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Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589269/reduced-myocardial-mitochondrial-ros-production-in-mechanically-unloaded-hearts
#1
Daniel Scheiber, Elric Zweck, Tomas Jelenik, Patrick Horn, Sophie Albermann, Maryna Masyuk, Udo Boeken, Diyar Saeed, Malte Kelm, Michael Roden, Julia Szendroedi, Ralf Westenfeld
Mechanical ventricular unloading in advanced heart failure (HF) has been shown to induce reverse remodeling in myocardial tissues. Little is known about the impact of ventricular unloading on myocardial energy metabolism. We hypothesized that left ventricular unloading reduces myocardial mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and improves mitochondrial coupling efficiency in patients suffering from advanced HF. Left ventricular tissue specimens were harvested from explanted hearts at the time of transplantation...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582395/inhibition-of-aortic-valve-calcification-by-local-delivery-of-zoledronic-acid-an-experimental-study
#2
Andreas Synetos, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Maria Drakopoulou, Iosif Koutagiar, George Benetos, Rafail Kotronias, Nikolaos Anousakis-Vlachochristou, George Latsios, Antonis Karanasos, George Agrogiannis, Marinos Metaxas, Konstantinos Stathogiannis, Aggelos Papanikolaou, Alexandros Georgakopoulos, Nikoleta Pianou, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Efstratios Patsouris, Apostolos Papalois, Dennis Cokkinos, Constantinos Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios Tousoulis
The aim of this study was to evaluate in an experimental model of aortic valve (AV) stenosis the effectiveness of zoledronate on the inhibition of calcification. Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were placed on vitamin D-enriched diet for 3 weeks. All animals underwent PET/CT at baseline and before euthanasia to assess calcification. Thereafter, the AVs of eight animals were treated with local delivery of 500 μg/l zoledronate. A placebo mixture was administered in the remaining eight animals. Standardized uptake values were corrected for blood pool activity, providing mean tissue to background ratios (TBRmean)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560553/development-of-an-off-the-shelf-tissue-engineered-sinus-valve-for-transcatheter-pulmonary-valve-replacement-a-proof-of-concept-study
#3
Sarah E Motta, Emanuela S Fioretta, Petra E Dijkman, Valentina Lintas, Luc Behr, Simon P Hoerstrup, Maximilian Y Emmert
Tissue-engineered heart valves with self-repair and regeneration properties may overcome the problem of long-term degeneration of currently used artificial prostheses. The aim of this study was the development and in vivo proof-of-concept of next-generation off-the-shelf tissue-engineered sinus valve (TESV) for transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR). Transcatheter implantation of off-the-shelf TESVs was performed in a translational sheep model for up to 16 weeks. Transapical delivery of TESVs was successful and showed good acute and short-term performance (up to 8 weeks), which then worsened over time most likely due to a non-optimized in vitro valve design...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557993/mirna-profiling-of-exosomes-from-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats-using-next-generation-sequencing
#4
Xiaoyan Liu, Wen Yuan, Lei Yang, Jing Li, Jun Cai
The role and miRNA expression profile of exosomes in hypertension remain largely unknown. Therefore, next-generation sequencing was used to define the miRNA expression profile of plasma exosomes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), the most widely used animal model of human essential hypertension, and their controls, normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Results revealed that percentages of miRNA in the total small RNA isolated from SHRs and WKYs were not significantly different. Twenty-seven miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (DE) between SHR and WKY exosomes, including 23 up-regulated and four down-regulated in SHR exosomes as compared to WKY exosomes...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557052/maturation-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-a-critical-step-for-drug-development-and-cell-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Shi Hua Tan, Lei Ye
Cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are emerging as an invaluable alternative to primarily sourced cardiomyocytes. The potentially unlimited number of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) that may be obtained in vitro facilitates high-throughput applications like cell transplantation for myocardial repair, cardiotoxicity testing during drug development, and patient-specific disease modeling. Despite promising progress in these areas, a major disadvantage that limits the use of hPSC-CMs is their immaturity...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550925/predicting-the-time-course-of-ventricular-dilation-and-thickening-using-a-rapid-compartmental-model
#6
Colleen M Witzenburg, Jeffrey W Holmes
The ability to predict long-term growth and remodeling of the heart in individual patients could have important clinical implications, but the time to customize and run current models makes them impractical for routine clinical use. Therefore, we adapted a published growth relation for use in a compartmental model of the left ventricle (LV). The model was coupled to a circuit model of the circulation to simulate hemodynamic overload in dogs. We automatically tuned control and acute model parameters based on experimentally reported hemodynamic data and fit growth parameters to changes in LV dimensions from two experimental overload studies (one pressure, one volume)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532428/trpc1-deficiency-impairs-the-endothelial-progenitor-cell-function-via-inhibition-of-calmodulin-enos-pathway
#7
Lai-Ling Du, Zhida Shen, Zhengwei Li, Xuewei Ye, Meiping Wu, Lihui Hong, Yanbo Zhao
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis and play a pivotal role in endothelial repair and re-endothelialization after vascular injury. Transient receptor potential-canonical1 (TRPC1) has been recently implied to play important roles on EPC function. Here, we studied the role of TRPC1 in regulating EPC function in vivo and in vitro. EPCs were cultured from TRPC1-knockout mice and their controls. In vitro, TRPC1 knockout reduced EPC functional activities, including migration and tube formation...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525884/the-potential-of-stem-cells-and-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-treating-cardiovascular-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Jing Ni, Yuxi Sun, Zheng Liu
In recent years, the cardiac protective mechanisms of stem cells have become a research focus. Increasing evidence has suggested that stem cells release vesicles, including exosomes and micro-vesicles. The content of these vesicles relies on an extracellular stimulus, and active ingredients are extensively being studied. Previous studies have confirmed that stem cell-derived exosomes have a cardiac protective function similar to that of stem cells, and promote angiogenesis, decrease apoptosis, and respond to stress...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512059/patient-specific-cardiovascular-computational-modeling-diversity-of-personalization-and-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Richard A Gray, Pras Pathmanathan
Patient-specific computer models have been developed representing a variety of aspects of the cardiovascular system spanning the disciplines of electrophysiology, electromechanics, solid mechanics, and fluid dynamics. These physiological mechanistic models predict macroscopic phenomena such as electrical impulse propagation and contraction throughout the entire heart as well as flow and pressure dynamics occurring in the ventricular chambers, aorta, and coronary arteries during each heartbeat. Such models have been used to study a variety of clinical scenarios including aortic aneurysms, coronary stenosis, cardiac valvular disease, left ventricular assist devices, cardiac resynchronization therapy, ablation therapy, and risk stratification...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468554/sdf-1-alpha-attenuates-myocardial-injury-without-altering-the-direct-contribution-of-circulating-cells
#10
Andrew B Goldstone, Cassandra E Burnett, Jeffery E Cohen, Michael J Paulsen, Anahita Eskandari, Bryan E Edwards, Arnar B Ingason, Amanda N Steele, Jay B Patel, John W MacArthur, Judith A Shizuru, Y Joseph Woo
Stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha (SDF) is a potent bone marrow chemokine capable of recruiting circulating progenitor populations to injured tissue. SDF has known angiogenic capabilities, but bone marrow-derived cellular contributions to tissue regeneration remain controversial. Bone marrow from DsRed-transgenic donors was transplanted into recipients to lineage-trace circulating cells after myocardial infarction (MI). SDF was delivered post-MI, and hearts were evaluated for recruitment and plasticity of bone marrow-derived populations...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464655/glp-1-improves-diastolic-function-and-survival-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#11
T Dung Nguyen, Yasushige Shingu, Paulo A Amorim, Christina Schenkl, Michael Schwarzer, Torsten Doenst
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has emerged as a public health burden with currently no effective medication. We assessed the treatment effects of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on cardiac metabolism and function in a model of HFpEF. Following aortic banding, rats developed HFpEF characterized by diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, and poor survival (38%). A 4-week GLP-1 treatment via osmotic pumps significantly improved survival (70%) and reduced left ventricular stiffness, diastolic dysfunction, and pulmonary congestion...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453747/clinical-applications-of-patient-specific-models-the-case-for-a-simple-approach
#12
Jeffrey W Holmes, Joost Lumens
Over the past several decades, increasingly sophisticated models of the heart have provided important insights into cardiac physiology and are increasingly used to predict the impact of diseases and therapies on the heart. In an era of personalized medicine, many envision patient-specific computational models as a powerful tool for personalizing therapy. Yet the complexity of current models poses important challenges, including identifying model parameters and completing calculations quickly enough for routine clinical use...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453746/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-treg-and-th17-of-rats-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#13
Zhisong Chen, Wenwen Yan, Yu Mao, Yi Ni, Lin Zhou, Haoming Song, Wenjun Xu, Leming Wang, Yuqin Shen
Immune activation and inflammation participate in the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Th17 cells and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells both come from naive Th cells and share reciprocal development pathways but exhibit opposite effects. We hypothesized that the Th17/Treg balance was impaired in patients with CHF, and exercise can improve it. Rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy were prepared by ligaturing the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery. Rats in training group were trained with treadmill; Th17 cells increased significantly while Treg cells significantly decreased in s by flow cytometry, and the peripheral blood level of IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α was obviously elevated by ELISA assay...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404859/serum-exosomes-attenuate-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-h9c2-cardiomyocytes-via-erk1-2
#14
Pengfei Li, Zhuyuan Liu, Yuan Xie, Huanyu Gu, Qiying Dai, Jianhua Yao, Lei Zhou
Exosomes are small-sized vesicles that can be released from cells into the serum. Exosomes play important roles in regulating many biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and metabolism. However, the roles and mechanisms of plasma exosomes in the apoptosis of rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes are largely unknown. In this study, we isolated plasma exosomes as confirmed by the marker protein CD63. Using flow cytometry and western blot analysis, we found that exosomes attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis and improved survival of rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392537/enhanced-cardiac-s100a1-expression-improves-recovery-from-global-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
S Jungi, X Fu, A Segiser, M Busch, P Most, M Fiedler, T Carrel, H Tevaearai Stahel, S L Longnus, Henriette Most
Gene-targeted therapy with the inotropic Ca2 + -sensor protein S100A1 rescues contractile function in post-ischemic heart failure and is being developed towards clinical trials. Its proven beneficial effect on cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial function suggests a cardioprotective effect of S100A1 in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Fivefold cardiomyocyte-specific S100A1 overexpressing, isolated rat hearts perfused in working mode were subjected to 28 min ischemia (37 °C) followed by 60 min reperfusion...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392536/retrograde-coronary-venous-infusion-as-a-delivery-strategy-in-regenerative-cardiac-therapy-an-overview-of-preclinical-and-clinical-data
#16
REVIEW
Wouter A Gathier, Dirk Jan van Ginkel, Mira van der Naald, Frebus J van Slochteren, Pieter A Doevendans, Steven A J Chamuleau
An important aspect of cell therapy in the field of cardiac disease is safe and effective delivery of cells. Commonly used delivery strategies such as intramyocardial injection and intracoronary infusion both present with advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, alternative delivery routes are explored, such as retrograde coronary venous infusion (RCVI). Our aim is to evaluate safety and efficiency of RCVI by providing a complete overview of preclinical and clinical studies applying RCVI in a broad range of disease types and experimental models...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344840/design-and-rationale-for-comparison-between-ticagrelor-and-clopidogrel-on-microcirculation-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-pleio-trial
#17
Kyungil Park, Young-Rak Cho, Jong-Sung Park, Tae-Ho Park, Moo-Hyun Kim, Young-Dae Kim
It has been previously demonstrated that ticagrelor can reduce mortality compared to clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. However, the mechanism for this mortality reduction remains uncertain. The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of chronic ticagrelor treatment on microvascular circulation. A total of 120 participants aged 20-85 years with clinical diagnosis of ACS will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to the following two groups: ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily; clopidogrel 75 mg once daily...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313268/trajectories-of-circulating-monocyte-subsets-after-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-during-hospitalization-latent-class-growth-modeling-for-high-risk-patient-identification
#18
Shan Zeng, Li-Fang Yan, Yan-Wei Luo, Xin-Lin Liu, Jun-Xiang Liu, Zhao-Zeng Guo, Zhong-Wei Xu, Yu-Ming Li, Wen-Jie Ji, Xin Zhou
It remains unclear if the developmental trajectories of a specific inflammatory biomarker during the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) provide outcome prediction. By applying latent class growth modeling (LCGM), we identified three distinctive trajectories of CD14++CD16+ monocytes using serial flow cytometry assays from day 1 to day 7 of symptom onset in 96 de novo STEMI patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Membership in the high-hump-shaped trajectory (16.8%) independently predicted adverse cardiovascular outcomes during a median follow-up of 2...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285671/the-interleukin-33-st2-pathway-is-expressed-in-the-failing-human-heart-and-associated-with-pro-fibrotic-remodeling-of-the-myocardium
#19
Cheyenne C S Tseng, Manon M H Huibers, Joyce van Kuik, Roel A de Weger, Aryan Vink, Nicolaas de Jonge
The interleukin-33 (IL-33)/suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) pathway is a potential pathophysiological mediator of cardiac fibrosis. Soluble ST2 (sST2) is one of the main isoforms of ST2 with strong prognostic value in cardiac disease. The exact role of sST2 in cardiac fibrosis is unknown. The aim of this study was (1) to investigate myocardial expression of the IL-33/ST2 pathway in relation to myocardial fibrosis in end-stage heart failure patients and (2) to study whether plasma sST2 is associated with histologically determined cardiac fibrosis...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243014/prognostic-value-of-lvedp-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Stephen C Brienesse, Allan J Davies, Arshad Khan, Andrew J Boyle
Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) is an easily obtained, physiologically integrative measure of total LV function. LVEDP may be a useful prognostic measure in patients with acute myocardial infarction and utilised to guide medical therapy and assess risk for post myocardial infarction heart failure. To assess the utility of LVEDP as a prognostic measure in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. We performed an unrestricted search of electronic databases (1946 to March 2017) using a predefined search strategy...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
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