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Science Signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634210/the-glycosylation-pathway-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-slit-and-for-the-maintenance-of-the-slit-receptor-robo-on-axons
#1
Mary Ann Manavalan, Vatsala Ruvini Jayasinghe, Rickinder Grewal, Krishna Moorthi Bhat
Slit proteins act as repulsive axon guidance cues by activating receptors of the Roundabout (Robo) family. During early neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, Slit prevents the growth cones of longitudinal tract neurons from inappropriately crossing the midline, thus restricting these cells to trajectories parallel to the midline. Slit is expressed in midline glial cells, and Robo is present in longitudinal axon tracts and growth cones. We showed that the enzyme Mummy (Mmy) controlled Slit-Robo signaling through mechanisms that affected both the ligand and the receptor...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634209/genetic-evidence-that-%C3%AE-arrestins-are-dispensable-for-the-initiation-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-signaling-to-erk
#2
Morgan O'Hayre, Kelsie Eichel, Silvia Avino, Xuefeng Zhao, Dana J Steffen, Xiaodong Feng, Kouki Kawakami, Junken Aoki, Karen Messer, Roger Sunahara, Asuka Inoue, Mark von Zastrow, J Silvio Gutkind
The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has provided a paradigm to elucidate how G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control intracellular signaling, including the discovery that β-arrestins, which bind to ligand-activated GPCRs, are central for GPCR function. We used genome editing, conditional gene deletion, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to determine the roles of β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1) and β-arr2 in β2AR internalization, trafficking, and signaling to ERK. We found that only β-arr2 was essential for β2AR internalization...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634208/ligand-and-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-differentially-regulate-the-mode-of-vesicular-neuropeptide-release-in-mammalian-sensory-neurons
#3
Yeshi Wang, Qihui Wu, Meiqin Hu, Bin Liu, Zuying Chai, Rong Huang, Yuan Wang, Huadong Xu, Li Zhou, Lianghong Zheng, Changhe Wang, Zhuan Zhou
Neuropeptides released from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons play essential roles in the neurotransmission of sensory inputs, including those underlying nociception and pathological pain. Neuropeptides are released from intracellular vesicles through two modes: a partial release mode called "kiss-and-run" (KAR) and a full release mode called "full fusion-like" (FFL). Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we traced the release of pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein-tagged neuropeptide Y (pHluorin-NPY) from individual dense-core vesicles in the soma and axon of single DRG neurons after Ca(2+) influx through either voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) or ligand-gated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634207/dazed-and-confused-from-infection
#4
Wei Wong
TNF-α produced by circulating CX3CR1(high) monocytes causes the problems that infected individuals have with learning and remembering.
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634206/papers-of-note-in-science-translational-medicine9-394
#5
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This week's articles describe how broccoli can combat type 2 diabetes, how monocytes contribute to the failure of organ transplant grafts, and how to more durably treat RET- or KRAS-driven lung cancer.
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634205/macrophages-don-t-take-more-than-they-can-eat
#6
Annalisa M VanHook
Innate immune signaling feeds forward to control the rate at which macrophages phagocytose bacteria.
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634204/papers-of-note-in-nature546-7658
#7
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight a compound that may be useful for treating cryptosporidiosis and a kinase complex that links cell division to cellular metabolism.
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634203/papers-of-note-in-science356-6343
#8
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles describe a mechanism by which starvation primes a cellular nutrient-sensing system for activation upon refeeding; microRNAs that control pain sensitivity; and the lasting effects of early life stress on the likelihood of developing depression.
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611184/regulation-of-the-ubiquitylation-and-deubiquitylation-of-creb-binding-protein-modulates-histone-acetylation-and-lung-inflammation
#9
Jianxin Wei, Su Dong, Rachel K Bowser, Andrew Khoo, Lina Zhang, Anastasia M Jacko, Yutong Zhao, Jing Zhao
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) is a histone acetyltransferase that plays a pivotal role in the control of histone modification and the expression of cytokine-encoding genes in inflammatory diseases, including sepsis and lung injury. We found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit FBXL19 targeted CBP for site-specific ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The ubiquitylation-dependent degradation of CBP reduced the extent of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-dependent histone acetylation and cytokine release in mouse lung epithelial cells and in a mouse model of sepsis...
June 13, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611183/the-lncrna-h19-mediates-breast-cancer-cell-plasticity-during-emt-and-met-plasticity-by-differentially-sponging-mir-200b-c-and-let-7b
#10
Wu Zhou, Xiao-Lei Ye, Jun Xu, Ming-Guo Cao, Zheng-Yu Fang, Ling-Yun Li, Guang-Hui Guan, Qiong Liu, Yue-Hui Qian, Dong Xie
Metastasis is a multistep process by which tumor cells disseminate from their primary site and form secondary tumors at a distant site. The pathophysiological course of metastasis is mediated by the dynamic plasticity of cancer cells, which enables them to shift between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes through a transcriptionally regulated program termed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse process, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Using a mouse model of spontaneous metastatic breast cancer, we investigated the molecular mediators of metastatic competence within a heterogeneous primary tumor and how these cells then manipulated their epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity during the metastatic process...
June 13, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611182/the-lost-language-of-the-rna-world
#11
REVIEW
James W Nelson, Ronald R Breaker
The possibility of an RNA World is based on the notion that life on Earth passed through a primitive phase without proteins, a time when all genomes and enzymes were composed of ribonucleic acids. Numerous apparent vestiges of this ancient RNA World remain today, including many nucleotide-derived coenzymes, self-processing ribozymes, metabolite-binding riboswitches, and even ribosomes. Many of the most common signaling molecules and second messengers used by modern organisms are also formed from RNA nucleotides or their precursors...
June 13, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611181/ligand-activated-notch-undergoes-dtx4-mediated-ubiquitylation-and-bilateral-endocytosis-before-adam10-processing
#12
Patricia Chastagner, Eric Rubinstein, Christel Brou
The Notch signaling pathway, which is activated by cell-cell contact, is a major regulator of cell fate decisions. Mammalian Notch1 is present at the cell surface as a heterodimer of the Notch extracellular domain associated with the transmembrane and intracellular domains. After ligand binding, Notch undergoes proteolysis, releasing the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) that regulates gene expression. We monitored the early steps of activation with biochemical analysis, immunofluorescence analysis, and live-cell imaging of Notch1-expressing cells...
June 13, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611180/papers-of-note-in-nature546-7657
#13
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight an unusual mechanism for switching off GPCR signaling; the structural basis of activation of the GLP-1 receptor; a critical role for the B cell receptor in some lymphoma cells; and how cancer cells exploit nutrient sensing and acquisition pathways.
June 13, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611179/papers-of-note-in-science356-6342
#14
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles explore the structural basis for nitrate sensing in bacteria, the importance of attenuating healing responses to reduce fibrosis and allergy, and the recruitment of chromatin silencing factors in X chromosome inactivation.
June 13, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611178/detecting-and-treating-brain-cancer
#15
Leslie K Ferrarelli
A systems biology approach identifies plasma biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for patients with glioblastoma.
June 13, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611177/papers-of-note-in-science-translational-medicine9-393
#16
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This week's articles describe a new combination therapy for BRCA1-mutant breast cancer and a new therapeutic target in patients with the ectopic calcification disease PXE.
June 13, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588088/paper-of-note-in-science356-6340
#17
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's article is about a lipid that stimulates or inhibits mTORC1 signaling depending on where in the cell the lipid is made.
June 6, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588087/papers-of-note-in-nature546-7656
#18
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight the role of follicle-stimulating hormone in postmenopausal adipose tissue accumulation, the importance of a sphingolipid for T cell survival, and the cryo-EM structure of a G protein-coupled receptor complex.
June 6, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588086/papers-of-note-in-science-translational-medicine-9-392
#19
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This week's articles describe a new drug conjugate to treat pain, a target for preventing cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, and a strategy for sensitizing RAS-mutant cancers to PARP inhibitors.
June 6, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588085/an-adenosine-receptor-for-olfaction
#20
Annalisa M VanHook
Extracellular processing of ATP in the fish olfactory epithelium produces adenosine that is perceived by olfactory neurons.
June 6, 2017: Science Signaling
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