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Topics in Companion Animal Medicine

Hariklia Mastora Dvm, Lysimachos G Papazoglou, Michail Patsikas, Glykeria Kirmanidou, Athanasios Donas
An 18-month-old domestic short hair male castrated cat presented with a history of fever of unknown origin of 1-year duration. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mixed echogenicity mass. Cytological examination of the fluid obtained through fine needle aspiration was consistent with a retroperitoneal abscess. The cat underwent a midline celiotomy and the abscess was opened, lavaged, and omentalized. Antibiotics were also administered. Two months after surgery, the cat represented with a fluctuant swelling in the right flank region at the lumbodorsal triangle...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Marzieh Rahimi Niyyat, Mohammad Azizzadeh, Javad Khoshnegah
Recent discoveries have shown that the chances of a dog developing a behavioral disorder may depend upon a number of factors including nutrition. The current pilot study was designed to provide an assessment of the efficacy of a dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, and zinc on some common behavioral disorders in a population of Iranian domestic dogs. In total, 48 dogs including 6 dogs without any behavior disorder (control group) and 42 dogs with at least 1 common behavioral disorder, namely excessive activity, inappropriate elimination, fearfulness, destructiveness, and aggression toward unfamiliar people and dogs (test group), were given daily oral dose of gelatin capsules of fish oil supplements containing 330 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 480 mg docosahexaenoic acid...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Elena T Contreras, Kristy L Dowers, Scott Moroff, Michael R Lappin
Persistent infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (AP) after treatment and immunosuppression has not been studied in dogs infected with AP after Ixodes scapularis infestation. This descriptive pilot study evaluated 6 laboratory-reared beagles that were persistently positive for AP antibodies after infestation with wild-caught I. scapularis. After 20 weeks, 3 of 6 dogs were administered doxycycline orally for 28 days, and all 6 dogs were then administered prednisolone at 2.2 mg/kg orally for 14 days. Blood was collected from all 6 dogs and evaluated by complete blood count, AP antibodies, and AP DNA at the beginning of the study and on Week 24 through Week 28...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Labrini V Athanasiou, Constantina N Tsokana, Dimitra Pardali, Katerina Adamama Moraitou
Histograms, which are an integral part of the automated complete blood count, are now available through most of the automatic hematology analyzers used in veterinary clinical practice. Data concerning the size and number of blood cells are graphically presented in histograms, and their variations are also illustrated. Important information that is not apparent from numerical results are sometimes provided by histograms. Histograms are also referred to as frequency distribution curves and are essentially graphs resulting from the placement of the sizes of cells on the x-axis and the number of cells on the y-axis...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Taylor Fiorini, Eric T Hostnik
Degenerative joint disease of the stifle is a common canine osseous pathology. Early degenerative changes may show mild mineral proliferation of periarticular margins with soft tissue, resulting in joint distension. If the joint is chronically unstable, osseous changes become more complex. Moderate to severe stifle degenerative disease then transitions to a combination of bony proliferation and resorption as subchondral cystic changes develop. The radiographic descriptions of moderate to severe degenerative disease overlap with those of subtle aggressive disease...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Genevieve M Forster, Jonathan Stockman, Noelle Noyes, Adam L Heuberger, Corey D Broeckling, Collin M Bantle, Elizabeth P Ryan
The aim of this study was to compare fecal microbiome, plasma, fecal and urine metabolomes, and serum biochemistry of adult companion dogs according to body condition scores. Blood, serum/plasma, urine, and fecal samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy, adult companion dogs of either normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), or obese dogs (OB). analyses included fecal microbiome analyses via 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon; sequencing, nontargeted plasma, fecal, and urine metabolomics using liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-mass; spectrometry, and serum biochemistry for each dog...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Valentina Stefanetti, Agnese Compagnone, Chiara Sordini, Fabrizio Passamonti, Elisa Rampacci, Livia Moscati, Maria Luisa Marenzoni
Abortion and neonatal mortality are events that can occur in breeding bitches and queens. It has been reported that up to 55% and 33% of these cases remain without a known cause, respectively, in canine and feline pregnancies. Unusual abortigenic and potentially zoonotic agents, including Coxiella burnetii and Leptospira spp., may be involved in these cases. C. burnetii is able to cause reproductive disorders in cattle, sheep and goats, and cases of abortion have been observed in dogs and cats. Moreover, several outbreaks of C...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Giorgia De Lorenzi, Karen Kamphuisen, Giuseppe Biscontini, Maria Pacciarini, Mariagrazia Zanoni, Andrea Luppi
Mycobacterium genavense infection was diagnosed in an adult ferret with ptosis of the left eye, a proliferative lesion of the conjunctiva of the nictitating membrane, conjunctival swelling, and tumefaction of the periorbital tissues with a watery ocular discharge and the presence of a retrobulbar mass. The diagnosis was based on characteristic cytology of the retrobulbar mass and left mandibular lymph node that revealed granulomatous inflammation. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed the presence of positive acid-fast bacilli in the cytoplasm of the macrophages...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Jiayou Liu, Jan Drexel, Blaine Andrews, Matt Eberts, Ed Breitschwerdt, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar
Vector-borne agents comprise medically important infections affecting dogs throughout much of the world. Sensitive detection of antibodies directed at tick-borne disease-causing organisms in dogs is diagnostically important for veterinarians, pets and their owners, and epidemiologically important for public health surveillance. The SNAP 4Dx Plus Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME) identifies antibodies to or infection with multiple tick-borne pathogens and canine heartworm antigen in a single assay...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Rafael Guerra, Ricardo Cabeças, Jesus Diaz, Tim Knott, Inês Freitas, Hugo Vilhena, Sofia Duarte
Cataracts are among the most common ocular diseases, and are a leading cause of vision loss in humans and dogs. Jack Russell Terriers (JRT) and Labrador Retrievers (LR) are among the most popular canine breeds in the United Kingdom, and also among the most affected by cataracts. This study aimed to analyze the clinical features and the surgical outcome of cataracts in JRT and LR in an ophthalmologic reference Veterinary Hospital in the United Kingdom. For that purpose, medical records from JRT and LR diagnosed with cataracts between January 2015 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Salvatore Alonge, Monica Melandri, Giulio Aiudi, Giovanni Michele Lacalandra
In last years, following the increased canine life expectancy and the rising attention pet-owners devote to their animals, several authors have carried on investigations concerning new techniques to early identify canine prostatic disorders that might affect the dog's quality of life. Prostatic disorders often have an asymptomatic onset and their early diagnosis is difficult: hence, they are usually identified at an advanced stage, only. Traditionally, the diagnosis of prostatic disorders is based on noninvasive tools, such as transrectal and abdominal palpation, seminal or prostatic fluid evaluation, and urinalysis and imaging...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
J C Alves, A Santos, B Lopes, P Jorge
The aim of this study was to determine if the use of auditory stimulation during early development stages of young puppies, using a variety of sounds such as music, radio talk shows, and ambient noise, that included car noises, sirens, and gunshots, could affect the results of early puppy testing of future police working dogs. Sixty-seven puppies at 7 weeks of age were submitted to a 9-situation test and their results analyzed. The sample comprised 34 males and 33 females, from 4 different breeds/crosses (27 German Shepherd Dog, 19 Belgian Malinois Shepherd Dog, 7 Dutch Shepherd Dog, and 14 animals of a cross of German Shepherd Dog with Belgian Malinois Shepherd Dog), representing 12 litters...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Brian Trumpatori, Karl C Maritato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Elena T Contreras, Deanna R Worley, Ross H Palmer, Felix M Duerr
Surgical management of postamputation orthopedic disease (PAOD) in canine amputees has rarely been documented, and no reports describing outcome of stifle surgery in canine amputees are available. The objective of this multisite retrospective case series was to describe cases and evaluate satisfaction with and outcome of postamputation orthopedic surgery in canine amputees. Data was obtained through medical records and owner survey responses; data included signalment, amputation cause, diagnosis, surgical treatment, timeframes, and outcome assessment...
September 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Lindsay Hochman
Laser therapy, or photobiomodulation, has rapidly grown in popularity in human and veterinary medicine. With a number of proposed indications and broad, sometimes anecdotal, use in practice, research interest has expanded aimed at providing scientific support. Recent studies have shown that laser therapy alters the inflammatory and immune response as well as promotes healing for a variety of tissue types. This review will cover the history of the modality, basic principles, proposed mechanisms of action, evidence-based clinical indications, and will guide the practitioner through its application in practice...
September 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Alicia K Nye, Jill K Luther
Urethral obstruction is a potentially fatal condition and in cases of recurrent obstruction or an identified cause that is refractory to medical management, a urethrostomy may be performed for definitive treatment. Perineal urethrostomy is the surgical creation of a permanent stoma in the wider pelvic urethra via anastomosis to the perineal skin. Diagnosis of the underlying cause of obstruction, proper perioperative treatment, and an understanding of the anatomy and surgical technique, are imperative to the success of this procedure...
September 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Denner Santos Dos Anjos, Paula Barbosa Costa, Larissa Fernandes Magalhães, Oscar Rodrigo Sierra, Sabryna Gouveia Calazans, Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves
A 12-year-old Rottweiler dog was presented with a history of prostration, weight loss and hyporexia for six months. Based on complete blood tests (hematological and biochemical analyses), bone marrow examination and imaging analysis, a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia was made. Treatment with hydroxyurea at a dosage of 18 mg/kg twice daily was not effective in controlling the high count of white blood cells. Furthermore, after 35 days of hydroxyurea treatment, the animal developed onycholysis, with sloughing of the claws of the left pelvic and left thoracic limbs and exposure of the distal phalanx...
September 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Yauheni Zhalniarovich, Andrzej Sobolewski, Grzegorz Waluś, Zbigniew Adamiak
The objective of this study is to describe a modified surgical technique for tibial tuberosity advancement with cranial fixation (TTA CF) in dogs with cranial cruciate insufficiency and to report long term clinical outcomes and complications. TTA CF was performed with a novel titanium implant. A description of the specific implant with guide, drill and saw guide, instrumentation, and template are provided, along with clinical outcomes, complications, owners' evaluation, and a 1-year postoperation follow-up...
September 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Zbigniew Adamiak, Andrzej Sobolewski, Grzegorz Walus, Yauheni Zhalniarovich, Joanna Glodek
This article presents a report of single-stage bilateral tibial tuberosity advancement for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in an English bulldog. The reconstruction was performed by a new surgical technique involving tibial tuberosity advancement and fixation with two cranially placed lag screws. The patient was able to ambulate normally at a walk without lameness four days postoperatively. Except for bruising of the surgical site, no complications were observed during a six-month follow-up period...
September 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Kenneth D Royal, M Katie Sheats, April A Kedrowicz
Health literacy and readability are important considerations for veterinary medicine, as veterinarians commonly distribute brochures, leaflets and info-graphics to explain health related issues to pet owners. Educational materials that are poorly comprehended by the intended audience could result in negative, unintended consequences. Thus, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA) have recommended readability levels for text on health information be targeted between the fourth and sixth grade levels to accommodate a highly diverse public...
June 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
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