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Tissue Engineering. Part A

David Josh Cohen, Sharon L Hyzy, Salma Haque, Lucas C Olson, Barbara Boyan, Justin M Saul, Zvi Schwartz
Keratin proteins derived from human hair are known to contain a large number of cysteine residues. In hydrogels composed of oxidatively extracted keratin (keratose), sulfonic acid on the cysteine residues prevents disulfide crosslinking. Reductively extracted keratin (kerateine) has thiol groups on cysteine residues that can form disulfide crosslinks. The rates of keratin hydrogel erosion and, in some cases, drug release can be tuned by manipulating disulfide crosslinking levels via the keratose:kerateine (KOS:KTN) ratio...
June 15, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Hui-Yi Hsiao, Chin-Yu Yang, Jia-Wei Liu, Eric M Brey, Ming-Huei Cheng
Periosteal osteogenic capacity can be exploited to enhance bone formation in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Despite this importance, there have been no studies examining the composition, structure and osteogenic capacity of periostea from different bone sources. In this study, structure and osteogenic factor content were compared among periostea from calvarial, rib, femoral and tibial bone, in which the native bones of these four regions were harvested and subjected to histological analysis...
June 14, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Stuart Young, Lauren Elizabeth Flynn, Brian G Amsden
Injectable hydrogels have the potential to enhance stem cell-based therapies by improving cell localization, retention, and survival following transplantation. The inflammatory response to both the hydrogel and the encapsulated cells is a critical aspect of this strategy, with macrophages being highly involved in the process of hydrogel remodelling, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration. As a step towards the development of a cell-based strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis, the current work compared the intramuscular injection of allogeneic rat adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (rASCs) in an in situ-gelling hydrogel to the injection of the hydrogel alone and rASCs in saline in an immunocompetent rat model by immunohistochemical analysis over 4 weeks...
June 8, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Anita Sanghani, Liza Osagie-Clouard, Sorousheh Samizadeh, Melanie Jean Coathup, Priya Kalia, Lucy DiSilvio, Gordon Blunn
Osteoporosis is characterised by reduced bone mass and aberrant bone micro-architecture; thus increasing susceptibility to fracture due to reduced strength and quality. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of CXCR4 transfected on stem cell homing and osteogenic characteristics in osteopenic rats; particularly elucidating the effect on cell migration. METHODS: MSCs were harvested from young, adult and ovarectomized animals and transfected with CXCR4; these cells were administered intravenously in ovarectomized rats...
June 8, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Siddharth Patel, Avathamsa Athirasala, Paula P Menezes, N Ashwanikumar, Ting Zou, Gaurav Sahay, Luiz E Bertassoni
The ability to control cellular processes and precisely direct cellular reprogramming has revolutionized regenerative medicine. Recent advances in in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA technology with chemical modifications have led to development of methods that control spatiotemporal gene expression. Additionally, there is a current thrust toward the development of safe, integration-free approaches to gene therapy for translational purposes. In this review, we describe strategies of synthetic IVT mRNA modifications and nonviral technologies for intracellular delivery...
June 7, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Byeong-Wook Song, Hyunki Hong, Yu Jin Jung, Ju Hyung Lee, Bong Soo Kim, Hoon-Bum Lee
Cutaneous wounds can present significant clinical problems because of abnormal healing after deep dermal damage. Despite technical advances in wound care, there are still unmet needs that result from inefficient treatment. In this study, we aimed to improve skin wound healing using a contractibility band with static magnetic field (SMF), termed a magnetic band (Mb). To examine the effect of the Mb on wound healing, full-thickness 15 × 35 mm excision wounds were surgically created on the dorsum of rats...
June 7, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Anirudha Singh, David Lee, Harrison Jeong, Christine Yu, Jiuru Li, Chen Hao Fang, Praveena Sabnekar, Xiaopu Liu, Takahiro Yoshida, Nikolai Sopko, Trinity J Bivalacqua
Decellularized tissues have been increasingly popular for constructing scaffolds for tissue engineering applications due to their beneficial biological compositions and mechanical properties. It is therefore natural to consider decellularized trachea for construction of tissue-engineered trachea, as well as other tubular organs. A Neo-Urinary Conduit (NUC) is such a tubular organ that works as a passage for urine removal in bladder cancer patients who need a urinary diversion after their diseased bladder is removed...
June 4, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Michael D House, Jeannie Kelly, Nikolai Klebanov, Kyoko Yoshida, Kristin Myers, David L Kaplan
Preterm birth is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns. Babies born premature are at increased risk of lifelong health problems including neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Cervical shortening precedes preterm birth in many women. Cervical shortening is caused, in part, by excessive softening of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the cervical stroma. In clinical obstetrics, cervical shortening prompts treatment with supplemental progesterone to prevent preterm birth. However, progesterone-mediated effects on the cervical ECM are not well understood...
June 1, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Aurimas Sirka, Deepak Bushan Raina, Hanna Isaksson, K Elizabeth Tanner, Alfredas Smailys, Ashok Kumar, Sarunas Tarasevicius, Magnus Tägil, Lars Lidgren
We investigated bone regeneration in the femoral neck canal of osteoporotic rats using a novel animal model. We used a calcium sulphate (CS)/ Hydroxyapatite (HA) carrier to locally deliver a bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA), with or without added recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats of 28 weeks age were used. A 1 mm diameter and 8 mm long defect was created in the femoral neck by drilling from the lateral cortex in the axis of the femoral neck leaving the surrounding cortex intact...
June 1, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Josephine Lembong, Max J Lerman, Tami J Kingsbury, Curt I Civin, John P Fisher
Stem cell cultures within perfusion bioreactors, while efficient in obtaining cell numbers, often lack the similarity to native tissues and consequently cell phenotype. We develop a three-dimensional (3D)-printed fluidic chamber for dynamic stem cell culture, with emphasis on control over flow and substrate curvature in a 3D environment, two physiologic features of native tissues. The chamber geometry, consisting of an array of vertical cylindrical pillars, facilitates actin-mediated localization of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) within ~200 µm distance from the pillars, enabling spatial patterning of hMSCs and endothelial cells (ECs) in cocultures and subsequent modulation of calcium signaling between these two essential cell types in the bone marrow microenvironment...
May 30, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Bart Versteeg, Lenie J van den Broek, Sylvia Bruisten, Margriet Mullender, Henry J C de Vries, Susan Gibbs
Organotypic models to investigate host-microbiome interactions are still a challenge for the field of tissue engineering. This is particularly the case for organs such as the urethra. Several cell line, animal and tissue models are available to study C. trachomatis infections, but none fully reflect natural infection in native human tissue. Therefore, we developed an organotypic reconstructed human urethral model (RhU) to study invasive and non-invasive strains of C. trachomatis. Primary urethra cells were used to reconstruct epithelium on a fibroblast populated collagen-fibrin hydrogel, yielding a RhU...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Minwook Kim, Isaac E Erickson, Alice H Huang, Sean T Garrity, Robert L Mauck, David R Steinberg
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell type for cartilage repair that can undergo chondrogenesis in a variety of three dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels provide a biologically relevant interface for cell encapsulation. While our previous studies have shown that MSC-laden HA constructs can mature in vitro to match native mechanical properties using cells from animal sources, clinical application will depend on the successful translation of these findings to human cells...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Antonio Santisteban-Espejo, Fernando Campos, Laura Martin-Piedra, Daniel Durand-Herrera, Jose Antonio Moral-Munoz, Antonio Campos, Miguel Angel Martin-Piedra
Tissue engineering (TE) is defined as a multidisciplinary scientific discipline with the main objective to develop artificial bioengineered living tissues to regenerate damaged or lost tissues. Since its appearance in 1988, TE has globally spread to improve current therapeutic approaches, entailing a revolution in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to analyze global research trends on TE publications to realize the scenario of TE research from 1991 to 2016 by using document retrieval from Web of Science database and bibliometric analysis...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Renu Mohan, Neethu Mohan, Dhanesh Vaikkath
Tissue equivalent collagen-hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels are widely used for cartilage tissue engineering; however, not much importance has been given to investigate how cellular responses are altered with varying concentrations of hyaluronic acid in gels. In this study, different concentrations of hyaluronic acid dialdehyde (HAD) were combined with collagen to fabricate collagen-HAD composite (CH) gels, and the influence of HAD on cell shape, migration, viability, cytoskeletal organization, and gel contraction was examined...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Elmar Herbst, Florian B Imhoff, Peter Foehr, Stefan Milz, Christian Plank, Carsten Rudolph, Günther Hasenpusch, Johannes P Geiger, Manish K Aneja, Karoline Groth, Stephan Vogt, Andreas B Imhoff, Andreas Schmitt
Different regenerative medicine approaches for tendon healing exist. Recently, especially gene therapy gained popularity. However, potential mutagenic and immunologic effects might prevent its translation to clinical research. Chemically modified mRNA (cmRNA) might bypass these limitations of gene therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the early healing properties of Achilles tendon defects in rats treated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) cmRNA. Forty male Lewis rats were used for the study and randomly assigned to two study groups: (1) treatment with cmRNA coding for bFGF and (2) noncoding cmRNA control...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Jonathan D Kenyon, Olga Sergeeva, Rodrigo A Somoza, Ming Li, Arnold I Caplan, Ahmad M Khalil, Zhenghong Lee
The chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is mediated by transcription factors and small noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Each miRNA is initially transcribed as a long transcript, which matures to produce -5p and -3p strands. It is widely believed that the mature and functional miRNA from any given pre-miRNA, usually the -5p strand, is functional, while the opposing -3p strand is degraded. However, recent cartilage literature started to show functional -3p strands for a few miRNAs...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Bo Li, Changshun Ruan, Yufei Ma, Zhifeng Huang, Zhenfei Huang, Gang Zhou, Jing Zhang, Hai Wang, Zhihong Wu, Guixing Qiu
It is a common treatment strategy in the clinic to transplant a vascularized bone flap for a large bone defect. But it is difficult for peripheral blood vessels to grow into the central region of a large bone construct. In this study, we fabricated a vascularized bone flap from a three-dimensional (3D)-printed biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold using the combination of an arteriovenous (AV) bundle and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)...
May 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Marta Baroncelli, Bram C J van der Eerden, Siddharth Chatterji, Enrique Rull Trinidad, Yik Y Kan, Marijke Koedam, Ingmar A J van Hengel, Rodrigo D A M Alves, Lidy E Fratila-Apachitei, Jeroen A A Demmers, Jeroen van de Peppel, Johannes P T M van Leeuwen
Efficient osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is crucial to accelerate bone formation. In this context, the use of extracellular matrix (ECM) as natural 3D framework mimicking in vivo tissue architecture is of interest. The aim of this study was to generate a devitalized human osteogenic MSC-derived ECM and to investigate its impact on MSC osteogenic differentiation to improve MSC properties in bone regeneration. The devitalized ECM significantly enhanced MSC adhesion and proliferation...
May 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Chenjun Zhai, Hao Fei, Junzheng Hu, Zhen Wang, Shun Xu, Qiang Zuo, Zeng Li, Zhen Wang, Wenwei Liang, Weimin Fan
Repair of articular cartilage defects using bilayered scaffolds is problematic because tissue-engineered cartilage is prone to overgrowth toward subchondral bone resulting in structural abnormalities of cartilage and subchondral bone. A "twice freeze-drying" technique was used to construct a dense isolation layer between the cartilage and subchondral bone layers in an integrated bilayered scaffold to prevent cartilage from excessive downgrowth. Briefly, beta-tricalcium phosphate was used for the subchondral bone layer of the scaffold, high-concentration chitosan/gelatin solution for the dense isolation layer, and low-concentration chitosan/gelatin solution for the cartilage layer...
May 19, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Loek Loozen, Moyo C Kruyt, Angela Vandersteen, Angela H M Kragten, Michiel Croes, F Cumhur Oner, Jacqueline Alblas
Ex vivo non-viral gene delivery of bone-inductive factors has the potential to heal bone defects. Due to their inherent role in new bone formation, multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) have been studied as the primary target cell for gene delivery in a preclinical setting. The relative contribution of autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, and the need of osteogenic cells, remains unclear. This study investigates the contribution of MSCs as producer of transgenic BMPs and to what extent the seeded MSCs participate in actual osteogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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