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Science Signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196914/the-host-microrna-mir-301a-blocks-the-irf1-mediated-neuronal-innate-immune-response-to-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection
#1
Bibhabasu Hazra, Kanhaiya Lal Kumawat, Anirban Basu
Effective recognition of viral components and the subsequent stimulation of the production of type I interferons (IFNs) is crucial for the induction of host antiviral immunity. The failure of the host to efficiently produce type I IFNs in response to infection by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is linked with an increased probability for the disease to become lethal. JEV is a neurotropic virus of the Flaviviridae family that causes encephalitis in humans. JEV infection is regulated by several host factors, including microRNAs, which are conserved noncoding RNAs that participate in various physiological and pathological processes...
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196913/papers-of-note-in-nature542-7640
#2
John F Foley
This week's articles show how intestinal immune cell populations are controlled and how epithelial cells recognize oncogenic neighbors.
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196912/tamoxifen-as-an-immunotherapy
#3
Leslie K Ferrarelli
Antiestrogen drugs may treat some estrogen receptor-negative tumors by limiting the proliferation and activity of suppressive immune cells.
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196911/pseudophosphatase-as-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-inhibitor
#4
Nancy R Gough
The pseudophosphatase STYX prevents the substrate recognition subunit FBXW7 from binding the catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase complex.
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196910/papers-of-note-in-science355-6325
#5
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles report that neural activity promotes localized miRNA-mediated translational silencing at synapses and that activation of B cells triggers an unusual form of autophagy in these cells.
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196909/when-silencing-mrna-position-matters
#6
Alexandra A Mushegian
The mechanism of posttranscriptional silencing by an RNA-binding protein depends on the position of the protein-binding sequence in the mRNA.
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196908/papers-of-note-in-science-translational-medicine9-376
#7
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This week's articles describe a free radical scavenger for treating hypertension; an engineered bacterium as a cancer immunotherapy; commensal bacteria that protect newborn mice from pneumonia; and a form of gastrointestinal E. coli that triggers proinflammatory systemic inflammation, arthritis, and colitis.
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196907/acetylation-dependent-regulation-of-mdm2-e3-ligase-activity-dictates-its-oncogenic-function
#8
Naoe T Nihira, Kohei Ogura, Kouhei Shimizu, Brian J North, Jinfang Zhang, Daming Gao, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Wenyi Wei
Abnormal activation of the oncogenic E3 ubiquitin ligase murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is frequently observed in human cancers. By ubiquitinating the tumor suppressor p53 protein, which leads to its proteasome-mediated destruction, MDM2 limits the tumor-suppressing activity of p53. On the other hand, by ubiquitinating itself, MDM2 targets itself for destruction and promotes the p53 tumor suppressor pathway, a process that can be antagonized by the deubiquitinase herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP)...
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196906/a-high-throughput-image-based-screen-to-identify-kinases-involved-in-brown-adipocyte-development
#9
Aliki Perdikari, Elisabeth Kulenkampff, Carla Rudigier, Heike Neubauer, Gerd Luippold, Norbert Redemann, Christian Wolfrum
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for thermogenesis that is not associated with shivering through the process of converting chemical energy into heat through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the mitochondria. Thus, expanding or activating BAT could be a potential tool against obesity. To analyze the effect of kinase signaling on brown adipocyte formation, a process that describes the acquisition of the ability to dissipate energy as heat, we performed lentiviral-mediated short hairpin knockdown or used pharmacological inhibitors in a high-content and high-throughput in vitro image-based screen...
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174287/calcineurin-for-t-cell-adhesion
#10
John F Foley
The phosphatase calcineurin not only activates transcription factors but also promotes T cell adhesion upon T cell activation.
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174286/tumors-direct-vessels-to-feed-growth
#11
Leslie K Ferrarelli
Blood vessels go from blocking growth factor signaling with IGFBP7 to sending the growth factor IGF1 in response to tumor-released FGF4.
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174285/papers-of-note-in-nature-542-7639
#12
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles describe how cellular metabolism contributes to the development of lymphatic vessels, a proinflammatory cytokine that acts as a neuromodulator, how mechanical force frees a growth factor from its protein cage, and the gating mechanism of a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel.
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174284/papers-of-note-in-science-355-6324
#13
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles show how excitatory synapses are weakened during sleep and how the catalytic subunit of PKC-cs may mediate the choice between different modes of double-strand DNA break repair.
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174283/recovering-rrna-processing-after-heat-shock
#14
Alexandra A Mushegian
NF-κB repressing factor controls localization and activation of an rRNA processing protein in heat stress response.
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174282/papers-of-note-in-science-translational-medicine-9-375
#15
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This week's articles describe ways to treat arthritis caused by chikungunya virus, IDH-mutant cancers, and hypertension.
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174281/new-connections-protein-trafficking-for-strong-bones-and-teeth
#16
Annalisa M VanHook
Distinct mechanisms of dysregulated protein secretion result in weak bones or teeth.
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174280/prostaglandin-e2-ep2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-macrophages-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-intracranial-aneurysms
#17
Tomohiro Aoki, Juhana Frȍsen, Miyuki Fukuda, Kana Bando, Go Shioi, Keiichi Tsuji, Eliisa Ollikainen, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Johanna Laakkonen, Shuh Narumiya
Intracranial aneurysms are common but are generally untreated, and their rupture can lead to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Because of the poor prognosis associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, preventing the progression of intracranial aneurysms is critically important. Intracranial aneurysms are caused by chronic inflammation of the arterial wall due to macrophage infiltration triggered by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage activation mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and inflammatory signaling involving prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin E receptor subtype 2 (EP2)...
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174279/a-cytoplasmic-role-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-transcriptional-cofactors-bcl9-bcl9l-and-pygopus-in-tooth-enamel-formation
#18
Claudio Cantù, Pierfrancesco Pagella, Tania D Shajiei, Dario Zimmerli, Tomas Valenta, George Hausmann, Konrad Basler, Thimios A Mitsiadis
Wnt-stimulated β-catenin transcriptional regulation is necessary for the development of most organs, including teeth. Bcl9 and Bcl9l are tissue-specific transcriptional cofactors that cooperate with β-catenin. In the nucleus, Bcl9 and Bcl9l simultaneously bind β-catenin and the transcriptional activator Pygo2 to promote the transcription of a subset of Wnt target genes. We showed that Bcl9 and Bcl9l function in the cytoplasm during tooth enamel formation in a manner that is independent of Wnt-stimulated β-catenin-dependent transcription...
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143912/daily-oxygen-rhythms
#19
Nancy R Gough
The hypoxia response system and circadian clock system are interconnected.
January 31, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143911/papers-of-note-in-nature-541-7638
#20
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles are about peptides that mediate communication between viruses, how microglia induce reactive astrocytes that contribute to neuronal cell death, and how kinases of the Hippo pathway influence breast cell fate.
January 31, 2017: Science Signaling
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