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New Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915060/special-issue-of-new-biotechnology-in-memory-of-professor-brian-f-c-clark-1936-2014
#1
EDITORIAL
Francesco Lescai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915059/a-process-for-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-production-from-municipal-wastewater-treatment-with-biological-carbon-and-nitrogen-removal-demonstrated-at-pilot-scale
#2
Simon Bengtsson, Anton Karlsson, Tomas Alexandersson, Luca Quadri, Markus Hjort, Peter Johansson, Fernando Morgan-Sagastume, Simon Anterrieu, Monica Arcos-Hernandez, Lamija Karabegovic, Per Magnusson, Alan Werker
A process was developed for biological treatment of municipal wastewater for carbon and nitrogen removal while producing added-value polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The process comprised steps for pre-denitrification, nitrification and post-denitrification and included integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) with biofilm carrier media to support nitrification. In a pilot-scale demonstration (500-800L), wastewater treatment performance, in line with European standards, were achieved for total chemical oxygen demand (83% removal) and total nitrogen (80% removal) while producing a biomass that was able to accumulate up to 49% PHA of volatile suspended solids with acetic acid or fermented organic residues as substrates...
November 30, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903429/polyhydroxyalkanoate-as-a-slow-release-carbon-source-for-in-situ-bioremediation-of-contaminated-aquifers-from-laboratory-investigation-to-pilot-scale-testing-in-the-field
#3
Lucia Pierro, Bruna Matturro, Simona Rossetti, Marco Sagliaschi, Salvatore Sucato, Eduard Alesi, Ernst Bartsch, Firoozeh Arjmand, Marco Petrangeli Papini
A pilot-scale study aiming to evaluate the potential use of poly-3-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) as an electron donor source for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater was conducted. Compared with commercially available electron donors, PHB offers a restricted fermentation pathway (i.e., through acetic acid and molecular hydrogen) by avoiding the formation of any residual carbon that could potentially spoil groundwater quality. The pilot study was carried out at an industrial site in Italy, heavily contaminated by different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)...
November 27, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902938/functional-components-of-the-bacterial-czccba-efflux-system-reduce-cadmium-uptake-and-accumulation-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants
#4
Andrea Nesler, Giovanni DalCorso, Elisa Fasani, Anna Manara, Gian Pietro Di Sansebastiano, Emanuele Argese, Antonella Furini
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace element released into the environment by industrial and agricultural practices, threatening the health of plants and contaminating the food/feed chain. Biotechnology can be used to develop plant varieties with a higher capacity for Cd accumulation (for use in phytoremediation programs) or a lower capacity for Cd accumulation (to reduce Cd levels in food and feed). Here we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing components of the Pseudomonas putida CzcCBA efflux system. Plants were transformed with combinations of the CzcC, CzcB and CzcA genes, and the impact on Cd mobilization was analysed...
November 27, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894932/microbial-stress-from-molecules-to-systems-sitges-november-2015
#5
Francesca Martani, Nadia Maria Berterame, Paola Branduardi
The meeting "Microbial Stress: from Molecules to Systems" - the third in this series - was held in Sitges (Spain) in November 2015. The meeting offered the opportunity for international scientists to share their viewpoints and recent outcomes concerning microbial stress responses. Particular attention was given to the characterisation of mechanisms triggered by stress, from detailed molecular biology through whole organism systems biology up to the level of populations. A deeper understanding of microbial responses to stress is indeed attainable only considering the phenomenon as a whole...
November 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884748/isolation-of-bacterial-strains-able-to-degrade-biphenyl-diphenyl-ether-and-the-heat-transfer-fluid-used-in-thermo-solar-plants
#6
Rafael Blanco-Moreno, Lara P Sáez, Víctor M Luque-Almagro, M Dolores Roldán, Conrado Moreno-Vivián
Thermo-solar plants use eutectic mixtures of diphenyl ether (DE) and biphenyl (BP) as heat transfer fluid (HTF). Potential losses of HTF may contaminate soils and bioremediation is an attractive tool for its treatment. DE- or BP-degrading bacteria are known, but up to now bacteria able to degrade HTF mixture have not been described. Here, five bacterial strains which are able to grow with HTF or its separate components DE and BP as sole carbon sources have been isolated, either from soils exposed to HTF or from rhizospheric soils of plants growing near a thermo-solar plant...
November 21, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810336/clinical-scale-expansion-of-cd34-cord-blood-cells-amplifies-committed-progenitors-and-rapid-scid-repopulation-cells
#7
Alba Casamayor-Genescà, Arnau Pla, Irene Oliver-Vila, Noèlia Pujals-Fonts, Sílvia Marín-Gallén, Marta Caminal, Irma Pujol-Autonell, Jorge Carrascal, Marta Vives-Pi, Joan Garcia, Joaquim Vives
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is associated with long periods of aplastic anaemia. This undesirable situation is due to the low cell dose available per unit of UCB and the immaturity of its progenitors. To overcome this, we present a cell culture strategy aimed at the expansion of the CD34(+) population and the generation of granulocyte lineage-committed progenitors. Two culture products were produced after either 6 or 14days of in vitro expansion, and their characteristics compared to non-expanded UCB CD34(+) controls in terms of phenotype, colony-forming activity and multilineage repopulation potential in NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null) mice...
October 31, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793692/strategies-for-efficiently-selecting-pha-producing-mixed-microbial-cultures-using-complex-feedstocks-feast-and-famine-regime-and-uncoupled-carbon-and-nitrogen-availabilities
#8
Catarina S S Oliveira, Carlos E Silva, Gilda Carvalho, Maria A Reis
Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by open mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) has been attracting increasing interest as an alternative technology to PHA production by pure cultures, due to the potential for lower costs associated with the use of open systems (eliminating the requirement for sterile conditions) and the utilisation of cheap feedstock (industrial and agricultural wastes). Such technology relies on the efficient selection of an MMC enriched in PHA-accumulating organisms. Fermented cheese whey, a protein-rich complex feedstock, has been used previously to produce PHA using the feast and famine regime for selection of PHA accumulating cultures...
October 25, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780757/heterologous-expression-of-the-human-phosphoenol-pyruvate-carboxykinase-hpepck-m-improves-hydrogen-and-ethanol-synthesis-in-the-escherichia-coli-dcud-mutant-when-grown-in-a-glycerol-based-medium
#9
Antonio Valle, Gema Cabrera, Domingo Cantero, Jorge Bolivar
The production of biodiesel has emerged as an alternative to fossil fuels. However, this industry generates glycerol as a by-product in such large quantities that it has become an environmental problem. The biotransformation of this excess glycerol into other renewable bio-energy sources, like H2 and ethanol, by microorganisms such as Escherichia coli is an interesting possibility that warrants investigation. In this work we hypothesized that the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) could be improved by a controlled expression of the human mitochondrial GTP-dependent PEP carboxykinase...
October 22, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737801/insulin-like-plant-proteins-as-potential-innovative-drugs-to-treat-diabetes-the-moringa-oleifera-case-study
#10
P C Paula, J T A Oliveira, D O B Sousa, B G T Alves, A F U Carvalho, O L Franco, I M Vasconcelos
Various plant species have long been used in traditional medicine worldwide to treat diabetes. Among the plant-based compounds with hypoglycemic properties, studies on insulin-like proteins isolated from leaves, fruits and seeds are rarely reported in the relevant literature. Our research group has been investigating the presence of insulin-like proteins in Moringa oleifera, a plant species native to India, and we have obtained a leaf protein isolate and semi-purified derived fractions, as well as a seed coat protein fraction (Mo-SC), with hypoglycemic activity in chemically induced diabetic mice that have increased tolerance to orally administered glucose...
October 10, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721014/genetically-encoding-new-bioreactivity
#11
Lei Wang
The genetic code can be expanded to include unnatural amino acids (Uaas) by engineering orthogonal components involved in protein translation. To be compatible with live cells, side chains of Uaas have been limited to either chemically inert or bio-orthogonal (i.e., nonreactive toward biomolecules) functionalities. To introduce bioreactivity into live systems, the genetic code has recently been engineered to encode a new class of Uaas, the bioreactive Uaas. These Uaas, after being incorporated into proteins, specifically react with target natural amino acid residues via proximity-enabled bioreactivity, enabling the selective formation of new covalent linkages within and between proteins both in vitro and in live systems...
October 6, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686395/plant-assisted-bioremediation-of-a-historically-pcb-and-heavy-metal-contaminated-area-in-southern-italy
#12
Valeria Ancona, Anna Barra Caracciolo, Paola Grenni, Martina Di Lenola, Claudia Campanale, Angelantonio Calabrese, Vito Felice Uricchio, Giuseppe Mascolo, Angelo Massacci
A plant-assisted bioremediation strategy was applied in an area located in Southern Italy, close to the city of Taranto, historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals. A specific poplar clone (Monviso) was selected for its ability to promote organic pollutant degradation in the rhizosphere, as demonstrated elsewhere. Chemical and microbiological analyses were performed at the time of poplar planting in selected plots at different distances from the trunk (0.25-1m) and at different soil depths (0-20 and 20-40cm), at day 420...
September 26, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664793/the-celebration-of-40-years-of-structural-biology-at-aarhus-university-as-seen-through-the-eyes-of-a-translationalist
#13
William C Merrick
Over the past 50 years, both Brian Clark and I have worked on tRNA, Brian more successfully than I. Our common interests have established collaborations and the training of Aarhus University students in my laboratory. As part of my rejuvenation plan, I have returned to Aarhus and participated in teaching a course in protein synthesis about every five years, beginning in 1990. It has been through this close contact with both Brian and the numerous faculty of the structural biology group that I have been able to witness and appreciate the great strides they have made, both in building a world class department and in the ground breaking discoveries that went with them...
September 21, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620529/rhizobacteria-and-plant-symbiosis-in-heavy-metal-uptake-and-its-implications-for-soil-bioremediation
#14
Dana Luminița Sobariu, Daniela Ionela Tudorache Fertu, Mariana Diaconu, Lucian Vasile Pavel, Raluca-Maria Hlihor, Elena Niculina Drăgoi, Silvia Curteanu, Markus Lenz, Philippe François-Xavier Corvini, Maria Gavrilescu
Certain species of plants can benefit from synergistic effects with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that improve plant growth and metal accumulation, mitigating toxic effects on plants and increasing their tolerance to heavy metals. The application of PGPR as biofertilizers and atmospheric nitrogen fixators contributes considerably to the intensification of the phytoremediation process. In this paper, we have built a system consisting of rhizospheric Azotobacter microbial populations and Lepidium sativum plants, growing in solutions containing heavy metals in various concentrations...
September 9, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769866/effect-of-carbon-pulsing-on-the-redox-household-of-lactobacillus-diolivorans-in-order-to-enhance-1-3-propanediol-production
#15
Katharina Anna Lindlbauer, Hans Marx, Michael Sauer
This study investigates potential limitations of 1,3-propanediol formation by Lactobacillus diolivorans. Particular focus is given to enhanced glycerol utilization as well as the elimination of by-product formation. The key aspect is a modulation of the redox household by process engineering through the application of carbon pulses. A shift in the product pattern of C3 products was achieved, improving the ratio of 1,3-propanediol versus 3-hydroxypropionic acid up to a level of 20:1. Moreover, in combination with alternative feeding strategies this ratio was enhanced up to 45:1 and the maximum observed productivity of 1,3-propanediol could be significantly increased to 1...
January 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765680/investigation-of-relationship-between-2-3-butanediol-toxicity-and-production-during-growth-of-paenibacillus-polymyxa
#16
Christopher Chukwudi Okonkwo, Victor Ujor, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka Ezeji
Understanding the capacity of Paenibacillus polymyxa DSM 365 to tolerate increasing concentrations of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) is critical to engineering a 2,3-BD-overproducing strain. Hence, we investigated the response of P. polymyxa to high 2,3-BD concentrations. In fed-batch cultures (6-L bioreactor) 2,3-BD was accumulated to a maximum concentration of 47g/L despite the presence of residual 13g/L glucose in the medium. Concomitantly, accumulation of acetoin, the precursor of 2,3-BD increased after maximum 2,3-BD concentration was reached, suggesting that 2,3-BD was reconverted to acetoin after the concentration tolerance threshold of 2,3-BD was exceeded...
January 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720861/a-burkholderia-sacchari-cell-factory-production-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-xylitol-and-xylonic-acid-from-xylose-rich-sugar-mixtures
#17
Rodrigo S Raposo, M Catarina M D de Almeida, M da Conceição M A de Oliveira, M Manuela da Fonseca, M Teresa Cesário
Efficient production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB)) based on glucose-xylose mixtures simulating different types of lignocellulosic hydrolysate (LCH) was addressed using Burkholderia sacchari, a wild strain capable of metabolizing both sugars and producing P(3HB). Carbon catabolite repression was avoided by maintaining glucose concentration below 10g/L. Xylose concentrations above 30g/L were inhibitory for growth and production. In fed-batch cultivations, pulse size and feed addition rate were controlled in order to reach high productivities and efficient sugar consumptions...
January 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717878/insights-into-selenite-reduction-and-biogenesis-of-elemental-selenium-nanoparticles-by-two-environmental-isolates-of-burkholderia-fungorum
#18
Nazanin Seyed Khoei, Silvia Lampis, Emanuele Zonaro, Kim Yrjälä, Paolo Bernardi, Giovanni Vallini
Microorganisms capable of transforming toxic selenium oxyanions into non-toxic elemental selenium (Se°) may be considered as biocatalysts for the production of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), eventually exploitable in different biotechnological applications. Two Burkholderia fungorum strains (B. fungorum DBT1 and B. fungorum 95) were monitored during their growth for both capacity and efficiency of selenite (SeO3(2-)) reduction and elemental selenium formation. Both strains are environmental isolates in origin: B...
January 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224675/a-one-stage-cultivation-process-for-the-production-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate-from-olive-mill-wastewater-by-haloferax-mediterranei
#19
Diya Alsafadi, Othman Al-Mashaqbeh
Olive mill wastewater (OMW), a highly polluting waste from the olive oil industry, was utilized as sole carbon source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by extremely halophilic Haloferax Mediterranei (H. mediterranei) in a one stage cultivation step. H. mediterranei showed remarkable cell growth and tolerated the inhibitory effect of polyphenols present in medium containing 25% of OMW. H. mediterranei cultivation conditions were optimized in medium containing 15% OMW by investigating several parameters that affect the production of PHA...
January 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184619/bt-cotton-and-employment-effects-for-female-agricultural-laborers-in-pakistan
#20
Shahzad Kouser, Abedullah, Matin Qaim
The literature about economic and social impacts of Bt cotton adoption on farm households in developing countries is growing. Yet, there is still uncertainty about wider implications of this technology for rural development, including effects for landless rural laborers. Bt-related yield advantages may lead to intensified production and higher demand for labor. Building on farm survey data collected in Pakistan and using double-hurdle regression models, we analyze employment effects of Bt cotton adoption. Model estimates show that Bt adoption has increased the demand for hired labor by 55%...
January 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
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