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Science Signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512153/new-connections-the-duality-of-ros-in-angiogenesis
#1
Wei Wong
Depending on the tissue and context, ROS can either stimulate or suppress blood vessel formation.
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512152/papers-of-note-in-nature545-7653
#2
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight colon cancer stem cells; cooperative signaling that maintains intestinal stem cell self-renewal; a newly developed Wnt agonist; and metabolic changes in endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis.
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512151/papers-of-note-in-science356-6338
#3
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles demonstrate how T cells search for ligands; a role for the endoplasmic reticulum in the nonclathrin-mediated endocytosis of a growth factor receptor; and growth coupling between distant bacterial colonies that enables the cells to share limited resources.
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512150/papers-of-note-in-science-translational-medicine9-389
#4
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This week's articles highlight how tumor-associated macrophages limit the efficacy of PD-1-targeted checkpoint therapy and show that an anti-inflammatory drug may be used to treat lymphedema.
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512149/quorum-sensing-to-repress-virulence
#5
Annalisa M VanHook
A quorum-sensing system of an insect endosymbiont enables the bacterium to establish persistent infection by inhibiting the expression of virulence genes.
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512148/erratum-for-the-research-article-reactive-oxygen-species-induce-virus-independent-mavs-oligomerization-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-by-i-a-buskiewicz-t-montgomery-e-c-yasewicz-s-a-huber-m-p-murphy-r-c-hartley-r-kelly-m-k-crow-a-perl-r-c-budd-a-koenig
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512147/nrf2-inactivation-enhances-placental-angiogenesis-in-a-preeclampsia-mouse-model-and-improves-maternal-and-fetal-outcomes
#7
Masahiro Nezu, Tomokazu Souma, Lei Yu, Hiroki Sekine, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Andrew Zu-Sern Wei, Sadayoshi Ito, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Zsuzsanna K Zsengeller, Tomohiro Nakamura, Atsushi Hozawa, S Ananth Karumanchi, Norio Suzuki, Masayuki Yamamoto
Placental activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to affect placental angiogenesis, which is critical for preventing preeclampsia pathology. We examined the role of ROS in preeclampsia by genetically modifying the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, a cellular antioxidant defense system, in a mouse model of RAS-induced preeclampsia. Nrf2 deficiency would be expected to impair cellular antioxidant responses; however, Nrf2 deficiency in preeclamptic mice improved maternal and fetal survival, ameliorated intra-uterine growth retardation, and augmented oxidative DNA damage...
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512146/science-signaling-podcast-for-16-may-2017-vibrio-rewires-host-cells
#8
Nicole J De Nisco, Kim Orth, Annalisa M VanHook
This Podcast features a conversation with Kim Orth and Nicole De Nisco, authors of a Research Resource that appears in the 16 May 2017 issue of Science Signaling, about how the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus rewires host cell signaling networks. V. parahaemolyticus thrives in warm brackish waters and infects both shellfish and finfish. This bacterium causes gastroenteritis when humans consume contaminated seafood that is raw or undercooked. V. parahaemolyticus delivers virulence factors into host cells through two different type 3 secretion systems (T3SSes)...
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512145/the-cytotoxic-type-3-secretion-system-1-of-vibrio-rewires-host-gene-expression-to-subvert-cell-death-and-activate-cell-survival-pathways
#9
Nicole J De Nisco, Mohammed Kanchwala, Peng Li, Jessie Fernandez, Chao Xing, Kim Orth
Bacterial effectors potently manipulate host signaling pathways. The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. para) delivers effectors into host cells through two type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs). T3SS1 is vital for V. para survival in the environment, whereas T3SS2 causes acute gastroenteritis in human hosts. Although the natural host is undefined, T3SS1 effectors attack highly conserved cellular processes and pathways to orchestrate nonapoptotic cell death. To understand how the concerted action of T3SS1 effectors globally affects host cell signaling, we compared gene expression changes over time in primary fibroblasts infected with V...
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487424/ldl-cholesterol-impairs-therapy
#10
Leslie K Ferrarelli
A diet high in LDL cholesterol may hinder the therapeutic efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer patients.
May 9, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487423/epithelial-cells-reject-abnormal-neighbors
#11
Annalisa M VanHook
Normal epithelial cells induce metabolic changes in neighboring transformed cells to force them out of the epithelium.
May 9, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487422/paper-of-note-in-science-translational-medicine9-388
#12
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This week's article uncovers why mutations in the vesicular trafficking protein annexin 11 are implicated in the neurodegenerative disease ALS.
May 9, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487421/papers-of-note-in-nature545-7652
#13
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight a role for a polyglutamine tract in regulating autophagy; how cytokinesis affects the mechanosensitivity of cell junctions; the effect of interferon-γ on tumor vasculature; advances in human brain organoid technology; and biochemical features of a receptor that may aid in developing drugs that specifically target the receptor.
May 9, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487420/papers-of-note-in-science356-6337
#14
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles address the role of macrophage metabolic reprogramming in resolving inflammation and an epidermal pattern formation system that is self-organizing and can adjust to fit the size of the tissue.
May 9, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487419/membrane-depolarization-activates-bk-channels-through-rock-mediated-%C3%AE-1-subunit-surface-trafficking-to-limit-vasoconstriction
#15
M Dennis Leo, Xue Zhai, Padmapriya Muralidharan, Korah P Kuruvilla, Simon Bulley, Frederick A Boop, Jonathan H Jaggar
Membrane depolarization of smooth muscle cells (myocytes) in the small arteries that regulate regional organ blood flow leads to vasoconstriction. Membrane depolarization also activates large-conductance calcium (Ca(2+))-activated potassium (BK) channels, which limits Ca(2+) channel activity that promotes vasoconstriction, thus leading to vasodilation. We showed that in human and rat arterial myocytes, membrane depolarization rapidly increased the cell surface abundance of auxiliary BK β1 subunits but not that of the pore-forming BKα channels...
May 9, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487418/science-signaling-podcast-for-9-may-2017-trafficking-of-bk-channel-subunits-in-arterial-myocytes
#16
Jonathan H Jaggar, Annalisa M VanHook
This Podcast features a conversation with Jonathan Jaggar, senior author of a Research Article that appears in the 9 May 2017 issue of Science Signaling, about trafficking of big potassium (BK) channel subunits in arterial myocytes. Depolarization of the arterial myocyte membrane causes a rise in intracellular calcium that stimulates the cell to contract, which leads to vasoconstriction. Membrane depolarization also activates BK channels, which allow potassium to flow out of the cell, thus repolarizing the membrane and promoting vasodilation...
May 9, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487417/tetraspanin-microdomains-control-localized-protein-kinase-c-signaling-in-b-cells
#17
Malou Zuidscherwoude, Vera-Marie E Dunlock, Geert van den Bogaart, Sjoerd J van Deventer, Alie van der Schaaf, Jenny van Oostrum, Joachim Goedhart, Joanna In 't Hout, Günter J Hämmerling, Satoshi Tanaka, André Nadler, Carsten Schultz, Mark D Wright, Merel J W Adjobo-Hermans, Annemiek B van Spriel
Activation of B cells by the binding of antigens to the B cell receptor (BCR) requires the protein kinase C (PKC) family member PKCβ. Because PKCs must translocate to the plasma membrane to become activated, we investigated the mechanisms regulating their spatial distribution in mouse and human B cells. Through live-cell imaging, we showed that BCR-stimulated production of the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) resulted in the translocation of PKCβ from the cytosol to plasma membrane regions containing the tetraspanin protein CD53...
May 9, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487416/the-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomer-a%C3%AE-56-induces-specific-alterations-in-neuronal-signaling-that-lead-to-tau-phosphorylation-and-aggregation
#18
Fatou Amar, Mathew A Sherman, Travis Rush, Megan Larson, Gabriel Boyle, Liu Chang, Jürgen Götz, Alain Buisson, Sylvain E Lesné
Oligomeric forms of amyloid-forming proteins are believed to be the principal initiating bioactive species in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are implicated in AD-associated phosphorylation and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. To investigate the specific molecular pathways activated by different assemblies, we isolated various forms of Aβ from Tg2576 mice, which are a model for AD. We found that Aβ*56, a 56-kDa oligomer that is detected before patients develop overt signs of AD, induced specific changes in neuronal signaling...
May 9, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465421/hyperactive-locomotion-in-a-drosophila-model-is-a-functional-readout-for-the-synaptic-abnormalities-underlying-fragile-x-syndrome
#19
Risa Kashima, Patrick L Redmond, Prajakta Ghatpande, Sougata Roy, Thomas B Kornberg, Thomas Hanke, Stefan Knapp, Giorgio Lagna, Akiko Hata
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of heritable intellectual disability and autism and affects ~1 in 4000 males and 1 in 8000 females. The discovery of effective treatments for FXS has been hampered by the lack of effective animal models and phenotypic readouts for drug screening. FXS ensues from the epigenetic silencing or loss-of-function mutation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, which encodes an RNA binding protein that associates with and represses the translation of target mRNAs...
May 2, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465420/sorting-out-memory-and-learning
#20
Leslie K Ferrarelli
Mutations in AMPA receptor recycling machinery underlie cognitive impairment in an intellectual disorder and in neurodegenerative diseases.
May 2, 2017: Science Signaling
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