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Current Radiopharmaceuticals

Maryam Papie, Sean Kitson, Luigi Mansi, Hariprasad Gali, Mohsen Cheki
Para-18F-fluorohippurate (18F-PFH) and ortho-124I-iodohippurate (124I-OIH) were recently identified as potential radiotracers suitable for conducting renography using positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this work was to estimate preliminary human-equivalent internal radiation dose of 18F-PFH and 124I-OIH using the biodistribution data reported in healthy rats. The results were compared with the absorbed dose data of technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) as documented in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 80...
February 12, 2018: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Claudiu Pestean, Maria Iulia Larg, Elena Barbus, Claudiu Badulescu, Doina Piciu
BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph-node scintigraphy is a useful method in accurate staging of different tumors and a helpful tool in personalized therapy for oncological patients. The radiation exposure for surgical staff has been a concern since the sentinel lymph-node detection method was developed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine and quantify the exposure to radiation of the extremities for the surgeon performing sentinel lymph-node removal and to determine if there is an irradiation risk imposed during the surgical procedure...
February 6, 2018: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Rasoul Yahyapour, Elahe Motevaseli, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Hamid Abdollahi, Bagher Farhood, Mohsen Cheki, Masoud Najafi, Vilmar Villa
Knowledge of radiobiology is of paramount importance to be able to grasp and have an in-depth understanding of the consequences of ionizing radiation. One of the most important effects of this physical stressor's interaction to targeted and non-targeted cells, tissues and organs is on the late effects on the development of primary and secondary cancers. Thus, an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis remain to be elucidated, and some studies have demonstrated or proposed a role of non-targeted effect in excess risk of cancer incidence...
December 29, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Natasha Alexander, Reza Vali, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Amer Shammas, Sylvain Baruchel
Childhood neuroblastoma is a heterogenous disease with varied clinical presentation and biology requiring different approaches to investigation and management. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is an essential component of metastatic staging for neuroblastoma and has been used as a treatment strategy for relapsed and refractory neuroblastoma. However,10% of children with neuroblastoma will have 123I-MIBG non-avid imaging and up to 60% with relapsed and refractory neuroblastoma will require further treatment with 131I-MIBG, alternative radioisotopes have been investigated for imaging and treatment...
December 14, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Giulia Anna Follacchio, Maria Silvia De Feo, Francesco Monteleone, Giuseppe De Vincentis, Mauro Liberatore
Positron emission tomography (PET) is an instrumental diagnostic modality based on the representation (by images or numeric parameters) of the spatial and temporal distribution of molecules labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides. PET makes it possible to study biochemical processes underlying the function of several organs, providing information otherwise achievable only with bioptic assessment. PET has been developed around the positron-emitting radioisotopes of biologically important elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen (11C, 15O, 13N), which enable PET imaging to identify the biodistribution of a wide range of small molecules...
December 11, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Sviatoslav Brinkevich, Leonardo Paredes Pires, Filipe Leal Portilho, Ralph Santos-Oliveira
The production of radiopharmaceuticals, especially the PET ones, is a complex combination of economic and social factors. Despite the social aspects, that are essential, the economic issue must be considered and play an important parameter for the implementation and maintenance of producer centers around the world, with especial regards for countries which face economic crisis and/or belongs to aegis of under development countries. In order to evaluate this scenario with carried out this study, comparing a well-established producer center in Brazil and a new on in Belarus...
December 11, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Ingrid Kreimerman, Williams Porcal, Silvia Olivera, Patricia Oliver, Eduardo Savio, Henry Engler
BACKGROUND: The red fluorescent dye Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) has been used in neuroscience research as a useful tool for staining of astrocytes, since it has been reported as a marker of astroglia in the neocortex of rodents in vivo. The aim of this work is to label SR101 with positron emission radionuclides, in order to provide a radiotracer to study its biological behavior. This is the first attempt to label SR101 by [18F], using a chemical derivatization via a sulfonamidelinker and a commercially available platform...
November 10, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Elena Incerti, Vincenzo Gangemi, Paola Mapelli, Chiara Lucrezia Deantoni, Giampiero Giovacchini, Federico Fallanca, Andrei Fodor, Andrea Ciarmiello, Sergio Baldari, Luigi Gianolli, Nadia Di Muzio, Maria Picchio
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of 11C-choline PET/CT (CHO-PET/CT) based helical tomotherapy (HTT) as a therapeutic approach for bone metastases in recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 20 PCa patients (median age: 67; range: 51-80 years) presenting biochemical relapse after primary treatment who underwent CHO-PET/CT based HTT on positive bone metastases from December 2007 to June 2014. The effectiveness of HTT has been assessed with biochemical response at 3/6/12 months, biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) and overall survival (OS) at 2 years...
November 10, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Giulia Anna Follacchio, Francesco Monteleone, Maria Letizia Meggiorini, Maria Paola Nusiner, Carlo De Felice, Giuseppe De Vincentis, Mauro Liberatore
BACKGROUND: Due to the spread of mammographic screening programs, a constant increase of clinically-occult breast cancer diagnosis has been registered. A correct approach to nonpalpable breast lesions requires an accurate intra-operative localization in order to achieve a complete surgical resection. The aim of this paper is to describe the state of the art of the US-guided procedures such as Radio-guided Occult Lesion Localization (ROLL) and Radio-guided Seed Localization (RSL) in comparison to the most widely adopted Wire-Guided Localization (WGL)...
November 10, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Giampiero Giovacchini, Elisabetta Giovannini, Mattia Riondato, Andrea Ciarmiello
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, an increasing number of positron emission tomography / magnetic resonance (PET/MR) tomographs were installed and many clinical studies were performed in the neurological field. METHODS: Although PET/MR has many favorable properties to support the application in brain imaging, attenuation correction, and therefore accurate quantification, is a problem that still requires optimal solution. RESULTS: In this review we have summarized the three main methods that are currently used to correct attenuation in PET/MR, namely atlas- or template-based methods, segmentation-based methods, and reconstruction-based methods...
November 10, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Petros Sountoulides, Linda Metaxa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We are witnessing an era of increased clinical interest in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, both in terms of treatment and also in terms of imaging options. This surge of interest is attributed to the recent developments in treatments for metastatic prostate cancer that are able to confer a significant survival advantage. We are therefore, anticipating an increase in the number of patients that we need to treat at this disease stage. Imaging is undoubtedly crucial in monitoring disease response to treatment and progression...
November 10, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Alexandru Irimie, Doina Piciu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The use of amiodarone for the treatment of ventricular and supraventricular dysrhythmias brings in organism an increased amount of iodine, interfering with thyroid function. If the treatment needs to be interrupted, iodine remains at abnormal levels for months or even years. The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the optimal tests for early diagnostic and to analyze the role of nuclear medicine tests in the differential and correct assessment of the amiodarone-induced thyroid pathology...
November 10, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Partha Choudhury, Manoj Gupta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are many challenges in the execution of targeted therapy in cancer due to tumor heterogeneity between individuals. In case of solid tumors this is one of the reasons as to why genomic analysis from single tumor biopsy specimens underestimate the mutational burdens in such heterogeneous tumors thus contributing to treatment failure and drug resistance. Molecular characteristics redefine tumor classification for molecular targeted therapies ensuring the best patient specific therapies with better specificity and cost effective ratio...
November 10, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Florencia Zoppolo, Williams Porcal, Patricia Oliver, Eduardo Savio, Henry Engler
BACKGROUND: Glycine N-methyltransferase is an enzyme overexpressed in some neoplastic tissues. It catalyses the methylation of glycine using S-adenosyl methionine (SAM or AdoMet) as substrate. SAM is involved in a great variety of biochemical processes, including transmethylation reactions. Thus, [11C]SAM could be used to evaluate transmethylation activity in tumours. The only method reported for [11C]SAM synthesis is an enzymatic process with several limitations. We propose a new chemical method to obtain [11C]SAM, through a one-pot synthesis...
November 10, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Onofre T DeJesus
The chemical effects of radioactive decay arise from (1) transmutation, (2) formation of charged daughter nuclei, (3) recoil of the daughter nuclei, (4) electron "shakeoff" phenomenon and (5) vacancy cascade in decays via electron capture and internal conversion. This review aims to reiterate what has been known for a long time regarding the chemical consequences of radioactive decay and gives a historical perspective to the observations that led to their elucidation. The energetics of the recoil process in each decay mode is discussed in relation to the chemical bond between the decaying nucleus and the parent molecule...
November 10, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Paola Mapelli, Valentino Bettinardi, Federico Fallanca, Elena Incerti, Antonia Compierchio, Francesca Rossetti, Angela Coliva, Annarita Savi, Claudio Doglioni, Giampiero Negri, Luigi Gianolli, Maria Picchio
PURPOSE: To assess the capability of 18F-FAZA PET/CT in identifying intratumoral hypoxic areas in early and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to compare 18F-FAZA PET/CT with 18F-FDG PET/CT and histopathological biomarkers and to investigate whether the assessment of tumour to blood (T/B) and tumour to muscle (T/M) ratios provides comparable information regarding the hypoxic fractions of the tumour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with NSCLC were prospectively enrolled (3 men, 4 women; median age: 71 years; range 63-80)...
November 8, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Giampiero Giovacchini, Elisabetta Giovannini, Mattia Riondato, Andrea Ciarmiello
In the last twenty years, positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled choline, represented the most powerful imaging modality for prostate cancer (PCa). However, the low positive detection rate of the technique for PSA < 1 ng/ml prompted the development of other tracers for imaging PCa. 68Ga-PSMA is a receptor ligand tracer, which has been identified as the most promising radiopharmaceutical for imaging PCa. The most promising feature of this radiopharmaceutical is the high positive detection rate for prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels < 1 ng/ml or less (i...
November 1, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Laura Evangelista, Marco Spadafora, Leonardo Pace, Luigi Mansi, Alberto Cuocolo
BACKGROUND: The Italian Tailored Assessment of Lung Indeterminate Accidental Nodule (ITALIAN) is a retrospective, multicenter trial designed to compare the diagnostic information provided by segmental positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (s-PET/CT) with those of whole body (wb)-PET/CT in patients with single pulmonary nodules (SPN). This report describes the details and implications of the ITALIAN trial design. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between September 2016 and May 2017, 502 consecutive patients (302 men, mean age 67±12 years) with SPN undergoing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT were enrolled...
October 2, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Morten Jacobsen, Arvid Jensen, Guttorm Breivik Storvestre, Tone Marie Bergstrom, Diyar Nori Mohamad Rashi, Bjorn Nielssen, Pal Wiktor, Knut-Erik Hymer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In a security ward we assessed the diagnostic contribution of single photon scintigraphy [SPECT] in our diagnostic pathway for patients with serious mental disease and a history of violence. METHODS: Twenty patients were examined between 2012 and 2015 and the findings compared to those in nine patients with the same diagnosis, but no history of violence. RESULTS: All violent patients had areas with reduced accumulation of 99mTc-HMPAO frontally and in the temporal lobe, in the non-violent group only two patients demonstrated these findings...
August 24, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
Hanieh Karimi, Nourollah Sadeghzadeh, Saeid Abediankenari, Farzaneh Rezazadeh, Fereshteh Hallajian
BACKGROUND: Labeled RGD peptide that specifically targets ανβ3 integrin has great potential for the early diagnosis of malignant tumors. αvβ3 integrin receptors appear specifically more on the surface of glioblastoma (malignant glioma) cells rather than normal cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify a novel RGD that can be radiolabeled with 99mTc with in vitro assessment of its targeting ability for U87MG human brain cancer cells. METHOD: Novel RGD was designed by Amino Acid retro-inversion technique...
July 6, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
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