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Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903618/biomaterial-cues-regulate-epigenetic-state-and-cell-functions-a-systematic-review
#1
Longwei Lv, Yiman Tang, Ping Zhang, Yunsong Liu, Xiangsong Bai, Yongsheng Zhou
Biomaterial cues can act as potent regulators of cell niche and microenvironment. Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and reprograming. It is now well appreciated that biomaterials can alter epigenetic states of cells. Here we systematically reviewed the underlying epigenetic mechanisms of how different biomaterial cues, including material chemistry, topography, elasticity and mechanical stimulus, influence cell functions, such as nuclear deformation, cell proliferation, differentiation and reprograming, to summarize the differences and similarities among each biomaterial cues and their mechanisms, and to find common and unique properties of different biomaterial cues...
September 13, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830302/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-physeal-injuries
#2
Nichole Shaw, Christopher Erickson, Stephanie Bryant, Virginia Ferguson, Melissa Diane Krebs, Nancy Hadley-Miller, Karin A Payne
The physis, or growth plate, is a cartilaginous region at the end of children's long bones that serves as the primary center for longitudinal growth and characterizes the immature skeleton. Musculoskeletal injury including fracture, infection, malignancy, or iatrogenic damage has risk of physeal damage. Physeal injuries account for 30% of pediatric fractures and may result in impaired bone growth. Once damaged, cartilage tissue within the physis is often replaced by unwanted bony tissue, forming a 'bony bar' that can lead to complications such as complete growth arrest, angular or rotational deformities, and altered joint mechanics...
August 22, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825357/multi-nucleated-giant-cells-good-guys-or-bad-guys
#3
Richard Miron, Dieter Bosshardt
Multi-nucleated giant cells (MNGCs) are a special class of giant cell formed by the fusion of monocytes/macrophages abundantly found in human tissues. While historically their role around certain classes of biomaterials have been directly linked to a foreign body reaction leading to material rejection, recent accumulating evidence has put into question their role around certain classes of bone biomaterials. It was once thought that specifically in bone tissues, all giant cells were considered osteoclasts characterized by their ability to resorb and replace bone grafts with newly formed native bone...
August 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816104/the-immune-response-to-allogeneic-differentiated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-context-of-bone-tissue-engineering
#4
Caoimhe H Kiernan, Eppo B Wolvius, Pieter A J Brama, Eric Farrell
The use of allogeneic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to mediate bone formation may be a potential alternative to the current gold standards of bone repair. While it is known that undifferentiated MSCs are immunomodulatory and weakly immunogenic, the host immune reaction to differentiated MSCs is less known. Implantation of allogeneic osteogenic or chondrogenically differentiated MSC pellets may be promising routes to induce bone repair via the processes of intramembranous and endochondral ossification...
August 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799844/tissue-engineering-the-vascular-tree
#5
Mahama A Traore, Steven C George
A major hurdle in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine remains the design and construction of larger (> 1 cm(3)) in vitro tissues for biological studies and transplantation. While there has been success in creating three-dimensional (3D) capillary networks, relatively large arteries (diameter >3-5 mm), and more recently small arteries (diameter 500 μm-1 mm), there has been no success in the creation of a living dynamic blood vessel network comprising of arterioles (diameter 40-300 μm), capillaries, and venules...
August 11, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665192/adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cell-sheet-application-for-tissue-healing-in-vivo-a-systematic-review
#6
Panithi Sukho, Abigael Cohen, Jan Willem Hesselink, Jolle Kirpensteijn, Femke Verseijden, Yvonne M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are known to be tissue-healing promoters due to their cellular plasticity and secretion of paracrine factors. Cultured ASC sheets provide a novel method of ASC application and can retain ASCs at the targeted tissue. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate preclinical studies using ASC sheet transplantation therapy for promoting tissue healing. First, we searched databases to identify studies of ASC sheet therapy in different experimental animal models, and then determined the quality score of studies using SYRCLE's risk bias tool...
August 4, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610544/the-biomechanical-properties-of-human-craniofacial-sutures-and-relevant-variables-in-sutural-distraction-osteogenesis-a-critical-review
#7
Fabio Savoldi, James K H Tsoi, Corrado Paganelli, Jukka P Matinlinna
Sutures are synarthroses connecting the bones of the head with each other through a fibrous sutural ligament. The knowledge of their biomechanical properties is relevant in the application of regenerative techniques for the treatment of craniofacial conditions, such as the sutural distraction osteogenesis (SDO). However, their mechanical characterization has not received a systematic approach, and both clinical treatments and virtual simulations lack clear mechanical parameters. Online databases (PubMed(©), Cochrane Library(©), Google Scholar(©)), references of full-text articles, and previous reviews of the literature were searched...
July 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726576/recent-developments-in-thiolated-polymeric-hydrogels-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#8
Mani Gajendiran, Jae-Sung Rhee, Kyobum Kim
This review focuses on the recent strategy in the preparation of thiolated polymers and fabrication of their hydrogel matrices. The mechanism involved in the synthesis of thiolated polymers and fabrication of thiolated polymer hydrogels is exemplified with suitable schematic representations reported in the recent literature. The 2-iminothiolane namely "Traut's reagent" has been widely employed for effectively thiolating the natural polymers such as collagen and gelatin which contain free amino group in their back bone...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548628/endothelial-progenitor-cells-for-the-vascularization-of-engineered-tissues
#9
Erica B Peters
Self-assembled microvasculature from cocultures of endothelial cells (ECs) and stromal cells has significantly advanced efforts to vascularize engineered tissues by enhancing perfusion rates in vivo and producing investigative platforms for microvascular morphogenesis in vitro. However, to clinically translate prevascularized constructs, the issue of EC source must be resolved. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be noninvasively supplied from the recipient through adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood, as well as derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, alleviating antigenicity issues...
July 3, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514897/biomaterials-and-bioactive-agents-in-spinal-fusion
#10
Rui M Duarte, Pedro Varanda, Rui L Reis, Ana Rita C Duarte, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Management of degenerative spine pathologies frequently leads to the need for spinal fusion (SF), where bone growth is induced toward stabilization of the interventioned spine. Autologous bone graft (ABG) remains the gold-standard inducer, whereas new bone graft substitutes attempt to achieve effective de novo bone formation and solid fusion. Limited fusion outcomes have driven motivation for more sophisticated and multidisciplinary solutions, involving new biomaterials and/or biologics, through innovative delivery platforms...
June 28, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463576/advances-in-application-of-mechanical-stimuli-in-bioreactors-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#11
Ke Li, Chunqiu Zhang, Lulu Qiu, Lilan Gao, Xizheng Zhang
Articular cartilage (AC) is the weight-bearing tissue in diarthroses. It lacks the capacity for self-healing once there are injuries or diseases due to its avascularity. With the development of tissue engineering, repairing cartilage defects through transplantation of engineered cartilage that closely matches properties of native cartilage has become a new option for curing cartilage diseases. The main hurdle for clinical application of engineered cartilage is how to develop functional cartilage constructs for mass production in a credible way...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401807/biophysical-stimulation-for-engineering-functional-skeletal-muscle
#12
Sarah M Somers, Alexander A Spector, Douglas J DiGirolamo, Warren L Grayson
Tissue engineering is a promising therapeutic strategy to regenerate skeletal muscle. However, ex vivo cultivation methods typically result in a low differentiation efficiency of stem cells as well as grafts that resemble the native tissues morphologically, but lack contractile function. The application of biomimetic tensile strain provides a potent stimulus for enhancing myogenic differentiation and engineering functional skeletal muscle grafts. We reviewed integrin-dependent mechanisms that potentially link mechanotransduction pathways to the upregulation of myogenic genes...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372485/a-review-of-cell-based-strategies-for-soft-tissue-reconstruction
#13
Elizabeth Brett, Natalie Chung, William Tripp Leavitt, Arash Momeni, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
Soft tissue reconstruction to restore volume to damaged or deficient tissue beneath the skin remains a challenging endeavor. Current techniques are centered around autologous fat transfer, or the use of synthetic substitutes, however, a great deal of scientific inquiry has been made into both the molecular mechanisms involved in, and limitations of, de novo adipogenesis, that is, the formation of new adipose tissue from precursor cells. To best comprehend these mechanisms, an understanding of defined markers for adipogenic differentiation, and knowledge of both commercially available and primary cell lines that enable in vitro and in vivo studies is necessary...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169595/tissue-derived-extracellular-matrix-bioscaffolds-emerging-applications-in-cartilage-and-meniscus-repair
#14
Farrah A Monibi, James L Cook
Musculoskeletal injuries are a common problem in orthopedic practice. Given the long-term consequences of unaddressed cartilage and meniscal pathology, a number of treatments have been attempted to stimulate repair or to replace the injured tissue. Despite advances in orthopedic surgery, effective treatments for cartilage and meniscus injuries remain a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering is a developing field that aims to regenerate injured tissues with a combination of cells, scaffolds, and signals...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166711/biomaterial-guided-gene-delivery-for-musculoskeletal-tissue-repair
#15
Justin L Madrigal, Roberta Stilhano, Eduardo A Silva
Gene therapy is a promising strategy for musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration where local and sustained expression of proteins and/or therapeutic nucleic acids can be achieved. However, the musculoskeletal tissues present unique engineering and biological challenges as recipients of genetic vectors. Targeting specific cell populations, regulating expression in vivo, and overcoming the harsh environment of damaged tissue accompany the general concerns of safety and efficacy common to all applications of gene therapy...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092213/cellular-and-molecular-factors-influencing-tendon-repair
#16
Sushmitha Durgam, Matthew Stewart
Tendons are complex connective tissues that transmit tensile forces between muscles and tendons. Tendon injuries are among the most common orthopedic problems with long-term disability as a frequent consequence due to prolonged healing time. Furthermore, the repair tissue is of inferior quality, predisposing patients to high rates of recurrence following initial injury. Coordinated cellular processes and biological factors under the influence of mechanical loading are involved in tendon healing and our understanding of these events lags behind other musculoskeletal tissues...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084902/the-rotator-cuff-organ-integrating-developmental-biology-tissue-engineering-and-surgical-considerations-to-treat-chronic-massive-rotator-cuff-tears
#17
Benjamin B Rothrauff, Thierry Pauyo, Richard E Debski, Mark W Rodosky, Rocky S Tuan, Volker Musahl
The torn rotator cuff remains a persistent orthopedic challenge, with poor outcomes disproportionately associated with chronic, massive tears. Degenerative changes in the tissues that comprise the rotator cuff organ, including muscle, tendon, and bone, contribute to the poor healing capacity of chronic tears, resulting in poor function and an increased risk for repair failure. Tissue engineering strategies to augment rotator cuff repair have been developed in an effort to improve rotator cuff healing and have focused on three principal aims: (1) immediate mechanical augmentation of the surgical repair, (2) restoration of muscle quality and contractility, and (3) regeneration of native enthesis structure...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068870/induced-remodeling-of-porcine-tendons-to-human-anterior-cruciate-ligaments-by-%C3%AE-gal-epitope-removal-and-partial-cross-linking
#18
Kevin R Stone, Ann Walgenbach, Uri Galili
This review describes a novel method developed for processing porcine tendon and other ligament implants that enables in situ remodeling into autologous ligaments in humans. The method differs from methods using extracellular matrices (ECMs) that provide postoperative orthobiological support (i.e., augmentation grafts) for healing of injured ligaments, in that the porcine bone-patellar-tendon-bone itself serves as the graft replacing ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The method allows for gradual remodeling of porcine tendon into autologous human ACL while maintaining the biomechanical integrity...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998240/superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-musculoskeletal-biology
#19
Shama R Iyer, Su Xu, Joseph P Stains, Craig H Bennett, Richard M Lovering
The use of platelet-rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells has garnered much attention in orthopedic medicine, focusing on the biological aspects of cell function. However, shortly after systemic delivery, or even a local injection, few of the transplanted stem cells or platelets remain at the target site. Improvement in delivery, and the ability to track and monitor injected cells, would greatly improve clinical translation. Nanoparticles can effectively and quickly label most cells in vitro, and evidence to date suggests such labeling does not compromise the proliferation or differentiation of cells...
August 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610481/efficacy-of-humanized-mesenchymal-stem-cell-cultures-for-bone-tissue-engineering-a-systematic-review-with-a-focus-on-platelet-derivatives
#20
Siddharth Shanbhag, Andreas Stavropoulos, Salwa Suliman, Tor Hervig, Kamal Mustafa
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most commonly used supplement for ex vivo expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for bone tissue engineering applications. However, from a clinical standpoint, it is important to substitute animal-derived products according to current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) guidelines. Humanized alternatives to FBS include three categories of products: human serum (HS), human platelet-derivatives (HPD) - including platelet lysate (PL) or releasate (PR), produced by freeze-/thawing or chemical activation of platelet concentrates, respectively; and chemically-defined media (CDM)...
June 13, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
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