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Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924455/new-microfluidic-paths-to-test-for-bleeding-or-clotting
#1
Scott L Diamond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580033/dynamics-of-blood-flow-and-thrombus-formation-in-a-multi-bypass-microfluidic-ladder-network
#2
Jevgenia Zilberman-Rudenko, Joanna L Sylman, Hari H S Lakshmanan, Owen J T McCarty, Jeevan Maddala
The reaction dynamics of a complex mixture of cells and proteins, such as blood, in branched circulatory networks within the human microvasculature or extravascular therapeutic devices such as extracorporeal oxygenation machine (ECMO) remains ill-defined. In this report we utilize a multi-bypass microfluidics ladder network design with dimensions mimicking venules to study patterns of blood platelet aggregation and fibrin formation under complex shear. Complex blood fluid dynamics within multi-bypass networks under flow were modeled using COMSOL...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529666/a-microfluidic-model-of-hemostasis-sensitive-to-platelet-function-and-coagulation
#3
R M Schoeman, K Rana, N Danes, M Lehmann, J A Di Paola, A L Fogelson, K Leiderman, K B Neeves
Hemostasis is the process of sealing a vascular injury with a thrombus to arrest bleeding. The type of thrombus that forms depends on the nature of the injury and hemodynamics. There are many models of intravascular thrombus formation whereby blood is exposed to prothrombotic molecules on a solid substrate. However, there are few models of extravascular thrombus formation whereby blood escapes into the extravascular space through a hole in the vessel wall. Here, we describe a microfluidic model of hemostasis that includes vascular, vessel wall, and extravascular compartments...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360944/multiaxial-polarity-determines-individual-cellular-and-nuclear-chirality
#4
Michael J Raymond, Poulomi Ray, Gurleen Kaur, Michael Fredericks, Ajay V Singh, Leo Q Wan
Intrinsic cell chirality has been implicated in the left-right (LR) asymmetry of embryonic development. Impaired cell chirality could lead to severe birth defects in laterality. Previously, we detected cell chirality with an in vitro micropatterning system. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that chirality can be quantified as the coordination of multiaxial polarization of individual cells and nuclei. Using an object labeling, connected component based method, we characterized cell chirality based on cell and nuclear shape polarization and nuclear positioning of each cell in multicellular patterns of epithelial cells...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163790/hypertrophy-changes-3d-shape-of-hipsc-cardiomyocytes-implications-for-cellular-maturation-in-regenerative-medicine
#5
Cassady E Rupert, Heidi H Chang, Kareen L K Coulombe
Advances in the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes for heart regeneration and in vitro disease models demand a greater understanding of how these cells grow and mature in 3-dimensional space. In this study, we developed an analysis methodology of single cardiomyocytes plated on 2D surfaces to assess their 3D myofilament volume and its z-height distribution, or shape, upon hypertrophic stimulation via phenylephrine (PE) treatment or long-term culture ("aging"). Cardiomyocytes were fixed and labeled with α-actinin for confocal microscopy imaging to obtain z-stacks for 3D myofilament volume analysis...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138348/cholesterol-enrichment-impairs-capacitative-calcium-entry-enos-phosphorylation-shear-stress-induced-no-production
#6
Allison M Andrews, Tenderano T Muzorewa, Kelly A Zaccheo, Donald G Buerk, Dov Jaron, Kenneth A Barbee
Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by decreased production or availability of nitric oxide (NO), is widely believed to be the hallmark of early-stage atherosclerosis. In addition, hypercholesterolemia is considered a major risk factor for development of atherosclerosis and is associated with impaired flow-induced dilation. However, the mechanism by which elevated cholesterol levels leads to decreased production of NO is unclear. NO is released in response to shear stress and agonist-evoked changes in intracellular calcium...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804522/nanomaterials-for-the-capture-and-therapeutic-targeting-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#7
REVIEW
Zhenjiang Zhang, Michael R King
Circulating tumor cells are a hallmark of cancer metastasis which accounts for approximately 90% of all cancer-related deaths. Their detection and characterization have significant implications in cancer biology and clinical practice. However, CTCs are rare cells and consist of heterogeneous subpopulations, requiring highly sensitive and specific techniques to identify and isolate them with high efficiency. Nanomaterials, with unique structural and functional properties, have shown strong promise to meet the challenging demands...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580034/the-effect-of-co0-2mn0-8fe2o4-ferrite-nanoparticles-on-the-c2-canine-mastocytoma-cell-line-and-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-ascs-cultured-under-a-static-magnetic-field-possible-implications-in-the-treatment-of-dog-mastocytoma
#8
K Marycz, M Marędziak, D Lewandowski, E Zachanowicz, A Zięcina, R J Wiglusz, R Pązik
Cobalt manganese ferrite nanoparticles have application potential in the biomedical field, however there is limited information concerning the biological response. The aim of this work was to investigate the cytotoxic potential of cobalt-manganese ferrite nanoparticles in canine mastocytoma tumor cells (C2) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (ASCs) cultured under a static magnetic field (MF). In this study, we investigated the viability and proliferation rate of ASC and C2 cells cultured with Co0...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356996/methods-for-20s-immunoproteasome-and-20s-constitutive-proteasome-determination-based-on-spri-biosensors
#9
Sankiewicz Anna, Markowska Agnieszka, Lukaszewski Zenon, Puzan Beata, Gorodkiewicz Ewa
The 20S proteasome, released into the circulation, is a novel cancer biomarker. It exists in two forms: the constitutive proteasome (20Sc) and the immunoproteasome (20Si), which both have separate diagnostic significance. The aim of this work was to develop new methods for 20Si and 20Sc determination. Five alternative specific biosensors usable with the surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) technique for 20Si determination have been developed. Specific 20Si entrapment on the biosensor surface from an analyzed solution was achieved by means of an immobilized specific 20Si receptor...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392840/elucidation-of-exosome-migration-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-model-in-vitro
#10
Claire C Chen, Linan Liu, Fengxia Ma, Chi W Wong, Xuning E Guo, Jenu V Chacko, Henry P Farhoodi, Shirley X Zhang, Jan Zimak, Aude Ségaliny, Milad Riazifar, Victor Pham, Michelle A Digman, Egest J Pone, Weian Zhao
The delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a major challenge in part due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recently, cell-derived vesicles, particularly exosomes, have emerged as an attractive vehicle for targeting drugs to the brain, but whether or how they cross the BBB remains unclear. Here, we investigated the interactions between exosomes and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in vitro under conditions that mimic the healthy and inflamed BBB in vivo...
December 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239428/improvement-in-electrotransfection-of-cells-using-carbon-based-electrodes
#11
Chun-Chi Chang, Mao Mao, Yang Liu, Mina Wu, Tuan Vo-Dinh, Fan Yuan
Electrotransfection has been widely used as a versatile, non-viral method for gene delivery. However, electrotransfection efficiency (eTE) is still low and unstable, compared to viral methods. To understand potential mechanisms of the unstable eTE, we investigated effects of electrode materials on eTE and viability of mammalian cells. Data from the study showed that commonly used metal electrodes generated a significant amount of particles during application of pulsed electric field, which could cause precipitation of plasmid DNA from solutions, thereby reducing eTE...
December 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220141/adhesive-peptide-sequences-regulate-valve-interstitial-cell-adhesion-phenotype-and-extracellular-matrix-deposition
#12
Yan Wu, K Jane Grande-Allen, Jennifer L West
Knowledge of how extracellular matrix (ECM) binding impacts valve interstitial cells (VICs) is critical not only to better understanding the etiology of valvular diseases but also to constructing living valve substitutes that can grow and remodel. Use of ECM-mimicking adhesive peptides with specific affinity to different receptors provides insights into adhesion-mediated cell signaling and downstream outcomes. Expression of adhesion receptors by VICs was assessed by flow cytometry and used to guide the choice of peptides studied...
December 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083075/biorheology-of-platelet-activation-in-the-bloodstream-distal-to-thrombus-formation
#13
Jevgenia Zilberman-Rudenko, Asako Itakura, Jeevan Maddala, Sandra M Baker-Groberg, Ralf Vetter, Erik I Tucker, András Gruber, Christoph Gerdes, Owen J T McCarty
Thrombus growth at the site of vascular injury is mediated by the sequential events of platelet recruitment, activation and aggregation concomitant with the initiation of the coagulation cascade, resulting in local thrombin generation and fibrin formation. While the biorheology of a localized thrombus formation has been well studied, it is unclear whether local sites of thrombin generation propagate platelet activation within the bloodstream. In order to study the physical biology of platelet activation downstream of sites of thrombus formation, we developed a platform to measure platelet activation and microaggregate formation in the bloodstream...
December 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458726/effect-of-m1-m2-polarization-on-the-motility-and-traction-stresses-of-primary-human-macrophages
#14
Laurel E Hind, Emily B Lurier, Micah Dembo, Kara L Spiller, Daniel A Hammer
Macrophages become polarized by cues in their environment and this polarization causes a functional change in their behavior. Two main subsets of polarized macrophages have been described. M1, or "classically activated" macrophages, are pro-inflammatory and M2, or "alternatively activated" macrophages, are anti-inflammatory. In this study, we investigated the motility and force generation of primary human macrophages polarized down the M1 and M2 pathways using chemokinesis assays and traction force microscopy on polyacrylamide gels...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818713/mechanism-of-enhanced-cellular-uptake-and-cytosolic-retention-of-mk2-inhibitory-peptide-nano-polyplexes
#15
Kameron V Kilchrist, Brian C Evans, Colleen M Brophy, Craig L Duvall
Electrostatic complexation of a cationic MAPKAP kinase 2 inhibitory (MK2i) peptide with the anionic, pH-responsive polymer poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) yields MK2i nano-polyplexes (MK2i-NPs) that significantly increase peptide uptake and intracellular retention. This study focused on elucidating the mechanism of MK2i-NP cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking in vascular smooth muscle cells. Small molecule inhibition of various endocytic pathways showed that MK2i-NP cellular uptake involves both macropinocytosis and clathrin mediated endocytosis, whereas the free peptide exclusively utilizes clathrin mediated endocytosis for cell entry...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800035/oncogene-knockdown-via-active-loading-of-small-rnas-into-extracellular-vesicles-by-sonication
#16
Tek N Lamichhane, Anjana Jeyaram, Divya B Patel, Babita Parajuli, Natalie K Livingston, Navein Arumugasaamy, John S Schardt, Steven M Jay
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, have emerged as promising drug delivery vehicles for small RNAs (siRNA and miRNA) due to their natural role in intercellular RNA transport. However, the application of EVs for therapeutic RNA delivery may be limited by loading approaches that can induce cargo aggregation or degradation. Here, we report the use of sonication as a means to actively load functional small RNAs into EVs. Conditions under which EVs could be loaded with small RNAs with minimal detectable aggregation were identified, and EVs loaded with therapeutic siRNA via sonication were observed to be taken up by recipient cells and capable of target mRNA knockdown leading to reduced protein expression...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795742/mechanisms-of-reduced-astrocyte-surface-coverage-in-cortical-neuron-glia-co-cultures-on-nanoporous-gold-surfaces
#17
Christopher A R Chapman, Hao Chen, Marianna Stamou, Pamela J Lein, Erkin Seker
Nanoporous gold (np-Au) is a promising multifunctional material for neural electrodes. We have previously shown that np-Au nanotopography reduces astrocyte surface coverage (linked to undesirable gliosis) while maintaining high neuronal coverage in a cortical primary neuron-glia co-culture model as long as two weeks in vitro. Here, we investigate the potential influence of secreted soluble factors from cells grown on np-Au on the cell type-specific surface coverage of cells grown on conventional tissue culture plastic and test the hypothesis that secretion of factors is responsible for inhibiting astrocyte coverage on np-Au...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752289/mechanical-properties-of-the-tumor-stromal-microenvironment-probed-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-by-in-situ-calibrated-optical-trap-based-active-microrheology
#18
Jack R Staunton, Wilfred Vieira, King Leung Fung, Ross Lake, Alexus Devine, Kandice Tanner
One of the hallmarks of the malignant transformation of epithelial tissue is the modulation of stromal components of the microenvironment. In particular, aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening enhances tumor growth and survival and promotes metastasis. Type I collagen is one of the major ECM components. It serves as a scaffold protein in the stroma contributing to the tissue's mechanical properties, imparting tensile strength and rigidity to tissues such as those of the skin, tendons, and lungs...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638491/o-glcnac-ylation-in-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#19
Andrew Ruba, Weidong Yang
O-GlcNAc-ylation is the post-translational addition of an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine to the serine and threonine residues of thousands of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Specifically, half of the thirty different types of protein components in the nuclear pore complex (NPC) are modified by O-GlcNAc, of which the majority are intrinsically disordered nucleoporins (Nups) containing multiple phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeats. Moreover, these FG-Nups form a strict selectivity barrier with a high density of O-GlcNAc in the NPC to mediate bidirectional trafficking between the cytoplasm and nucleus...
June 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163791/mechanobiology-of-chromatin-and-the-nuclear-interior
#20
Stephen T Spagnol, Travis J Armiger, Kris Noel Dahl
The view of the cell nucleus has evolved from an isolated, static organelle to a dynamic structure integrated with other mechanical elements of the cell. Both dynamics and integration appear to contribute to a mechanical regulation of genome expression. Here, we review physical structures inside the nucleus at different length scales and the dynamic reorganization modulated by cellular forces. First, we discuss nuclear organization focusing on self-assembly and disassembly of DNA structures and various nuclear bodies...
June 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
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