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Brain Stimulation

Mohaddeseh Hafez Yosephi, Fatemeh Ehsani, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
BACKGROUND: Postural control impairment is a key target for rehabilitation of older adults with high fall risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over primary motor cortex (M1) or cerebellum can enhance the positive effects of postural training on balance and postural stability in older adults with high fall risk. METHOD: In this randomised, double-blinded sham-controlled study, 65 participants were randomly assigned into five groups; M1 a-tDCS with postural training, bilateral cerebellar a-tDCS with postural training, sham a-tDCS with postural training, postural training alone and cerebellar a-tDCS alone...
July 14, 2018: Brain Stimulation
L Perez-Caballero, M L Soto-Montenegro, M Hidalgo-Figueroa, J A Mico, M Desco, E Berrocoso
BACKGROUND: An initial antidepressant effect when using deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal area of the cingulate cortex (Cg25) to treat resistant depression that could be the result of electrode insertion has been described. We previously showed that electrode insertion into the infralimbic cortex (ILC; the Cg25 rodent correlate) provokes a temporally limited antidepressant-like effect that is counteracted by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as those routinely used for pain relief...
July 9, 2018: Brain Stimulation
J Buday, J Albrecht, T Mares, J Raboch, M Anders
A brief period of aphasia is an extremely rare and likely underreported adverse effect of electroconvulsive therapy. Clinical studies that have described this phenomenon are scarce and its prevalence is unknown. We present a unique case of a 35-year old woman, who underwent an outpatient ECT session at our department, followed by a short span of aphasic symptoms, the extent of which were monitored clinically and via the czech version of the Minnesota aphasia screening test.
June 20, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Miriam Thies, Christoph Zrenner, Ulf Ziemann, Til Ole Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Alpha (8-14 Hz) oscillatory power is linked to cortical excitability and corresponding modulations of sensory evoked potentials and perceptual detection performance. In somatosensory cortex (S1), negative linear and inverted U-shape relationships exist, whereas its effect on the primary motor cortex (M1) is hardly known. OBJECTIVE: We used real-time EEG-triggered transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of M1 to characterize the relationship between spontaneous sensorimotor mu-alpha power fluctuations at rest and corticospinal excitability...
June 19, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Aron T Hill, Nigel C Rogasch, Paul B Fitzgerald, Kate E Hoy
BACKGROUND: Previous research has typically focussed on the neuromodulatory effects of direct currents applied over single regions of the cortex. However, complex processes such as working memory (WM) strongly rely on activations across a wider neural network and therefore might benefit from stimulation administered over multiple cortical targets. OBJECTIVE: We examined the neurobiological and cognitive effects of High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) montages that either targeted the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) alone, or simultaneously stimulated the DLPFC and parietal cortex (DLPFC + PC)...
June 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Pedro Caldana Gordon, Christoph Zrenner, Debora Desideri, Paolo Belardinelli, Brigitte Zrenner, André Russowsky Brunoni, Ulf Ziemann
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique with potential for cost-effective therapeutic neuromodulation. Although positive therapeutic effects were found by stimulating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), few studies have investigated physiological effects of DLPFC-tDCS. OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects of tDCS with different parameter settings applied to the left DLPFC on cortical responses, measured by resting-state electroencephalography (rs-EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked/induced EEG responses...
June 16, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Chih-Wei Hsu, Liang-Jen Wang, Pao-Yen Lin
BACKGROUND: While previous studies have investigated the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treating Tourette syndrome (TS), the results remain inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We aim to systematically review the existing literature related to the efficacy of rTMS in TS and synthesize the results through meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched for PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and databases without language restriction through January 1, 2018, and included randomized-controlled and open-label trials that assessed the treatment effect of rTMS for tic symptoms...
June 5, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Mauro Pettorruso, Primavera Alessandra Spagnolo, Lorenzo Leggio, Luigi Janiri, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Luigi Gallimberti, Antonello Bonci, Giovanni Martinotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Fabiola Paciello, Maria Vittoria Podda, Rolando Rolesi, Sara Cocco, Laura Petrosini, Diana Troiani, Anna Rita Fetoni, Gaetano Paludetti, Claudio Grassi
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool capable to modulate cortical functions by affecting neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated the effects of anodal tDCS on auditory cortex (ACx) in normal-hearing rats and following a paradigm of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), that causes morphological alterations in ACx pyramidal neurons. METHODS: Male rats exposed to intense pure tone (10 kHz) were subsequently subjected to unilateral anodal tDCS of ACx and changes in dendritic morphology and spines were assessed by Golgi-Cox staining 30 days after the onset of the acoustic trauma...
May 31, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Zhaoyang Huang, Yue Li, Matt T Bianchi, Shuqin Zhan, Fengying Jiang, Ning Li, Yan Ding, Yue Hou, Li Wang, Quping Ouyang, Yuping Wang
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been considered to be a promising technique for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the effectiveness of rTMS in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Moreover, treatment data on comorbid GAD and insomnia remain lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of 1 Hz rTMS applied over the right parietal lobe on both anxiety and insomnia symptoms in patients with comorbid GAD and insomnia...
May 29, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Forough Habibollahi Saatlou, Nigel C Rogasch, Nicolas A McNair, Mana Biabani, Steven D Pillen, Tom R Marshall, Til O Bergmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Carla Piano, Alfonso Fasano, Antonio Daniele, Daniela Di Giuda, Marco Ciavarro, Tommaso Tufo, Massimiliano Zinno, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Beatrice Cioni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Kumiko Eguchi, Tomohiko Shindo, Kenta Ito, Tsuyoshi Ogata, Ryo Kurosawa, Yuta Kagaya, Yuto Monma, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Sachie Kasukabe, Satoshi Miyata, Takeo Yoshikawa, Kazuhiko Yanai, Hirofumi Taki, Hiroshi Kanai, Noriko Osumi, Hiroaki Shimokawa
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic focused-ultrasound to the hippocampus has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on dementia. In the present study, we examined whether the whole-brain LIPUS (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound) therapy is effective and safe in 2 mouse models of dementia (vascular dementia, VaD and Alzheimer's disease, AD), and if so, to elucidate the common underlying mechanism(s) involved. METHODS: We used bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model with micro-coils in male C57BL/6 mice as a VaD model and 5XFAD transgenic mice as an AD model...
May 22, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Saxby Pridmore, Sheila Erger, Marzena Rybak, Erin Kelly, Tamara May
BACKGROUND: There is interest in using TMS to keep patients with severe relapsing depression as well as possible, once remission has been achieved. This has been conceptualized as 'maintaining' the remission. One protocol employs series of 5 TMS sessions over 3 or 5 days, at about monthly intervals. We have suggested this practice is better conceptualized as early relapse (ER) TMS. AIM: To determine whether 5 TMS sessions at about monthly intervals are effective in keeping patients relatively well, and whether the concept of ER-TMS can be supported...
May 22, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Raphaëlle Richieri, Antoine Verger, Laurent Boyer, Mohamed Boucekine, Anthony David, Christophe Lançon, Michel Cermolacce, Eric Guedj
BACKGROUND: Previous clinical trials have suggested that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has a significant antidepressant effect in patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD). However, results remain heterogeneous with many patients without effective response. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this SPECT study was to determine before treatment the predictive value of the connectivity of the stimulated area on further rTMS response in patients with TRD...
May 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Karen M Ryan, Ross Dunne, Declan M McLoughlin
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and the antidepressant response. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is reported to increase BDNF levels in blood, though only a small number of studies have been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to: 1) compare plasma BDNF levels in medicated patients with depression and controls; 2) assess the effect of ECT on plasma BDNF levels in medicated patients with depression; 3) explore the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and the Val66Met (rs6265) BDNF polymorphism; and 4) examine the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and clinical symptoms and outcomes with ECT...
May 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Yeowool Huh, Dahee Jung, Taeyoon Seo, Sukkyu Sun, Su Hyun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Sooyoung Chung, Chong-Hyun Kim, Youngwoo Kwon, Marom Bikson, Yong-An Chung, Jeansok J Kim, Jeiwon Cho
BACKGROUND: The bursting pattern of thalamocortical (TC) pathway dampens nociception. Whether brain stimulation mimicking endogenous patterns can engage similar sensory gating processes in the cortex and reduce nociceptive behaviors remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of cortical parvalbumin expressing (PV) interneurons within the TC circuit in gating nociception and their selective response to TC burst patterns. We then tested if transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) patterned on endogenous nociceptive TC bursting modulate nociceptive behaviors...
May 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Gunnar Lennart Quass, Simone Kurt, K Jannis Hildebrandt, Andrej Kral
BACKGROUND: Auditory midbrain implant users cannot achieve open speech perception and have limited frequency resolution. It remains unclear whether the spread of excitation contributes to this issue and how much it can be compensated by current-focusing, which is an effective approach in cochlear implants. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the spread of excitation in the cortex elicited by electric midbrain stimulation. We further tested whether current-focusing via bipolar and tripolar stimulation is effective with electric midbrain stimulation and whether these modes hold any advantage over monopolar stimulation also in conditions when the stimulation electrodes are in direct contact with the target tissue...
May 17, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Ross W Anderson, AmirAli Farokhniaee, Kabilar Gunalan, Bryan Howell, Cameron C McIntyre
BACKGROUND: High frequency (∼130 Hz) deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic region is an established clinical therapy for the treatment of late stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Direct modulation of the hyperdirect pathway, defined as cortical layer V pyramidal neurons that send an axon collateral to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), has emerged as a possible component of the therapeutic mechanisms. However, numerous questions remain to be addressed on the basic biophysics of hyperdirect pathway stimulation...
May 12, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Karen L Bunday, M A Urbin, Monica A Perez
BACKGROUND: Paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS) increases corticospinal transmission in humans with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Here, we examine whether increases in the excitability of spinal motoneurons, by performing voluntary activity, could potentiate PCMS effects on corticospinal transmission. METHODS: During PCMS, we used 100 pairs of stimuli where corticospinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand representation of the primary motor cortex were timed to arrive at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle ∼1-2 ms before antidromic potentials were elicited in motoneurons by electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve...
May 9, 2018: Brain Stimulation
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