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New Biotechnology

Alina Osmakova, Michael Kirpichnikov, Vladimir Popov
This paper addresses recent government initiatives in biotechnology and various federal and regional initiatives. It presents an overview of the most visible industrial biotechnology projects under implementation and highlights changes in legislation affecting development of the bioeconomy in the Russian Federation.
June 17, 2017: New Biotechnology
F Abbondanzi, G Biscaro, G Carvalho, L Favaro, P Lemos, M Paglione, C Samorì, C Torri
A new method based on the GC-MS analysis of thermolysis products obtained by treating bacterial samples at a high temperature (above 270°C) has been developed. This method, here named "In-Vial-Thermolysis" (IVT), allowed for the simultaneous determination of short-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (scl-PHA) content and composition. The method was applied to both single strains and microbial mixed cultures (MMC) fed with different carbon sources. The IVT procedure provided similar analytical performances compared to previous Py-GC-MS and Py-GC-FID methods, suggesting a similar application for PHA quantitation in bacterial cells...
June 4, 2017: New Biotechnology
Evgeniya Y Yuzbasheva, Elizaveta B Mostova, Natalia I Andreeva, Tigran V Yuzbashev, Ivan A Laptev, Tatiana I Sobolevskaya, Sergey P Sineoky
The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a convenient model for investigating lipid biosynthesis and for engineering high lipid accumulated strains. In this organism, the pentose phosphate pathway is the major source of NADPH for lipid biosynthesis. Thus, we over-expressed gene encoding NADP(+)-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (ZWF1) in a strain deficient in peroxisome biogenesis. However, this strategy suppressed growth during cultivation under lipogenic conditions and did not significantly increase lipid accumulation...
June 4, 2017: New Biotechnology
André Freches, Paulo C Lemos
Crude glycerol from biodiesel manufacture can be used as carbon source for microbial fermentations. The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by manipulating the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) selection stage of microbial mixed cultures (MMC) using high organic loading rates (OLR, 50CmM/day) and different cycles lengths (6, 12 and 24h) was optimized. Batch-production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) presented an accumulation capacity in the high range (0.44g/g) after 3 pulses of 50CmM, with a final content of 59% PHB/wt...
June 3, 2017: New Biotechnology
Joanna Dupont-Inglis, Agnes Borg
Five years following the publication of the EU Bioeconomy Strategy, this article discusses the state of play of the bioeconomy in Europe. Placing specific focus on Industrial Biotech, it outlines ten pragmatic recommendations from BIO-TIC [BIO-TIC, A roadmap to a thriving industrial biotechnology sector in Europe, 2015], an EU FP7 funded project completed in 2015 and coordinated by EuropaBio, comprehensively examining the hurdles to the development of a bioeconomy in Europe, enabled by industrial biotech. These include improving opportunities for feedstock producers within the bioeconomy; investigating the scope for using novel biomass; developing a workforce which can maintain Europe's competitiveness in industrial biotechnology; introducing a long-term, stable and transparent policy and incentive framework to promote the bioeconomy; improving public perception and awareness of industrial biotechnology and bio-based products; identifying, leveraging and building upon EU capabilities for pilot and demonstration facilities; promoting the use of co-products from processing; improving the bioconversion and downstream processing steps; improving access to financing for large-scale biorefinery projects; developing stronger relationships between conventional and non-conventional players...
June 3, 2017: New Biotechnology
Marco S Nicolò, Maria G Cambria, Giuseppe Impallomeni, Maria G Rizzo, Cinzia Pellicorio, Alberto Ballistreri, Salvatore P P Guglielmino
Pseudomonas strains produce rhamnolipid mixtures (RLs) that generally consist of one or two molecules of rhamnose linked to one or two molecules of 3-hydroxyalkanoic acid. This study evaluates carbon source effects (glycerol, glucose, myristic acid, and Brassica carinata oil) on the synthesis of monorhamnolipids (mono-RLs) versus dirhamnolipids (di-RLs) in a human isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAL05. Spectrophotometry, an emulsifying index (E24) test, and an orcinol assay confirmed the production of RLs by PAL05...
June 3, 2017: New Biotechnology
Anna Poon, Yu Zhang, Abinaya Chandrasekaran, Phetcharat Phanthong, Benjamin Schmid, Troels T Nielsen, Kristine K Freude
The rising prevalence of progressive neurodegenerative diseases coupled with increasing longevity poses an economic burden at individual and societal levels. There is currently no effective cure for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases and disease-affected tissues from patients have been difficult to obtain for research and drug discovery in pre-clinical settings. While the use of animal models has contributed invaluable mechanistic insights and potential therapeutic targets, the translational value of animal models could be further enhanced when combined with in vitro models derived from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and isogenic controls generated using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing...
June 2, 2017: New Biotechnology
Manfred Kircher, Roland Breves, Andreas Taden, Dennis Herzberg
The bioeconomy transforms the fossil-based economy by forming new value chains and linking until now distinct industrial sectors. It provides an opportunity for rural as well as industrialized regions. The transformation process can be accelerated by building bioeconomy clusters comprising industries, academia and investors. Using the model of the German cluster CLIB2021 the role of cluster organisations and professional cluster management in moderating the transformation process and gaining a competetive advantage is discussed...
May 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
Manuel Lainez, José Manuel González, Alfredo Aguilar, Carmen Vela
Spain launched its own strategy on bioeconomy in January 2016 aiming at boosting a bioeconomy based on the sustainable and efficient production and use of biological resources. It highlights global societal challenges related with agricultural and biotechnological sciences in Spain and the great dynamism of the private sectors involved, particularly the agri-food, biotech and biomass sectors. The targeted sectors are food, agriculture and forestry, conditioned by water availability. It also includes the production of those industrial bioproducts and bioenergy obtained from the use and valorisation of wastes and residues and other non-conventional sources of biomass, in a circular economy...
May 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
Andreas H Laustsen
In this review, the different approaches that have been employed with the aim of developing novel antivenoms against animal envenomings are presented and discussed. Reported efforts have focused on the use of innovative immunization strategies, small molecule inhibitors against enzymatic toxins, endogenous animal proteins with toxin-neutralizing capabilities, and recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Harnessing either of these approaches, antivenom development may benefit from an in-depth understanding of venom compositions and the medical importance of individual venom toxins...
May 24, 2017: New Biotechnology
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
Zdena Křesinová, Lucie Linhartová, Alena Filipová, Martin Ezechiáš, Pavel Mašín, Tomáš Cajthaml
The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus HK 35, which is also an edible industrial mushroom commonly cultivated in farms, was tested in the degradation of typical representatives of endocrine disrupters (EDCs; bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, triclosan and 4-n-nonylphenol); its degradation efficiency under model laboratory conditions was greater than 90% within 12 days and better than that of another published strain P. ostreatus 3004. A spent mushroom substrate from a local farm was tested for its applicability in various batch and trickle-bed reactors in degrading EDCs in model fortified and real communal wastewater...
May 11, 2017: New Biotechnology
Oriol Canals, Ramon Massana, Joan Lluís Riera, Vanessa Balagué, Humbert Salvadó
An in-depth, long-term, multidisciplinary study was conducted in order to study the microeukaryote community in a partial nitritation (PN) reactor prior to anammox. The PN reactor operated with moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) technology, using plastic supports (carriers) for biofilm development. The microeukaryote community from the biofilm (BF) and the surrounding media (mixed liquor or ML) were analysed separately. Despite the physicochemical conditions under which the PN-MBBR operated (an average of 305...
May 11, 2017: New Biotechnology
Jim Philp
During the Industrial Revolution, it became clear that wood was unsuited as an energy source for industrial production, especially iron smelting. However, the transition to coal was the effort of decades. Similarly, the transition from coal to oil was neither a smooth nor rapid process. The transition to an energy and materials production regime based on renewable resources can similarly be expected to be fraught with many setbacks and obstacles, technically and politically. Those earlier transitions, however, were not complicated by the so-called grand challenges faced today...
May 6, 2017: New Biotechnology
Víctor de Lorenzo, Markus Schmidt
The contribution of life sciences to the Knowledge-Based Bioeconomy (KBBE) asks for the transition of contemporary, gene-based biotechnology from being a trial-and-error endeavour to becoming an authentic branch of engineering. One requisite to this end is the need for standards to measure and represent accurately biological functions, along with languages for data description and exchange. However, the inherent complexity of biological systems and the lack of quantitative tradition in the field have largely curbed this enterprise...
May 4, 2017: New Biotechnology
Lyn L Kailing, Daniela Bertinetti, Friedrich W Herberg, Ioannis V Pavlidis
S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolases (SAHases) are important metabolic enzymes and their dysregulation is associated with some severe diseases. In vivo they catalyze the hydrolysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH), the by-product of methylation reactions in various organisms. SAH is a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases, thus its removal from the equilibrium is an important requirement for methylation reactions. SAH hydrolysis is also the first step in the cellular regeneration process of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)...
April 28, 2017: New Biotechnology
Georg Schütte
In recent years, the bioeconomy has established itself worldwide as a mainstay for achieving a sustainable economy. The targeted use of biological resources for industrial purposes can help to successfully reconcile ecology and economy in the long term. Like digitalization, biologization as the guiding principle of the bioeconomy has the potential to effect a fundamental change in industry. This change must be driven and supported by a committed research and innovation policy. The German Federal Government was one of the first governments worldwide to put the bioeconomy on its research policy agenda when it adopted the "National Research Strategy BioEconomy 2030" in 2010...
April 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
Christian Patermann, Alfredo Aguilar
This article outlines the context and circumstances that favoured the development of a Bioeconomy Strategy in the European Union (EU) and the role played by the different Framework programmes for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration. Particular attention is given to the biotechnology related programmes and more specifically to the "Cell Factory" Key Action in the 5th Framework Programme (1998-2002). This, together with the parallel development of a Strategy on Biotechnology in 2002, served as a solid foundation for the creation of the, at the time, so-called Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE)...
April 11, 2017: New Biotechnology
Sara F Sarkar, Jacquelyne S Poon, Etienne Lepage, Lori Bilecki, Benoit Girard
Science and innovation are important components underpinning the agricultural and agri-food system in Canada. Canada's vast geographical area presents diverse, regionally specific requirements in addition to the 21st century agricultural challenges facing the overall sector. As the broader needs of the agricultural landscape have evolved and will continue to do so in the next few decades, there is a trend in place to transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy, contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emission and our dependency on non-renewable resources...
April 11, 2017: New Biotechnology
Sofie Van Den Hende, André Rodrigues, Helen Hamaekers, Stanislaus Sonnenholzner, Han Vervaeren, Nico Boon
Treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent from a paper mill in aerated activated sludge reactors involves high aeration costs. Moreover, this calcium-rich effluent leads to problematic scale formation. Therefore, a novel strategy for the aerobic treatment of paper mill UASB effluent in microalgal bacterial floc sequencing batch reactors (MaB-floc SBRs) is proposed, in which oxygen is provided via photosynthesis, and calcium is removed via bio-mineralization. Based on the results of batch experiments in the course of this study, a MaB-floc SBR was operated at an initial neutral pH...
April 3, 2017: New Biotechnology
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