupo, Diana Tonin, Laura Valsecchi, Tiziana Redaelli, Michele Spinelli, Marcello Costantini, Gabriella Bottini
Spinal cord injury can cause cognitive impairments even when no cerebral lesion is appreciable. As patients are forced to explore the environment in a non-canonical position (i.e., seated on a wheelchair), a modified relation with space can explain motor-related cognitive differences compared to non-injured individuals. Peripersonal space is encoded in motor terms, that is, in relation to the representation of action abilities and is strictly related to the affordance of reachability. In turn, affordances, the action possibilities suggested by relevant properties of the environment, are related to the perceiver's peripersonal space and motor abilities...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Greg Savage, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger
In healthy adults, the ability to prioritize learning of highly valued information is supported by executive functions and enhances subsequent memory retrieval for this information. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), marked deficits are evident in learning and memory, presenting in the context of executive dysfunction. It is unclear whether these patients show a typical memory bias for higher valued stimuli. We administered a value-directed word-list learning task to AD (n = 10) and bvFTD (n = 21) patients and age-matched healthy controls (n = 22)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Jennifer M Harris, Jennifer A Saxon, Matthew Jones, Julie S Snowden, Jennifer C Thompson
The differentiation of subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) remains challenging. We aimed to identify optimum neuropsychological measures for characterizing PPA, to examine the relationship between behavioural change and subtypes of PPA and to determine whether characteristic profiles of language, working memory, and behavioural changes occur in PPA. Forty-seven patients with PPA and multi-domain Alzheimer's disease (AD) together with 19 age-matched controls underwent a large battery of working memory and language tests...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Marian Andrei Stanciu, Robert D Rafal, Oliver H Turnbull
Amnesic patients can re-experience emotions elicited by forgotten events, suggesting that brain systems for episodic and emotional memory are independent. However, the range of such emotional memories remains under-investigated (most studies employing just positive-negative emotion dyads), and executive function may also play a role in the re-experience of emotions. This is the first investigation of the intensity of the emotional re-experience of a range of discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, and happiness) for a group of amnesic patients...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
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