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Journal of Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192412/retrospective-time-estimation-following-damage-to-the-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Yoshiko Kurosaki, Yuri Terasawa, Yukiro Ibata, Ryusaku Hashimoto, Satoshi Umeda
Time estimation in patients with prefrontal cortex (PFC) damage is often inaccurate. The relationship between PFC and estimation of short time intervals has been examined. However, it remains unclear whether PFC damage affects estimation of longer time intervals. Here, we investigated the ability of patients and healthy subjects to verbally estimate a period of 30 min, using a method easily applied in clinical settings. In 99 patients with brain damage, we compared under and normal ranges of time in patients with PFC damage or damage to other brain areas with the chi-squared test...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156753/left-inferior-frontal-cortex-can-compensate-the-inhibitory-functions-of-right-inferior-frontal-cortex-and-pre-supplementary-motor-area
#2
Gioele Gavazzi, Matteo Lenge, Emanuele Bartolini, Andrea Bianchi, Herdis Agovi, Francesca Mugnai, Renzo Guerrini, Flavio Giordano, Maria Pia Viggiano, Mario Mascalchi
Right-IFG and pre-SMA are associated with inhibitory responses. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to explore whether the contralateral homotopic regions can functionally replace them. An adolescent, with an extensive traumatic lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere having occurred 5 years earlier, performed a motor response inhibition task (Go/Nogo), which was properly accomplished and associated to activations in the left-IFC, precuneus and occipital cortex. Such functional remodelling is in line with the theory of 'near equipotentiality' of the cerebral hemispheres...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035858/executive-function-but-not-episodic-memory-decline-associated-with-visual-hallucinations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Byron Creese, Christopher P Albertyn, Sasha Dworkin, Rebecca S Thomas, Yi Min Wan, Clive Ballard
INTRODUCTION: Visual hallucinations (VH) have a significant impact on quality of life for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). A major reason for this is the well-established link with cognitive impairment, but there is still a need for more longitudinal studies examining the specific cognitive domains which may be affected. The aim of this study was to profile decline in cognition associated with VH in a cohort of 69 individuals with PD over 1 year. METHOD: Visual hallucinations assessments were carried out every 3 months...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972622/implicit-sequence-learning-in-young-people-with-tourette-syndrome-with-and-without-co-occurring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Elizabeth Shephard, Madeleine J Groom, Georgina M Jackson
Impaired habit-learning has been proposed to underlie the tic symptoms of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, accounts differ in terms of how habit-learning is altered in TS, with some authors proposing habit formation is impaired due to a deficient 'chunking' mechanism, and others proposing habit-learning is overactive and tics reflect hyperlearned behaviours. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with TS and is known to affect cognitive function in young people with co-occurring TS and ADHD (TS + ADHD)...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972284/the-attribute-priming-effect-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Roberta Perri, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo, Marco Monaco, Carlo Caltagirone, Gian Daniele Zannino
Experiments with semantic priming (SP) paradigms have documented early hypopriming in patients with AD when concepts are used as primes and attribute concept features as targets, suggesting that concept attributes are vulnerable to damage very early in the disease course. The aims of this study were to confirm early priming reduction in the attribute condition in patients with AD and to determine which of several semantic indexes (such as the level of distinctiveness, correlation or feature dominance of concept features) best predicts the priming effect size in AD...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845731/damasio-s-error-prosopagnosia-with-intact-within-category-object-recognition
#6
Bruno Rossion
The sudden inability to recognize individual faces following brain damage was first reported in a scientific journal 150 years ago and termed 'prosopagnosia' 70 years ago. While the term originally identified a face-selective neurological condition, it is now obscured by a sequence of imprecisions. First, prosopagnosia is routinely used to define symptoms of individual face recognition (IFR) difficulties in the context of visual object agnosia or other neurological conditions, or even in the normal population...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891265/altered-bodily-self-consciousness-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Elena Nava, Flavia Mattioli, Chiara Gamberini, Chiara Stampatori, Fabio Bellomi, Chiara Turati, Ruggero Capra, Nadia Bolognini
In this study, we assessed the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on bodily self-consciousness (BSC) using the Rubber Hand Illusion. Patients with MS showed a dissociation between body ownership and self-location: they did report an explicit ownership of the rubber hand, but they did not point towards it, showing a defective ability of localizing body parts in space. This evidence indicates that MS may affect selective components of BSC, whose impairment may contribute to, and even worsen, the functional disability of MS...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485076/response-inhibition-and-interference-control-effects-of-schizophrenia-genetic-risk-and-schizotypy
#8
Ulrich Ettinger, Désirée S Aichert, Nicola Wöstmann, Sandra Dehning, Michael Riedel, Veena Kumari
The ability to inhibit inappropriate responses and suppress irrelevant information is a core feature of executive control. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of prepotent response inhibition and interference in patients with schizophrenia. To further test the role of genetic factors and subclinical schizophrenia-like traits, we additionally studied clinically unaffected, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and assessed dimensions of schizotypy in both relatives and healthy controls. Inhibition and interference control were assessed using a battery comprising the antisaccade, Stroop, stop signal, go/no-go, flanker, and Simon tasks...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477351/normalization-of-timed-neuropsychological-tests-with-the-pata-rate-and-nine-hole-pegboard-tests
#9
Francesco Saccà, Teresa Costabile, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Fiore Manganelli, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla
INTRODUCTION: Despite neurological patients show frequent physical impairment, timed neuropsychological tests do not take this into account during scoring procedures. OBJECTIVE: We propose a normalization method based on the PATA Rate Task (PRT) and on the nine-hole pegboard test (9HPT) as a measure of dysarthria and upper limb dysfunction. METHODS: We tested 65 healthy controls on timed neuropsychological tests (Attentional Matrices [AM], Trail Making Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Verbal Fluencies) to determine the time spent on phonation or on hand movement during test execution...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455846/tool-use-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-planning-or-technical-reasoning
#10
Josselin Baumard, Mathieu Lesourd, Chrystelle Remigereau, Christophe Jarry, Frédérique Etcharry-Bouyx, Valérie Chauviré, François Osiurak, Didier Le Gall
Recent works showed that tool use can be impaired in stroke patients because of either planning or technical reasoning deficits, but these two hypotheses have not yet been compared in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to address the relationships between real tool use, mechanical problem-solving, and planning skills in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 32), semantic dementia (SD, n = 16), and corticobasal syndrome (CBS, n = 9). Patients were asked to select and use ten common tools, to solve three mechanical problems, and to complete the Tower of London test...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224761/temporal-order-judgements-as-a-sensitive-measure-of-the-spatial-bias-in-patients-with-visuospatial-neglect
#11
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Tanja C W Nijboer
Visuospatial neglect is not a unitary phenomenon, but can be better considered a syndrome, consisting of a multitude of different spatial and non-spatial components. In this study, we used a temporal order judgement (TOJ) test in a large sample of stroke patients (n = 73) to scrutinize the contribution of a spatial bias to the performance on shape cancellation and line bisection tests. In the TOJ test, patients were presented with two elements, one in each visual field, after which the one needed to indicate which of the two elements was presented earlier...
September 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882628/impaired-sequential-and-partially-compensated-probabilistic-skill-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Ferenc Kemény, Gyula Demeter, Mihály Racsmány, István Valálik, Ágnes Lukács
The striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been associated with deficits in skill learning in numerous studies, but some of the findings remain controversial. Our aim was to explore the generality of the learning deficit using two widely reported skill learning tasks in the same group of Parkinson's patients. Thirty-four patients with PD (mean age: 62.83 years, SD: 7.67) were compared to age-matched healthy adults. Two tasks were employed: the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRT), testing the learning of motor sequences, and the Weather Prediction (WP) task, testing non-sequential probabilistic category learning...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314772/the-contribution-of-executive-control-to-semantic-cognition-convergent-evidence-from-semantic-aphasia-and-executive-dysfunction
#13
Hannah E Thompson, Azizah Almaghyuli, Krist A Noonan, Ohr Barak, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies
Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285879/autonomic-and-subjective-responsivity-to-emotional-images-in-people-with-dissociative-seizures
#14
Susannah Pick, John D C Mellers, Laura H Goldstein
People with dissociative seizures (DS) report a range of difficulties in emotional functioning and exhibit altered responding to emotional facial expressions in experimental tasks. We extended this research by investigating subjective and autonomic reactivity (ratings of emotional valence, arousal and skin conductance responses [SCRs]) to general emotional images in 39 people with DS relative to 42 healthy control participants, whilst controlling for anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning and, where relevant, medication use...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895316/action-observation-produces-motor-resonance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Judith Bek, Emma Gowen, Stefan Vogt, Trevor Crawford, Ellen Poliakoff
Observation of movement activates the observer's own motor system, influencing the performance of actions and facilitating social interaction. This motor resonance is demonstrated behaviourally through visuomotor priming, whereby response latencies are influenced by the compatibility between an intended action and an observed (task-irrelevant) action. The impact of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) on motor resonance is unclear, as previous studies of visuomotor priming have not separated imitative compatibility (specific to human movement) from general stimulus-response compatibility effects...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378511/dissociation-of-reward-and-effort-sensitivity-in-methcathinone-induced-parkinsonism
#16
Trevor T-J Chong, Valerie Bonnelle, Kai-Riin Veromann, Julius Juurmaa, Pille Taba, Olivia Plant, Masud Husain
Methcathinone-induced Parkinsonism is a recently described extrapyramidal syndrome characterized by globus pallidus and substantia nigra lesions, which provides a unique model of basal ganglia dysfunction. We assessed motivated behaviour in this condition using a novel cost-benefit decision-making task, in which participants decided whether it was worth investing effort for reward. Patients showed a dissociation between reward and effort sensitivity, such that pallidonigral complex dysfunction caused them to become less sensitive to rewards, while normal sensitivity to effort costs was maintained...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258660/pure-optic-ataxia-and-visual-hemiagnosia-extending-the-dual-visual-hypothesis
#17
Jurka R Meichtry, Dario Cazzoli, Silvia Chaves, Sebastian von Arx, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Roger Kalla, Claudio L Bassetti, Klemens Gutbrod, René M Müri
Goodale and Milner's two visual system hypothesis is an influential model for the understanding of the primate visual system. Lesions of either the ventral (occipito-temporal) or the dorsal (occipito-parietal) stream produce distinct and dissociated syndromes in humans: visual agnosia is typical for ventral damage, whereas optic ataxia (OA) for dorsal damage. We studied the case of a 59-year-old left-handed woman with a circumscribed lesion around the left posterior occipital sulcus, extending to the underlying white matter...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168820/counter-intuitive-moral-judgement-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Dane A Rowley, Miles Rogish, Timothy Alexander, Kevin J Riggs
Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958664/geometry-landmarks-and-the-cerebral-hemispheres-2d-spatial-reorientation-in-split-brain-patients
#19
Giulia Prete, Mara Fabri, Nicoletta Foschi, Luca Tommasi
A right-hemispheric superiority in spatial encoding based on geometric cues has been largely documented in a variety of species, together with a left-hemispheric specialization for encoding based on landmarks. In humans, hemispheric asymmetries for spatial encoding have been little explored. In this study, we compared a patient with a complete callosal resection (D.D.C.) and a patient with a wide callosal resection saving the splenium (A.P.), with healthy participants. In two 2D versions of the 'reorientation task', participants were asked to find the target corner of a rectangle-shaped environment, by exploiting either geometric information alone or the combination of geometric and landmark information...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860305/forgetting-of-the-recollection-and-familiarity-components-of-recognition-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Maria Giovanna Lombardi, Roberta Perri, Lucia Fadda, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
INTRODUCTION: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) are deficient in storing memory traces relative to recollective forms of declarative memory. Controversial data have, instead, been reported concerning the storage of new memory traces relative to familiarity, with some studies reporting impairment and others sparing of the storage of this form of memory. No data have been reported concerning the consolidation of recollection and familiarity memory traces subsequent to their storage...
June 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
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