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Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews

Caden Duffy, Cesar Prugue, Rachel Glew, Taryn Smith, Calvin Howell, Gina Choi, Alonzo David Cook
Despite their potential for treating type 1 diabetes (T1D), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have not yet been used successfully in the clinic. In this paper, advances in iPSC therapies are reviewed and compared to current methods of treating T1D. Encapsulation of iPSCs is being pursued to address such safety concerns as the possibility of immune rejection or teratoma formation, and provide for retrievability. Issues of material selection, cell differentiation, size of islet aggregates, sites of implantation, animal models, and vascularization are also being addressed...
June 27, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Sara Catarina Nunes da Silva Santos, Ólafur Eysteinn Sigurjonsson, Catarina de Almeida Custódio, João Filipe Colardelle da Luz Mano
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and its derivatives have been investigated and applied in regenerative medicine. The use of PRP as a supplement of cell culture media has consistently shown to potentiate stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. In addition, the clinical utility of PRP is supported by evidence that PRP contains high concentrations of growth factors (GFs) and proteins which contribute to the regenerative process. PRP based therapies are cost effective and also benefit from the accessibility and safety of using the patient's own GFs...
June 20, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Xiaojing Wang, Guowei Wang, Sarah Zingales, Baodong Zhao
Repairing bone defects poses a major orthopedic challenge because current treatments are constrained by the limited regenerative capacity of human bone tissue. Novel therapeutic strategies, such as stem cell therapy and tissue engineering, have the potential to enhance bone healing and regeneration, and hence may improve quality of life for millions of people. However, the ex vivo expansion of stem cells and their in vivo delivery pose technical difficulties that hamper clinical translation and commercial development...
June 13, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Mingxue Chen, Weimin Guo, Shuang Gao, Chunxiang Hao, Shi Shen, ZengZeng Zhang, Zehao Wang, Xu Li, Xiaoguang Jing, Xueliang Zhang, Zhiguo Yuan, Mingjie Wang, Yu Zhang, Jiang Peng, Aiyuan Wang, Yu Wang, Sui Xiang, Shuyun Liu, Quanyi Guo
Meniscus injuries are very common in the knee joint. Treating a damaged meniscus continues to be a scientific challenge in sport medicine because of its poor self-healing potential and few clinical therapeutic options. Tissue engineering strategies are very promising solutions for repairing and regenerating a damaged meniscus. Meniscus is exposed to a complex biomechanical microenvironment, and it plays a crucial role in meniscal development, growth, and repairing. Over the past decades, increasing attention has been focused on the use of biomechanical stimulus to enhance biomechanical properties of the engineered meniscus...
June 13, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Michael Scott Detamore, Salma Mahzoon
In the field of regenerative medicine, creating a biomaterial device with the potential to alone affect cellular fate is a desirable translational strategy. Native tissues and growth factors are attractive candidates to provide desired signals in a biomaterial environment; however, these molecules can have translational challenges such as high cost, complicated regulatory pathways, and/or limitations with reproducibility. In regenerative medicine, there is a burgeoning community of investigators who seek to overcome these challenges by introducing synthetic peptides to mimic the desirable signals provided by growth factors and tissue matrices...
May 29, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Yang Zhang, Johanna F A Husch, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken
Stem cell-based bone tissue engineering based on the combination of a scaffold and expanded autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents the current state-of-the-art treatment for bone defects and fractures. However, the procedure of such construct preparation requires extensive ex vivo manipulation of patient's cells to achieve enough stem cells. Therefore, it is impractical and not cost-effective compared to other therapeutic interventions. For these reasons, a more practical strategy circumventing any ex vivo manipulation and an additional surgery for the patient would be advantageous...
May 9, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Valérie Orti, Pierre-Yves Collart-Dutilleul, Sofía Silvia Piglionico, Orsolya Pall, Frédéric Cuisinier, Ivan Vladislavov Panayotov
Following the basis of tissue engineering (Cells - Scaffold - Bioactive molecules), regenerative endodontic has emerged as a new concept of dental treatment. Clinical procedures have been proposed by endodontic practitioners willing to promote regenerative therapy. Preserving pulp vitality was a first approach. Later procedures aimed to regenerate a vascularized pulp in necrotic root canals. However, there is still no protocol allowing an effective regeneration of necrotic pulp tissue either in immature or mature teeth...
May 4, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Hong Zhang, Meng-Fei Liu, Ri-Chun Liu, Wei-Liang Shen, Zi Yin, Xiao Chen
Tendon injuries are common musculoskeletal system disorders, but the tendons have poor regeneration ability. To address this issue, tendon tissue engineering provides potential strategies for future therapeutic treatment. Elements of the physical microenvironment, such as the mechanical force and surface topography, play a vital role in regulating stem cell fate, enhancing the differentiation efficiency of seed cells in tendon tissue engineering. Various inducible scaffolds have been widely explored for tendon regeneration, and scaffold-enhancing modifications have been extensively studied...
May 4, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Kyung Min Park, Young Min Shin, Kyobum Kim, Heungsoo Shin
In 2017, a new paradigm change caused by artificial intelligence and big data analysis resulted in innovation in each field of science and technology, and also significantly influenced progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). TERM has continued to make technological advances based on interdisciplinary approaches and has contributed to the overall field of biomedical technology, including cancer biology, personalized medicine, development biology, and cell-based therapeutics. While researchers are aware that there is still a long way to go until TERM reaches the ultimate goal of patient treatment through clinical translation, the rapid progress in convergence studies led by technological improvements in TERM has been encouraging...
April 26, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Evelia Y Salinas, Jerry C Hu, Kyriacos Athanasiou
The use of tissue-engineered articular cartilage (TEAC) constructs has the potential to become a powerful treatment option for cartilage lesions resulting from trauma or early stages of pathology. Although fundamental tissue-engineering strategies based on the use of scaffolds, cells, and signals have been developed, techniques that lead to biomimetic AC constructs that can be translated to in vivo use are yet to be fully confirmed. Mechanical stimulation during tissue culture can be an effective strategy to enhance the mechanical, structural, and cellular properties of tissue-engineered constructs toward mimicking those of native AC...
April 26, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Kevin M Blum, Joseph D Drews, Christopher K Breuer
Heart valve disease carries a substantial risk of morbidity and mortality. Outcomes are significantly improved by valve replacement, but currently available mechanical and biological replacement valves are associated with complications of their own. Mechanical valves have a high rate of thromboembolism and require lifelong anticoagulation. Biological prosthetic valves have a much shorter lifespan, and they are prone to tearing and degradation. Both types of valves lack the capacity for growth, making them particularly problematic in pediatric patients...
June 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Xuening Chen, Lichen Wang, Kaitao Zhao, Hongjun Wang
Osteocytes, the most abundant cell type in mammalian bone, are generally considered as the terminally differentiated cells of osteoblasts that are progressively self-buried or passively embedded in bone matrix. Emerging evidence reveals the essential functions of osteocytes in bone homeostasis and mechanotransduction. However, our knowledge on osteocytes, especially their formation, remains scarce. In this regard, the current review mainly focuses on several key factors that drive the osteocytic differentiation of osteoblasts, that is, osteocytogenesis...
June 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Ara Hacobian, David Hercher
Gene therapy represents a potent therapeutical application for regenerative medicine. So far, viral and nonviral approaches suffer from major drawbacks hindering efficient gene therapeutic applicability: the immunogenicity of viral systems on the one hand, and the low gene transfer efficiency of nonviral systems on the other hand. Therefore, there is a high demand for improvements of therapeutical systems at several levels. This review summarizes different DNA vector modifications to enhance biological efficacy and efficiency of therapeutical vectors, aiming for low toxicity, high specificity, and biological efficacy-the cornerstones for successful translation of gene therapy into the clinic...
June 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Alejandro J Almarza, Bryan N Brown, Boaz Arzi, David Faustino Ângelo, William Chung, Stephen F Badylak, Michael Detamore
There is a paucity of in vivo studies that investigate the safety and efficacy of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) tissue regeneration approaches, in part due to the lack of established animal models. Review of disease models for study of TMJ is presented herein with an attempt to identify relevant preclinical animal models for TMJ tissue engineering, with emphasis on the disc and condyle. Although degenerative joint disease models have been mainly performed on mice, rats, and rabbits, preclinical regeneration approaches must employ larger animal species...
June 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Stephen R Sloan, Marianne Lintz, Ibrahim Hussain, Roger Hartl, Lawrence J Bonassar
Lower back pain, the leading cause of workplace absences and disability, is often attributed to intervertebral disc degeneration, in which nucleus pulposus (NP) herniates through lesions in the annulus fibrosus (AF) and impinges on the spinal cord and surrounding nerves. Surgeons remove extruded NP via discectomy when indicated by local/radicular pain supported by radiographic evidence; however, current interventions do not alter the underlying disease or seal the AF. The reported rates of recurrent herniation or pain following discectomy cases range from 5% to 25%, which has pushed spine research in recent years toward annular repair and closure strategies...
June 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Haitao Zhu, Wenjing Li, Zhongwei Liu, Wenliang Li, Niuniu Chen, Linlin Lu, Wei Zhang, Zhen Wang, Bo Wang, Kaili Pan, Xiaoge Zhang, Guoqiang Chen
Pancreatic islet transplantation has been validated as a valuable therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with exhausted insulin treatment. However, this therapy remains limited by the shortage of donor and the requirement of lifelong immunosuppression. Islet encapsulation, as an available bioartificial pancreas (BAP), represents a promising approach to enable protecting islet grafts without or with minimal immunosuppression and possibly expanding the donor pool. To develop a clinically implantable BAP, some key aspects need to be taken into account: encapsulation material, capsule design, and implant site...
June 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Molly N Pantelic, Lisa M Larkin
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a debilitating condition wherein muscle loss overwhelms the body's normal physiological repair mechanism. VML is particularly common among military service members who have sustained war injuries. Because of the high social and medical cost associated with VML and suboptimal current surgical treatments, there is great interest in developing better VML therapies. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) is a promising alternative to traditional VML surgical treatments that use autogenic tissue grafts, and rather uses isolated stem cells with myogenic potential to generate de novo skeletal muscle tissues to treat VML...
April 19, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Banu Akar, Alexander M Tatara, Alok Sutradhar, Hui-Yi Hsiao, Michael Miller, Ming-Huei Cheng, Antonios G Mikos, Eric M Brey
Reconstruction of large skeletal defects is challenging due to the requirement for large volumes of donor tissue and the often complex surgical procedures. Tissue engineering has the potential to serve as a new source of tissue for bone reconstruction, but current techniques are often limited in regards to the size and complexity of tissue that can be formed. Building tissue using an in vivo bioreactor approach may enable the production of appropriate amounts of specialized tissue, while reducing issues of donor site morbidity and infection...
April 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Max J Lerman, Josephine Lembong, Shin Muramoto, Greg Gillen, John P Fisher
Polystyrene (PS) has brought <i>in vitro</i> cell culture from its humble beginnings to the modern era, propelling dozens of research fields along the way. This review discusses the development of the material, fabrication, and treatment approaches to create the culture material. However, native PS surfaces poorly facilitate cell adhesion and growth<i>in vitro</i>. To overcome this, liquid surface deposition, energetic plasma activation, and emerging functionalization methods transform the surface chemistry...
April 10, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Kenjiro Iwasa, A Hari Reddi
BACKGROUND: Bone and joint formation, maintenance, and regeneration are regulated by both chemical and physical signals. Among the physical signals there is an increasing realization of the role of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of nonunions of bone fractures. The discovery of the piezoelectric properties of bone by Fukada and Yasuda in 1953 in Japan established the foundation of this field. Pioneering research by Bassett and Brighton and their teams resulted in the approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the use of PEMF in the treatment of fracture healing...
April 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
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