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Topics in Companion Animal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451047/point-of-care-measurement-of-lactate
#1
REVIEW
Francesca Miranda Di Mauro, Gretchen Lee Schoeffler
Lactate is generated as a consequence of anaerobic glycolysis by all tissues of the body. Increased l-lactate, the isoform produced by most mammals, reflects increased anaerobic metabolism secondary to tissue hypoperfusion or tissue hypoxia in most clinical situations, and is called type A lactic acidosis. The utility of lactate measurement and serial lactate monitoring in veterinary patients has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Blood lactate concentration is significantly elevated in many disease processes including septic peritonitis, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, Babesiosis, trauma, gastric dilation and volvulus, and intracranial disease...
March 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451046/blood-gas-analyzers
#2
REVIEW
Anthony L Gonzalez, Lori S Waddell
Acid-base and respiratory disturbances are common in sick and hospitalized veterinary patients; therefore, blood gas analyzers have become integral diagnostic and monitoring tools. This article will discuss uses of blood gas analyzers, types of samples that can be used, sample collection methods, potential sources of error, and potential alternatives to blood gas analyzers and their limitations. It will also discuss the types of analyzers that are available, logistical considerations that should be taken into account when purchasing an analyzer, and the basic principles of how these analyzers work...
March 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451045/point-of-care-glucose-and-ketone-monitoring
#3
REVIEW
Siew Kim Chong, Erica L Reineke
Early and rapid identification of hypo- and hyperglycemia as well as ketosis is essential for the practicing veterinarian as these conditions can be life threatening and require emergent treatment. Point-of-care testing for both glucose and ketone is available for clinical use and it is important for the veterinarian to understand the limitations and potential sources of error with these tests. This article discusses the devices used to monitor blood glucose including portable blood glucose meters, point-of-care blood gas analyzers and continuous glucose monitoring systems...
March 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451044/point-of-care-assessment-of-coagulation
#4
REVIEW
Clare E Hyatt, Benjamin M Brainard
Disorders of hemostasis can be difficult to fully elucidate but can severely affect patient outcome. The optimal therapy for coagulopathies is also not always clear. Point of care (POC) testing in veterinary medicine can assist in the diagnosis of hemostatic disorders and also direct treatment. Advantages of POC testing include rapid turnaround times, ease of use, and proximity to the patient. Disadvantages include differences in analytic performance compared with reference laboratory devices, the potential for operator error, and limited test options per device...
March 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451043/quality-assurance-and-quality-control-in-point-of-care-testing
#5
REVIEW
Ashleigh W Newman, Erica Behling-Kelly
With advancements in the standard of care in veterinary medicine and instrument technology, performing in-house laboratory work on a variety of point-of-care instruments, ranging from glucometers to benchtop chemistry analyzers, has become increasingly commonplace. However, the ability of an instrument to perform a test does not guarantee that those results are accurate. Ensuring that your in-clinic laboratory is providing reliable data requires a comprehensive plan that encompasses both common sense practices aimed at preventing errors at each stage of the testing process, as well as standard operating procedures to validate and monitor analyzer performance...
March 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451042/point-of-care-testing-in-small-animal-practice-opportunities-and-challenges
#6
EDITORIAL
Daniel J Fletcher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154598/melanocytic-ophthalmic-neoplasms-of-the-domestic-veterinary-species-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Annie L Wang, Thomas Kern
Melanocytic neoplasms in veterinary species occur in various ophthalmic locations including the eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, anterior and posterior uvea, and orbit. Histology usually provides the definitive diagnosis for melanocytic ocular neoplasias. The degree of tissue invasiveness and anaplastic cellular characteristics are more reliable indicators of biological behavior than is mitotic index in most ophthalmic melanocytic tumors. Melanocytic neoplasias of the eyelid are predominantly benign in canines and equines, though in felines, there is the potential for metastasis, especially if the conjunctiva is involved...
December 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154597/lateral-flow-technology-for-field-based-applications-basics-and-advanced-developments
#8
Brendan O׳Farrell
In terms of their ability to provide accurate information there is a traditional continuum in diagnostics that ranges from highly accurate methods requiring infrastructure and a centralized approach to testing to less accurate technologies that can be used in a decentralized or point of care testing strategy and that require little to no supporting infrastructure. Today's lateral flow assays marry the utility of a truly field deployable, simple to use technology with the high performance of many laboratory based assay formats...
December 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154596/snap-assay-technology
#9
Thomas P O'Connor
The most widely used immunoassay configuration is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because the procedure produces highly sensitive and specific results and generally is easy to use. By definition, ELISAs are immunoassays used to detect a substance (typically an antigen or antibody) in which an enzyme is attached (conjugated) to one of the reactants and an enzymatic reaction is used to amplify the signal if the substance is present. Optimized ELISAs include several steps that are performed in sequence using a defined protocol that typically includes application of sample and an enzyme-conjugated antibody or antigen to an immobilized reagent, followed by wash and enzyme reaction steps...
December 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154595/introduction-to-antigen-and-antibody-assays
#10
Michael J Day
Serological tests are used widely in veterinary practice; most often in the diagnosis of infectious disease. Such tests may be used to detect antigen from an infectious agent within a biological sample or to detect the presence of serum antibody specific for the pathogen as evidence of immunological exposure. These tests are all based on the fundamental principles of interaction between antigenic epitopes and antibodies of either the immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, or IgE classes. The relative concentration of specific antibody within a sample is traditionally determined by calculation of the titer of antibody...
December 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154594/introduction-point-of-care-tests-in-veterinary-medicine
#11
EDITORIAL
Dwight D Bowman, Susan E Little
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494503/acute-blindness
#12
REVIEW
Jessica M Meekins
Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed.
September 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494502/management-of-orbital-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Caroline Betbeze
Orbital diseases are common in dogs and cats and can present on emergency due to the acute onset of many of these issues. The difficulty with diagnosis and therapy of orbital disease is that the location of the problem is not readily visible. The focus of this article is on recognizing classical clinical presentations of orbital disease, which are typically exophthalmos, strabismus, enophthalmos, proptosis, or intraconal swelling. After the orbital disease is confirmed, certain characteristics such as pain on opening the mouth, acute vs...
September 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494501/hyphema-considerations-in-the-small-animal-patient
#14
REVIEW
Mary Rebecca Telle, Caroline Betbeze
Classification, diagnosis, and treatment of hemorrhage into the anterior chamber of the eye, or hyphema, can be a challenging and frustrating process for many practitioners, especially in emergency situations. This review outlines an inclusive list of causes, diagnostics, and treatments for traumatic and nontraumatic hyphema in both canine and feline patients. The review is tailored to small animal practitioners, especially in emergency practice, and is designed to provide concise but thorough descriptions on investigating underlying causes of hyphema and treating accordingly...
September 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494500/glaucomas
#15
REVIEW
Federica Maggio
Canine and feline glaucomas are commonly presented as ocular emergencies. Glaucoma is a common cause of vision loss and a frustrating disorder in terms of medical and surgical treatment. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) is a significant risk factor in the disease, leading to damage of the retina and optic nerve head. IOP measurement and gonioscopic and fundic examinations provide the instruments for diagnosis of glaucoma. The primary goal in glaucoma therapy is aimed at vision preservation. Medical treatment provides temporary relief, but alone it fails to control IOP in the long term, and surgical intervention is recommended...
September 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494499/lens-related-emergencies-not-always-so-clear
#16
REVIEW
Carmen M H Colitz, Kristen O'Connell
Emergencies involving the crystalline lens are not common; however, their clinical signs must be recognized quickly to begin treatment or referred immediately to improve the chances of retaining sight. The lens is a unique structure because of its immunologically privileged status and its imperative clarity for vision. Any insult to the lens capsule's integrity, its position within the globe, or to its clarity may result in undesirable sequelae.
September 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494498/corneal-emergencies
#17
REVIEW
Ellen B Belknap
Corneal emergencies can be due to a number of different causes and may be vision threatening if left untreated. In an attempt to stabilize the cornea, it is of benefit to place an Elizabethan collar on the patient to prevent further corneal damage. This article discusses the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of corneal emergencies in dogs and cats.
September 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494497/introduction
#18
Ellen B Belknap, Caroline Betbeze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26359728/complete-situs-inversus-in-2-asymptomatic-dogs
#19
Jacqueline Cahua, Diego Dias, Omar Gonzales-Viera
Complete situs inversus is a rare congenital condition that is characterized by the development of the thoracic and abdominal viscera in a mirror image to their normal orientation. This study describes this condition in 2 dogs: an 8-year-old male dalmatian that was originally evaluated for cystitis and a 3-year-old male crossbreed Pekinese that had a routine echographic study. In dogs, most of the reported cases were associated with the Kartagener syndrome, but our patients had no evidences of this ciliary disorder...
June 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26359727/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-primary-erythrocytosis-in-a-dog-a-case-report
#20
Camila Cardoso Diogo, Andrei Kelliton Fabretti, José Arthur de Abreu Camassa, Marília de Albuquerque Bonelli, Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias, Patrícia Mendes Pereira
Primary erythrocytosis, or polycythemia vera, is a myeloproliferative disease caused by the exaggerated increase of erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow. We report the case of an 11-year-old male mixed-breed dog that had tachypnea and spastic tetraplegia. There was a significant increase in hematocrit. After phlebotomy and fluid therapy, the dog's condition improved. A diagnosis of primary erythrocytosis was supported by serum levels of erythropoietin. The dog responded well to treatment with administration of hydroxyurea (15 mg/kg), phlebotomies, and fluid therapy...
June 2015: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
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