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Topics in Companion Animal Medicine

Eric J Miller, Courtenay M Brines
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a commonly encountered disease in companion animal veterinary practice. Ocular complications in dogs with DM are thought to be common but there are no reports of the overall incidence of DM-associated ocular disease. Some complications, such as cataracts and ocular surface disease, can lead to vision loss and significant morbidity among DM patients, therefore early recognition and intervention are essential for successful outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of several currently known or suspected ocular diseases associated with DM...
March 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Amanda Maijer, April Gessner, Brian Trumpatori, Janet D Varhus
It is well documented that physiological electric fields provide the earliest signals necessary to initiate cell proliferation, migration, and ultimately reepithelialization of wounds. Additionally, electricity is known to exert an antimicrobial effect. An electric field-generating wound dressing designed to mimic physiological electric fields has not been described in the small animal clinic. This article retrospectively reviews the use of a microcell battery-impregnated bioelectric dressing (BED) in 5 small animal patients with complex wounds...
March 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Tessa Meland, Sheila Carrera-Justiz
Dogs with seizure disorders are commonly presented to the general practitioner for initial evaluation. The most common diagnosis provided is idiopathic epilepsy. As witnessing seizures is often traumatic for owners, it is important for the practitioner to understand seizure classification, know when to initiate antiepileptic drug therapy and be comfortable with client education regarding seizures. This review briefly discusses the most up-to-date classification of seizures, the necessity to obtain accurate histories and complete examinations, base-line diagnostics to perform, the importance of owner education, and when to start medications...
March 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Erin E Runcan, Marco A Coutinho da Silva
Dystocia can be defined broadly as "difficult birth" or more specifically as difficulty in the bitch expelling the pups through the cervix, vagina, and vestibule. It is a fairly common emergency presented to the small animal practitioner with an incidence rate of approximately 5%. The incidence of dystocia is highest in toy and brachycephalic breeds, and occurs frequently in small litters (<3 pups) due to fetal oversize and delayed onset of labor. As duration of labor progresses, the mortality of the pups and even the bitch increases, with the highest number of stillborn pups occurring after 6 hours from the time of active parturition...
March 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Ashley C Hechler, Sarah A Moore
Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are common and debilitating conditions in toy and small breed dogs. CM, considered ubiquitous in the cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS) population, results in abnormal cerebrospinal fluid dynamics which can lead to the development of SM. The clinical signs associated with CM/SM are frequently confused with other otologic and dermatologic conditions, which may delay appropriate treatment. A definitive diagnosis of CM/SM requires advanced imaging; however, due to expense associated with this, many cases are managed presumptively and symptomatically for the condition...
March 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Rocío Martínez, Carlos Torrente
A 3-month-old intact male Prague ratter was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of progressive lethargy, weakness, coughing and labour breathing after an episode of resistance to oral deworming. The patient exhibited depression, increased respiratory effort and cyanosis at initial presentation. Results of first diagnostic work-up (complete blood cell count, biochemistry panel and thoracic x-rays) were all consistent with aspiration pneumonia. The puppy was initially treated with balanced isotonic crystalloids, broad spectrum antibiotics, nebulization with thoracic coupage and was transferred to an infant incubator with a sustained FiO2 of 40-50%...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Maira Rezende Formenton, Marco Aurélio Amador Pereira, Denise Tabacchi Fantoni
Massage therapy is becoming increasingly popular in human and animal physiotherapy and rehabilitation. Wider application of the technique led to research efforts aimed at providing scientific support to anecdotal beneficial effects, particularly pain relief. Recent studies have shown that massage therapy alters dopamine and serotonin levels, decreases noradrenaline levels, and modulates the immune system. Psychological effects such as reduction of stress and anxiety, with improvement of depressive patients, have been reported in humans...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Gina E Bertocci, Nathan P Brown, Patrice M Mich
The objective of this study was to describe the patient population of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency that were prescribed a stifle orthosis. A total of 215 client-owned dogs with previously diagnosed CrCL deficiency were prescribed a stifle orthosis at a veterinary pain management and mobility clinic. Patient intake data collected included dog signalment, chief medical complaint, home environment and activity description, medical and surgical history, and diagnosing veterinarian. An orthopedic examination was conducted to assess pelvic limb function and determine pelvic limb morphologic measures...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
João Carlos Alves, Ana Margarida Santos, Patrícia Isabel Jorge
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an oral joint supplement in working dogs with hip osteoarthritis compared with a positive control group (CG). Fifteen animals were divided in treatment group (TG, n = 10) and CG (n = 5). To TG a commercially available joint supplement, containing glucosamine HCl, chondroitin sulphate, and hyaluronic acid was given for 40 days and a 70-day course of a placebo, to be administered as if it was carprofen. The CG received carprofen for 70 days, and a placebo to be administered as the joint supplement...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
S F Lau, J Y Wong, K H Khor, M A Roslan, M S Abdul Rahman, S K Bejo, R Radzi, A R Bahaman
Working dogs are canine animals that have been trained to assist human beings in carrying out various tasks. They help in guarding property, performing rescues, assisting the visually impaired or physically handicapped, searching for drugs, explosives, and others. Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world and a commonly occurring disease of the tropics and subtropics. In Malaysia, all working dogs are normally vaccinated with serovars, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Grippotyphosa based on protocols recommended from other countries...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Negar Nowroozilarki, Shahram Jamshidi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Saeed Kolahian
Periodontal diseases are the most common oral cavity infectious diseases in adult dogs. We aimed in this study to identify Helicobacter and Wolinella spp. in saliva and dental plaque of dogs with periodontitis. Sixty-two small-breed pet dogs, aged more than 6 years from both sexes, were categorized into healthy and periodontitis groups. Samples from saliva and dental plaques were collected, and Helicobacter and Wolinella were identified on genus and species levels using polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed significant increase in infection rate of Wolinella spp...
September 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Ana Whyte, Alba Gracia, Cristina Bonastre, María Teresa Tejedor, Jaime Whyte, Luis Vicente Monteagudo, Carmen Simón
Oral health status was evaluated in 34 free-roaming cats that were submitted to a Trap-Neuter-Return program. Only 38.2% of individual cats showed oral disease. Periodontal disease (PD) was present in 6 cats ( 17.6%). Four cats (11.8%) showed feline gingivostomatitis, and clinical evidence of feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions was detected in only 3 animals (8.8%) by probing, but radiological studies would be necessary for reliable detection. Signs of PD occurred in 31.6% of teeth; only the less severe stages of PD were present...
September 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Fabio Vigano', Simona Lorenzo, Nike Carminati
Enteral nutrition improves survival rates and hospitalization times. Some diseases affecting the oral cavity can hinder spontaneous nutrition; in these cases the use of an esophagostomic tube can resolve nutritional problems. The innovative method described in this study is easier and more rapid than those currently known because the end of the tube does not need to be extracted from the oral cavity and then be reinserted with a number of maneuvers into the esophagus. The procedure does not require specific instruments, endotracheal intubation, and nor does it require the head to be moved or lifted...
September 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Fúlvia Bueno de Souza, Isabela Maciel Nakiri, Natália de Oliveira Lourenço, Gustavo Gomes da Silva, Débora Rizzo Paschoalini, Priscylla Tatiana Chalfun Guimarães-Okamoto, Alessandra Melchert
Intestinal endoparasites in cats have received increasing attention worldwide due to the increase in the population of cats and their intimate relationship with people. However, concern about the zoonotic potential of these agents is still small. The aim of this study was evaluating the occurrence of intestinal endoparasites, the most prevalent ones, as well as the profile of affected cats. We conducted a survey of the medical records of cats treated at Small Animal Medical Clinic, in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences-campus Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil...
September 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Hesamedin Eskafian, Aidin Shojaee Tabrizi, Maryam Ansari Lari
Opioid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to manage post-operative pain that may be chronically extended. Although NSAIDs have been approved for their analgesic effects in canine, they are mostly known to be associated with side effects, particularly gastric ulcers. In the present study, we evaluated short-term co-administration of meloxicam and tramadol to see if this could induce more gastric ulcers than that observed when using these drugs individually. Twenty adult mixed domestic dogs weighing 10 to 20 kg of both sexes, were randomly assigned to four groups of five dogs...
September 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
C Torres-Henderson, S Summers, J Suchodolski, M R Lappin
Some cats develop vomiting or diarrhea during administration of some antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanate but how often this occurs and the severity of disease is generally unknown. In people, one of the accepted indications for the use of probiotics is to attempt and lessen antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 (SF68; Purina® ProPlan® Veterinary Diets; FortiFlora™ Probiotic Supplement) is a commercially available probiotic available in many countries that has been shown to lessen diarrhea rates in cats housed in animal shelters...
September 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Audra Fenimore, Laura Martin, Michael R Lappin
Diarrhea is common in shelter dogs and nonspecific therapies like therapeutic diets, probiotics, and drugs with activity against Giardia spp. or enteric bacteria are commonly prescribed empirically. All dogs in this study were administered metronidazole, fed a standardized diet, and randomized to either receive a commercially available probiotic (Purina® Pro Plan® Veterinary Diets; FortiFlora® Probiotic Supplement, FortiFlora, Nestle Purina PetCare, St Louis, MO) or a placebo which was the commercial product without the probiotic for 7 days...
September 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Ivan Felismino Charas Santos, Sheila Canevese Rahal, Jussara Shimono, Miriam Tsunemi, Regina Takahira, Carlos Roberto Teixeira
The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise on hematology and serum biochemistry in healthy dogs. Ten intact beagle dogs, 3 females, and 7 males, with a mean age of 3 years, and mean body mass of 14.3kg, body condition score between 4.0/9 and 4.5/9 were evaluated. The WBV sessions were done with the dog standing up on all 4 feet on a vibrating platform. Daily session of 30Hz for 5 minutes, followed by 50Hz for 5 minutes and finishing with 30Hz for 5 minutes was accomplished for 5 days...
June 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Sara Dias, Marta Planellas, Albert Canturri, Jaume Martorell
A 5-month-old, intact male ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was presented with apathy, tachypnea and exercise intolerance. On initial physical examination, tachypnea and cyanosis were the two primary clinical signs detected. The complete blood count also revealed a severe polycythemia, with lymphopenia, neutrophilia and eosinophilia. Further diagnostic imaging tests were performed. The thoracic radiographs revealed cardiomegaly and a diffuse alveolar pulmonary pattern. Consequently, an echocardiography was performed and showed an interventricular septal defect, pulmonic artery occlusion, overriding of the aorta and right ventricle hypertrophy...
June 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Bertrand Vedrine, Franck Durieux
A 7-week-old, 1.045kg female beagle dog was referred to investigate a supposed vascular ring anomaly. Cone beam computed tomography with contrast enhanced arterial phase accomplished by a rapid manual intravenous injection of iodinated agent during the scanning process revealed a persistent right aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery that compressed dorsally the esophagus in the cranial mediastinum. Third left intercostal thoracotomy was performed to transect the left subclavian artery. This is the first description of a vascular ring anomaly that was diagnosed with a cone beam computed tomography in veterinary medicine...
June 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
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