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Molecular Plant

Yunkai Jin, Mingliang Fei, Sara Rosenquist, Lu Jin, Suresh Gohil, Corine Sandström, Helena Olsson, Cecilia Persson, Anna-Stina Höglund, Gunnel Fransson, Ying Ruan, Per Åman, Christer Jansson, Chunlin Liu, Roger Andersson, Chuanxin Sun
Sequential carbohydrate synthesis is important for plant survival because it guarantees energy supplies for growth and development during plant ontogeny and reproduction. Starch and fructan are two important carbohydrates in many flowering plants and in human diets. Understanding this coordinated starch and fructan synthesis and unravelling how plants allocate photosynthates and prioritize different carbohydrate synthesis for survival could lead to improvements to cereals in agriculture for the purposes of greater food security and production quality...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Plant
Tao Li, Yumin Zhang, Dong Wang, Ying Liu, Lynnette M A Dirk, Jack Goodman, A Bruce Downie, Jianmin Wang, Guoying Wang, Tianyong Zhao
Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) accumulate in seeds during maturation desiccation in many plant species. It is still unclear whether RFOs have a role in establishing seed vigor. GALACTINOL-, RAFFINOSE- and STACHYOSE-SYNTHASE (GOLS, RS and STS) are enzymes responsible for RFOs biosynthesis. Only raffinose is detected in maize seeds and a unique maize RS gene (ZmRS) was identified. Two independent mutator (Mu)-interrupted zmrs lines, containing no raffinose but hyper-accumulating galactinol, had significantly reduced seed vigor, compared to null segregant (NS) controls...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Plant
Jayne Griffiths, Marco Catoni, Mayumi Iwasaki, Jerzy Paszkowski
Detection of retrotransposons capable of contemporary transposition is hampered by the replicative nature of their movement and is usually limited to fortuitous observations of new integration events causing visible phenotypes. To circumvent this shortcoming, we developed a screening strategy for novel active retrotransposons containing long terminal repeats (LTR-TEs). Our approach is based on specific recovery of an LTR region that is part of the linear extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) synthetized in the reverse transcription step of the LTR-TE replication/transposition cycle...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Plant
Xiaoyun Liu, Wei Wei, Wenjun Zhu, Lufang Su, Zeyang Xiong, Man Zhou, Yu Zheng, Dao-Xiu Zhou
How plant metabolic flux alters gene expression to optimize plant growth and response to stress remains largely unclear. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase AtSRT1 negatively regulates plant tolerance to stress and glycolysis but stimulates mitochondrial respiration. We found that AtSRT1 interacts with Arabidopsis cMyc-Binding Protein-1 (AtMBP-1), a transcriptional repressor produced by alternative translation of the cytosolic glycolytic enolase gene LOS2/ENO2. We demonstrated that AtSRT1 could associate with the chromatin of AtMBP-1 targets LOS2/ENO2 and STZ/ZAT10, both of which encode key stress regulators, and reduce the H3K9ac levels at these genes to repress their transcription...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Plant
Yi Xin, Yandu Lu, Yi-Ying Lee, Li Wei, Jing Jia, Qintao Wang, Dongmei Wang, Fali Bai, Hanhua Hu, Qiang Hu, Jin Liu, Yantao Li, Jian Xu
Microalgal oils, depending on their degree of unsaturation, can be utilized as either nutritional supplements or fuels, thus a feedstock with genetically designed and tunable degree of unsaturation is desirable to maximize process efficiency and product versatility. Systematic profiling of ex vivo (in yeast), in vitro and in vivo activities of type II diacylglycerol acyltransferases in Nannochloropsis oceanica (NoDGAT2s or NoDGTTs), via reverse genetics, revealed that NoDGAT2A prefers saturated fatty acids (SFAs), 2D prefers monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and 2C exhibits the strongest activity for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Plant
Guy Polturak, Asaph Aharoni
Betalains are tyrosine-derived red-violet and yellow pigments found exclusively in plants of the Caryophyllales order, which have drawn both scientific and economic interest. Nevertheless, research into betalain chemistry, biochemistry, and function has been limited in comparison to other major classes of plant pigments such as anthocyanins and carotenoids. The core biosynthetic pathway of this pigment class has only been fully elucidated in the past few years, opening up the possibility for betalain pigments engineering in plants and microbes...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Plant
Meng Yang, Zhenggang Li, Kun Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Yongliang Zhang, Xianbing Wang, Chenggui Han, Jialin Yu, Kai Xu, Dawei Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2017: Molecular Plant
Jian Liu, Zeyuan Guan, Hongbo Liu, Liangbo Qi, Delin Zhang, Tingting Zou, Ping Yin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2017: Molecular Plant
Kai P Voss-Fels, Hannah Robinson, Stephen R Mudge, Cecile Richard, Saul Newman, Benjamin Wittkop, Andreas Stahl, Wolfgang Friedt, Matthias Frisch, Iulian Gabur, Anika Miller-Cooper, Bradley C Campbell, Alison Kelly, Glen Fox, Jack Christopher, Mandy Christopher, Karine Chenu, Jerome Franckowiak, Emma S Mace, Andrew K Borrell, Howard Eagles, David R Jordan, José R Botella, Graeme Hammer, Ian D Godwin, Ben Trevaskis, Rod J Snowdon, Lee T Hickey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
Jana Verbančič, John Edward Lunn, Mark Stitt, Staffan Persson
All plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall that determines the directionality of cell growth and protects the cell against its environment. Plant cell walls are comprised primarily of polysaccharides and represent the largest sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon, both for individual plants and in the terrestrial biosphere as a whole. Cell wall synthesis is a highly complex process, involving multiple enzymes and metabolic intermediates, intracellular trafficking of proteins and cell wall precursors, assembly of the cell wall polymers into the extracellular matrix, re-modelling of polymers and their interactions, and re-cycling of cell wall sugars...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Plant
Jia-Ming Song, Yang Lei, Cheng-Cheng Shu, Yuduan Ding, Feng Xing, Hao Liu, Jia Wang, Weibo Xie, Jianwei Zhang, Ling-Ling Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2017: Molecular Plant
Jered M Wendte, Robert J Schmitz
Plants encode a diverse repertoire of DNA methyltransferases that have specialized to target cytosines for methylation in specific sequence contexts. These include the de novo methyltransferase, DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2), which methylates cytosines in all sequence contexts through an RNA guided process, the CHROMOMETHYLASES (CMTs), which methylate CHH and CHG cytosines (where H is A, T, or C), and the maintenance methyltransferase, METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1), which maintains methylation of symmetrical CG contexts...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Plant
Lei Chen, Faming Dong, Jing Cai, Qiang Xin, Caochuang Fang, Liang Liu, Lili Wan, Guangsheng Yang, Dengfeng Hong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant
Yi Sun, Runan Yang, Legong Li, Jirong Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Molecular Plant
Dingyi Xu, Xufeng Wang, Cheng Huang, Guanghui Xu, Yameng Liang, Qiuyue Chen, Chenglong Wang, Dan Li, Jinge Tian, Lishuan Wu, Yaoyao Wu, Li Guo, Xuehan Wang, Weihao Wu, Weiqiang Zhang, Xiaohong Yang, Feng Tian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2017: Molecular Plant
Tianhu Sun, Hui Yuan, Hongbo Cao, Mohammad Yazdani, Yaakov Tadmor, Li Li
Carotenoids are indispensable to plants and critical in human diets. Plastids are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage in plant cells, and exist in various types, which include proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. These plastids have dramatic differences in their capacity to synthesize and sequester carotenoids. Clearly, plastids play a central role in governing carotenogenic activity, carotenoid stability, and pigment diversity. Understanding of carotenoid metabolism and accumulation in various plastids expands our view on the multifaceted regulation of carotenogenesis and facilitates our efforts toward developing nutrient enriched food crops...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Plant
Bowen Hu, Dawei Li, Xin Liu, Jingjing Qi, Dongli Gao, Shuqiao Zhao, Sanwen Huang, Jinjing Sun, Li Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Molecular Plant
Leandro E Lucero, Pablo A Manavella, Diana E Gras, Federico D Ariel, Daniel H Gonzalez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Molecular Plant
Rao Fu, Cathie Martin, Yang Zhang
Specialized secondary metabolites serve not only to protect plants against abiotic and biotic challenges, but have also been used extensively by humans to combat diseases. Due to the importance of medicinal plants for health, we need to find new and sustainable ways to produce their specialized metabolites. In addition to direct extraction, recent progress in metabolic engineering of plants offers alternative supply options. We argue that metabolic engineering for the production of some secondary metabolites in plants may have distinct advantages over microbial production platforms and we propose new approaches to plant metabolic engineering, inspired by an ancient Chinese irrigation system...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Plant
Si Wu, Takayuki Tohge, Álvaro Cuadros-Inostroza, Hao Tong, Hezi Tenenboim, Rik Kooke, Michaël Méret, Joost B Keurentjes, Zoran Nikoloski, Alisdair R Fernie, Lothar Willmitzer, Yariv Brotman
Metabolic genome-wide association studies (mGWAS), whereupon metabolite levels are regarded as traits, can help unravel the genetic basis of metabolic networks. 309 Arabidopsis accessions were grown under two independent environmental conditions (control and stress) and subjected to untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics; levels of the obtained hydrophilic metabolites were used in GWAS. Our two-condition-based GWAS for more than 3,000 semi-polar metabolites resulted in the detection of 123 highly resolved metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL) (p ≤ 1...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Plant
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