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Bioinformatics and Biology Insights

Daisuke Tominaga, Hideo Kawaguchi, Yoshimi Hori, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Chiaki Ogino, Sachiyo Aburatani
Measuring the concentrations of metabolites and estimating the reaction rates of each reaction step consisting of metabolic pathways are significant for an improvement in microorganisms used in maximizing the production of materials. Although the reaction pathway must be identified for such an improvement, doing so is not easy. Numerous reaction steps have been reported; however, the actual reaction steps activated vary or change according to the conditions. Furthermore, to build mathematical models for a dynamical analysis, the reaction mechanisms and parameter values must be known; however, to date, sufficient information has yet to be published for many cases...
2018: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Daniela Droppa-Almeida, Elton Franceschi, Francine Ferreira Padilha
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bacteria that affects sheep and goats. The absence of a serologic diagnose is a factor that contributes for the disease dissemination, and due to the formation of granuloma, the treatment is very expensive. Therefore, prophylaxis is the approach with best cost-benefit relation; however, it still lacks an effective vaccine. In this sense, this work seeks to apply bioinformatic tools to design an effective vaccine against CLA, using CP40 protein as standard for the design of immunodominant epitopes, from which a total of 6 sequences were obtained, varying from 10 to 16 amino acid residues...
2018: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Thaís Viana Fialho Martins, Ana Eliza Zeraik, Natália Oliveira Alves, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Ricardo DeMarco, Eduardo de Almeida Marques-da-Silva
Leishmania infantum chagasi is an intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis, a fatal disease in humans. Heparin-binding proteins (HBPs) are proteins that bind to carbohydrates present in glycoproteins or glycolipids. Evidence suggests that HBPs present on Leishmania surface participate in the adhesion and invasion of parasites to tissues of both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. In this study, we identified the product with an HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) domain encoded by lipophosphoglycan ( LPG3 ) gene as a L infantum chagasi HBP (HBP Lc )...
2018: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Irene Sui Lan Zeng, Thomas Lumley
Integrated omics is becoming a new channel for investigating the complex molecular system in modern biological science and sets a foundation for systematic learning for precision medicine. The statistical/machine learning methods that have emerged in the past decade for integrated omics are not only innovative but also multidisciplinary with integrated knowledge in biology, medicine, statistics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. Here, we review the nontrivial classes of learning methods from the statistical aspects and streamline these learning methods within the statistical learning framework...
2018: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Bonnie L Russell, Nishal Parbhoo, Samantha Gildenhuys
Orbiviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses that have profound economic and veterinary significance, 3 of the most important being African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). Currently, vaccination and vector control are used as preventative measures; however, there are several problems with the current vaccines. Comparing viral amino acid sequences, we obtained an AHSV-BTV-EHDV consensus sequence for VP5 (viral protein 5) and for VP7 (viral protein 7) and generated homology models for these proteins...
2018: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Kanika Arora, Kusuma Kumari Panda, Shikha Mittal, Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu
Cell wall modification (CWM) promotes the formation of aerenchyma in roots under waterlogging conditions as an adaptive mechanism. Lysigenous aerenchyma formation in roots improves oxygen transfer in plants, which highlights the importance of CWM as a focal point in waterlogging stress tolerance. We investigated the structural and functional compositions of CWM genes and their expression patterns under waterlogging conditions in maize. Cell wall modification genes were identified for 3 known waterlogging-responsive cis -acting regulatory elements, namely, GC motif, anaerobic response elements, and G-box, and 2 unnamed elements...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Ailan F Arenas, Gladys E Salcedo, Jorge E Gomez-Marin
Pathogen-host protein-protein interaction systems examine the interactions between the protein repertoires of 2 distinct organisms. Some of these pathogen proteins interact with the host protein system and may manipulate it for their own advantages. In this work, we designed an R script by concatenating 2 functions called rowDM and rowCVmed to infer pathogen-host interaction using previously reported microarray data, including host gene enrichment analysis and the crossing of interspecific domain-domain interactions...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Abbas Salavaty, Niloufar Mohammadi, Mozhdeh Shahmoradi, Maryam Naderi Soorki
Background: Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioral cycles with a period of approximately 24 hours that control various functions including gene expression. Circadian disruption is associated with a variety of diseases, especially cancer. Although some of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are known as clock-controlled genes (CCGs), the analysis and annotation of circadian expression of most human oncogenes and TSGs are still lacking. This study aims to investigate the circadian expression of a list of human oncogenes and TSGs...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Muhammad Yusuf, Umi Baroroh, Khomaini Hasan, Saadah Diana Rachman, Safri Ishmayana, Toto Subroto
α-Amylase is one of the important enzymes in the starch-processing industry. However, starch processing requires high temperature, thus resulting in high cost. The high adsorptivity of α-amylase to the substrate allows this enzyme to digest the starch at a lower temperature. α-Amylase from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera R64 (Sfamy R64), a locally sourced enzyme from Indonesia, has a high amylolytic activity but low starch adsorptivity. The objective of this study was to design a computational model of Sfamy R64 with increased starch adsorptivity using bioinformatics method...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Baishali Bandyopadhyay, Veda Chanda, Yupeng Wang
Thousands of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted to identify the genetic variants associated with complex disorders. However, only a small proportion of phenotypic variances can be explained by the reported variants. Moreover, many GWAS failed to identify genetic variants associated with disorders displaying hereditary features. The "missing heritability" problem can be partly explained by rare variants. We simulated a causality scenario that gestational ages, a quantitative trait that can distinguish preterm (<37 weeks) and term births, were significantly correlated with the rare variant aggregations at 1000 single-nucleotide polymorphism loci...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Nicolas Carels, Marcial Gumiel, Fabio Faria da Mota, Carlos José de Carvalho Moreira, Patricia Azambuja
The digestive tract of triatomines (DTT) is an ecological niche favored by microbiota whose enzymatic profile is adapted to the specific substrate availability in this medium. This report describes the molecular enzymatic properties that promote bacterial prominence in the DTT. The microbiota composition was assessed previously based on 16S ribosomal DNA, and whole sequenced genomes of bacteria from the same genera were used to calculate the GC level of rare and prominent bacterial species in the DTT. The enzymatic reactions encoded by coding sequences of both rare and common bacterial species were then compared and revealed key functions explaining why some genera outcompete others in the DTT...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Iman Permana Maksum, Sandy Risfi Saputra, Nenden Indrayati, Muhammad Yusuf, Toto Subroto
The mitochondrial disease often associated with various illnesses in relation to the activity of cells metabolites and the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), including alteration in the mitochondrial DNA. The mutation of m.9053G>A at the ATP6 gene was found in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM type 2) and cataract. Therefore, this mutation is predicted to be clinical features of the 2 diseases. ATP6 gene encodes protein subunit of ATPase6, a part of ATP synthase, which is important in the electron transfer and proton translocation in intracellular respiration system...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Apichat Suratanee, Kitiporn Plaimas
The associations between proteins and diseases are crucial information for investigating pathological mechanisms. However, the number of known and reliable protein-disease associations is quite small. In this study, an analysis framework to infer associations between proteins and diseases was developed based on a large data set of a human protein-protein interaction network integrating an effective network search, namely, the reverse k-nearest neighbor (RkNN) search. The RkNN search was used to identify an impact of a protein on other proteins...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Thomas Buder, Andreas Deutsch, Michael Seifert, Anja Voss-Böhme
Many normal and cancerous cell lines exhibit a stable composition of cells in distinct states which can, e.g., be defined on the basis of cell surface markers. There is evidence that such an equilibrium is associated with stochastic transitions between distinct states. Quantifying these transitions has the potential to better understand cell lineage compositions. We introduce CellTrans, an R package to quantify stochastic cell state transitions from cell state proportion data from fluorescence-activated cell sorting and flow cytometry experiments...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Larissa Catharina, Carlyle Ribeiro Lima, Alexander Franca, Ana Carolina Ramos Guimarães, Marcelo Alves-Ferreira, Pierre Tuffery, Philippe Derreumaux, Nicolas Carels
We present an approach for detecting enzymes that are specific of Leishmania major compared with Homo sapiens and provide targets that may assist research in drug development. This approach is based on traditional techniques of sequence homology comparison by similarity search and Markov modeling; it integrates the characterization of enzymatic functionality, secondary and tertiary protein structures, protein domain architecture, and metabolic environment. From 67 enzymes represented by 42 enzymatic activities classified by AnEnPi (Analogous Enzymes Pipeline) as specific for L major compared with H sapiens, only 40 (23 Enzyme Commission [EC] numbers) could actually be considered as strictly specific of L major and 27 enzymes (19 EC numbers) were disregarded for having ambiguous homologies or analogies with H sapiens...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
A Agrawal, M J Khan, D E Graugnard, M Vailati-Riboni, S L Rodriguez-Zas, J S Osorio, J J Loor
In the dairy industry, cow health and farmer profits depend on the balance between diet (ie, nutrient composition, daily intake) and metabolism. This is especially true during the transition period, where dramatic physiological changes foster vulnerability to immunosuppression, negative energy balance, and clinical and subclinical disorders. Using an Agilent microarray platform, this study examined changes in the transcriptome of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) due to prepartal dietary intake. Holstein cows were fed a high-straw, control-energy diet (CON; NEL = 1...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Jaire Alves Ferreira Filho, Lucas Soares de Brito, André Pereira Leão, Alexandre Alonso Alves, Eduardo Fernandes Formighieri, Manoel Teixeira Souza Júnior
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Due to their typical patterns of repetition, discovery, and characterization, they demand analysis by various bioinformatics software. Probably, as a result of the need for a complex analysis, many genomes publicly available do not have these elements annotated yet. In this study, a de novo and homology-based identification of TEs and microsatellites was performed using genomic data from 3 palm species: Elaeis oleifera (American oil palm, v...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Kamalakshi Devi, Lochana Patar, Mahendra K Modi, Priyabrata Sen
Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) is one of the richest sources of high-value isoprenoid aromatic compounds used as flavour, fragrance, and therapeutic elements. These isoprenoid compounds are synthesized by 2 independent pathways: mevalonate pathway and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway. Evidence suggests that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is a rate-controlling enzyme for the synthesis of variety of isoprenoids. This study reports the isolation, characterization, and tissue-specific expression analysis of HMGR from citronella...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Rogelio Alcántara-Silva, Moisés Alvarado-Hermida, Gibrán Díaz-Contreras, Martha Sánchez-Barrios, Samantha Carrera, Silvia Carolina Galván
BACKGROUND: Because the graphical presentation and analysis of motif distribution can provide insights for experimental hypothesis, PISMA aims at identifying motifs on DNA sequences, counting and showing them graphically. The motif length ranges from 2 to 10 bases, and the DNA sequences range up to 10 kb. The motif distribution is shown as a bar-code-like, as a gene-map-like, and as a transcript scheme. RESULTS: We obtained graphical schemes of the CpG site distribution from 91 human papillomavirus genomes...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Nicholas Latchana, Zachary B Abrams, J Harrison Howard, Kelly Regan, Naduparambil Jacob, Paolo Fadda, Alicia Terando, Joseph Markowitz, Doreen Agnese, Philip Payne, William E Carson
Melanoma remains the leading cause of skin cancer-related deaths. Surgical resection and adjuvant therapies can result in disease-free intervals for stage III and stage IV disease; however, recurrence is common. Understanding microRNA (miR) dynamics following surgical resection of melanomas is critical to accurately interpret miR changes suggestive of melanoma recurrence. Plasma of 6 patients with stage III (n = 2) and stage IV (n = 4) melanoma was evaluated using the NanoString platform to determine pre- and postsurgical miR expression profiles, enabling analysis of more than 800 miRs simultaneously in 12 samples...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
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