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Molecular Plant

Hong Hanh Nguyen, Myoung Hui Lee, Kyungyoung Song, Gyeongik Ahn, Jihyeong Lee, Inhwan Hwang
Endocytosis and subsequent trafficking pathways are crucial for regulating the activity of plasma membrane-localized proteins. Depending on cellular and physiological conditions, the internalized cargoes are sorted at (and transported from) the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) to the vacuole for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. How this occurs at the molecular level remains largely elusive. Here we provide evidence that the ENTH domain-containing protein AtECA4 plays a crucial role in recycling cargoes from the TGN/EE to the plasma membrane...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Plant
Ren Ren, Haifeng Wang, Chunce Guo, Ning Zhang, Liping Zeng, Yamao Chen, Hong Ma, Ji Qi
Gene duplications (GDs) provide evolutionary potentials for generating novel functions, while polyploidization or whole genome duplication (WGD) doubles the chromosomes initially and results in hundreds to thousands of retained duplicates. WGDs are strongly supported by evidence commonly found in many species-rich lineages of eukaryotes, thus are considered as a major driving force in species diversification. We performed comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses on 59 public genomes/transcriptomes and 46 newly sequenced transcriptomes covering major lineages of angiosperms, to detect large-scale gene duplication events by survey of tens of thousands of gene family trees...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Plant
Yuanyuan Zhang, Yan Wang, Hua Wei, Na Li, Wenwen Tian, Kang Chong, Lei Wang
Plants initiate leaf senescence to reallocate energy and nutrients from the aging to developing tissues for optimizing growth fitness and reproduction at the end of growing season or under stress. Jasmonate (JA), a lipid-derived phytohormone, is known as an important endogenous singal in inducing leaf senescence. However, whether and how circadian clock gates JA signaling to induce leaf senescence in plants remains elusive. In this study, we show that the Evening Complex (EC), a core component of circadian oscillator, negatively regulates leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Plant
Jiaoping Zhang, Xianzhi Wang, Yaming Lu, Siddhi J Bhusal, Qijian Song, Perry B Cregan, Yang Yen, Michael Brown, Guo-Liang Jiang
The complex genetic architecture of quality traits has hindered efforts to modify seed nutrients in soybean (Glycine max). Genome-wide association studies were conducted for the seed composition including protein, oil, fatty acids and amino acids using 313 diverse soybean germplasm accessions genotyped with a high-density SNP array. A total of 87 chromosomal regions were identified to be associated with seed composition, explaining 8-89% of genetic variances. The candidate genes GmSAT1, AK-HSDH, SACPD-C and FAD3A of known function, and putative MtN21 nodulin, FATB and steroid-5-α-reductase involved in N2 fixation, amino acid biosynthesis and fatty acid metabolism were found at the major-effect loci...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Plant
Qinsong Liu, Thomas Vain, Corrado Viotti, Siamsa M Doyle, Danuše Tarkowská, Ondřej Novák, Cyril Zipfel, Folke Sitbon, Stéphanie Robert, Daniel Hofius
Brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signaling controls multiple processes during plant growth and development and is initiated at the plasma membrane through the receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) together with co-receptors such as BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1). BRI1 abundance is regulated by endosomal recycling and vacuolar targeting, but the role of vacuole-related proteins in BR receptor dynamics and BR responses remain elusive. Here, we show that the absence of two DUF300 domain-containing tonoplast proteins, LAZARUS1 (LAZ1) and LAZ1 HOMOLOG1 (LAZ1H1), causes vacuole morphology defects, growth inhibition, and constitutive activation of BR signaling...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Plant
Haijiao Wang, Jie Tang, Jing Liu, Jin Hu, Jingjing Liu, Yuxiao Chen, Zhenying Cai, Xuelu Wang
Abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroid (BR) antagonistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. A physiological study revealed that the inhibition of BR signaling by ABA is largely dependent on ABI1 and ABI2, but genetic and molecular evidence is lacking. In the BR signaling, their crosstalk occurs after BR receptor complex, but upstream of BIN2. However, which components act as the hub to directly mediate their crosstalk has remains a big mystery. Here, we found that ABI1 and ABI2 interact with BIN2, and dephosphorylate BIN2 to regulate its activity on the phosphorylation of BES1...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Plant
Zhikai Liang, James C Schnable
Gene loss following whole genome duplication (WGD) is often biased, with one subgenome retaining more ancestral genes and the other sustaining more gene deletions. While bias toward the greater expression of gene copies on one subgenome can explain bias in gene loss, this shifts the question to what drives differences in gene expression levels between subgenomes. Differences in chromatin markers and epigenetic signals between subgenomes in several model species are now being identified that may provide an explanation for bias in expression between subgenomes...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Plant
Mette Sørensen, Elizabeth H J Neilson, Birger Lindberg Møller
Oximes (R1R2C = NOH) are nitrogen containing chemical constituents which are formed in species representing all kingdoms of life. In plants, oximes are positioned at important metabolic bifurcation points between general and specialized metabolism. The majority of plant oximes are amino acid-derived metabolites, formed by the action of a cytochrome P450 from the CYP79 family. Auxin, cyanogenic glucosides, glucosinolates and a number of other bioactive specialized metabolites including volatiles are produced from oximes...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Plant
Xufeng Wang, Qiuyue Chen, Yaoyao Wu, Zachary H Lemmon, Guanghui Xu, Cheng Huang, Yameng Liang, Dingyi Xu, Dan Li, John F Doebley, Feng Tian
The regulation of gene expression plays an important role in controlling plant phenotypes and adaptation. Here, we report a comprehensive assessment of gene expression variation by sequencing the transcriptome of a large maize-teosinte experimental population. Genome-wide mapping identified 25,660 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for 17,311 genes, capturing an unprecedented range of expression variation. We found that local-eQTL more frequently mapped to adjacent genes, displaying a mode of expression piggybacking, which consequently created co-regulated gene clusters...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Plant
Lu Wang, John W Patrick, Yong-Ling Ruan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Molecular Plant
Michael P Torrens-Spence, Tomáš Pluskal, Fu-Shuang Li, Valentina Carballo, Jing-Ke Weng
Salidroside is a bioactive tyrosine-derived phenolic natural product found in medicinal plants under the Rhodiola genus. In addition to their anti-fatigue and anti-anoxia roles in traditional medicine, Rhodiola total extract and salidroside have also displayed medicinal properties as anti-cardiovascular diseases and anti-cancer agents. The resulting surge in global demand of Rhodiola plants and salidroside has driven some species close to extinction. Here, we report the full elucidation of Rhodiola salidroside biosynthetic pathway utilizing the first comprehensive transcriptomics and metabolomics datasets for Rhodiola rosea...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
Jolien De Lepeleire, Simon Strobbe, Jana Verstraete, Dieter Blancquaert, Lars Ambach, Richard G F Visser, Christophe Stove, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Insufficient dietary intake of micronutrients, known as 'hidden hunger', is a devastating global burden, affecting 2 billion people. Deficiency of folates (vitB9), which are known to play a central role in C1-metabolism, causes birth defects in at least a quarter million people annually. Biofortification to enhance the level of naturally occurring folates in crop plants, proves to be an efficient and cost-effective tool in fighting folate deficiency. Previously, introduction of folate biosynthesis genes GTPCHI and ADCS, proven to be a successful biofortification strategy in rice and tomato, turned out to be insufficient to adequately increase folate levels in potato tubers...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
Na Wang, R Kelly Dawe
Wide species crosses often result in uniparental genome elimination and visible failures in centromere function. Crosses involving lines with mutated forms of the CENH3 histone variant that organizes the centromere/kinetochore interface have been shown to have similar effects, inducing haploids at high frequencies. Here we propose a simple centromere size model that endeavors to explain both observations. It is based on the idea of a quantitative centromere architecture where each centromere in an individual is the same size, and the average size is dictated by a natural equilibrium between bound and unbound CENH3 (and its chaperones or binding proteins)...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
Limei Wang, Jingya Yuan, Yujie Ma, Wu Jiao, Wenxue Ye, Dong-Lei Yang, Chuandeng Yi, Z Jeffrey Chen
Seed development in angiosperms requires a 2:1 maternal-to-paternal genome ratio (2m:1p) in the endosperm. When the ratio is disrupted, the seed development is impaired. Rice interploidy crosses result in endosperm failures. Here we report that the defective endosperm was associated with nonadditive expression of small RNAs and protein-coding genes. Interestingly, 24-nt siRNAs were enriched in the 5' and 3' flanking sequences of nonadditively expressed genes in the interploidy crosses and negatively associated with the expression of imprinted genes...
December 18, 2017: Molecular Plant
Feng Xu, Shengbo He, Jingyi Zhang, Zhilei Mao, Wenxiu Wang, Ting Li, Jie Hua, Shasha Du, Pengbo Xu, Ling Li, Hongli Lian, Hong-Quan Yang
Light is a key environmental cue that acts to inhibit hypocotyl cell elongation through the blue and red/far-red light photoreceptors cryptochrome- and phytochrome-mediated pathways in Arabidopsis. Auxin is a pivotal phytohormone that acts to promote hypocotyl elongation through the auxin receptors TIR1/AFBs-mediated degradation of AUX/IAA proteins (AUX/IAAs). The mechanism underlying this antagonistic interaction is unclear. Here we show that light inhibits auxin signaling through stabilization of AUX/IAAs by blue and red light-dependent interactions of cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) and phytochrome B with AUX/IAAs, respectively...
December 18, 2017: Molecular Plant
Chang Liu, Shuai Zheng, Jinshan Gui, Chenjian Fu, Hasi Yu, Dongliang Song, Junhui Shen, Peng Qin, Xuanming Liu, Bin Han, Yuanzhu Yang, Laigeng Li
Breeding semi-dwarf varieties to improve lodging resistance has proven to be enormously successful in increasing grain yield since the advent of the "green revolution". However, the breeding of the majority of semi-dwarf rice varieties in Asia has been dependent on genetic introduction of the mutant alleles of SD1, which encodes a GA 20-Oxidase, OsGA20ox2, for catalyzing GA biosynthesis. Here we report a new rice lodging resistance gene, Shortened basal internodes (SBI), which encodes a gibberellins 2-oxidase and specifically controls the elongation of culm basal internodes through deactivating GA activity...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Plant
Auxiliadora O Martins, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Wagner L Araújo, Alisdair R Fernie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Molecular Plant
Guy Polturak, Uwe Heinig, Noam Grossman, Maor Battat, Dena Leshkowitz, Sergey Malitsky, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni
Betalains are tyrosine-derived pigments that occur solely in one plant order, the Caryophyllales, where they largely replace the anthocyanins in a mutually exclusive fashion. In this study, we conducted multi-species transcriptome and metabolic profiling in Mirabilis jalapa and additional betalain-producing species to identify candidate genes possibly involved with betalain biosynthesis. Among the candidates identified, betalain-related cytochrome P450 and glucosyltransferase-type genes, which catalyze tyrosine hydroxylation or (hydroxy)cinnamoyl-glucose formation, respectively, were further functionally characterized...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Plant
Ta-Na Wuyun, Lin Wang, Huimin Liu, Xuewen Wang, Liangsheng Zhang, Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Tiezhu Li, Lirong Yang, Panfeng Liu, Lanying Du, Lu Wang, Mengzhen Huang, Jun Qing, Lili Zhu, Wenquan Bao, Hongguo Li, Qingxin Du, Jingle Zhu, Hong Yang, Shuguang Yang, Hui Liu, Hui Yue, Jiang Hu, Guoliang Yu, Yu Tian, Fan Liang, Jingjing Hu, Depeng Wang, Ruiwen Gao, Dejun Li, Hongyan Du
Eucommia ulmoides is an economically important tree; however, the lack of its genome sequence restricts the theoretical and applied studies. Here we present a high-quality assembly of its ∼1.2 Gb genome (scaffold N50 = 1.88 Mb) with at least 26,723 predicted genes for E. ulmoides, the first sequenced genome of the order Garryales, which we obtained using an integrated strategy combining Illumina sequencing, Pacbio sequencing and Bionano mapping. As a sister taxon to lamiids and campanulids, the E. ulmoides underwent an ancient genome triplication shared by core eudicots but no further whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the last ∼125 million years...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Plant
Chenlei Hua, Jian-Hua Zhao, Hui-Shan Guo
Fungal pathogens represent a major group of plant invaders that are the causative agents of many notorious plant diseases. Large quantities of RNAs, especially small RNAs involved in gene silencing, have been found to transmit bidirectionally between fungal pathogens and their hosts. Although host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) technology has been developed and applied to protect crops from fungal infections, the mechanisms of RNA transmission, especially small RNAs regulating trans-kingdom RNA silencing in plant immunity, are largely unknown...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Plant
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