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Current Drug Abuse Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065847/long-term-administration-of-antipsychotic-drugs-in-schizophrenia-and-influence-of-substance-and-drug-abuse-on-the-disease-outcome
#1
F-M Werner, Rafael Coveñas
BACKGROUND: Many schizophrenic patients with a long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs do not regularly adhere to the prescribed pharmacotherapy. Antipsychotic drugs constitute a palliative, but not a curative treatment, and the long-term effect of these drugs is not secure. Patients tend to consume nicotine and alcohol, as well as some patients consume drugs such as cannabis and amphetamines. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this mini-review is to examine the reasons for the high tendency of schizophrenic patients to consume alcohol, nicotine and drugs and in addition to suggest measures to reduce the abuse of substances and drugs...
October 20, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707583/cannabis-an-overview-of-its-adverse-acute-and-chronic-effects-and-their-implications
#2
Talitha C Ford, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey, Andrew C Parrott
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure...
July 12, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325154/the-behavioral-profile-of-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-pvp-a-systematic-review
#3
Cornel N Stanciu, Thomas M Penders, Samantha A Gnanasegaram, Elvin Pirapakaran, Juvraj S Padda, Jeeven S Padda
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances are emerging at an alarming rate. With novel structures and properties they produce unique behavioral characteristics during intoxication. Synthetic cathinones are some of the most common. More and more are presenting to emergency departments due to consequences of use. Aside from isolated reports, little is known about these compounds. OBJECTIVE: Here we review literature pertaining to two common synthetic cathinones, MDPV and alphaPVP, and correlate clinically with guidance on management of intoxications...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290252/pleasure-as-an-overlooked-target-of-substance-use-disorder-research-and-treatment
#4
Matthew Boden, Adrienne Heinz, Todd B Kashdan
BACKGROUND: People commonly use psychoactive substances to increase physical and psychological pleasure. Neuroadaptations in the brain's reward system coupled with changes in social functioning and networking resulting from chronic substance use impede the ability to derive pleasure from non-substance related activities. OBJECTIVE: We elucidate and validate the hypothesis that treatments for substance use disorders would potentially have a stronger and broader impact by helping recipients to experience pleasure as part of an expansive focus of increasing adaptive functioning, well-being, and personal fulfillment and actualization...
March 8, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215179/development-of-a-definition-for-the-alcohol-hangover-consumer-descriptions-and-expert-consensus
#5
Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman, A J A E van de Loo, Marlou Mackus, Joris C Verster
Up to now there is no adequate definition of the alcohol hangover. The purpose of the current study was to develop a useful definition, and consensus among those who will use it in scientific publications. A survey was conducted among N=1099 social drinkers who recently had a hangover. They were asked to provide their definition of the alcohol hangover. Text mining and content analysis revealed 3 potential definitions. These were submitted to members of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group, who were asked to give their expert opinion on the proposed definitions...
February 16, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176621/a-review-of-the-physiological-factors-associated-with-alcohol-hangover
#6
Celeste Tipple, Sarah Michelle Benson, Andrew Scholey
Alcohol hangovers are a commonly experienced consequence of drinking and are frequently associated with worsened mood and cognitive functioning. The physiological changes that occur with an alcohol-induced hangover state are largely unknown. This review focuses on key physiological factors of an alcohol-induced hangover, more specifically, oxidative stress, lack of sleep, hormonal fluctuations, dehydration, headaches, fever and changes to the immune system. Increased understanding of the relationship between the physiological factors and symptoms of a hangover is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of an alcohol-induced hangover and potentially identify a treatment...
February 7, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124600/a-review-on-the-sex-differences-in-organ-and-system-pathology-with-alcohol-drinking
#7
Vatsalya Vatsalya, Hammad Bin Liaquat, Kuldeep Ghosh, Sri Prakash Mokshagundam, Craig J McClain
Hazardous consequences of alcohol consumption adversely influence overall health, specifically physical and mental health. Differences in alcohol consumption and manifestations in pathology have been observed between males and females, however research on understanding these differences is limited. Negative consequences of alcohol consumption have now been studied including sex as a significant factor. Some studies have shown differences in the severity of consequences of alcohol consumption between the sexes, both in the mental consequences and changes/injury in various organ systems...
January 25, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078986/cultivating-a-trauma-awareness-culture-in-the-addictions
#8
Evdokia Missouridou
BACKGROUND: Research evidence points to the high prevalence of trauma exposure and post traumatic stress among addicted individuals, their families and the professionals responsible for their treatment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to enhance understanding of the continuing effects of trauma and its impact on the lives of people with addiction problems as well as on the professionals who strive to provide support and care for them. METHOD: Review of twenty eight articles on traumatic experiences in individuals and families facing addiction problems as well as on traumatic stress in addiction professionals...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059034/midazolam-plus-haloperidol-as-adjuvant-analgesics-to-morphine-in-opium-dependent-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Mohammad Afzalimoghaddam, Maryam Edalatifard, Amir Nejati, Mehdi Momeni, Nader Isavi, Ehsan Karimialavijeh
BACKGROUND: Tolerance to opioids among opium-dependent patients creates obstacles for proper pain management of these patients in the emergency department (ED). The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of intramuscular (IM) haloperidol plus midazolam on morphine analgesia among opium-dependent patients. METHODS: Opium-dependent adults who were admitted to the ED for new-onset severe pain in the limbs or abdomen (within 24 hours of admission and a pain score of over six, using a numerical rating scale [NRS]) were recruited...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034278/proceeding-of-the-8th-alcohol-hangover-research-group-meeting
#10
Marlou Mackus, Sally Adams, Amir Barzilay, Sarah Benson, Lauren Blau, Jacqueline Iversen, Sean J Johnson, Ali Keshavarzian, Andrew Scholey, Gordon S Smith, Constantine Trela, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Joris C Verster
Alcohol hangover is one of the most commonly experienced consequences of alcohol consumption. An alcohol hangover develops as the blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) approaches zero, and is characterized by a general feeling of misery. More insight into the pathology of an alcohol hangover needs to be gained, in order to enhance the understanding of the area, and as a potential contribution to the innovation of a preventative or hangover curing treatment. The Alcohol Hangover Research Group (AHRG) was founded to support the area of alcohol hangover...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492359/substance-related-and-addictive-disorders-as-a-risk-factor-of-suicide-and-homicide-among-patients-with-adhd-a-mini-review
#11
Kouichi Yoshimasu
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of substance-related and addictive disorders (SRAD) that lead patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to suicide and homicide. METHOD: Relevant articles were searched via PubMed using several keywords related to this issue. Most of the articles included in this review were published after 2000. RESULTS: Patients with ADHD often fall into crises of catastrophic life events such as suicide or homicide...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492358/smoking-and-cognition
#12
Marcela Waisman Campos, Debora Serebrisky, Joao Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
Given the large availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain, and the wide range of neurotransmitter systems affected (norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine), nicotine influences a wide variety of cognitive domains such as sensorial, motor, attention, executive function, learning and memory. This article reviews current state of the art research on the effects of nicotine upon cognition. There are different neurobiological mechanisms involved in acute/chronic smoking and nicotine abstinence...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138170/the-impact-of-marijuana-use-on-memory-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-hiv-and-marijuana-literatures
#13
Linda M Skalski, Sheri L Towe, Kathleen J Sikkema, Christina S Meade
BACKGROUND: The most robust neurocognitive effect of marijuana use is memory impairment. Memory deficits are also high among persons living with HIV/AIDS, and marijuana is the most commonly used drug in this population. Yet research examining neurocognitive outcomes resulting from co-occurring marijuana and HIV is limited. OBJECTIVE: The primary objectives of this comprehensive review are to: (1) examine the literature on memory functioning in HIV-infected individuals; (2) examine the literature on memory functioning in marijuana users; (3) synthesize findings and propose a theoretical framework to guide future research...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021147/pain-and-opioid-addiction-a-systematic-review-and-evaluation-of-pain-measurement-in-patients-with-opioid-dependence-on-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#14
REVIEW
B B Dennis, M Bawor, J Paul, C Plater, G Pare, A Worster, M Varenbut, J Daiter, D C Marsh, D Desai, L Thabane, Z Samaan
BACKGROUND: While chronic pain has been said to impact patient's response to methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, the reported findings are inconsistent. These discrepancies may be a direct result of variations in the measurement of chronic pain or definitions of response to methadone treatment. The goal of this study is to evaluate the association between pain and substance use behaviour to determine the real impact of comorbid pain in the methadone population. We also aim to examine sources of variation across the literature with a specific focus on the measurement of pain...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021146/psychosocial-predictors-of-relapse-among-patients-with-alcohol-problems
#15
Dana D Al Abeiat, Ayman M Hamdan-Mansour, Salah I Hanouneh, Bushra M Ghannam
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is a common problem that is socially, psychologically and economically devastating to health of individuals. OBJECTIVES: the purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationship between alcohol relapse, self efficacy, perceived social support, and perceived stress among individual diagnosed with alcohol dependence. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data using self-administered questionnaire from a purposeful sample of 111 Jordanians diagnosed with alcohol dependence...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26674074/laterality-of-brain-activation-for-risk-factors-of-addiction
#16
REVIEW
Harold W Gordon
BACKGROUND: Laterality of brain activation is reported for tests of risk factors of addiction- impulsivity and craving-but authors rarely address the potential significance of those asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate this laterality and discuss its relevance to cognitive and neurophysiological asymmetries associated with drug abuse vulnerability in order to provide new insights for future research in drug abuse. METHOD: From published reports, brain areas of activation for two tests of response inhibition or craving for drugs of abuse were compiled from fMRI activation peaks and were tabulated for eight sections (octants) in each hemisphere...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26647785/combining-stress-and-dopamine-based-models-of-addiction-towards-a-psycho-neuro-endocrinological-theory-of-addiction
#17
REVIEW
James H Johnston, David E J Linden, Marianne B M van den Bree
The literature on the two main models of addiction (dopamine-based positive reinforcement and stress-based negative reinforcement models) have made many important contributions to understanding this brain disorder. However, rarely has there been a comprehensive critique of the limitations of both models. This article seeks to resolve theoretical issues inherent to each model, as well as propose a more comprehensive psycho-neuro-endocrinological theory of addiction which reconciles important elements of both...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26647784/social-inequality-and-substance-use-and-problematic-gambling-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-review-of-epidemiological-surveys-in-germany
#18
REVIEW
Dieter Henkel, Uwe Zemlin
The current review provides an overview of socioepidemiological research in Germany about the prevalence of addictive behaviours (smoking, binge and hazardous drinking, consumption of cannabis and other illegal drugs, the non-medical use of prescription drugs and problematic gambling) among adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years), also differentiating between different socioeconomic status (SES) indicators (attended school type, family affluence, parental occupational status, parental SES, employment status) and migration background...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452451/how-can-geographical-information-systems-and-spatial-analysis-inform-a-response-to-prescription-opioid-misuse-a-discussion-in-the-context-of-existing-literature
#19
REVIEW
Soumya Mazumdar, Ian S Mcrae, M Mofizul Islam
The misuse of prescription opioids is a major public health problem in the United States, Canada, Australia and other parts of the developed world. Methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment in relation to drug usage and law enforcement that are both structural and spatial, draw geography into traditional public health research even though there has been limited attempt to address the prescription opioid misuse problem from a geographic perspective. We discuss how geographic technologies can be utilized to study the landscape of prescription opioids and similar drugs, and target appropriate health services interventions...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26452450/signs-and-related-mechanisms-of-ethanol-hepatotoxicity
#20
REVIEW
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Teresa Mãgalhaes, Odília Queirós, Jorge Brandão Proença, Roxana Moreira, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho
Ethanol is the most abused psychoactive substance. Accordingly to World Health Organization ethanol ranks among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death (3.3 million/year) throughout the world. This manuscript highlights and critically analyses clinical and forensic signs related to hepatoxicity of ethanol that may lead to suspected of abuse. Namely, steatosis, jaundice, cirrhosis, hemorrhoids, esophageal varices caput medusae, ascites, petechiae, ecchymoses, splenomegaly, hemochromatosis, xanthelasma, nutritional deficiency, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia and dilated congestive cardiomyopathy are discussed and related to the toxic mechanism of ethanol...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
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