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Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020880/pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-and-tissue-engineering-of-the-joints
#1
Kenjiro Iwasa, A Hari Reddi
BACKGROUND: Bone and joint formation, maintenance, and regeneration are regulated by both chemical and physical signals. Among the physical signals there is an increasing realization of the role of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of nonunions of bone fractures. The discovery of the piezoelectric properties of bone by Fukada and Yasuda in 1953 in Japan established the foundation of this field. Pioneering research by Bassett and Brighton and their teams resulted in the approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the use of PEMF in the treatment of fracture healing...
November 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121815/preclinical-animal-models-for-temporomandibular-joint-tissue-engineering
#2
Alejandro Almarza, Bryan Brown, Boaz Arzi, David Faustino Ângelo, William L Chung, Stephen F Badylak, Michael Scott Detamore
There is a paucity of in vivo studies that investigate the safety and efficacy of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) tissue regeneration approaches, in part due to the lack of established animal models. Review of disease models for study of the TMJ is presented herein with an attempt to identify relevant preclinical animal models for TMJ tissue engineering, with emphasis on the disc and condyle. Although degenerative joint disease models have been mainly performed on mice, rats, and rabbits, pre-clinical regeneration approaches must employ larger animal species...
November 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105592/biologic-annulus-fibrosus-repair-a-review-of-preclinical-in-vivo-investigations
#3
Stephen Rogers Sloan, Marianne Lintz, Ibrahim Hussain, Roger Härtl, Lawrence J Bonassar
Lower back pain, the leading cause of workplace absences and disability, is often attributed to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration in which nucleus pulposus (NP) herniates through lesions in the annulus fibrosus (AF) and impinges on the spinal cord and surrounding nerves. Surgeons remove extruded NP via discectomy when indicated by local/radicular pain supported by radiographic evidence, however current interventions do not alter the underlying disease or seal the AF. The reported rates of recurrent herniation or pain following discectomy cases range from 5-25%, which has pushed spine research in recent years towards annular repair and closure strategies...
November 4, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048258/selection-of-implantation-sites-for-transplantation-of-encapsulated-pancreatic-islets
#4
Haitao Zhu, Wenjing Li, Zhongwei Liu, Wenliang Li, Niuniu Chen, Linlin Lu, Wei Zhang, Zhen Wang, Bo Wang, Kaili Pan, Xiaoge Zhang, Guoqiang Chen
Pancreatic islet transplantation has been validated as a valuable therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with exhausted insulin treatment. However, this therapy remains limited by the shortage of donor and the requirement of lifelong immunosuppression. Islet encapsulation, as an available bioartificial pancreas (BAP), represents a promising approach to enable protecting islet grafts without or with minimal immunosuppression and possibly expanding the donor pool. In order to develop a clinically implantable BAP, some key aspects need to be taken into accounts: encapsulation material, capsule design and implantation site...
October 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903618/biomaterial-cues-regulate-epigenetic-state-and-cell-functions-a-systematic-review
#5
Longwei Lv, Yiman Tang, Ping Zhang, Yunsong Liu, Xiangsong Bai, Yongsheng Zhou
Biomaterial cues can act as potent regulators of cell niche and microenvironment. Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and reprogramming. It is now well appreciated that biomaterials can alter epigenetic states of cells. In this study, we systematically reviewed the underlying epigenetic mechanisms of how different biomaterial cues, including material chemistry, topography, elasticity, and mechanical stimulus, influence cell functions, such as nuclear deformation, cell proliferation, differentiation, and reprogramming, to summarize the differences and similarities among each biomaterial cues and their mechanisms, and to find common and unique properties of different biomaterial cues...
October 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990462/atmps-a-guide-for-bone-marrow-derived-mscs-application-in-bone-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#6
Davide Confalonieri, Andrea Schwab, Heike Walles, Franziska Ehlicke
Millions of people worldwide suffer from trauma- or age-related orthopedic diseases such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis or cancer. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine are multidisciplinary fields focusing on the development of artificial organs, biomimetic engineered tissues and cells to restore or maintain tissue and organ function. While allogenic and future autologous transplantations are nowadays the gold standards for both cartilage and bone defect repair, they are both subject to important limitations such as availability of healthy tissue, donor site morbidity and graft rejection...
October 7, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978267/review-of-vascular-graft-studies-in-large-animal-models
#7
Rui Han Liu, Chin Siang Ong, Takuma Fukunishi, Kingsfield Ong, Narutoshi Hibino
As the incidence of cardiovascular disease continues to climb worldwide, there is a corresponding increase in demand for surgical interventions involving vascular grafts. The current gold standard for vascular grafts is autologous vessels, an option often excluded due to disease circumstances. As a result, many patients must resort to prosthetic options. While widely available, prosthetic grafts have been demonstrated to have inferior patency rates compared to autologous grafts due to inflammation and thrombosis...
October 5, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825357/multinucleated-giant-cells-good-guys-or-bad-guys
#8
Richard J Miron, Dieter D Bosshardt
Multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) are a special class of giant cell formed by the fusion of monocytes/macrophages abundantly found in human tissues. While historically their role around certain classes of biomaterials have been directly linked to a foreign body reaction leading to material rejection, recent accumulating evidence has put into question their role around certain classes of bone biomaterials. It was once thought that specifically in bone tissues, all giant cells were considered osteoclasts characterized by their ability to resorb and replace bone grafts with newly formed native bone...
October 4, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830302/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-physeal-injuries
#9
Nichole Shaw, Christopher Erickson, Stephanie J Bryant, Virginia L Ferguson, Melissa D Krebs, Nancy Hadley-Miller, Karin A Payne
The physis, or growth plate, is a cartilaginous region at the end of children's long bones that serves as the primary center for longitudinal growth and characterizes the immature skeleton. Musculoskeletal injury, including fracture, infection, malignancy, or iatrogenic damage, has risk of physeal damage. Physeal injuries account for 30% of pediatric fractures and may result in impaired bone growth. Once damaged, cartilage tissue within the physis is often replaced by unwanted bony tissue, forming a "bony bar" that can lead to complications such as complete growth arrest, angular or rotational deformities, and altered joint mechanics...
September 28, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474536/re-an-overview-of-protocols-for-the-neural-induction-of-dental-and-oral-stem-cells-in-vitro-by-heng-et-al-tissue-eng-part-b-2016-22-220-250
#10
Orsolya Páll, Béla Varga, Pierre-Yves Collart-Dutilleul, Csilla Gergely, Frédéric Jacques Georges Cuisinier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922991/tissue-engineering-laboratory-models-of-the-small-intestine
#11
Rasha Hatem Dosh, Nicola Jordan-Mahy, Christopher Sammon, Christine Le Maitre
In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models of the small intestine have gained much attention. These models support cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, and encourage tissue organization which is not possible in two-dimensional (2D) culture systems. Furthermore, the use of a wide variety of cell culture scaffolds and support substrates have revealed considerable differences in cell behavior and tissue organization. These systems have been used in combination with intestinal stem cells, organoid units or human colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines such as Caco-2 and HT29-MTX to generate a number of in vitro and in vivo models of the intestine...
September 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376649/tuning-cell-and-tissue-development-by-combining-multiple-mechanical-signals
#12
Ravi Sinha, Nico Verdonschot, Bart Koopman, Jeroen Rouwkema
Mechanical signals offer a promising way to control cell and tissue development. It has been established that cells constantly probe their mechanical microenvironment and employ force feedback mechanisms to modify themselves and when possible, their environment, to reach a homeostatic state. Thus, a correct mechanical microenvironment (external forces and mechanical properties and shapes of cellular surroundings) is necessary for the proper functioning of cells. In vitro or in the case of nonbiological implants in vivo, where cells are in an artificial environment, addition of the adequate mechanical signals can, therefore, enable the cells to function normally as in vivo...
October 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372518/collagen-membrane-and-immune-response-in-guided-bone-regeneration-recent-progress-and-perspectives
#13
Chenyu Chu, Jia Deng, Xianchang Sun, Yili Qu, Yi Man
Collagen is one of the important components of collagen membranes as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM). Most previous studies have focused on combining collagen membranes with various cross-linking agents, grafting materials, and cytokines to enhance their mechanical properties and bioactivities. Moreover, collagen membranes are often designed to minimize foreign body reactions involving macrophages. However, macrophages were recently found to play a pivotal role during bone regeneration based on their polarization into both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes...
October 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142381/questions-and-challenges-in-the-development-of-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cell-based-therapies-in-veterinary-medicine
#14
Lax R Devireddy, Lynne Boxer, Michael J Myers, Mark Skasko, Rudell Screven
The therapeutic potential of stem cells has fascinated those interested in treating diseases in both human and animal subjects. Although the exact mechanism of action and the definitive effectiveness of stem cell therapies remain unclear, animal owner perceptions and a desire for improved treatment options have fueled the interest of clinicians and stakeholders. Standards do not yet exist to define the critical attributes of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)-based products derived from veterinary species such as the dog, cat, and horse...
October 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067115/macroporous-hydrogel-scaffolds-for-three-dimensional-cell-culture-and-tissue-engineering
#15
Changjiang Fan, Dong-An Wang
Hydrogels have been promising candidate scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering due to their tissue-like physical properties and capability for homogeneous cell loading. However, the encapsulated cells are generally entrapped and constrained in the submicron- or nanosized gel networks, seriously limiting cell growth and tissue formation. Meanwhile, the spatially confined settlement inhibits attachment and spreading of anchorage-dependent cells, leading to their apoptosis. In recent years, macroporous hydrogels have attracted increasing attention in use as cell delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds...
October 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981888/diabetes-mellitus-and-bone-regeneration-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-animal-studies
#16
Winston A Camargo, Rob de Vries, Judith van Luijk, Jan Willem Hoekstra, Ewald M Bronkhorst, John A Jansen, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken
BACKGROUND: The regeneration of bone defects resulting from trauma, resection of tumors, infection, or congenital disease is a challenge, and bone grafts are utilized in a wide array of clinical settings to augment bone repair and regeneration. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease, which affects 8.3% of the world population, summing ∼387 million individuals. The consequences of the disease, for example, hyperglycemia, have been associated to a reduced capacity to form bone and poor bone quality, influencing bone healing...
October 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981886/additive-manufacturing-of-vascular-grafts-and-vascularized-tissue-constructs
#17
Laura Elomaa, Yunzhi Peter Yang
There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs...
October 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912680/biomimetic-approaches-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#18
Johnathan Ng, Kara Spiller, Jonathan Bernhard, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Although autologous bone grafts are considered a gold standard for the treatment of bone defects, they are limited by donor site morbidities and geometric requirements. We propose that tissue engineering technology can overcome such limitations by recreating fully viable and biological bone grafts. Specifically, we will discuss the use of bone scaffolds and autologous cells with bioreactor culture systems as a tissue engineering paradigm to grow bone in vitro. We will also discuss emergent vascularization strategies to promote graft survival in vivo, as well as the role of inflammation during bone repair...
October 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816104/the-immune-response-to-allogeneic-differentiated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-context-of-bone-tissue-engineering
#19
Caoimhe H Kiernan, Eppo B Wolvius, Pieter A J Brama, Eric Farrell
The use of allogeneic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to mediate bone formation may be a potential alternative to the current gold standards of bone repair. While it is known that undifferentiated MSCs are immunomodulatory and weakly immunogenic, the host immune reaction to differentiated MSCs is less known. Implantation of allogeneic osteogenic or chondrogenically differentiated MSC pellets may be promising routes to induce bone repair via the processes of intramembranous and endochondral ossification...
August 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799844/tissue-engineering-the-vascular-tree
#20
Mahama A Traore, Steven C George
A major hurdle in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine remains the design and construction of larger (> 1 cm(3)) in vitro tissues for biological studies and transplantation. While there has been success in creating three-dimensional (3D) capillary networks, relatively large arteries (diameter >3-5 mm), and more recently small arteries (diameter 500 μm-1 mm), there has been no success in the creation of a living dynamic blood vessel network comprising of arterioles (diameter 40-300 μm), capillaries, and venules...
August 11, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
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