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Current Drug Abuse Reviews

Marcela Waisman Campos, Debora Serebrisky, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
Given the large availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain, and the wide range of neurotransmitter systems affected (norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine), nicotine influences a wide variety of cognitive domains such as sensorial, motor, attentional, executive, learning and memory. This article reviews current state of the art research on the effects of nicotine upon cognition. There are different neurobiological mechanisms involved in acute/chronic smoking and nicotine abstinence...
August 3, 2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Kouichi Yoshimasu
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of substance-related and addictive disorders (SRAD) that lead patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to suicide and homicide (catastrophic events). METHOD: Relevant articles were searched via PubMed using several keywords related to this issue. Most of the articles included in this review were published after 2000. RESULTS: Patients with ADHD often fall into crises of catastrophic life events such as suicide or homicide...
August 2, 2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Linda M Skalski, Sheri L Towe, Kathleen J Sikkema, Christina S Meade
BACKGROUND: The most robust neurocognitive effect of marijuana use is memory impairment. Memory deficits are also high among persons living with HIV/AIDS, and marijuana is the most commonly used drug in this population. Yet research examining neurocognitive outcomes resulting from co-occurring marijuana and HIV is limited. OBJECTIVE: The primary objectives of this comprehensive review are to: (1) examine the literature on memory functioning in HIV-infected individuals; (2) examine the literature on memory functioning in marijuana users; (3) synthesize findings and propose a theoretical framework to guide future research...
May 2, 2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
B B Dennis, M Bawor, J Paul, C Plater, G Pare, A Worster, M Varenbut, J Daiter, D C Marsh, D Desai, L Thabane, Z Samaan
BACKGROUND: While chronic pain has been said to impact patient's response to methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, the reported findings are inconsistent. These discrepancies may be a direct result of variations in the measurement of chronic pain or definitions of response to methadone treatment. The goal of this study is to evaluate the association between pain and substance use behaviour to determine the real impact of comorbid pain in the methadone population. We also aim to examine sources of variation across the literature with a specific focus on the measurement of pain...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Dana D Al Abeiat, Ayman M Hamdan-Mansour, Salah I Hanouneh, Bushra M Ghannam
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is a common problem that is socially, psychologically and economically devastating to health of individuals. OBJECTIVES: the purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationship between alcohol relapse, self efficacy, perceived social support, and perceived stress among individual diagnosed with alcohol dependence. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data using self-administered questionnaire from a purposeful sample of 111 Jordanians diagnosed with alcohol dependence...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Harold W Gordon
BACKGROUND: Laterality of brain activation is reported for tests of risk factors of addiction- impulsivity and craving-but authors rarely address the potential significance of those asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate this laterality and discuss its relevance to cognitive and neurophysiological asymmetries associated with drug abuse vulnerability in order to provide new insights for future research in drug abuse. METHOD: From published reports, brain areas of activation for two tests of response inhibition or craving for drugs of abuse were compiled from fMRI activation peaks and were tabulated for eight sections (octants) in each hemisphere...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
James H Johnston, David E J Linden, Marianne B M van den Bree
The literature on the two main models of addiction (dopamine-based positive reinforcement and stress-based negative reinforcement models) have made many important contributions to understanding this brain disorder. However, rarely has there been a comprehensive critique of the limitations of both models. This article seeks to resolve theoretical issues inherent to each model, as well as propose a more comprehensive psycho-neuro-endocrinological theory of addiction which reconciles important elements of both...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Dieter Henkel, Uwe Zemlin
The current review provides an overview of socioepidemiological research in Germany about the prevalence of addictive behaviours (smoking, binge and hazardous drinking, consumption of cannabis and other illegal drugs, the non-medical use of prescription drugs and problematic gambling) among adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years), also differentiating between different socioeconomic status (SES) indicators (attended school type, family affluence, parental occupational status, parental SES, employment status) and migration background...
2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Soumya Mazumdar, Ian S Mcrae, M Mofizul Islam
The misuse of prescription opioids is a major public health problem in the United States, Canada, Australia and other parts of the developed world. Methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment in relation to drug usage and law enforcement that are both structural and spatial, draw geography into traditional public health research even though there has been limited attempt to address the prescription opioid misuse problem from a geographic perspective. We discuss how geographic technologies can be utilized to study the landscape of prescription opioids and similar drugs, and target appropriate health services interventions...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Teresa Mãgalhaes, Odília Queirós, Jorge Brandão Proença, Roxana Moreira, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho
Ethanol is the most abused psychoactive substance. Accordingly to World Health Organization ethanol ranks among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death (3.3 million/year) throughout the world. This manuscript highlights and critically analyses clinical and forensic signs related to hepatoxicity of ethanol that may lead to suspected of abuse. Namely, steatosis, jaundice, cirrhosis, hemorrhoids, esophageal varices caput medusae, ascites, petechiae, ecchymoses, splenomegaly, hemochromatosis, xanthelasma, nutritional deficiency, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia and dilated congestive cardiomyopathy are discussed and related to the toxic mechanism of ethanol...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Slobodin Ortal, Geurt van de Glind, Franck Johan, Berger Itai, Yachin Nir, Ivanov Iliyan, Wim van den Brink
High impulsivity in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plays a key role in their vulnerability to substance abuse disorders (SUDs). Although impulsivity is increasingly recognized as a multidimensional construct, efforts to describe the contribution of different impulsivity aspects to the development of SUD have been hindered by conceptual and experimental inconsistencies. This review seeks to map potential trajectories from childhood ADHD to SUD by examining the hypothesized mediating role of three different impulsivity-related constructs: disinhibition, impulsive choice, and sensation seeking...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Anzhelika Engel, Ricardo Cáceda
We reviewed the cognitive and neurobiological commonalities between chemical and behavioral addictions. Poor impulse control, limited executive function and abnormalities in reward processing are seen in both group of entities. Brain imaging shows consistent abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and the limbic system. In drug addiction, exaggerated risk taking behavior and temporal discounting may reflect an imbalance between a hyperactive mesolimbic and hypoactive executive systems. Several cognitive distortions are found in pathological gambling that seems to harness the brain reward system that has evolved to face situations related to skill, not random chance...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Natasha K Nair, Nicola C Newton, Anthony Shakeshaft, Paul Wallace, Maree Teesson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse is a significant public health issue resulting in substantial morbidity, premature mortality and costs to the healthcare system. Although face-to-face interventions offered by health practitioners have been shown to be effective, they are not routinely offered due to lack of time, training and resources, and potential damage to rapport. Computerbased interventions may help overcome these implementation barriers. APPROACH: Suitable research databases were searched and studies were selected if they described digital or computer-based alcohol interventions used by primary care patients...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Regan E Settles, Gregory T Smith
Adolescent alcohol and drug use disorders pose significant risks to adolescents' future functioning. Unfortunately, relapse rates following treatment for these disorders are high. The newest generation of interventions, designed in part to address this problem, place greater focus on the developmental needs of adolescents. In this review, we highlight the importance and promise of this progress in the field. We also argue for a further, more complete, integration of development and treatment: Instead of a focus on developmental issues as part of the process of substance use treatment, we argue for an approach in which healthy development is an outcome of equal importance to changes in substance use and risk behaviors...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Jan van Amsterdam, Wim van den Brink
In the the past two decades the medical use of prescription opioids (POs), in particular oxycodone, increased up to 14-fold in the U.S. and Canada. The high consumption of these pain relievers also led to non-medical use and abuse of these substances which in turn resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of PO related fatalities and opioid dependent subjects. In the U.S. POs became the second most prevalent type of abused drug (4.5 million abusers; 1.7% of the population) after marijuana (8 million abusers) with currently 1...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Amie C Hayley, Con Stough, Joris C Verster, Aurora J A E van de Loo, Luke A Downey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Leslie A Hulvershorn, Patrick D Quinn, Eric L Scott
BACKGROUND: The past several decades have seen dramatic growth in empirically supported treatments for adolescent substance use disorders (SUDs), yet even the most well-established approaches struggle to produce large or long-lasting improvements. These difficulties may stem, in part, from the high rates of comorbidity between SUDs and other psychiatric disorders. METHOD: We critically reviewed the treatment outcome literature for adolescents with co-occurring SUDs and internalizing disorders...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Anne M Day, Christopher W Kahler, David C Ahern, Uraina S Clark
There is a wealth of research about the links between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol use. However, difficulty may arise in interpreting findings because of the variability between studies regarding the specific components of EF measured, as well as the variability of tasks used to examine each EF construct. The current article considers each of these problems within the context of a literature review that focuses on two topics: (1) the efficacy of EF in predicting alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, and (2) the effect of acute alcohol intoxication on EF task performance...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Lisa R Norman, Michael Basso
Neuropyschological dysfunction, ranging from mild cerebral indicators to dementia has been a consistent part of the medical picture of HIV/AIDS. However, advances in medical supervision, particularly as a result of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, have resulted in some mitigation of the neuropsychological effects of HIV and necessitate re-evaluation of the pattern and nature of HIV-related cognitive or mental deficits. The associated enhancements in morbidity and mortality that have occurred as a result of ARV medication have led to a need for interventions and programs that maintain behaviors that are healthy and stop the resurgence of the risk of HIV transmission...
2015: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
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