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Brain Stimulation

Philippe De Vloo, Dietmar Thal, Kris van Kuyck, Bart Nuttin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Martin Schecklmann, Carmen Weidler, Peter Eichhammer, Göran Hajak, Berthold Langguth
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with changes in inhibitory and facilitatory brain networks which can be assessed by motor cortex excitability. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigate differences between large cross-sectional samples of un-medicated and medicated patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls in single- and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters. METHODS: We measured right abductor digiti minimi muscle activity in 71 un-medicated, 43 medicated patients and 131 healthy controls...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Jana Wörsching, Frank Padberg, Stephan Goerigk, Irmgard Heinz, Christine Bauer, Christian Plewnia, Alkomiet Hasan, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Daniel Keeser
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been widely applied in cognitive neurosciences and advocated as a therapeutic intervention, e.g. in major depressive disorder. Although several targets and protocols have been suggested, comparative studies of tDCS parameters, particularly electrode montages and their cortical targets, are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a priori hypotheses on specific effects of prefrontal-tDCS montages by using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy participants...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Krista Wisner, Peter Kochunov, Fow-Sen Choa, L Elliot Hong
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that synchronized electrical activities in the brain are regulated by the primary inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. Identifying direct evidence that this same basic chemical-electrical neuroscience principle operates in the human brains is critical for translation of neuroscience to pathological research. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that the background neurochemical concentrations may affect the cortical excitability probed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Géraldine Martens, Nicolas Lejeune, Anthony Terrence O'Brien, Felipe Fregni, Charlotte Martial, Sarah Wannez, Steven Laureys, Aurore Thibaut
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic disorders of consciousness face a significant lack of treatment options. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating the feasibility and the behavioral effects of home-based transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied by relatives or caregivers, in chronic patients in minimally conscious state (MCS). METHODS: Each participant received, in a randomized order, 20 sessions of active and 20 sessions of sham tDCS applied over the prefrontal cortex for 4 weeks; separated by 8 weeks of washout...
May 2, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Stephanie Tran, Mahsa Shafiee, Christina B Jones, Saurabh Garg, Soojin Lee, Elizabeth P Pasman, Mark G Carpenter, Martin J McKeown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Alexia-Sabine Moldovan, Christian Johannes Hartmann, Carlos Trenado, Nicola Meumertzheim, Philipp Jörg Slotty, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Stefan Jun Groiss
BACKGROUND: Shorter pulse widths than conventional pulse width settings may lead to reduction of side effects and therefore be a valuable therapeutic option for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with essential tremor (ET). OBJECTIVE: To compare the DBS effect of shorter pulse width at 40 μs (DBS-40 μs) to conventional pulse width at 60 μs (DBS-60 μs) on the therapeutic window in ET patients. METHODS: For this prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study 9 ET patients with chronic DBS of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM)/posterior subthalamic area (PSA) were recruited...
April 26, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Samer Mohsen, Saeid Mahmoudian, Saeed Talebian, Akram Pourbakht
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Brain Stimulation
E P Casula, L Rocchi, R Hannah, J C Rothwell
BACKGROUND: the influence of pulse width, pulse waveform and current direction on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) outcomes is of critical importance. However, their effects have only been investigated indirectly with motor-evoked potentials (MEP). By combining TMS and EEG it is possible to examine how these factors affect evoked activity from the cortex and compare that with the effects on MEP. OBJECTIVE: we used a new controllable TMS device (cTMS) to vary systematically pulse width, pulse waveform and current direction and explore their effects on global and local TMS-evoked EEG response...
April 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Paul B Fitzgerald, Rebecca Segrave, Karyn E Richardson, Laura A Knox, Sally Herring, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Richard G Bittar
BACKGROUND: Studies are increasingly investigating the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied to a variety of brain regions in the treatment of patients with highly treatment refractory depression. Limited research to date has investigated the therapeutic potential of DBS applied to the Bed Nucleus Of Stria Terminalis (BNST). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic potential of DBS applied to the BNST. METHOD: Five patients with highly treatment resistant depression underwent DBS to the BNST in an open label case series design...
April 23, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Carina França, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Rubens Gisbert Cury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Cheng-Ta Li, Mu-Hong Chen, Chi-Hung Juan, Ren-Shyan Liu, Wei-Chen Lin, Ya-Mei Bai, Tung-Ping Su
BACKGROUND: Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) can quickly modulate brain activity and can be used to treat treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Whole-brain analytical research has revealed that left high-frequency PFC rTMS modulates brain activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the fronto-cingulo-temporal circuit. We aimed to investigate whether the prefrontal TBS's antidepressant mechanisms involve these regions. METHODS: We designed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled neuroimaging study to investigate different mechanisms of TBS [i...
April 23, 2018: Brain Stimulation
William F Stubbeman, Bijan Zarrabi, Silvia Bastea, Victoria Ragland, Raya Khairkhah
BACKGROUND: Current medication and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatments for depression bring only approximately one-third of patients to remission. Newer TMS techniques such as bilateral treatment, neuronavigation, and theta burst stimulation (TBS) show promise in improving remission rates. However, it is unclear whether newer off-label techniques improve outcomes enough to justify widespread implementation. METHODS: An IRB approved retrospective chart review examined 58 primarily treatment-resistant (79%) depressed patients who received bilateral neuronavigated TBS-20Hz in a private outpatient clinic...
April 21, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Jose Gomez-Tames, Atsushi Hamasaka, Ilkka Laakso, Akimasa Hirata, Yoshikazu Ugawa
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) activates target brain structures in a non-invasive manner. The optimal orientation of the TMS coil for the motor cortex is well known and can be estimated using motor evoked potentials. However, there are no easily measurable responses for activation of other cortical areas and the optimal orientation for these areas is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the electric field strength, optimal coil orientation, and relative locations to optimally stimulate the target cortex based on computed electric field distributions...
April 17, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Derrick Soh, Musleh Algarni, Agnes Wong, Andres M Lozano, Alfonso Fasano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Rick van der Vliet, Zeb D Jonker, Suzanne C Louwen, Marco Heuvelman, Linda de Vreede, Gerard M Ribbers, Chris I De Zeeuw, Opher Donchin, Ruud W Selles, Jos N van der Geest, Maarten A Frens
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation has been reported to enhance motor associative learning and motor adaptation, holding promise for clinical application in patients with movement disorders. However, behavioral benefits from cerebellar tDCS have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: Identifying determinants of treatment success is necessary. BDNF Val66Met is a candidate determinant, because the polymorphism is associated with motor skill learning and BDNF is thought to mediate tDCS effects...
April 11, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Yassine Bentefour, Mohamed Bennis, René Garcia, Saadia Ba-M'hamed
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated, in mice, that antidepressant treatment can prevent relapse of PTSD-like behaviors (avoidance, hyperarousal, and anxiety) through increased activation in the infralimbic cortex (IL) of the medial prefrontal cortex. OBJECTIVE: Here, we examined whether direct high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the IL, provoking its heightened activation (i.e., long-term potentiation, LTP), would also prevent the return of PTSD-like symptoms...
April 10, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Timo R Ten Brinke, Vincent J J Odekerken, Joke M Dijk, Pepijn van den Munckhof, P Rick Schuurman, Rob M A de Bie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Greta Vilidaite, Daniel H Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Bashar W Badran, Oliver J Mithoefer, Caroline E Summer, Nicholas T LaBate, Chloe E Glusman, Alan W Badran, William H DeVries, Philipp M Summers, Christopher W Austelle, Lisa M McTeague, Jeffrey J Borckardt, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Optimal parameters of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) are still undetermined. Given the vagus nerve's role in regulating heart rate (HR), it is important to determine safety and HR effects of various taVNS parameters. OBJECTIVE: We conducted two sequential trials to systematically test the effects of various taVNS parameters on HR. METHODS: 15 healthy individuals participated in the initial two-visit, crossover exploratory trial, receiving either tragus (active) or earlobe (control) stimulation each visit...
April 6, 2018: Brain Stimulation
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