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Tissue Engineering. Part A

Robert J Nims, Alexander D Cigan, Krista M Durney, Brian K Jones, John D O'Neill, Wing-Sum A Law, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Clark Tung-Hui Hung, Gerard A Ateshian
When cultured with sufficient nutrient supply, engineered cartilage synthesizes proteoglycans rapidly, producing an osmotic swelling pressure that destabilizes immature collagen and prevents the development of a robust collagen framework, a hallmark of native cartilage. We hypothesized that mechanically constraining the proteoglycan-induced tissue swelling would enhance construct functional properties through the development of a more stable collagen framework. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel "cage" growth system to mechanically prevent tissue constructs from swelling while ensuring adequate nutrient supply to the growing construct...
February 14, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Benjamin B Rothrauff, Brian B Lauro, Guang Yang, Richard E Debski, Volker Musahl, Rocky S Tuan
Tendon and ligament injuries are a persistent orthopedic challenge given their poor innate healing capacity. Nonwoven electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds composed of polyesters have been used to mimic the mechanics and topographical cues of native tendons and ligaments. However, nonwoven nanofibers have several limitations that prevent broader clinical application, including poor cell infiltration, as well as tensile and suture-retention strengths that are inferior to native tissues. In this study, multilayered scaffolds of aligned electrospun nanofibers of two designs-stacked or braided-were fabricated...
February 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Ailsa Dalgliesh, Zhi Zhao Liu, Leigh Griffiths
Current heart valve prostheses are associated with significant complications including aggressive immune response, limited valve life expectancy, and inability to grow in juvenile patients. Animal derived "tissue" valves undergo glutaraldehyde fixation to mask tissue antigenicity, however chronic immunological responses and associated calcification still commonly occur. A heart valve formed from an unfixed bovine pericardium (BP) extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold, in which antigenic burden has been eliminated or significantly reduced, has potential to overcome deficiencies of current bio-prostheses...
February 8, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Juliana A Passipieri, Hannah B Baker, Mevan Siriwardane, Mary Ellenburg, Manasi Vadhavkar, Justin M Saul, Seth Tomblyn, Luke Burnett, George Joseph Christ
Volumetric Muscle Loss (VML) injuries exceed the considerable intrinsic regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle resulting in permanent functional and cosmetic deficits. VML and VML-like injuries occur in military and civilian populations, due to trauma and surgery as well as a host of congenital and acquired diseases/syndromes. Current therapeutic options are limited, and new approaches are needed for more complete functional regeneration of muscle. A potential solution is human hair derived keratin (KN) biomaterials that may have significant potential for regenerative therapy...
February 7, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Allison E Fetz, Indira Neeli, Isaac A Rodriguez, Marko Z Radic, Gary L Bowlin
Mounting evidence indicates that neutrophils, first responders to an implanted biomaterial, prime the microenvironment for recruited immune cells by secreting factors and releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) through NETosis. In this study, we investigated the role of electrospun template architecture and composition in regulating NETosis. Electrospun polydioxanone (PDO), collagen type I (COL), and blended PDO-COL templates (PC) were fabricated with small-diameter (0.25-0.35 μm) and large-diameter (1...
February 7, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Ethan Nyberg, Alexandra Rindone, Amir Dorafshar, Warren L Grayson
Three-dimensional (3D)-printing facilitates rapid, custom manufacturing of bone scaffolds with a wide range of material choices. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for 3D-printing bioactive (i.e., osteo-inductive) scaffolds for use in bone regeneration applications. In this study, we 3D-printed porous poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) process and functionalized them with mineral additives that have been widely used commercially and clinically: tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), Bio-Oss (BO), or decellularized bone matrix (DCB)...
February 7, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Sepanta Hosseinpour, Farshid Bastami
One of the major challengeable issues in bone tissue engineering is regeneration of critical-sized bone defects (CSBD). According to bone formation results of the article conducted by Liu et al "Mesenchymal stem cells systemically injected into femoral marrow of dogs home to mandibular defects to enhance new bone formation. Tissue Engineering Part A. 2014;20(3-4):883-92", we can conclude that creating the correct defect form and interrupting the natural bone healing cascade can be essential as well as creating the accurate defect size to have a true CSBD in animal model of the research...
February 6, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Luis M Delgado, Kieran Fuller, Dimitrios I Zeugolis
Extracted forms of collagen are subjected to chemical cross-linking to enhance their stability. However, traditional cross-linking approaches are associated with toxicity and inflammation. This work investigates the stabilization capacity, cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of collagen scaffolds cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GTA), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide, 4-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG) succinimidyl glutarate (4SP), genipin (GEN), and oleuropein. Although all cross-linking methods reduced free amine groups, variable data were obtained with respect to denaturation temperature, resistance to collagenase digestion, and mechanical properties...
February 6, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Hannah B Baker, Juliana A Passipieri, Mevan Siriwardane, Mary Ellenburg, Manasi Vadhavkar, Christopher R Bergman, Justin M Saul, Seth Tomblyn, Luke Burnett, George Joseph Christ
Wounds to the head, neck and extremities have been estimated to account for ~84% of reported combat injuries to military personnel. Volumetric muscle loss (VML), defined as skeletal muscle injuries in which tissue loss results in permanent functional impairment, are common among these injuries. The present standard of care entails the use of muscle flap transfers, which suffer from the need for additional surgery when using autografts or the risk of rejection when cadaveric grafts are used. Tissue engineering (TE) strategies for skeletal muscle repair have been investigated as a means to overcome current therapeutic limitations...
February 4, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Le Q Bach, Aliaksei Vasilevich, Steven Vermeulen, Frits Hulshof, Dimitrios Stamatialis, Clemens van Blitterswijk, Jan de Boer
Chemical and mechanical cues are well-established influencers of the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Here, we investigate the role of topographical cues in this differentiation process. Previously using a library of surface micro-topographies, we found some distinct patterns that induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production in human mesenchymal stromal cells. ALP is also a marker for hypertrophy, the end stage of chondrogenic differentiation. Thus, we hypothesized that these patterns could influence chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells...
February 3, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Fernanda V Berti, Pathomthat Srisuk, Lucilia da Silva, Alexandra P Marques, Rui L Reis, Vitor Manuel Correlo
Advances on materials' research for tissue engineering applications have shown that cells respond directly to physical, chemical, mechanical and electrical stimuli altering a variety of signaling cascades which consequently result in phenotypic and genotypic alterations. Gellan gum (GG) spongy-like hydrogels (SLH) open microstructure, mechanical properties, and cell performance have shown promising results for soft tissue engineering applications. Taking advantage of GG-SLH intrinsic properties and polypyrrole (PPy) electroactivity, we developed electroactive PPy-GG spongy-like hydrogels envisaging their potential use for skeletal muscle tissue engineering...
February 3, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Xue-Dong Bai, Xiao-Chuan Li, Jia-Hai Chen, Zi-Ming Guo, Li-Sheng Hou, De-Li Wang, Qing He, Di-Ke Ruan
Recent studies suggested that notochordal cells (NCs) and NC conditioned medium (NCCM) can stimulate cell viability and matrix production of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). However, the potential of notochordal cell-rich nucleus pulposus (NRNP) incorporating the native environment of the intervertebral disc has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to develop an optimal NRNP model and test whether it can allow a significant level of NPC activation in vitro. Rabbit NRNP explants were divided into three groups according to different digestion time: digestion NRNP of 8 hours, partial digestion NRNP of 2 hours, and natural NRNP ...
February 1, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Chanel Beaudoin Cloutier, Benjamin Goyer, Cindy Perron, Rina Guignard, Danielle Larouche, Véronique J Moulin, Lucie Germain, Robert Gauvin, François A Auger
As time to final coverage is the essence for better survival outcome in severely burned patients, we have continuously strived to reduce the duration for the preparation of our bilayered self-assembled skin substitutes (SASS). These SASS produced in vitro by the self-assembly approach have a structure and functionality very similar to native skin. Recently, we have shown that a decellularized dermal matrix preproduced by the self-assembly approach could be used as a template to further obtain self-assembled skin substitute using a decellularized dermal template (SASS-DM) in vitro...
February 1, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Stephen Harrington, S Janette Williams, Sonia Rawal, Karthik Ramachandran, Lisa Stehno-Bittel
Alginate has long been the material of choice for immunoprotection of islets for its low cost and ability to easily form microspheres. Unfortunately, this seaweed-derived material is notoriously prone to fibrotic overgrowth in vivo, resulting in premature graft failure. The purpose of this study was to test an alternative, hyaluronic acid (HA-COL), for in vitro function, viability and allogeneic islet transplant outcomes in diabetic rats. In vitro studies indicated that the HA-COL gel had diffusion characteristics that would allow small molecules like glucose and insulin to enter and exit the gel, while larger molecules (70 and 500kD dextrans) were impeded from diffusing past the gel edge in 24 hours...
January 31, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Peter Luke Santa Maria, Peter Gotlieb, Chloe Santa Maria, Sunil Puria, Sungwoo Kim, Yunzhi Peter Yang
We aim to demonstrate that regeneration of chronic tympanic perforations with heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF) delivered by an injectable hydrogel restored hearing to levels similar to that of non-perforated tympanic membranes. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is currently managed as an outpatient surgery with tympanoplasty. Due to the costs of this procedure in the developed world and a lack of accessibility and resources in the developing countries, there is a great need for a new treatment that does not require surgery...
January 31, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Annika Weigand, Justus P Beier, Rafael Schmid, Tobias Knorr, David Kilian, Rebekka Götzl, Thomas Gerber, Raymund E Horch, Anja M Boos
For decades, researchers have been developing a range of promising strategies in bone tissue engineering with the aim of producing a significant clinical benefit over existing therapies. However, a major problem concerns the traditional use of xenogeneic substances for the expansion of cells, which complicates direct clinical transfer. The study's aim was to establish a totally autologous sheep model as a basis for further preclinical studies and future clinical application. Ovine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were cultivated in different concentrations (0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, and 25%) of either autologous serum (AS) or fetal calf serum (FCS)...
January 30, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Davide Barbieri, Huipin Yuan, Ali Ismailoğlu, Joost de Bruijn
There is a continuing search for novel synthetic materials as an alternative to autologous bone grafting. Different technologies are explored to promote bone formation, which include the addition of BioGlassTM particles in calcium phosphate (CaP) based materials and the use of surface modification in the form of submicron surface topographies. In this work we aimed at comparing the bone formation in a non-instrumented canine interspinous (IS) model of moldable formulations of a submicron surface structured tricalcium phosphate/alkylene oxide (CaP/AOC) or a tricalcium phosphate/BioGlassTM/collagen (CaP/BG/C) bone graft material...
January 28, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Jinkyu Lee, Sajeesh Kumar Madhurakkat Perikamana, Taufiq Ahmad, Min Suk Lee, Hee Seok Yang, Do-Gyoon Kim, Kyobum Kim, Bosun Kwon, Heungsoo Shin
Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been frequently used to stimulate bone formation, it has several side effects to be addressed, including the difficulty in optimization of clinically relevant doses and unwanted induction of cancerous signaling processes. In this study, an osteogenic peptide (OP) derived from BMP-2 was investigated as a substitute for BMP-2. In vitro studies showed that OP was able to enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)...
January 27, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Mizuki Nagata, Kengo Iwasaki, Keiko Akazawa, Motohiro Komaki, Naoki Yokoyama, Yuichi Izumi, Ikuo Morita
Periodontal disease is one of the most common infectious diseases in adults and is characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) comprise the mesoderm-originating stem cell population, which has been studied and used for cell therapy. However, because of the lower rate of cell survival after MSC transplantation in various disease models, paracrine functions of MSCs have been receiving increased attention as a regenerative mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of transplanted conditioned medium (CM) obtained from cultured periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), the adult stem cell population in tooth-supporting tissues, using a rat periodontal defect model...
January 27, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Aref Shahini, Panagiotis Mistriotis, Mohammadnabi Asmani, Ruogang Zhao, Stelios T Andreadis
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively used in the field of tissue engineering as a source of smooth muscle cells (SMC). However, recent studies showed deficits in the contractile function of SMC derived from senescent MSC and there are no available strategies to restore the contractile function that is impaired due to cellular or organismal senescence. Here we developed a tetracycline regulatable system and employed micropost tissue arrays to evaluate the effects of the embryonic transcription factor, NANOG on the contractility of senescent MSC...
January 26, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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