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Journal of Neuropsychology

Chloe Lane, Elizabeth Milne, Megan Freeth
Sotos syndrome is a congenital overgrowth disorder, associated with intellectual disability. Previous research suggests that Sotos syndrome may be associated with relative strength in verbal ability and relative weakness in non-verbal reasoning ability but this has not been explicitly assessed. To date, the cognitive profile of Sotos syndrome is unknown. Cognitive abilities of a large and representative sample of individuals with Sotos syndrome (N = 52) were assessed using the British Ability Scales (BAS3)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Sophie Antoine, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Hichem Slama, Mario Bonato, Ann Tousch, Myrtille Dewulf, Jean-Christophe Bier, Wim Gevers
Working memory refers to our ability to actively maintain and process a limited amount of information during a brief period of time. Often, not only the information itself but also its serial order is crucial for good task performance. It was recently proposed that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition. Here, we compared performance of a group of right hemisphere-damaged patients with hemispatial neglect to healthy controls in verbal working memory tasks. Participants memorized sequences of consonants at span level and had to judge whether a target consonant belonged to the memorized sequence (item task) or whether a pair of consonants were presented in the same order as in the memorized sequence (order task)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Hannah E Thompson, Azizah Almaghyuli, Krist A Noonan, Ohr Barak, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies
Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Susannah Pick, John D C Mellers, Laura H Goldstein
People with dissociative seizures (DS) report a range of difficulties in emotional functioning and exhibit altered responding to emotional facial expressions in experimental tasks. We extended this research by investigating subjective and autonomic reactivity (ratings of emotional valence, arousal and skin conductance responses, and SCRs) to general emotional images in 39 people with DS relative to 42 healthy control participants, whilst controlling for anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning and, where relevant, medication use...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Mathieu Lesourd, Carla Budriesi, François Osiurak, Paolo F Nichelli, Angela Bartolo
In the literature on apraxia of tool use, it is now accepted that using familiar tools requires semantic and mechanical knowledge. However, mechanical knowledge is nearly always assessed with production tasks, so one may assume that mechanical knowledge and familiar tool use are associated only because of their common motor mechanisms. This notion may be challenged by demonstrating that familiar tool use depends on an alternative tool selection task assessing mechanical knowledge, where alternative uses of tools are assumed according to their physical properties but where actual use of tools is not needed...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Suncica Lah, Chloe Gott, Louise Parry, Carly Black, Adrienne Epps, Michael Gascoigne
OBJECTIVES: Autobiographical memory (AM) is a complex function that involves re-experiencing of past personal events (episodic memory) scaffolded by personal facts (semantic memory). While AM is supported by a brain network and cognitive skills that are vulnerable to disruption by child traumatic brain injury (TBI), AM has not been examined in this patient population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Participants included children with severe closed TBI (n = 14) and healthy control (NC) children (n = 20) of comparable age, sex, and socioeconomic status...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Frans S S Leijten, Mariska J Vansteensel, Hendrik Chris Dijkerman, Nick F Ramsey, Zachary V Freudenburg
The frontal cortex is heavily involved in oculomotor selection. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of eye movement selection during an antisaccade task in a young epileptic patient in whom the seizure focus included the frontal cortex and affected its function. Before resection surgery, the patient had difficulty in performing correct antisaccades towards the visual field contralateral to the seizure focus. Because the FEF is the only area in the human frontal cortex that is known to have a lateralized oculomotor function in the antisaccade task, this behavioural imbalance between the two visual fields suggests a disruption of FEF functioning by the nearby seizure focus...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Fenny S Zwart, Constance Th W M Vissers, Roy P C Kessels, Joseph H R Maes
This systematic review aimed to investigate procedural learning across the lifespan in typical and atypical development. Procedural learning is essential for the development of everyday skills, including language and communication skills. Although procedural learning efficiency has been extensively studied, there is no consensus yet on potential procedural learning changes during development and ageing. Currently, three conflicting models regarding this trajectory exist: (1) a model of age invariance; (2a) a model with a peak in young adulthood; and (2b) a model with a plateau in childhood followed by a decline...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Emily E Roll, Tania Giovannetti, David J Libon, Joel Eppig
Tests of everyday action semantics were developed and piloted in a group of healthy adults (n = 53) and then administered to individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 17) or Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD; n = 20). Relations between everyday action knowledge and everyday function were explored. Three action semantic tests were developed: Probe Test - 45 forced-choice questions regarding task sequences, objects, and steps; Picture Sequencing Test - sequential ordering of 4-5 cards depicting task steps; Script Test - open-ended verbal description of the steps required to complete everyday tasks...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Judith Bek, Emma Gowen, Stefan Vogt, Trevor Crawford, Ellen Poliakoff
Observation of movement activates the observer's own motor system, influencing the performance of actions and facilitating social interaction. This motor resonance is demonstrated behaviourally through visuomotor priming, whereby response latencies are influenced by the compatibility between an intended action and an observed (task-irrelevant) action. The impact of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) on motor resonance is unclear, as previous studies of visuomotor priming have not separated imitative compatibility (specific to human movement) from general stimulus-response compatibility effects...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Elena Nava, Flavia Mattioli, Chiara Gamberini, Chiara Stampatori, Fabio Bellomi, Chiara Turati, Ruggero Capra, Nadia Bolognini
In this study, we assessed the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on bodily self-consciousness (BSC) using the Rubber Hand Illusion. Patients with MS showed a dissociation between body ownership and self-location: they did report an explicit ownership of the rubber hand, but they did not point towards it, showing a defective ability of localizing body parts in space. This evidence indicates that MS may affect selective components of BSC, whose impairment may contribute to, and even worsen, the functional disability of MS...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Majdouline Sarhane, Agnès Daurat
We explored external source monitoring (i.e., discrimination between memories of two externally derived sources) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Our specific aim was to ascertain whether, relative to controls, patients exhibit more source-confusion errors when there are similarities between two external memory sources. We recruited 22 patients with OSAS and 22 controls matched for sex, age, and education. The experimental procedure we used came in three phases. First, participants viewed a target film...
September 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Maria Caterina Silveri, Francesco Incordino, Rita Lo Monaco, Alessandra Bizzarro, Carlo Masullo, Francesca Piludu, Cesare Colosimo
We describe a patient with progressive disorder of speech, without language impairment (opercular syndrome). Morphometric analysis confirmed asymmetric volume reduction of the precentral areas (>left). Diffusion imaging showed significant white matter changes in the left frontal lobe, with specific involvement of the left corticobulbar tract and connections between supplementary/pre-supplementary motor areas and the frontal operculum (frontal aslant tract). We suggest that the organization of expressive language includes a 'low level' motor system principally distributed in the left hemisphere that shows specific susceptibility to neurodegeneration, distinct from neural systems subtending praxic, and cognitive aspects of language...
September 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Michele Scandola, Salvatore M Aglioti, Polona Pozeg, Renato Avesani, Valentina Moro
Motor imagery (MI) allows one to mentally represent an action without necessarily performing it. Importantly, however, MI is profoundly influenced by the ability to actually execute actions, as demonstrated by the impairment of this ability as a consequence of lesions in motor cortices, limb amputations, movement limiting chronic pain, and spinal cord injury. Understanding MI and its deficits in patients with motor limitations is fundamentally important as development of some brain-computer interfaces and daily life strategies for coping with motor disorders are based on this ability...
September 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Mehdi Bakhtiar, Reyhane Jafary, Brendan S Weekes
Current models of oral reading assume that different routes (sublexical, lexical, and semantic) mediate oral reading performance and reliance on different routes during oral reading depends on the characteristics of print to sound mappings. Studies of single cases of acquired dyslexia in aphasia have contributed to the development of such models by revealing patterns of double dissociation in object naming and oral reading skill that follow brain damage in Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan languages. Print to sound mapping in Persian varies in transparency because orthography to phonology translation depends uniquely on the presence or absence of vowel letters in print...
September 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Christopher R Brydges, Krista L Ozolnieks, Gareth Roberts
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychological condition characterized by inattention and hyperactivity. Cognitive deficits are commonly observed in ADHD patients, including impaired working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence, the three of which are theorized to be closely associated with one another. In this study, we aimed to determine if decreased fluid intelligence was associated with ADHD, and was mediated by deficits in working memory and processing speed. This study tested 142 young adults from the general population on a range of working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence tasks, and an ADHD self-report symptoms questionnaire...
September 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Sophie Ory, Florence Le Jeune, Claire Haegelen, Siobhan Vicente, Pierre Philippot, Thibaut Dondaine, Pierre Jannin, Sophie Drapier, Dominique Drapier, Paul Sauleau, Marc Vérin, Julie Péron
Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently advanced our understanding of the major role played by this basal ganglion in human emotion. Research indicates that STN DBS can induce modifications in all components of emotion, and neuroimaging studies have shown that the metabolic modifications correlated with these emotional disturbances following surgery are both task- and sensory input-dependent. Nevertheless, to date, these modifications have not been confirmed for all emotional components, notably subjective emotional experience, or feelings...
September 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Nicole Pedroarena-Leal, Diane Ruge
Therapy resistance of approximately one-third of patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) requires consideration of alternative therapeutic interventions. The article demonstrates the role of the cerebellum in neuropsychiatric disorders and GTS in particular, specifically its role in functions relating to motor and cognitive symptoms. Certain circuits in the cerebellum have been shown to undergo learning-induced changes during conditioning, with cells in the cortex of the cerebellum appearing to decrease their activity whilst those in deep nuclei seem to do the inverse...
September 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Laura Veronelli, Lisa S Arduino, Luisa Girelli, Giuseppe Vallar
The bisection of lines positioned radially (with the two ends of the line close and far, with respect to the participant's body) has been less investigated than that of lines placed horizontally (with their two ends left and right, with respect to the body's midsagittal plane). In horizontal bisection, patients with left neglect typically show a rightward bias for both lines and words, greater with longer stimuli. As for radial bisection, available data indicate that neurologically unimpaired participants make a distal error, while results from right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect are contradictory...
September 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Yajing Pang, Qian Cui, Xujun Duan, Heng Chen, Ling Zeng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Guangming Lu, Huafu Chen
Personality dimension extraversion describes individual differences in social behaviour and socio-emotional functioning. The intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the brain are reportedly associated with extraversion. However, whether or not extraversion is associated with functional hubs warrants clarification. Functional hubs are involved in the rapid integration of neural processing, and their dysfunction contributes to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we employed the functional connectivity density (FCD) method for the first time to distinguish the energy-efficient hubs associated with extraversion...
September 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
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