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Tissue Engineering. Part A

Jiabing Fan, Mian Guo, Choong Sung Im, Joan Pi-Anfruns, Zhong-Kai Cui, Soyon Kim, Benjamin Wu, Tara Aghaloo, Min Lee
Growth factor-based therapeutics using bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) present a promising strategy to reconstruct craniofacial bone defects such as mandible. However, clinical applications require supraphysiological BMP doses that often increase inappropriate adipogenesis, resulting in well-documented cyst-like bone formation. Here we reported a novel complementary strategy to enhance osteogenesis and mandibular bone repair by employing small molecule phenamil that has been shown to be a strong activator of BMP signaling...
October 22, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Takeshi Kimura, Akihiro Yamashita, Keiichi Ozono, Noriyuki Tsumaki
Articular cartilage damage does not spontaneously heal and could ultimately result in a loss of joint function. Damaged cartilage can be repaired with cell/tissue sources that are transplanted, however, autologous chondrocytes are limited in number as a cell source. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a relatively new and abundant cell source and can be made from the patient, but at considerable cost. Because cartilage is immunoprivileged tissue, allogeneic cartilages have been transplanted effectively without matching for human leukocyte antigen (HLA), but are difficult to acquire due to scarcity of donors...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Nisarat Ruangsawasdi, Matthias Zehnder, Raphael Patcas, Chafik Ghayor, Barbara Siegenthaler, Bebeka Gjoksi, Franz E Weber
Conventional root canal treatment in immature permanent teeth can lead to early tooth loss in children because root formation is discontinued. We investigated whether the stem cell factor (SCF) could facilitate cell homing in the pulpless immature root canal and promote regeneration of a functional pulp. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were exposed to SCF at various concentrations for assessing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation towards odonto/osteoblasts by 3D-chemotaxis slides, WST-1 assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Roberto Narcisi, Ozan H Arikan, Johannes Lehmann, Derk Ten Berge, Gerjo J V M van Osch
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapies, but loss of expansion and differentiation potential in vitro limits their applicability. Recently we showed that WNT3A protein promoted MSC proliferation and enhanced their chondrogenic potential, while simultaneously suppressing the propensity of the cartilage to undergo hypertrophic maturation. Since WNT3A protein is costly and rapidly loses its activity in culture, we investigated the possibility of replacing it with cheaper commercially available WNT agonists, specifically lithium chloride (LiCl), CHIR99021 (CHIR), SKL2001, and AMBMP...
October 17, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Kaitlyn Sadtler, Brian W Allen, Kenneth Estrellas, Franck Housseau, Drew M Pardoll, Jennifer H Elisseeff
The immune system mediates tissue growth and homeostasis and is the first responder to injury or biomaterial implantation. Recently, it has been appreciated that immune cells play a critical role in wound healing and tissue repair and should thus be considered as potentially beneficial particularly in the context of scaffolds for regenerative medicine. Here, we present a flow cytometric analysis of cellular recruitment to tissue-derived extracellular matrix scaffolds where we quantitatively describe the infiltration and polarization of several immune subtypes including macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, monocytes, T cells, and B cells...
October 13, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Satyavrata Samavedi, Patricia Diaz-Rodriguez, Joshua Dean Erndt-Marino, Mariah Hahn
The goal of the present study was to develop a fully 3D co-culture system that would allow for systematic investigation of the interplay between activated macrophages and chondrocytes in osteoarthritic disease progression. Toward this end, our 3D co-culture system was first validated against existing in vitro osteoarthritis models, which have generally cultured healthy normal chondrocytes (NCs) ─ in 2D or 3D ─ with 2D classically activated macrophages (AMs). In the current work, NCs and AMs were both encapsulated within poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels to better mimic the native 3D environments of both cell types within the osteoarthritic joint...
October 13, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Qin Shi, Dan Zhang, Zhen Huang, Peng Sun, Haiping Huang, Yunmei Zhang, Jianwu Dai, Jisheng Liu
Traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is very common in clinical practice. Several biomaterials have been reported to play a role in TM reparation, whereas their functional recovery is limited when used alone. Meanwhile, the administration of bio-factors could promote functional recovery, but rapid distribution and short half-time obstruct their application. In order to study the effect on of traumatic TM regeneration, we prepared collagen membrane (CM) integrated with collagen-binding basic fibroblast growth factor (CBD-bFGF) and implanted into the injury site of perforated TM in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
October 12, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Marcus Mumme, Amir Steinitz, Katja M Nuss, Karina Klein, Sandra Feliciano, Peter Kronen, Marcel Jakob, Brigitte von Rechenberg, Ivan Martin, Andrea Barbero, Karoliina Pelttari
Nasal chondrocytes (NC) were previously demonstrated to remain viable and to participate in the repair of articular cartilage defects in goats. Here, we investigated critical features of tissue-engineered grafts generated by NC in this large animal model, namely cell retention at the implantation site, architecture and integration with adjacent tissues, and effects on subchondral bone changes. In this study, isolated autologous goat NC (gNC) and goat articular chondrocytes (gAC, as control) were expanded, green fluorescent protein-labelled and seeded on a type I/III collagen membrane...
October 11, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Henrique Almeida, Binulal Nelson Sathy, Ivan Dudurych, Conor Timothy Buckley, Fergal J O'Brien, Daniel John Kelly
Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Adam O'Reilly, Daniel John Kelly
Developing successful tissue engineering strategies requires an understanding of how cells within an implanted scaffold interacts with the host environment. The objective of this study was to use a computational mechanobiological model to explore how the design of a cell laden scaffold influences the spatial formation of cartilage and bone within an osteochondral defect. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed model in which cell fate depends on the local oxygen tension and the mechanical environment within a damaged joint...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Andrew Raines, Mei-Shu Shih, Lorraine Chua, Chen-Wei Su, Scheffer Cg Tseng, Julie O'Connell
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative joint disease and to date, no disease modifying osteoarthritis drug exist. Amniotic membrane and umbilical cord products have been used clinically in several diseases due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties. In the present study, we sought to evaluate whether a particulate amniotic membrane and umbilical cord (AM/UC) matrix could aid in attenuating disease progression. Lewis rats underwent medial meniscus transection (MMT) to induce OA. Two weeks after surgery, animals received intra-articular injections (50 μL) of either 50 µg/µL or 100 µg/µL particulate AM/UC or saline control and were subsequently euthanized 1 or 4 weeks later...
October 5, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Soonchul Lee, Jia Shen, Hsin Chuan Pan, Swati Shrestha, Greg Asatrian, Alan Nguyen, Carolyn Meyers, Vi Nguyen, Min Lee, Chia Soo, Kang Ting, Aaron W James
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling positively regulates both endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Use of small molecules for tissue engineering applications pose several advantages. Here, we examined whether use of an acellular scaffold treated with the small molecule Smoothened agonist (SAG) could aid in critical size mouse calvarial defect repair. First, we verified the pro-osteogenic effect of SAG in vitro, using primary neonatal mouse calvarial cells (NMCCs). Next, a 4 mm non-healing defect was created in the mid-parietal bone of ten week old CD-1 mice...
October 5, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Christopher Deborde, Dan Teodor Simionescu, Cristopher Wright, Jun Liao, Leslie Neil Sierad, Agneta Simionescu
There is a significant clinical need for new approaches to treatment of mitral valve disease. The aim of this study was to develop a tissue-engineered mitral valve scaffold possessing appropriate composition and structure to ensure ideal characteristics of mitral valves, such as large orifice, rapid opening and closure, maintenance of mitral annulus-papillary muscle continuity, in vivo biocompatibility and extended durability. An extracellular matrix-based scaffold was generated, based on the native porcine mitral valve as starting material and a technique for porcine cell removal without causing damage to the matrix components...
October 3, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Mahshid Vashaghian, Behrouz Zandieh, Jan Paul Roovers, Theodoor Henri Smit
Electrospun matrices are proposed as an alternative for polypropylene meshes in reconstructive pelvic surgery. Here, we investigated the effect of fiber diameter on i) the mechanical properties of electrospun poly (glycolide-co-lactide acid)-blended-poly(caprolactone) (PLGA/PCL) matrices; ii) cellular infiltration; and iii) the newly-formed extracellular matrix (ECM) in vitro. We compared electrospun matrices with 1- and 8μm fiber diameter and used non-porous PLGA/PCL films as controls. The 8-μm matrices were almost twice as stiff as the 1-μm matrices with 1...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Lindsey Dew, William R English, Chuh K Chong, Sheila MacNeil
One of the main challenges currently faced by tissue engineers is the loss of tissues post implantation due to delayed neovascularization. Several strategies are under investigation to create vascularized tissue but none have yet overcome this problem. In this study we produced a decellularized natural vascular scaffold from rat intestine to use as an in vitro platform for neovascularization studies for tissue engineered constructs. Decellularization resulted in almost complete (97%) removal of nuclei and DNA, while collagen, glycosaminoglycans and laminin content was preserved...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Mahsa Mohiti-Asli, Casey Molina, Thamonwan Diteepeng, Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Elizabeth Loboa
Bone infection, also called osteomyelitis, can result when bacteria invade a bone. Treatment of osteomyelitis usually requires surgical debridement and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. The rising incidence of infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria, in particular methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), however, limits the antimicrobial treatment options available. Silver is well known for its antimicrobial properties and is highly toxic to a wide range of microorganisms. We previously reported our development of biocompatible, biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds that released silver ions in a controlled manner...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Tianyi Wang, Janice H Lai, Fan Yang
Cell-based therapies offer a great promise for repairing cartilage. Previous strategies often involve using a single cell population such as stem cells or chondrocytes. Mixed cell population may offer an alternative strategy for cartilage regeneration while overcoming donor scarcity. We have recently reported that adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can catalyze neocartilage formation by neonatal chondrocytes (NChons) when mixed co-cultured in 3D hydrogels in vitro. However, it remains unknown how the biochemical and mechanical cues of hydrogels modulate cartilage formation by mixed cell populations <i>in vivo</i>...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Jong-Ho Kim, Hyung Joon Joo, Mina Kim, Seung-Cheol Choi, Jeong Ik Lee, Soon Jun Hong, Do-Sun Lim
Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation has been proposed to improve cardiac function acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recently, cell sheet technology has been investigated for its potential applicability in cardiac injury. However, detailed comparison of the functional recovery in the injured myocardium between cell sheets and conventional cell injection has not been adequately examined. ADSCs were isolated from the inguinal fat tissue of ICR mice. Three groups of AMI induction only (sham), intramyocardial injection of ADSCs (imADSC), and ADSC sheet transplantation (shADSC) were compared using rat AMI models...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Tyler Novak, Kateri Fites, Xin Xu, Logan Worke, Aaron Ciesielski, Gert Breur, Corey P Neu
Interest in decellularized tissues has steadily gained as potential solutions for degenerative diseases and traumatic events, replacing sites of missing tissue and providing the relevant biochemistry and microstructure for tissue ingrowth and regeneration. Osteoarthritis, a progressive and debilitating disease, is often initiated with the formation of a focal defect in the otherwise smooth surface of articular cartilage. The use of decellularized cartilage tissue, which maintains the structural complexity of the native extracellular matrix, has the potential to provide a clinically relevant solution to focal defects or large tissue damage, possibly even circumventing or complementing current techniques such as microfracture and mosaicplasty...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Nizar Algarni, Michael Grant, Laura M Epure, Omar Salem, Rakan Farouk Bokhari, John Antoniou, Fackson Mwale
Link N (DHLSDNYTLDHDRAIH), is a naturally occurring peptide that can stimulate matrix production in vitro, in vivo and in intact ex vivo human intervertebral discs (IVDs). We have recently discovered that annulus fibrosus cells (AF) cells have the ability to proteolytically process Link N resulting in a fragment spanning amino acid residues 1-8 short Link N (sLink N). Separately, we recently developed and validated a large animal disc organ culture model that maintains long-term cell viability while retaining the bony endplates and vertebral bone (vIVDs; IVD with intact vertebrae)...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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