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New Biotechnology

Ana Cristina Rodrigues, Ana Isabel Fontão, Aires Coelho, Marta Leal, Francisco A G Soares da Silva, Yizao Wan, Fernando Dourado, Miguel Gama
This work aimed at the optimization of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) production by static culture, using Komagataeibacter xylinus BPR 2001 (K. xylinus). Response surface methodology - central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of inexpensive and widely available nutrient sources, namely molasses, ethanol, corn steep liquor (CSL) and ammonium sulphate, on BNC production yield. The optimized parameters for maximum BNC production were % (m/v): molasses 5.38, CSL 1.91, ammonium sulphate 0.63, disodium phosphate 0...
December 6, 2018: New Biotechnology
Anastasia Zerva, Efthymia Koutroufini, Ioanna Kostopoulou, Anastasia Detsi, Evangelos Topakas
Laccase-like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) are a heterogeneous group of oxidases, acting mainly on phenolic compounds and which are widespread among many microorganisms, including Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Here, we report the cloning, heterologous expression, purification and characterization of a novel LMCO from the thermophilic fungus Thermothelomyces thermophila. The 1953 bp lmco gene sequence comprises 3 exons interrupted by 2 introns and according to the LccED database the translated sequence belongs to superfamily 6 of multicopper oxidases...
December 5, 2018: New Biotechnology
Mark Pannekens, Lisa Kroll, Hubert Müller, Fatou Tall Mbow, Rainer U Meckenstock
Microorganisms are present in oil reservoirs around the world where they degrade oil and lead to changes in oil quality. Unfortunately, our knowledge about processes in deep oil reservoirs is limited due to the lack of undisturbed samples. In this review, we discuss the distribution of microorganisms at the oil-water transition zone as well as in water saturated parts of the oil leg and their possible physiological adaptations to abiotic and biotic ecological factors such as temperature, salinity and viruses...
November 28, 2018: New Biotechnology
Ming-Sheng Chen, Tsung-Jen Wang, Hsiu-Chen Lin, Burnouf Thierry
There is accumulating experimental evidence that human platelet lysate (HPL) made from platelet concentrates can replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a xeno-free clinical-grade supplement of growth media to expand mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, uncertainties exist in regard to impacts that various manufacturing methods of HPL can exert on the expansion and differentiation capacity of MSCs. In particular, there is a need to evaluate the possibility of implementing virus-inactivation treatment during HPL production to ensure optimal safety of industrial HPL pools...
November 20, 2018: New Biotechnology
Fulian Lyu, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Hiroshi Hamana, Eiji Kobayashi, Atsushi Muraguchi, Hiroyuki Kishi
Soluble peptide/major histocompatibility complex (p/MHC) tetramers that directly bind to T cell receptors (TCRs) allow the direct quantification, phenotypic characterization and isolation of antigen-specific T cells. Conventionally, soluble p/MHC tetramers have been produced using Escherichia coli, but this method requires refolding of the recombinant proteins. Here, a novel and technically simple method that does not require protein refolding in vitro has been developed for the high-throughput generation of soluble and functional p/MHC-single chain trimer (SCT) monomers and tetramers in a mammalian cell system...
November 19, 2018: New Biotechnology
Karolin Dietrich, Marie-Josée Dumont, Luis F Del Rio, Valérie Orsat
In emerging bioeconomies, the compostable biopolymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are desirable products due to their similarity to petropolymers. While industrial PHA production has been growing rapidly, obtaining a cheap and sustainable carbon source is still a challenge. Among biobased feedstocks, lignocellulose is a cheap, abundant and potentially sustainable carbon source. However, because of its recalcitrance, separation and depolymerization processes that have not reached industrial maturity are usually required...
November 19, 2018: New Biotechnology
Márcia R Couto, Eduardo J Gudiña, Débora Ferreira, José A Teixeira, Lígia R Rodrigues
Polymer flooding is one of the most promising techniques used to increase the productivity of mature oil reservoirs. Polymers reduce the mobility ratio of the injected water relative to the crude oil, improving the displacement of the entrapped oil and consequently, increasing oil recovery. Biopolymers such as xanthan gum have emerged as environmentally friendly alternatives to the chemical polymers commonly employed by the oil industry. However, in order to seek more efficient biomolecules, alternative biopolymers must be studied...
November 13, 2018: New Biotechnology
Nuno Torres Faria, Susana Marques, Frederico Castelo Ferreira, César Fonseca
Xylanases play a crucial role in the hydrolysis of xylan-rich hemicelluloses and have wide industrial applications in the fuel, food, feed and pulp and paper industries. The production of these enzymes at low cost is of paramount importance for their commercial deployment. Moesziomyces antarcticus PYCC 5048T and M. aphidis PYCC 5535T were screened for their ability to produce xylanolytic enzymes when grown on D-xylose, xylan (beechwood) and brewery's spent grain (BSG). The extracellular crude extracts produced were characterized and tested in xylan hydrolysis...
November 10, 2018: New Biotechnology
Petr Sedlacek, Eva Slaninova, Martin Koller, Jana Nebesarova, Ivana Marova, Vladislav Krzyzanek, Stanislav Obruca
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are microbial polyesters which accumulate as intracellular granules in numerous prokaryotes and mainly serve as storage materials; beyond this primary function, PHA also enhance the robustness of bacteria against various stress factors. We have observed that the presence of PHA in bacterial cells substantially enhances their ability to maintain cell integrity when suddenly exposed to osmotic imbalances. In the case of the non-halophilic bacterium Cupriavidus necator, the presence of PHA decreased plasmolysis-induced cytoplasmic membrane damage during osmotic up-shock, which subsequently enabled the cells to withstand subsequent osmotic downshock...
October 31, 2018: New Biotechnology
Antonino Baez, Amit Kumar, Ashish K Sharma, Eric D Anderson, Joseph Shiloach
Growing E. coli to high densities is a common strategy for biologicals production. The process is implemented by using complex or minimal media with different feeding strategies. To understand the effect of amino acids, E. coli B and K were grown at a steady state of 0.35 h-1 in glucose minimal medium with and without amino acids, while their metabolism, protein abundance and gene expression were compared. The results showed that amino acids promoted higher acetate excretion, higher fatty acid biosynthesis (K strain), repressed glucose uptake rate, and decreased expression of proteins associated with the TCA cycle, glyoxylate shunt and amino acid biosynthesis...
October 29, 2018: New Biotechnology
V C F Carvalho, E B Freitas, J C Fradinho, M A M Reis, A Oehmen
The phototrophic-enhanced biological phosphorus removal system (photo-EBPR) was recently proposed as an alternative photosynthetic process to conventional phosphorus removal. Previous work showed the possibility of obtaining a photo-EBPR system starting from a culture already enriched in polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). The present work evaluated whether the same could be achieved starting from conventional activated sludge. A sequencing batch reactor inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was fed with a mixture of acetate and propionate (75%:25%) and subjected to dark/light cycles to select a photo-EBPR system containing PAOs and photosynthetic organisms, the oxygen providers for the system...
October 24, 2018: New Biotechnology
Thomas D Loan, Christopher J Easton, Apostolos Alissandratos
Nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) are important synthetic targets with diverse applications in therapeutics and diagnostics. Enzymatic routes to NTPs from simple building blocks are attractive, however the cost and complexity of assembling the requisite mixtures of multiple enzymes hinders application. Here, we describe the use of an engineered E. coli cell-free lysate as an efficient readily-prepared multi-enzyme biocatalyst for the production of uridine triphosphate (UTP) from free ribose and nucleobase. Endogenous lysate enzymes are able to support the nucleobase ribosylation and nucleotide phosphorylation steps, while uridine phosphorylation and the production of ribose phosphates (ribose 1-phosphate, ribose 5-phosphate and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate) require recombinant enrichment of endogenous activities...
October 19, 2018: New Biotechnology
Birgit A Simell, Outi M Törnwall, Iiro Hämäläinen, H-Erich Wichmann, Gabriele Anton, Paul Brennan, Laurene Bouvard, Nadia Slimani, Aurelie Moskal, Marc Gunter, Kurt Zatloukal, Joel T Minion, Sirpa Soini, Michaela T Mayrhofer, Madeleine J Murtagh, Gert-Jan van Ommen, Mattias Johansson, Markus Perola
Biobank samples and data from studies of large prospective cohorts (LPC) represent an invaluable resource for health research. Efficient sharing and pooling of samples and data is a central pre-requisite for new advances in biomedical science. This requirement, however, is not compatible with the present scattered and traditional access governance structures, where legal and ethical frameworks often form an obstacle for effective sharing. Moreover, the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is demanding increasingly rigorous administration from all those organisations processing personal data...
October 17, 2018: New Biotechnology
I González-Domínguez, N Grimaldi, L Cervera, N Ventosa, F Gòdia
Polyethyleneimine (PEI) has been used extensively for transient gene expression (TGE) in mammalian cell cultures. However, the relationship between DNA/PEI complex preparation and their biological activity has not been fully established. Here, a systematic study of DNA/PEI complexes, their physicochemical properties during formation and their transfection efficiency was performed on a virus-like particle (VLP) production platform. The same chemically defined cell culture medium for DNA/PEI complex formation was used as an alternative to simple ionic solutions to minimize changes in complex properties during transfection...
October 3, 2018: New Biotechnology
Manuel Neves, Rita Azevedo, Luís Lima, Marta I Oliveira, Andreia Peixoto, Dylan Ferreira, Janine Soares, Elisabete Fernandes, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Carlos Palmeira, Sofia Cotton, Stefan Mereiter, Diana Campos, Luís Pedro Afonso, Ricardo Ribeiro, Avelino Fraga, Ana Tavares, Hélder Mansinho, Eurico Monteiro, Paula A Videira, Paulo P Freitas, Celso A Reis, Lúcio Lara Santos, Lorena Dieguez, José Alexandre Ferreira
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) originating from a primary tumour, lymph nodes and distant metastases hold great potential for liquid biopsies by providing a molecular fingerprint for disease dissemination and its temporal evolution through the course of disease management. CTC enumeration, classically defined on the basis of surface expression of Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) and absence of the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, has been shown to correlate with clinical outcome. However, existing approaches introduce bias into the subsets of captured CTCs, which may exclude biologically and clinically relevant subpopulations...
September 28, 2018: New Biotechnology
Žnidaršič-Plazl Polona, Zelić Bruno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
Gabriela Kalčíková, Gregor Marolt, Anita Jemec Kokalj, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
Extensive production of nanomaterials of various properties needs to be coupled with rapid toxicity testing in order to provide information about their potential risks to the environment and human health. Miniaturization of toxicity tests may accelerate economical testing of nanomaterials, but is not a common practice. We describe a case study to miniaturize a commonly used toxicity test with plant duckweed Lemna minor. 6-well, 12-well and 24-well culture plates were used to assess their potential use for the duckweed toxicity test with potassium chloride as reference material...
December 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
Nataša Miložič, Gorazd Stojkovič, Andreas Vogel, Dominique Bouwes, Polona Žnidaršič-Plazl
The industrial importance of optically pure compounds has thrown a spotlight on ω-transaminases that have shown a high potential for the synthesis of bioactive compounds with a chiral amine moiety. The implementation of biocatalysts in industrial processes relies strongly on fast and cost effective process development, including selection of a biocatalyst form and the strategy for its immobilization. Here, microscale reactors with selected surface-immobilized amine-transaminase (ATA) in various forms are described as platforms for high-throughput process development...
December 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
Ana C Fernandes, Benjamin Petersen, Lars Møller, Krist V Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
The need for fast and comprehensive characterization of biocatalysts has pushed the development of new screening platforms based on microfluidics, capable of monitoring several parameters simultaneously, with new configurations of liquid handling, sample treatment and sensing. Modular microfluidics allows the integration of these newly developed approaches in a more flexible way towards increasing applicability of the microfluidic chips to different types of biocatalysts and reactions. A highly relevant operation in such a system is biocatalyst inactivation, which can enable the precise control of reaction time by avoiding the continuation of the reaction in another module or connecting tubes...
December 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
Lucie Vobecká, Alexandr Romanov, Zdeněk Slouka, Pavel Hasal, Michal Přibyl
Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) were screened for the production of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) catalyzed by penicillin acylase, followed by the extractive separation of 6-APA from the reaction mixture. The key point of this study was to find an ATPS exhibiting a large difference in the partition coefficients of the biocatalyst and reaction products. Several ATPSs based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)/phosphate, PEG/citrate, and PEG/dextran were tested. We found that an ATPS consisting of 15 wt% of PEG 4000, 10 wt% of phosphates, 75 wt% of water (pH value 8...
December 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
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