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Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research

Nadjib Hammoudi, Shin Watanabe, Olympia Bikou, Alexandre Ceccaldi, Kenneth Fish, Kelly P Yamada, Satoshi Miyashita, Guillaume Lebreton, Roger J Hajjar, Kiyotake Ishikawa
Non-invasive means of evaluating appropriate cardiac unloading remain to be established. We hypothesized that myocardial deformation assessed by echocardiographic speckle-tracking strain analysis can reliably estimate the degree of left ventricular (LV) unloading under mechanical circulatory support. A total of 24 Yorkshire pigs underwent Impella-mediated acute LV unloading 1-2 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI). Echocardiographic and invasive pressure-volume measurements were used to evaluate the degree of LV unloading...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Lingqun Ye, Xuan Ni, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Wei Lei, Shijun Hu
In recent decades, cardiovascular diseases have become the greatest health threat to human beings, and thus it is particularly important to explore the subtle underlying pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Although many molecular pathways have been explored to be essential in the development of cardiovascular diseases, their clinical significances are still uncertain. With the emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a unique platform for cardiovascular diseases has been established to model cardiovascular diseases on specific genetic background in vitro...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Mengmeng Lu, Shuaifang Yuan, Shicheng Li, Ling Li, Min Liu, Shaogui Wan
Exosomes are now accepted as potential biomarkers in cardiovascular disease development, especially in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease-related death and morbidity, accounting for one-fifth of all deaths globally. Therefore, the biomarkers for the management of atherosclerosis is urgently needed. Exosomes are reported to play key roles cell-to-cell communication in atherosclerosis with lipid bilayer membranous vesicles containing nucleic acids, proteins, and lipid contents, which are released from all most of multiple kinds of living cells...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
John H Rosenberg, John H Werner, Michael J Moulton, Devendra K Agrawal
Ischemic preconditioning is a process which serves to mitigate reperfusion injury. Preconditioning of the heart can be achieved through natural, pharmacological, and mechanical means. Mechanical preconditioning appears to have the greatest chance of good outcomes while methods employing pharmacologic preconditioning have been largely unsuccessful. Remote ischemic preconditioning achieves a cardioprotective effect by applying cycles of ischemia and reperfusion in a distal limb, stimulating the release of a neurohumoral cardioprotective factor incited by stimulation of afferent neurons...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Andie H Djohan, Ching-Hui Sia, Poay Sian Lee, Kian-Keong Poh
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a prevalent disease (especially among the elderly) with high mortality and morbidity rates. The pathological hallmark of CHF is a loss of cardiomyocytes leading to cardiac fibrosis and dysfunctional cardiac remodeling, which culminates in organ failure. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived cells that contribute to maintenance of the integrity of endothelial wall and protect ischemic myocardium through forming new blood vessels (vasculogenesis) or proliferation of pre-existing vasculature (angiogenesis)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Marcello Rattazzi, Elisabetta Faggin, Elisa Bertacco, Roberta Buso, Massimo Puato, Mario Plebani, Martina Zaninotto, Davide Condotta, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Leopoldo Pagliani, Giuseppe Tarantini, Sabino Iliceto, Elisa Covolo, Giuseppe Faggian, Francesco Onorati, Mikhail Dodonov, Alessandro Daniotti, Paola Pantano, Zoran Olivari, Giovanni Benfari, Paolo Pauletto
We aimed to investigate whether the expression of the OPG/RANK/RANKL triad in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and circulating levels of markers of ectopic mineralization (OPG, FGF-23, PPi) are modified in patients with calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). We found that patients affected by CAVD (n = 50) had significantly higher circulating levels of OPG as compared to control individuals (p = 0.003). No differences between the two groups were found in FGF-23 and PPi levels. RANKL expression was higher in the PBMC from CAVD patients (p = 0...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Zi Wang, Xuan Su, Muhammad Ashraf, Il-Man Kim, Neal L Weintraub, Meng Jiang, Yaoliang Tang
Despite substantial advances in the development of medical and interventional strategies in ischemic and non-ischemic heart diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Stem cell therapy for heart disease has gained traction over the past two decades and is an emerging option for the treatment of myocardial dysfunction. In this review, we summarize the current literature on different types of stem cells and their potential usage in ischemic and non-ischemic heart diseases...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Genya Sunagawa, Keita Saku, Takahiro Arimura, Takuya Nishikawa, Hiroshi Mannoji, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kiyokazu Abe, Takuya Kishi, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kenji Sunagawa
The oxygen supply-demand imbalance is the fundamental pathophysiology of myocardial infarction (MI). Reducing myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2 ) in acute MI (AMI) reduces infarct size. Since left ventricular (LV) mechanical work and heart rate are major determinants of MVO2 , we hypothesized that the combination of LV mechanical unloading and chronotropic unloading during AMI can reduce infarct size via synergistic suppression of MVO2 . In a dog model of ischemia-reperfusion, as we predicted, the combination of mechanical unloading by Impella and bradycardic agent, ivabradine (IVA), synergistically reduced MVO2 ...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Sriram Ravindran, Gino A Kurian
The recent research on the therapeutic applications of sodium thiosulfate (STS) has gained importance in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Progressively through the present work, we have demonstrated that postconditioning of isolated rat heart subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury using STS had preserved the mitochondrial structure, function, and number. Heart comprising of two mitochondrial subpopulations interfibrillar (IFM-involved in contractile function) and subsarcolemmal (SSM-involved in metabolic function), STS postconditioning imparted a state of hypometabolism to SSM, thereby reducing the metabolic demand of the reperfused heart...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Jeffrey P Yourshaw, Prabodh Mishra, M Christopher Armstrong, Bhavadharini Ramu, Michael L Craig, Adrian B Van Bakel, Daniel H Steinberg, Thomas G DiSalvo, Ryan J Tedford, Brian A Houston
Both operative and hemodynamic mechanisms have been implicated in right heart failure (RHF) following surgical left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. We investigated the effects of percutaneous LVAD (pLVAD; Impella®, Abiomed) support on right ventricular (RV) load and adaptation. We reviewed all patients receiving a pLVAD for cardiogenic shock at our institution between July 2014 and April 2017, including only those with pre- and post-pLVAD invasive hemodynamic measurements. Hemodynamic data was recorded immediately prior to pLVAD implantation and up to 96 h post-implantation...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Arturo Giordano, Simona Romano, Nicola Corcione, Giacomo Frati, Giuseppe Biondi Zoccai, Paolo Ferraro, Stefano Messina, Stefano Ottolini, Maria Fiammetta Romano
An unexpectedly high incidence of thrombosis in patients that received the polylactic acid bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) suggests a delayed/incomplete endothelial repair with this stent. The anti-platelet agent tirofiban stimulates endothelial cell migration and proliferation, mediated by VEGF production. We investigated the tirofiban effect on the migration and adhesion of endothelial cells to BVS, in vitro. We performed human umbilical endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures in the presence of BVS. Tirofiban, similarly to VEGF, increased the ability of HUVEC to grow on the vascular scaffold, compared to unstimulated or abciximab-treated cells...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Daniel Scheiber, Elric Zweck, Tomas Jelenik, Patrick Horn, Sophie Albermann, Maryna Masyuk, Udo Boeken, Diyar Saeed, Malte Kelm, Michael Roden, Julia Szendroedi, Ralf Westenfeld
Mechanical ventricular unloading in advanced heart failure (HF) has been shown to induce reverse remodeling in myocardial tissues. Little is known about the impact of ventricular unloading on myocardial energy metabolism. We hypothesized that left ventricular unloading reduces myocardial mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and improves mitochondrial coupling efficiency in patients suffering from advanced HF. Left ventricular tissue specimens were harvested from explanted hearts at the time of transplantation...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Andreas Synetos, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Maria Drakopoulou, Iosif Koutagiar, George Benetos, Rafail Kotronias, Nikolaos Anousakis-Vlachochristou, George Latsios, Antonis Karanasos, George Agrogiannis, Marinos Metaxas, Konstantinos Stathogiannis, Aggelos Papanikolaou, Alexandros Georgakopoulos, Nikoleta Pianou, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Efstratios Patsouris, Apostolos Papalois, Dennis Cokkinos, Constantinos Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios Tousoulis
The aim of this study was to evaluate in an experimental model of aortic valve (AV) stenosis the effectiveness of zoledronate on the inhibition of calcification. Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were placed on vitamin D-enriched diet for 3 weeks. All animals underwent PET/CT at baseline and before euthanasia to assess calcification. Thereafter, the AVs of eight animals were treated with local delivery of 500 μg/l zoledronate. A placebo mixture was administered in the remaining eight animals. Standardized uptake values were corrected for blood pool activity, providing mean tissue to background ratios (TBRmean)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Sarah E Motta, Emanuela S Fioretta, Petra E Dijkman, Valentina Lintas, Luc Behr, Simon P Hoerstrup, Maximilian Y Emmert
Tissue-engineered heart valves with self-repair and regeneration properties may overcome the problem of long-term degeneration of currently used artificial prostheses. The aim of this study was the development and in vivo proof-of-concept of next-generation off-the-shelf tissue-engineered sinus valve (TESV) for transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR). Transcatheter implantation of off-the-shelf TESVs was performed in a translational sheep model for up to 16 weeks. Transapical delivery of TESVs was successful and showed good acute and short-term performance (up to 8 weeks), which then worsened over time most likely due to a non-optimized in vitro valve design...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Xiaoyan Liu, Wen Yuan, Lei Yang, Jing Li, Jun Cai
The role and miRNA expression profile of exosomes in hypertension remain largely unknown. Therefore, next-generation sequencing was used to define the miRNA expression profile of plasma exosomes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), the most widely used animal model of human essential hypertension, and their controls, normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Results revealed that percentages of miRNA in the total small RNA isolated from SHRs and WKYs were not significantly different. Twenty-seven miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (DE) between SHR and WKY exosomes, including 23 up-regulated and four down-regulated in SHR exosomes as compared to WKY exosomes...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Colleen M Witzenburg, Jeffrey W Holmes
The ability to predict long-term growth and remodeling of the heart in individual patients could have important clinical implications, but the time to customize and run current models makes them impractical for routine clinical use. Therefore, we adapted a published growth relation for use in a compartmental model of the left ventricle (LV). The model was coupled to a circuit model of the circulation to simulate hemodynamic overload in dogs. We automatically tuned control and acute model parameters based on experimentally reported hemodynamic data and fit growth parameters to changes in LV dimensions from two experimental overload studies (one pressure, one volume)...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Richard A Gray, Pras Pathmanathan
Patient-specific computer models have been developed representing a variety of aspects of the cardiovascular system spanning the disciplines of electrophysiology, electromechanics, solid mechanics, and fluid dynamics. These physiological mechanistic models predict macroscopic phenomena such as electrical impulse propagation and contraction throughout the entire heart as well as flow and pressure dynamics occurring in the ventricular chambers, aorta, and coronary arteries during each heartbeat. Such models have been used to study a variety of clinical scenarios including aortic aneurysms, coronary stenosis, cardiac valvular disease, left ventricular assist devices, cardiac resynchronization therapy, ablation therapy, and risk stratification...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Jeffrey W Holmes, Joost Lumens
Over the past several decades, increasingly sophisticated models of the heart have provided important insights into cardiac physiology and are increasingly used to predict the impact of diseases and therapies on the heart. In an era of personalized medicine, many envision patient-specific computational models as a powerful tool for personalizing therapy. Yet the complexity of current models poses important challenges, including identifying model parameters and completing calculations quickly enough for routine clinical use...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Phillip M Trusty, Timothy C Slesnick, Zhenglun Alan Wei, Jarek Rossignac, Kirk R Kanter, Mark A Fogel, Ajit P Yoganathan
The ultimate goal of Fontan surgical planning is to provide additional insights into the clinical decision-making process. In its current state, surgical planning offers an accurate hemodynamic assessment of the pre-operative condition, provides anatomical constraints for potential surgical options, and produces decent post-operative predictions if boundary conditions are similar enough between the pre-operative and post-operative states. Moving forward, validation with post-operative data is a necessary step in order to assess the accuracy of surgical planning and determine which methodological improvements are needed...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Angela W C Lee, Caroline Mendonca Costa, Marina Strocchi, Christopher A Rinaldi, Steven A Niederer
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for heart failure (HF) patients with an electrical substrate pathology causing ventricular dyssynchrony. However 40-50% of patients do not respond to treatment. Cardiac modeling of the electrophysiology, electromechanics, and hemodynamics of the heart has been used to study mechanisms behind HF pathology and CRT response. Recently, multi-scale dyssynchronous HF models have been used to study optimal device settings and optimal lead locations, investigate the underlying cardiac pathophysiology, as well as investigate emerging technologies proposed to treat cardiac dyssynchrony...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
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