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Science Signaling

Alan J Simmons, Cherié R Scurrah, Eliot T McKinley, Charles A Herring, Jonathan M Irish, M Kay Washington, Robert J Coffey, Ken S Lau
Cellular heterogeneity poses a substantial challenge to understanding tissue-level phenotypes and confounds conventional bulk analyses. To analyze signaling at the single-cell level in human tissues, we applied mass cytometry using cytometry time of flight to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) normal and diseased intestinal specimens. This technique, called FFPE-DISSECT (disaggregation for intracellular signaling in single epithelial cells from tissue), is a single-cell approach to characterizing signaling states in embedded tissue samples...
October 11, 2016: Science Signaling
Hitoshi Nakayama, Hidetake Kurihara, Yasu S Morita, Taroh Kinoshita, Laura Mauri, Alessandro Prinetti, Sandro Sonnino, Noriko Yokoyama, Hideoki Ogawa, Kenji Takamori, Kazuhisa Iwabuchi
Pathogenic mycobacteria use virulence factors, including mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), to survive in host phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils. We assessed the roles of lactosylceramide (LacCer, CDw17)-enriched lipid rafts in the phagocytosis of mycobacteria by human neutrophils and in the intracellular fate of phagocytosed mycobacteria. We showed that the association of the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn with C24 fatty acid chain-containing LacCer was essential for the phagocytosis of mycobacteria by neutrophils...
October 11, 2016: Science Signaling
Kaivan Khavandi, Rachael L Baylie, Sarah A Sugden, Majid Ahmed, Viktoria Csato, Philip Eaton, David C Hill-Eubanks, Adrian D Bonev, Mark T Nelson, Adam S Greenstein
Activation of Ca(2+)-sensitive, large-conductance potassium (BK) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by local, ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signals (Ca(2+) sparks) acts as a brake on pressure-induced (myogenic) vasoconstriction-a fundamental mechanism that regulates blood flow in small resistance arteries. We report that physiological intraluminal pressure within resistance arteries activated cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in VSMCs through oxidant-induced formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond between cysteine residues...
October 11, 2016: Science Signaling
Michael A Hill, Andrew P Braun
Local blood flow autoregulation in response to intraluminal pressure requires small artery myogenic vasoconstriction, the extent of which is thought to be governed by a feedback process that depends on Ca(2+) signaling. In this issue of Science Signaling, Khavandi et al suggest a role for cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase G Iα (PKGIα) activated by oxidants in a cGMP-independent manner.
October 11, 2016: Science Signaling
Garth L Burn, Georgina H Cornish, Katarzyna Potrzebowska, Malin Samuelsson, Juliette Griffié, Sophie Minoughan, Mark Yates, George Ashdown, Nicolas Pernodet, Vicky L Morrison, Cristina Sanchez-Blanco, Harriet Purvis, Fiona Clarke, Rebecca J Brownlie, Timothy J Vyse, Rose Zamoyska, Dylan M Owen, Lena M Svensson, Andrew P Cope
Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins that play a fundamental role in the migration of leukocytes to sites of infection or injury. We found that protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) inhibits signaling by the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) in effector T cells. PTPN22 colocalized with its substrates at the leading edge of cells migrating on surfaces coated with the LFA-1 ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Knockout or knockdown of PTPN22 or expression of the autoimmune disease-associated PTPN22-R620W variant resulted in the enhanced phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of integrins...
October 4, 2016: Science Signaling
Jing Ye, Hao Zhang, Wen He, Bibo Zhu, Dengyuan Zhou, Zheng Chen, Usama Ashraf, Yanming Wei, Ziduo Liu, Zhen F Fu, Huanchun Chen, Shengbo Cao
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide. The pathogenesis of JEV is linked to a robust inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS). Glial cells are the resident immune cells in the CNS and represent critical effectors of CNS inflammation. To obtain a global overview of signaling events in glial cells during JEV infection, we conducted phosphoproteomics profiling of a JEV-infected glial cell line. We identified 1816 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 1264 proteins, that exhibited a change in phosphorylation status upon JEV infection...
October 4, 2016: Science Signaling
Jane Antony, Tuan Zea Tan, Zoe Kelly, Jeffrey Low, Mahesh Choolani, Chiara Recchi, Hani Gabra, Jean Paul Thiery, Ruby Yun-Ju Huang
Ovarian cancer is a complex disease with heterogeneity among the gene expression molecular subtypes (GEMS) between patients. Patients with tumors of a mesenchymal ("Mes") subtype have a poorer prognosis than patients with tumors of an epithelial ("Epi") subtype. We evaluated GEMS of ovarian cancer patients for molecular signaling profiles and assessed how the differences in these profiles could be leveraged to improve patient clinical outcome. Kinome enrichment analysis identified AXL as a particularly abundant kinase in Mes-subtype tumor tissue and cell lines...
October 4, 2016: Science Signaling
Balazs Halmos, Eric B Haura
Patients with a mesenchymal subtype of ovarian cancer face a poor prognosis with limited treatment options to halt metastatic progression. In this issue of Science Signaling, Antony et al found that the kinase AXL drives the mesenchymal gene signature and motility of ovarian tumor cells. AXL inhibitors may thus slow tumor progression in this subset of patients.
October 4, 2016: Science Signaling
Isabel Morgado-Palacin, Amanda Day, Matilde Murga, Vanesa Lafarga, Marta Elena Anton, Anthony Tubbs, Hua-Tang Chen, Aysegul Ergan, Rhonda Anderson, Avinash Bhandoola, Kurt G Pike, Bernard Barlaam, Elaine Cadogan, Xi Wang, Andrew J Pierce, Chad Hubbard, Scott A Armstrong, André Nussenzweig, Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo
Among the various subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), those with chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL oncogene (AML-MLL) have a poor prognosis. AML-MLL tumor cells are resistant to current genotoxic therapies because of an attenuated response by p53, a protein that induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage. In addition to chemicals that damage DNA, efforts have focused on targeting DNA repair enzymes as a general chemotherapeutic approach to cancer treatment. Here, we found that inhibition of the kinase ATR, which is the primary sensor of DNA replication stress, induced chromosomal breakage and death of mouse AML(MLL) cells (with an MLL-ENL fusion and a constitutively active N-RAS independently of p53...
September 13, 2016: Science Signaling
Jarrod P Meadows, Mikael C Guzman-Karlsson, Scott Phillips, Jordan A Brown, Sarah K Strange, J David Sweatt, John J Hablitz
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA cytosine methylation, contribute to the mechanisms underlying learning and memory by coordinating adaptive gene expression and neuronal plasticity. Transcription-dependent plasticity regulated by DNA methylation includes synaptic plasticity and homeostatic synaptic scaling. Memory-related plasticity also includes alterations in intrinsic membrane excitability mediated by changes in the abundance or activity of ion channels in the plasma membrane, which sets the threshold for action potential generation...
August 23, 2016: Science Signaling
Amber Ismael, Wei Tian, Nicholas Waszczak, Xin Wang, Youfang Cao, Dmitry Suchkov, Eli Bar, Metodi V Metodiev, Jie Liang, Robert A Arkowitz, David E Stone
Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus...
April 12, 2016: Science Signaling
Arthur Marivin, Anthony Leyme, Kshitij Parag-Sharma, Vincent DiGiacomo, Anthony Y Cheung, Lien T Nguyen, Isabel Dominguez, Mikel Garcia-Marcos
Auriculo-condylar syndrome (ACS), a rare condition that impairs craniofacial development, is caused by mutations in a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. In mice, disruption of signaling by the endothelin type A receptor (ET(A)R), which is mediated by the G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein) subunit Gα(q/11) and subsequently phospholipase C (PLC), impairs neural crest cell differentiation that is required for normal craniofacial development. Some ACS patients have mutations inGNAI3, which encodes Gα(i3), but it is unknown whether this G protein has a role within the ET(A)R pathway...
April 12, 2016: Science Signaling
James L J Coleman, Tony Ngo, Johannes Schmidt, Nadine Mrad, Chu Kong Liew, Nicole M Jones, Robert M Graham, Nicola J Smith
Little is known about the pharmacology or physiology of GPR37L1, a G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor that is abundant in the cerebellum. Mice deficient in this receptor exhibit precocious cerebellar development and hypertension. We showed that GPR37L1 coupled to the G protein Gα(s) when heterologously expressed in cultured cells in the absence of any added ligand, whereas a mutant receptor that lacked the amino terminus was inactive. Conversely, inhibition of ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) enhanced receptor activity, indicating that the presence of the amino terminus is necessary for GPR37L1 signaling...
April 12, 2016: Science Signaling
Nancy R Gough
This Focus Issue highlights new discoveries at the level of the receptor, the α subunit, and the βγ subunit and spans research in yeast on polarized growth and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) trafficking, in mice on an orphan GPCR with constitutive activity, and a disease-causing mutation in an α subunit that results in inappropriate GPCR-G protein coupling.
April 12, 2016: Science Signaling
Kamil J Alzayady, Liwei Wang, Rahul Chandrasekhar, Larry E Wagner, Filip Van Petegem, David I Yule
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) are tetrameric intracellular Ca(2+)-release channels with each subunit containing a binding site for IP3in the amino terminus. We provide evidence that four IP3molecules are required to activate the channel under diverse conditions. Comparing the concentration-response relationship for binding and Ca(2+)release suggested that IP3Rs are maximally occupied by IP3before substantial Ca(2+)release occurs. We showed that ligand binding-deficient subunits acted in a dominant-negative manner when coexpressed with wild-type monomers in the chicken immune cell line DT40-3KO, which lacks all three genes encoding IP3R subunits, and confirmed the same effect in an IP3R-null human cell line (HEK-3KO) generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology...
April 5, 2016: Science Signaling
Cyndi R Morales, Dan L Li, Zully Pedrozo, Herman I May, Nan Jiang, Viktoriia Kyrychenko, Geoffrey W Cho, Soo Young Kim, Zhao V Wang, David Rotter, Beverly A Rothermel, Jay W Schneider, Sergio Lavandero, Thomas G Gillette, Joseph A Hill
Altering chromatin structure through histone posttranslational modifications has emerged as a key driver of transcriptional responses in cells. Modulation of these transcriptional responses by pharmacological inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), a group of chromatin remodeling enzymes, has been successful in blocking the growth of some cancer cell types. These inhibitors also attenuate the pathogenesis of pathological cardiac remodeling by blunting and even reversing pathological hypertrophy...
April 5, 2016: Science Signaling
Colin W Taylor, Vera Konieczny
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors are the channels responsible for Ca(2+)release from the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Research inScience Signalingby Alzayadyet al show that all four IP3-binding sites within the tetrameric IP3R must bind IP3before the channel can open, which has important consequences for the distribution of both IP3and IP3R activity within cells.
April 5, 2016: Science Signaling
Randall T Moon, Nancy R Gough
This Editorial Guide uses Wnt-stimulated activation of the transcriptional activity of β-catenin, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to illustrate the hazards of limiting research investigation and questions to those that fit the "canonical" view.
April 5, 2016: Science Signaling
Laurie Ceccato, Gaëtan Chicanne, Virginie Nahoum, Véronique Pons, Bernard Payrastre, Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni, Julien Viaud
Phosphoinositides are a type of cellular phospholipid that regulate signaling in a wide range of cellular and physiological processes through the interaction between their phosphorylated inositol head group and specific domains in various cytosolic proteins. These lipids also influence the activity of transmembrane proteins. Aberrant phosphoinositide signaling is associated with numerous diseases, including cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Thus, identifying phosphoinositide-binding partners and the aspects that define their specificity can direct drug development...
March 29, 2016: Science Signaling
Sizhi P Gao, Qing Chang, Ninghui Mao, Laura A Daly, Robert Vogel, Tyler Chan, Shu Hui Liu, Eirini Bournazou, Erez Schori, Haiying Zhang, Monica Red Brewer, William Pao, Luc Morris, Marc Ladanyi, Maria Arcila, Katia Manova-Todorova, Elisa de Stanchina, Larry Norton, Ross L Levine, Gregoire Altan-Bonnet, David Solit, Michael Zinda, Dennis Huszar, David Lyden, Jacqueline F Bromberg
Lung adenocarcinomas with mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) respond to EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but resistance invariably occurs. We found that the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway was aberrantly increased in TKI-resistant EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. JAK2 inhibition restored sensitivity to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib in TKI-resistant cell lines and xenograft models of EGFR-mutant TKI-resistant lung cancer...
March 29, 2016: Science Signaling
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