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Chemosensory Perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083080/chronic-oral-capsaicin-exposure-during-development-leads-to-adult-rats-with-reduced-taste-bud-volumes
#1
Jacquelyn M Omelian, Kaeli K Samson, Suzanne I Sollars
INTRODUCTION: Cross-sensory interaction between gustatory and trigeminal nerves occurs in the anterior tongue. Surgical manipulations have demonstrated that the strength of this relationship varies across development. Capsaicin is a neurotoxin that affects fibers of the somatosensory lingual nerve surrounding taste buds, but not fibers of the gustatory chorda tympani nerve which synapse with taste receptor cells. Since capsaicin is commonly consumed by many species, including humans, experimental use of this neurotoxin provides a naturalistic perturbation of the lingual trigeminal system...
September 2016: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594969/relative-effects-of-sensory-modalities-and-importance-of-fatty-acid-sensitivity-on-fat-perception-in-a-real-food-model
#2
Xirui Zhou, Yuchi Shen, Jane K Parker, Orla B Kennedy, Lisa Methven
INTRODUCTION: Fat can be perceived through mouthfeel, odour and taste, but the influence of these modalities on fat perception remains undefined. Fatty acids are stimuli and individual sensitivity to fatty acids varies. Studies show association between fatty acid sensitivity, dietary intake and BMI, but results are conflicting. Therefore, this study examined this association, and the effect of modalities on fat perception. METHODS: Two sub-studies were conducted...
2016: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833669/the-taste-and-smell-protocol-in-the-2011-2014-us-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-test-retest-reliability-and-validity-testing
#3
Shristi Rawal, Howard J Hoffman, Mallory Honda, Tania B Huedo-Medin, Valerie B Duffy
INTRODUCTION: The US NHANES 2011-2014 protocol includes a taste and smell questionnaire (CSQ) in home-based interviews and brief assessments in mobile exam centers. We report the short- and longer-term test-retest reliability and validity of this protocol against broader chemosensory measures. METHODS: A convenience sample of 73 adults (age=39.5±20.8 years) underwent the NHANES protocol at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months. For taste, participants rated intensities of two tastants (1 M NaCl, 1 mM quinine) applied to the tongue tip and three tastants (1 M NaCl, 1 mM quinine, 0...
September 2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594968/perceptual-qualities-of-ethanol-depend-on-concentration-and-variation-in-these-percepts-associates-with-drinking-frequency
#4
Alissa A Nolden, John E Hayes
INTRODUCTION: Ethanol, the pharmaceutically active ingredient in all alcoholic beverages, elicits multiple percepts including sweet, bitter, drying, and burning. However, quality-specific perceptual dose-response functions have not been previously reported. Also, individual differences in ethanol perception may associate with differences in alcoholic beverage use. Here, we describe the chemosensory profile of ethanol across concentrations in a convenience sample of mixed-age adults; secondarily, we explore whether individual differences in various qualities from ethanol associate with alcohol use behaviors...
September 2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823921/an-introduction-to-this-special-issue-chemosensation-and-health
#5
John E Hayes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26451233/shifting-human-salty-taste-preference-potential-opportunities-and-challenges-in-reducing-dietary-salt-intake-of-americans
#6
Nuala Bobowski
Dietary salt reduction of Americans has been a focus of public health initiatives for more than 40 years primarily due to the association between high salt intake and development of hypertension. Despite past efforts, salt intake of Americans has remained at levels well above dietary recommendations, likely due in part to the hedonic appeal of salty taste. As such, in 2010 the Institute of Medicine suggested a strategy of gradual salt reduction of processed foods, the primary source of Americans' dietary salt intake, via an approach intended to minimize impact on consumer acceptability of lower-sodium foods...
September 2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557213/a-role-for-lung-retention-in-the-sense-of-retronasal-smell
#7
Justus V Verhagen
In olfaction, odors typically engage the lungs on the way to the nose to evoke retronasal smell. This is most notable when the lung has a first pass effect during smoking/vaping, but also upon exhaling after sniffing an odor. The lungs act as a sink for odors, which can both reduce the retronasal odor concentration and the odor mixture makeup. Lung retention is a simple measure that quantifies the effectiveness of the sink. Lung retention has been studied in the context of environmental toxicology and is known for many volatile organic compounds...
August 1, 2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557212/using-animal-models-to-determine-the-role-of-gustatory-neural-input-in-the-control-of-ingestive-behavior-and-the-maintenance-of-body-weight
#8
Dana L Ciullo, Cedrick D Dotson
INTRODUCTION: Decades of research have suggested that nutritional intake contributes to the development of human disease, mainly by influencing the development of obesity and obesity-related conditions. A relatively large body of research indicates that functional variation in human taste perception can influence nutritional intake as well as body mass accumulation. However, there are a considerable number of studies that suggest that no link between these variables actually exists. These discrepancies in the literature likely result from the confounding influence of a variety of other, uncontrolled, factors that can influence ingestive behavior...
August 2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26388966/thermosensitive-transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-agonists-and-their-role-in-mechanical-thermal-and-nociceptive-sensations-as-assessed-using-animal-models
#9
A H Klein, Minh Trannyguen, Christopher L Joe, Carstens M Iodi, E Carstens
INTRODUCTION: The present paper summarizes research using animal models to investigate the roles of thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in somatosensory functions including touch, temperature and pain. We present new data assessing the effects of eugenol and carvacrol, agonists of the warmth-sensitive TRPV3, on thermal, mechanical and pain sensitivity in rats. METHODS: Thermal sensitivity was assessed using a thermal preference test, which measured the amount of time the animal occupied one of two adjacent thermoelectric plates set at different temperatures...
August 2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26388965/perceptual-and-neural-responses-to-sweet-taste-in-humans-and-rodents
#10
Christian H Lemon
INTRODUCTION: This mini-review discusses some of the parallels between rodent neurophysiological and human psychophysical data concerning temperature effects on sweet taste. METHODS AND PURPOSE: "Sweet" is an innately rewarding taste sensation that is associated in part with foods that contain calories in the form of sugars. Humans and other mammals can show unconditioned preference for select sweet stimuli. Such preference is poised to influence diet selection and, in turn, nutritional status, which underscores the importance of delineating the physiological mechanisms for sweet taste with respect to their influence on human health...
August 2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236421/perceptual-mapping-of-chemesthetic-stimuli-in-na%C3%A3-ve-assessors
#11
Nadia Byrnes, Michael A Nestrud, John E Hayes
Chemesthetic compounds, responsible for sensations such as burning, cooling, and astringency, are difficult stimuli to work with, especially when the evaluation task requires retasting. Here, we developed a protocol by which chemesthetic compounds can be assessed using sorting. We compared the performance of two cohorts of untrained assessors on this task, one with nose clips and the other without. Similarity matrices were analyzed using multidimensional scaling (MDS) to produce perceptual maps for the two cohorts...
June 1, 2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26110045/the-relationships-between-common-measurements-of-taste-function
#12
Jordannah Webb, Dieuwerke P Bolhuis, Sara Cicerale, John E Hayes, Russell Keast
BACKGROUND: There are five common, independent measures used to characterize taste function in humans: detection and recognition thresholds (DT and RT), suprathreshold intensity ratings of prototypical tastants, propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness intensity, and fungiform papillae (FP) number. METHODS: We employed all five methods to assess taste function of 65 women (21.5 ± 4 years, BMI 22.3 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the different measures...
2015: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25866597/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-self-reported-olfactory-function-in-a-home-based-study-of-independent-living-healthy-older-women
#13
Shristi Rawal, Howard J Hoffman, Audrey K Chapo, Valerie B Duffy
INTRODUCTION: The 2011-14 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey chemosensory protocol asks adults to self-rate their orthonasal (via nostrils) and retronasal (via mouth) smell abilities for subsequent odor identification testing. From data collected with a similar protocol, we aimed to identify a self-reported olfactory index that showed the best sensitivity (correctly identifying dysfunction) and specificity (correctly indentifying normosmia) with measured olfaction. METHODS: In home-based testing, 121 independent-living older women (age 73±7 years) reported their olfactory function by interviewer-administered survey...
December 1, 2014: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25485034/regional-differences-in-suprathreshold-intensity-for-bitter-and-umami-stimuli
#14
Emma L Feeney, John E Hayes
The sense of taste is often referred to as a 'nutritional gatekeeper', thought to have evolved to indicate energy sources and prevent ingestion of potential toxins. Fungiform papillae are structures on the anterior tongue in which taste buds are situated. They are concentrated at the tongue's tip and they can provide a useful estimate of overall taste bud density for taste research. Some reports suggest taste perception may differ subtly across tongue regions, irrespective of FP number. Other data show an association between taste intensity perception for the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and FP density...
December 2014: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25485033/does-it-matter-how-we-pose-the-question-how-is-your-sense-of-smell
#15
Eike Wehling, Astri J Lundervold, Steven Nordin
There is a rather large, and unfortunate, discrepancy in the outcome between self-reported and standardized assessment of olfactory function. Questions for self-evaluation are commonly used that provide no information of with what to compare (comparison target) one's olfactory function. We therefore investigated whether responses differed between an unspecific question and two questions providing comparison targets. Ninety-six healthy community-dwelling individuals (62.5 % women) aged 49-80 years evaluated their odor identification ability, followed by standardized assessment of odor identification ability...
2014: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24883171/quantitative-validation-of-the-n-butanol-sniffin-sticks-threshold-pens
#16
Melanie Y Denzer, Stefan Gailer, David W Kern, L Philip Schumm, Norbert Thuerauf, Johannes Kornhuber, Andrea Buettner, Jonathan Beauchamp
Odorant pens are used by medical practitioners and researchers to assess olfactory dysfunction. Despite their routine use, there are currently no data on the gas-phase odorant concentrations released from the pen tips or whether these concentrations scale linearly with the aqueous-phase concentrations inside the pens. The commercially available Sniffin' Sticks odor threshold test containing n-butanol was chosen for evaluation. The gas-phase concentration of n-butanol at the tip of each pen was measured directly in a new set of pens via proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)...
2014: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24883170/cross-cultural-administration-of-an-odor-discrimination-test
#17
Agnieszka Sorokowska, Piotr Sorokowski, Thomas Hummel
Olfactory sensitivity can be evaluated by various tests, with "Sniffin' Sticks" test (SST) being one of the most popular. SST consists of tests for odor threshold, discrimination, and identification. It seems relatively straightforward to administer threshold tests in different groups and societies and it has been shown that odor identification tests requires special adaptation before they can be administered to various populations. However, few studies have investigated the application of an odor discrimination task in various regions/cultures...
2014: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24187601/rebaudioside-a-and-rebaudioside-d-bitterness-do-not-covary-with-acesulfame-k-bitterness-or-polymorphisms-in-tas2r9-and-tas2r31
#18
Alissa L Allen, John E McGeary, John E Hayes
In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31...
September 1, 2013: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23682306/masking-vegetable-bitterness-to-improve-palatability-depends-on-vegetable-type-and-taste-phenotype
#19
Mastaneh Sharafi, John E Hayes, Valerie B Duffy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2013: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23527314/using-milk-fat-to-reduce-the-irritation-and-bitter-taste-of-ibuprofen
#20
Samantha M Bennett, Lisa Zhou, John E Hayes
Bitterness and irritation elicited by pharmaceutically active molecules remain problematic for pediatric medications, fortified foods and dietary supplements. Few effective methods exist for reducing these unpalatable sensations, negatively impacting medication compliance and intake of beneficial phytonutrients. A physicochemical approach to masking these sensations may be the most successful approach for generalizability to a wide range of structurally and functionally unique compounds. Here, solutions of the non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, were prepared in milk products with varying fat content...
December 1, 2012: Chemosensory Perception
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