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New Biotechnology

Christopher Chukwudi Okonkwo, Victor Ujor, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka Ezeji
Understanding the capacity of Paenibacillus polymyxa DSM 365 to tolerate increasing concentrations of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) is critical to engineering a 2,3-BD-overproducing strain. Hence, we investigated the response of P. polymyxa to high 2,3-BD concentrations. In fed-batch cultures (6-L bioreactor) 2,3-BD was accumulated to a maximum concentration of 47g/L despite the presence of residual 13g/L glucose in the medium. Concomitantly, accumulation of acetoin, the precursor of 2,3-BD increased after maximum 2,3-BD concentration was reached, suggesting that 2,3-BD was reconverted to acetoin after the concentration tolerance threshold of 2,3-BD was exceeded...
October 17, 2016: New Biotechnology
P C Paula, J T A Oliveira, D O B Sousa, B G T Alves, A F U Carvalho, O L Franco, I M Vasconcelos
Various plant species have long been used in traditional medicine worldwide to treat diabetes. Among the plant-based compounds with hypoglycemic properties, studies on insulin-like proteins isolated from leaves, fruits and seeds are rarely reported in the relevant literature. Our research group has been investigating the presence of insulin-like proteins in Moringa oleifera, a plant species native to India, and we have obtained a leaf protein isolate and semi-purified derived fractions, as well as a seed coat protein fraction (Mo-SC), with hypoglycemic activity in chemically induced diabetic mice that have increased tolerance to orally administered glucose...
October 10, 2016: New Biotechnology
Lei Wang
The genetic code can be expanded to include unnatural amino acids (Uaas) by engineering orthogonal components involved in protein translation. To be compatible with live cells, side chains of Uaas have been limited to either chemically inert or bio-orthogonal (i.e., nonreactive toward biomolecules) functionalities. To introduce bioreactivity into live systems, the genetic code has recently been engineered to encode a new class of Uaas, the bioreactive Uaas. These Uaas, after being incorporated into proteins, specifically react with target natural amino acid residues via proximity-enabled bioreactivity, enabling the selective formation of new covalent linkages within and between proteins both in vitro and in live systems...
October 6, 2016: New Biotechnology
Rodrigo S Raposo, M Catarina M D de Almeida, M da Conceição M A de Oliveira, M Manuela da Fonseca, M Teresa Cesário
Efficient production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB)) based on glucose-xylose mixtures simulating different types of lignocellulosic hydrolysate (LCH) was addressed using Burkholderia sacchari, a wild strain capable of metabolizing both sugars and producing P(3HB). Carbon catabolite repression was avoided by maintaining glucose concentration below 10g/L. Xylose concentrations above 30g/L were inhibitory for growth and production. In fed-batch cultivations, pulse size and feed addition rate were controlled in order to reach high productivities and efficient sugar consumptions...
October 5, 2016: New Biotechnology
Nazanin Seyed Khoei, Silvia Lampis, Emanuele Zonaro, Kim Yrjälä, Paolo Bernardi, Giovanni Vallini
Microorganisms capable of transforming toxic selenium oxyanions into non-toxic elemental selenium (Se°) may be considered as biocatalysts for the production of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), eventually exploitable in different biotechnological applications. Two Burkholderia fungorum strains (B. fungorum DBT1 and B. fungorum 95) were monitored during their growth for both capacity and efficiency of selenite (SeO3(2-)) reduction and elemental selenium formation. Both strains are environmental isolates in origin: B...
October 4, 2016: New Biotechnology
Valeria Ancona, Anna Barra Caracciolo, Paola Grenni, Martina Di Lenola, Claudia Campanale, Angelantonio Calabrese, Vito Felice Uricchio, Giuseppe Mascolo, Angelo Massacci
A plant-assisted bioremediation strategy was applied in an area located in Southern Italy, close to the city of Taranto, historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals. A specific poplar clone (Monviso) was selected for its ability to promote organic pollutant degradation in the rhizosphere, as demonstrated elsewhere. Chemical and microbiological analyses were performed at the time of poplar planting in selected plots at different distances from the trunk (0.25-1m) and at different soil depths (0-20 and 20-40cm), at day 420...
September 26, 2016: New Biotechnology
William C Merrick
Over the past 50 years, both Brian Clark and I have worked on tRNA, Brian more successfully than I. Our common interests have established collaborations and the training of Aarhus University students in my laboratory. As part of my rejuvenation plan, I have returned to Aarhus and participated in teaching a course in protein synthesis about every five years, beginning in 1990. It has been through this close contact with both Brian and the numerous faculty of the structural biology group that I have been able to witness and appreciate the great strides they have made, both in building a world class department and in the ground breaking discoveries that went with them...
September 21, 2016: New Biotechnology
Dana Luminița Sobariu, Daniela Ionela Tudorache Fertu, Mariana Diaconu, Lucian Vasile Pavel, Raluca-Maria Hlihor, Elena Niculina Drăgoi, Silvia Curteanu, Markus Lenz, Philippe François-Xavier Corvini, Maria Gavrilescu
Certain species of plants can benefit from synergistic effects with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that improve plant growth and metal accumulation, mitigating toxic effects on plants and increasing their tolerance to heavy metals. The application of PGPR as biofertilizers and atmospheric nitrogen fixators contributes considerably to the intensification of the phytoremediation process. In this paper, we have built a system consisting of rhizospheric Azotobacter microbial populations and Lepidium sativum plants, growing in solutions containing heavy metals in various concentrations...
September 9, 2016: New Biotechnology
Susan Maleki, Mali Mærk, Radka Hrudikova, Svein Valla, Helga Ertesvåg
Alginate denotes a family of linear polysaccharides with a wide range of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Presently, all commercially available alginates are manufactured from brown algae. However, bacterial alginates have advantages with regard to compositional homogeneity and reproducibility. In order to be able to design bacterial strains that are better suited for industrial alginate production, defining limiting factors for alginate biosynthesis is of vital importance. Our group has been studying alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens using several complementary approaches...
September 1, 2016: New Biotechnology
Elita Montanari, Chiara Di Meo, Simona Sennato, Antonio Francioso, Anna Laura Marinelli, Francesca Ranzo, Serena Schippa, Tommasina Coviello, Federico Bordi, Pietro Matricardi
Although in recent years several methods have been studied and developed to obtain different types of nanosized drug delivery systems, the set up of suitable procedures and materials remains highly expensive, their preparation is time consuming and often not feasible for a scale-up process. Furthermore, the sterilisation and storage of nanocarrier formulations represents a complicated but mandatory step for their effective use. In our previous work we assessed the use of an autoclaving process to achieve, in one simple step, sterile self-assembled hyaluronan-cholesterol (HA-CH) and hyaluronan-riboflavin (HA-Rfv) nanohydrogels (NHs)...
August 26, 2016: New Biotechnology
Irina Morosanu, Carmen Teodosiu, Carmen Paduraru, Dumitrita Ibanescu, Lavinia Tofan
Lead, as well as other heavy metals, is regarded as priority pollutant due to its non-biodegradability, toxicity and persistence in the environment. In this study, rapeseed biomass was used in the biosorption of Pb(II) ions in batch and dynamic conditions, as well as with tests for industrial wastewater. The influence of initial concentration (5-250mg/L), pH and contact time (0.5-6hours) was investigated. The kinetic data modeling resulted in good correlations with the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models...
August 26, 2016: New Biotechnology
Peter B Moore
In March, 2014, a symposium was held at Aarhus University to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the founding of its Division of Biostructural Chemistry by Professor Brian Clark. This article is a lightly edited version of the talk the author gave to open that event. It consists of some reflections about the discipline known as structural biology, and some comments about the author's interactions with Professor Clark and the Division of Biostructural Chemistry over the years.
August 3, 2016: New Biotechnology
Raúl N Comelli, Lisandro G Seluy, Miguel A Isla
This work focuses on the performance of ten commercial Saccharomyces yeast strains in the batch alcoholic fermentation of sugars contained in selected industrial wastewaters from the soft drink industry. Fermentation has been applied successfully to treat these effluents prior to their disposal. Although many strains were investigated, similar behaviour was observed between all of the Saccharomyces strains tested. When media were inoculated with 2gL(-1) of yeast, all strains were able to completely consume the available sugars in less than 14h...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Antonio De Leon-Rodriguez, Santiago L Caño-Muñiz, Junyan Liu, David K Summers
Indole is a bicyclic signaling molecule with effects on both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The majority of studies of indole action have been performed with bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and little information is available about its effects under anaerobic conditions. Here the effect of the indole on anaerobic metabolism of Escherichia coli WDHL was studied. Indole in the range 0.5-8mM was added to the culture medium and cell growth, hydrogen and metabolite production were compared to cultures lacking indole...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Hans-Joerg Fugel, Mark Nuijten, Maarten Postma
RATIONALE: Stratified Medicine (SM) is becoming a natural result of advances in biomedical science and a promising path for the innovation-based biopharmaceutical industry to create new investment opportunities. While the use of biomarkers to improve R&D efficiency and productivity is very much acknowledged by industry, much work remains to be done to understand the drivers and conditions that favour using a stratified approach to create economically viable products and to justify the investment in SM interventions as a stratification option...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Adeyemi O Aremu, Lenka Plačková, Aleš Pěnčík, Ondřej Novák, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden
In the current study, we evaluated the effect of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) individually or in combination with different cytokinins (CKs) including benzyladenine (BA), meta-topolin (mT) and isopentenyladenine (iP) on organogenesis, auxin and CK content in Eucomis autumnalis subspecies autumnalis (EA) and Eucomis zambesiaca (EZ). These species were used as model plants due to their ornamental and medicinal properties. Three leaf explants were inoculated in screw-cap jars containing 30mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 5μM NAA alone or in combination with 5μM CK (BA, mT or iP)...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Mateusz Sydow, Mikołaj Owsianiak, Zuzanna Szczepaniak, Grzegorz Framski, Barth F Smets, Łukasz Ławniczak, Piotr Lisiecki, Alicja Szulc, Paweł Cyplik, Łukasz Chrzanowski
It is not known whether diesel-degrading bacterial communities are structurally and functionally robust when exposed to different hydrocarbon types. Here, we exposed a diesel-degrading consortium to model either alkanes, cycloalkanes or aromatic hydrocarbons as carbon sources to study its structural resistance. The structural resistance was low, with changes in relative abundances of up to four orders of magnitude, depending on hydrocarbon type and bacterial taxon. This low resistance is explained by the presence of hydrocarbon-degrading specialists in the consortium and differences in growth kinetics on individual hydrocarbons...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Henrik Nausch, Tina Hausmann, Daniel Ponndorf, Maja Hühns, Sandra Hoedtke, Petra Wolf, Annette Zeyner, Inge Broer
Cyanophycin (CP) is a proteinogenic polymer that can be substituted for petroleum in the production of plastic compounds and can also serve as a source of valuable dietary supplements. However, because there is no economically feasible system for large-scale industrial production, its application is limited. In order to develop a low-input system, CP-synthesis was established in the two commercial Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) cultivars 'Badischer Geudertheimer' (BG) and 'Virginia Golta' (VG), by introducing the cyanophycin-synthetase gene from Thermosynecchococcus elongatus BP-1 (CphATe) either via crossbreeding with transgenic N...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Natalia Teribia, Verónica Tijero, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Sweet cherries are highly appreciated by consumers worldwide and are usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening before distribution to the market. Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit, for which ripening is known to be regulated by abscisic acid. Here we aimed to examine the hormone profiles, including measurements of abscisic acid, auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), in relation to variations in sugar and anthocyanin contents, during growth and ripening of this fruit...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
Miguel A Sánchez, Gabriel León
Agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops are effective tools to substantially increase productivity, quality, and environmental sustainability in agricultural farming. Furthermore, they may contribute to improving the nutritional content of crops, addressing needs related to public health. Chile has become one of the most important global players for GM seed production for counter-season markets and research purposes. It has a comprehensive regulatory framework to carry out this activity, while at the same time there are numerous regulations from different agencies addressing several aspects related to GM crops...
December 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
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