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Molecular Plant

Rocío Sánchez-Montesino, Laura Bouza-Morcillo, Julietta Marquez, Melania Ghita, Salva Duran-Nebreda, Luis Gómez, Michael J Holdsworth, George Bassel, Luis Oñate-Sánchez
A key component of seed germination is the interplay of mechanical forces governing embryo growth and the surrounding restraining endosperm tissue. Endosperm cell separation is therefore thought to play a critical role in the control of this developmental transition. Here we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, endosperm cell expansion is a key component of germination. Endosperm cells expand to accommodate embryo growth prior to germination. We show that this is an actively regulated process supported by spatiotemporal control of the cell expansion gene EXPANSIN 2 (EXPA2)...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Plant
Yaofei Zhao, Guangheng Wu, Hua Shi, Dingzhong Tang
Plants employ receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins for rapid recognition of pathogen invasion and RLKs then transmit signals to receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) to activate immune responses. RLKs are under fine regulation mediated by subcellular trafficking, which contributes to the proper activation of plant immunity. In this study, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 902 (RLK902) plays important roles in resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, but not to the fungal powdery mildew pathogen Golovinomyces cichoracearum...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Fangfang Li, Xiuling Yang, David M Bisaro, Xueping Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2018: Molecular Plant
Hidemitsu Nakamura, Kei Hirabayashi, Takuya Miyakawa, Ko Kikuzato, Wenqian Hu, Yuqun Xu, Kai Jiang, Ikuo Takahashi, Ruri Niiyama, Naoshi Dohmae, Masaru Tanokura, Tadao Asami
Strigolactones (SLs), a class of plant hormones with multiple functions, mediate plant-plant and plant-microorganism communications in the rhizosphere. In this study, we developed potent strigolactone antagonists, which covalently bind to the strigolactone receptor D14, by preparing an array of triazole urea compounds. Using yeast two-hybrid assays and rice tillering assays, we identified a triazole urea compound KK094 as a potent inhibitor of strigolactone receptors. The LC-MS/MS analysis and X-ray crystallography concluded that KK094 was hydrolyzed by D14, and that a reaction product of this degradation covalently binds to the Ser residue of the catalytic triad of D14...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Plant
Chi Song, Yifei Liu, Aiping Song, Gangqiang Dong, Hongbo Zhao, Wei Sun, Shyam Ramakrishnan, Ying Wang, Shuaibin Wang, Tingzhao Li, Yan Niu, Jiafu Jiang, Bin Dong, Ye Xia, Sumei Chen, Zhigang Hu, Fadi Chen, Shilin Chen
The Asteraceae (Compositae), a large plant family of approximately 24,000-35,000 species that strongly contributes to plant diversity, accounts for ∼10% of all angiosperm species. Its most representative members are the economically important chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum L.) that were diversified by reticulate evolution. Biodiversity is typically created by multiple evolutionary mechanisms such as whole-genome duplications (WGDs) or polyploidizations and locally repetitive genome expansion. However, the lack of genomic chrysanthemum data prevents an in-depth analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in chrysanthemum diversification...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Plant
Guang Qi, Jian Chen, Ming Chang, Huan Chen, Katherine Hall, John Korin, Fengquan Liu, Daowen Wang, Zheng Qing Fu
Salicylic acid (SA) or 2-hydroxybenoic acid is a phenolic plant hormone that plays an essential role in plant defense against biotrophic and semi-biotrophic pathogens. In Arabidopsis, SA is synthesized from chorismate in chloroplast through the ICS1 (Isochorismate synthase I) pathway during pathogen infection. The transcription co-activator NPR1 (Non-Expresser of Pathogenesis Related Gene 1), as the master regulator of SA signaling, interacts with transcription factors to induce the expression of anti-microbial PR (Pathogenesis-Related) genes...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Plant
Arnaud Stigliani, Raquel Martin-Arevalillo, Jérémy Lucas, Adrien Bessy, Thomas Vinos-Poyo, Victoria Mironova, Teva Vernoux, Renaud Dumas, François Parcy
Auxin is a key hormone performing a wealth of functions throughout the plant life cycle. It acts largely by regulating genes at the transcriptional level through a family of transcription factors (TF) called auxin response factors (ARF). Even if all ARF monomers analysed so far bind a similar DNA sequence, there is evidence that ARFs differ in their target genomic regions and regulated genes. Here we use position weight matrices (PWM) to model ARF DNA binding specificity based on published DNA affinity purification sequencing (DAP-seq) data...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Plant
Qinlong Zhu, Dongchang Zeng, Suize Yu, Chaojun Cui, Jiamin Li, Heying Li, Junyu Chen, Runzhao Zhang, Xiucai Zhao, Letian Chen, Yao-Guang Liu
Carotenoids are important phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, and are widely used in foods and feedstuffs as supplements. Astaxanthin, a red-colored ketocarotenoid, has strong antioxidant activity and thus can benefit human health. However, astaxanthin is not produced in most higher plants. Here we report the bioengineering of astaxanthin biosynthesis in rice endosperm by introducing four synthetic genes, sZmPSY1, sPaCrtI, sCrBKT, and sHpBHY, which encode the enzymes phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, β-carotene ketolase, and β-carotene hydroxylase, respectively...
October 6, 2018: Molecular Plant
Iara P Calil, Iana P S Quadros, Thais C Araújo, Christiane E M Duarte, Bianca C Gouveia-Mageste, José Cleydson F Silva, Otávio J B Brustolini, Ruan M Teixeira, Cauê N Oliveira, Rafael W M M Milagres, Gilberto S Martins, Joanne Chory, Pedro A B Reis, Joao Paulo B Machado, Elizabeth P B Fontes
The bipartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae family), which are DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus of infected cells, encode the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) to facilitate the translocation of viral DNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm via nuclear pores. This intracellular trafficking of NSP-DNA complexes is accessorized by the NSP-interacting guanosine triphosphatase (NIG) at the cytosolic side. Here, we report the nuclear redistribution of NIG by AtWWP1, a WW domain-containing protein that forms immune nuclear bodies (NBs) against begomoviruses...
October 6, 2018: Molecular Plant
Usman Ali, Hehuan Li, Xuemin Wang, Liang Guo
Plant sphingolipids are not only structural components of the plasma membrane and other endomembrane systems but also act as signaling molecules during biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the roles of sphingolipids in plant signal transduction in response to environmental cues are yet to be investigated in detail. In this review, we discuss the signaling roles of sphingolipid metabolites with a focus on plant sphingolipids. We also mention some microbial sphingolipids that initiate signals during their interaction with plants, because of the limited literatures on their plant analogs...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Yaning Cui, Meng Yu, Xiaomin Yao, Jingjing Xing, Jinxing Lin, Xiaojuan Li
The plasma membrane is a sophisticated, organized, and highly heterogeneous structure that compartmentalizes cellular processes. To decipher the biological processes involving membrane proteins, it is necessary to analyze their spatiotemporal dynamics. However, it is difficult to directly assess the dynamics and interactions of biomolecules in living cells using traditional biochemical methods. Single-particle tracking (SPT) methods for imaging and tracking single particles conjugated with fluorescent probes offer an ideal approach to acquire valuable and complementary information about dynamic intracellular processes...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Chang Liu, Yi Zhang, Haiyun Ren
The process of pollen germination is crucial for flowering plant reproduction, but the mechanisms through which pollen grains establish polarity and select germination sites are not well understood. In this study, we report that a formin family protein, AtFH5, is localized to the vesicles and rotates ahead of Lifeact-mEGFP-labeled actin filaments during pollen germination. The translocation of AtFH5 to the plasma membrane initiates the assembly of a collar-like actin structure at the prospective germination site prior to germination...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Yina Jiang, Qiujin Xie, Wanxiao Wang, Jun Yang, Xiaowei Zhang, Nan Yu, Yun Zhou, Ertao Wang
Most land plants have evolved a mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi that improve nutrient acquisition from the soil. In return, up to 20% of host plant photosynthate is transferred to the mycorrhizal fungus in the form of lipids and sugar. Nutrient exchange must be regulated by both partners in order to maintain a reliable symbiotic relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of lipid transfer from the plant to the AM fungus remain elusive. Here, we show that the Medicago truncatula AP2/EREBP transcription factor WRI5a, and likely its two homologs WRI5b/Erf1 and WRI5c, are master regulators of AM symbiosis controlling lipid transfer and periarbuscular membrane formation...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Valle Ojeda, Juan Manuel Pérez-Ruiz, Francisco Javier Cejudo
Most redox-regulated chloroplast enzymes are reduced during the day and oxidized during the night. While the reduction mechanism of light-dependent enzymes is well known, the mechanism mediating their oxidation in the dark remains unknown. The thiol-dependent peroxidases, 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs), play a key role in light-dependent reduction of chloroplast enzymes. Prxs transfer reducing equivalents of thiols to hydrogen peroxide, suggesting the participation of these peroxidases in enzyme oxidation in the dark...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Ting Peng, Mengmeng Qiao, Haiping Liu, Sachin Teotia, Zhanhui Zhang, Yafan Zhao, Bobo Wang, Dongjie Zhao, Lina Shi, Cui Zhang, Brandon Le, Kestrel Rogers, Chathura Gunasekara, Haitang Duan, Yiyou Gu, Lei Tian, Jinfu Nie, Jian Qi, Fanrong Meng, Lan Huang, Qinghui Chen, Zhenlin Wang, Jinshan Tang, Xiaoqing Tang, Ting Lan, Xuemei Chen, Hairong Wei, Quanzhi Zhao, Guiliang Tang
microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that bind to mRNAs and target them for cleavage and/or translational repression, leading to gene silencing. We previously developed short tandem target mimic (STTM) technology to deactivate endogenous miRNAs in Arabidopsis. Here, we created hundreds of STTMs that target both conserved and species-specific miRNAs in Arabidopsis, tomato, rice, and maize, providing a resource for the functional interrogation of miRNAs. We not only revealed the functions of several miRNAs in plant development, but also demonstrated that tissue-specific inactivation of a few miRNAs in rice leads to an increase in grain size without adversely affecting overall plant growth and development...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Tongbing Su, Weihong Wang, Peirong Li, Bin Zhang, Pan Li, Xiaoyun Xin, Honghe Sun, Yangjun Yu, Deshuang Zhang, Xiuyun Zhao, Changlong Wen, Gang Zhou, Yuntong Wang, Hongkun Zheng, Shuancang Yu, Fenglan Zhang
Chinese cabbage is the most consumed leafy crop in East Asian countries. However, premature bolting induced by continuous low temperatures severely decreases the yield and quality of the Chinese cabbage, and therefore restricts its planting season and geographic distribution. In the past 40 years, spring Chinese cabbage with strong winterness has been selected to meet the market demand. Here, we report a genome variation map of Chinese cabbage generated from the resequencing data of 194 geographically diverse accessions of three ecotypes...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Shikai Hu, Xingming Hu, Jiang Hu, Lianguang Shang, Guojun Dong, Dali Zeng, Longbiao Guo, Qian Qian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Molecular Plant
Riad Nadi, Eduardo Mateo-Bonmatí, Lucía Juan-Vicente, José Luis Micol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2018: Molecular Plant
Chuankui Song, Katja Härtl, Kate McGraphery, Thomas Hoffmann, Wilfried Schwab
Plants emit an overabundance of volatile compounds, which act in their producers either as appreciated attractants to lure beneficial animals or as repellent toxins to deter pests in a species-specific and concentration-dependent manner. Plants have evolved solutions to provide sufficient volatiles without poisoning themselves. Uridine-diphosphate sugar-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) acting on volatiles is one important part of this sophisticated system, which balances the levels of bioactive metabolites and prepares them for cellular and long-distance transport and storage but enables the remobilization of disarmed toxins for the benefit of plant protection...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Plant
Hongli Lian, Pengbo Xu, Shengbo He, Jun Wu, Jian Pan, Wenxiu Wang, Feng Xu, Sheng Wang, Junsong Pan, Jirong Huang, Hong-Quan Yang
Light and the heterotrimeric G-protein are known to antagonistically regulate photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, whether light and G-protein coordinate the regulation of photomorphogenesis is largely unknown. Here we show that the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) physically interacts with the G-protein β subunit, AGB1, in a blue light-dependent manner. We also show that AGB1 directly interacts with HY5, a basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor that acts as a critical positive regulator of photomorphogenesis, to inhibit its DNA-binding activity...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Plant
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