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Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering

Emily Tubman, Yungui He, Thomas S Hays, David J Odde
Introduction: The microtubule motor protein kinesin-5 is well known to establish the bipolar spindle by outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar microtubules. In yeast, kinesin-5 also facilitates chromosome alignment "congression" at the spindle equator by preferentially depolymerizing long kinetochore microtubules (kMTs). The motor protein kinesin-8 has also been linked to chromosome congression. Therefore, we sought to determine whether kinesin-5 or kinesin-8 facilitates chromosome congression in insect spindles...
February 2018: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Aniqua Rahman-Zaman, Shuo Shan, Cynthia A Reinhart-King
Introduction: In vivo, cancer cells can utilize tube-like microtracks formed within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the stroma as 'highways' to escape the primary tumor, however very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern cell migration through these microtracks. Cell polarization and actin organization are both essential for efficient cell migration and cells are known to migrate very unidirectionally in confined spaces. In this study, we focused on understanding the role of Girdin during unidirectional migration...
February 2018: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Bradley A Herbig, Scott L Diamond
Introduction: In regions of flow separation/reattachment within diseased arteries, the local hemodynamics can result in stagnation point flow that provides an atypical environment in atherosclerosis. Impinging flows occur with recirculation eddies distal of coronary stenosis or diseased carotid bifurcations. Methods: By perfusing whole blood directly perpendicular to a fibrillar collagen thrombotic surface, a microfluidic device produced a stagnation point flow...
December 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Joseph M Cicchese, Elsje Pienaar, Denise E Kirschner, Jennifer J Linderman
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB), one of the most common infectious diseases, requires treatment with multiple antibiotics taken over at least 6 months. This long treatment often results in poor patient-adherence, which can lead to the emergence of multi-drug resistant TB. New antibiotic treatment strategies are sorely needed. New antibiotics are being developed or repurposed to treat TB, but as there are numerous potential antibiotics, dosing sizes and potential schedules, the regimen design space for new treatments is too large to search exhaustively...
December 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Jutaek Nam, Sejin Son, James J Moon
INTRODUCTION: Gold nanoparticles are versatile carriers for delivery of biomacromolecules. Here, we have developed spiky gold nanoparticles (SGNPs) that can efficiently deliver immunostimulatory agents. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to develop a platform technology for co-delivery of multiple adjuvant molecules for synergistic stimulation and maturation of innate immune cells. METHODS: SGNPs were synthesized by a seed-mediated, surfactant-free synthesis method and incorporated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (pIC) and DNA oligonucleotide containing unmethylated CpG motif (CpG) by an electrostatic layer-by-layer approach...
October 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Claire E Witherel, Tony Yu, Mark Concannon, Will Dampier, Kara L Spiller
Introduction: Chronic wounds remain a major clinical challenge. Human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (hCVAM) is among the most successful therapies, but the mechanisms of action remain loosely defined. Because proper regulation of macrophage behavior is critical for wound healing with biomaterial therapies, we hypothesized that hCVAM would positively regulate macrophage behavior in vitro , and that soluble factors released from the hCVAM would be important for this effect. Materials and Methods: Primary human pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages were seeded directly onto intact hCVAM or cultured in separation via transwell inserts (Soluble Factors) in the presence of pro-inflammatory stimuli (interferon- γ and lipopolysaccharide) to simulate the chronic wound environment...
October 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Zachary I Imam, Laura E Kenyon, Grant Ashby, Fatema Nagib, Morgan Mendicino, Chi Zhao, Avinash K Gadok, Jeanne C Stachowiak
INTRODUCTION: From viruses to organelles, fusion of biological membranes is used by diverse biological systems to deliver macromolecules across membrane barriers. Membrane fusion is also a potentially efficient mechanism for the delivery of macromolecular therapeutics to the cellular cytoplasm. However, a key shortcoming of existing fusogenic liposomal systems is that they are inefficient, requiring a high concentration of fusion-promoting lipids in order to cross cellular membrane barriers...
October 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Fanfan Du, Yu-Gang Liu, Evan Alexander Scott
INTRODUCTION: Intracellular delivery is a key step for many applications in medicine and for investigations into cellular function. This is particularly true for immunotherapy, which often requires controlled delivery of antigen and adjuvants to the cytoplasm of immune cells. Due to the complex responses generated by the stimulation of diverse immune cell populations, it is critical to monitor which cells are targeted during treatment. To address this issue, we have engineered an immunotheranostic polymersome delivery system that fluorescently marks immune cells following intracellular delivery...
October 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Joseph J Kim, Luqia Hou, Guang Yang, Nicholas P Mezak, Maureen Wanjare, Lydia M Joubert, Ngan F Huang
INTRODUCTION: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising source of endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) for engineering three-dimensional (3D) vascularized cardiac tissues. To mimic cardiac microvasculature, in which capillaries are oriented in parallel, we hypothesized that endothelial differentiation of iPSCs within topographically aligned 3D scaffolds would be a facile one-step approach to generate iPSC-ECs as well as induce aligned vascular organization. METHODS: Human iPSCs underwent endothelial differentiation within electrospun 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds having either randomly oriented or parallel-aligned microfibers...
October 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Visar Ajeti, Jorge Lara-Santiago, Samuel Alkmin, Paul J Campagnola
Introduction: Migration mis-regulation is a hallmark of cancer, and remains an important problem in cancer biology. We postulate the needs for better in vitro models to understand the details of cell-matrix interactions. Here, we utilized multiphoton excited (MPE) photochemistry to fabricate models to systematically study migration dynamics operative in breast and ovarian cancer. Gradients are a convenient means to modulate concentration and also have been implicated in metastases. Methods: We specifically pattern sub-micron structured gradients from laminin and fibronectin whose up-regulation is associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis...
August 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Christa Caesar, Alicia N Lyle, Giji Joseph, Daiana Weiss, Fadi M F Alameddine, Bernard Lassègue, Kathy K Griendling, W Robert Taylor
Hypertension has a direct impact on vascular hypertrophy and is a known risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Osteopontin (OPN) has emerged as an important protein mediator of inflammation and remodeling of large arteries. However, its role and mechanism of regulation in the setting of hypertension is still unknown. Our objectives for this study were therefore to investigate the role of OPN in hypertension-induced vascular remodeling and inflammation. OPN Knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice were made hypertensive with angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion for seven days...
April 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Scott L Diamond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Jevgenia Zilberman-Rudenko, Joanna L Sylman, Hari H S Lakshmanan, Owen J T McCarty, Jeevan Maddala
The reaction dynamics of a complex mixture of cells and proteins, such as blood, in branched circulatory networks within the human microvasculature or extravascular therapeutic devices such as extracorporeal oxygenation machine (ECMO) remains ill-defined. In this report we utilize a multi-bypass microfluidics ladder network design with dimensions mimicking venules to study patterns of blood platelet aggregation and fibrin formation under complex shear. Complex blood fluid dynamics within multi-bypass networks under flow were modeled using COMSOL...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
R M Schoeman, K Rana, N Danes, M Lehmann, J A Di Paola, A L Fogelson, K Leiderman, K B Neeves
Hemostasis is the process of sealing a vascular injury with a thrombus to arrest bleeding. The type of thrombus that forms depends on the nature of the injury and hemodynamics. There are many models of intravascular thrombus formation whereby blood is exposed to prothrombotic molecules on a solid substrate. However, there are few models of extravascular thrombus formation whereby blood escapes into the extravascular space through a hole in the vessel wall. Here, we describe a microfluidic model of hemostasis that includes vascular, vessel wall, and extravascular compartments...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Michael J Raymond, Poulomi Ray, Gurleen Kaur, Michael Fredericks, Ajay V Singh, Leo Q Wan
Intrinsic cell chirality has been implicated in the left-right (LR) asymmetry of embryonic development. Impaired cell chirality could lead to severe birth defects in laterality. Previously, we detected cell chirality with an in vitro micropatterning system. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that chirality can be quantified as the coordination of multiaxial polarization of individual cells and nuclei. Using an object labeling, connected component based method, we characterized cell chirality based on cell and nuclear shape polarization and nuclear positioning of each cell in multicellular patterns of epithelial cells...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Cassady E Rupert, Heidi H Chang, Kareen L K Coulombe
Advances in the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes for heart regeneration and in vitro disease models demand a greater understanding of how these cells grow and mature in 3-dimensional space. In this study, we developed an analysis methodology of single cardiomyocytes plated on 2D surfaces to assess their 3D myofilament volume and its z-height distribution, or shape, upon hypertrophic stimulation via phenylephrine (PE) treatment or long-term culture ("aging"). Cardiomyocytes were fixed and labeled with α-actinin for confocal microscopy imaging to obtain z-stacks for 3D myofilament volume analysis...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Allison M Andrews, Tenderano T Muzorewa, Kelly A Zaccheo, Donald G Buerk, Dov Jaron, Kenneth A Barbee
Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by decreased production or availability of nitric oxide (NO), is widely believed to be the hallmark of early-stage atherosclerosis. In addition, hypercholesterolemia is considered a major risk factor for development of atherosclerosis and is associated with impaired flow-induced dilation. However, the mechanism by which elevated cholesterol levels leads to decreased production of NO is unclear. NO is released in response to shear stress and agonist-evoked changes in intracellular calcium...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Monika Marędziak, Daniel Lewandowski, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Krzysztof Kubiak, Krzsztof Marycz
Introduction: In the current study, we investigated the effect of low magnitude, low frequency (LMLF) mechanical vibrations on the osteogenic differentiation potential of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC), taken from elderly patients. Methods: During 21 days in osteogenic culture medium, cells were periodically exposed to three different frequencies (25, 35 and 45 Hz) of continuous sinusoidal oscillation, using a vibration generator. We measured cell proliferation, cell morphology, calcium and phosphorus deposition using Almar Blue assay, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a EDX detector, respectively...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Mona Ahmed, Barbara Cerroni, Anton Razuvaev, Johan Härmark, Gaio Paradossi, Kenneth Caidahl, Björn Gustafsson
Introduction: Both diagnostic ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accuracy can be improved by using contrast enhancement. For US gas-filled microbubbles (MBs) or silica nanoparticles (SiNPs), and for MRI superparamagnetic or paramagnetic agents, contribute to this. However, interactions of MBs with the vascular wall and cells are not fully known for all contrast media. Methods: We studied the in vitro interactions between three types of non-targeted air-filled MBs with a polyvinyl-alcohol shell and murine macrophages or endothelial cells...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Zhenjiang Zhang, Michael R King
Circulating tumor cells are a hallmark of cancer metastasis which accounts for approximately 90% of all cancer-related deaths. Their detection and characterization have significant implications in cancer biology and clinical practice. However, CTCs are rare cells and consist of heterogeneous subpopulations, requiring highly sensitive and specific techniques to identify and isolate them with high efficiency. Nanomaterials, with unique structural and functional properties, have shown strong promise to meet the challenging demands...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
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