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New Biotechnology

Leonie Marang, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Robbert Kleerebezem
To enrich polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing microbial communities, generally, a feast-famine regime is applied. Here we investigated the impact of continuous substrate feeding on the enrichment of PHA-producing bacteria in two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). In the first reactor, the substrate (acetate) was dosed continuously and Zoogloea sp. was enriched. The culture accumulated PHA upon exposure to excess carbon, but the PHA production rate and storage capacity (53wt.%) were one-fifth of that observed for enrichment cultures in a standard, pulse-fed SBR dominated by the PHA producer Plasticicumulans acidivorans...
December 5, 2017: New Biotechnology
Birgitte Zeuner, Jan Muschiol, Jesper Holck, Mateusz Lezyk, Mattias Raae Gedde, Carsten Jers, Jørn Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Anne S Meyer
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) constitute a unique family of bioactive lactose-based molecules present in human breast milk. HMOs are of major importance for infant health and development but also virtually absent from bovine milk used for infant formula. Among the HMOs, the fucosylated species are the most abundant. Transfucosylation catalysed by retaining α-L-fucosidases is a new route for manufacturing biomimetic HMOs. Seven α-L-fucosidases from glycosyl hydrolase family 29 were expressed, characterized in terms of substrate specificity and thermal stability, and shown to be able to catalyse transfucosylation...
December 5, 2017: New Biotechnology
Hoang-Anh T Tu, Eleanor P Dobson, Luke C Henderson, Colin J Barrow, Jacqui L Adcock
Specialized pro-resolving mediators are lipid signaling molecules synthesized from omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which promote the resolution of the inflammatory response. They are potential drug targets for the treatment of numerous conditions linked with uncontrolled inflammation. Many of these mediators can be effectively synthesized using enzymes, such as lipoxygenases. However, these enzymes are expensive to purchase and can be difficult to isolate. In this work, we show that commercial soy flour can be used directly as a source of lipoxygenase for the biosynthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediators from DHA and other biologically important fatty acids...
November 29, 2017: New Biotechnology
Adiphol Dilokpimol, Miia R Mäkelä, Simona Varriale, Miaomiao Zhou, Gabriella Cerullo, Loknath Gidijala, Harri Hinkka, Joana L A Brás, Peter Jütten, Alexander Piechot, Raymond Verhaert, Kristiina S Hildén, Vincenza Faraco, Ronald P de Vries
Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are a diverse group of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds between a hydroxycinnamic (e.g. ferulic) acid and plant poly- or oligosaccharides. FAEs as auxiliary enzymes significantly assist xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzymes in gaining access to their site of action during biomass saccharification for biofuel and biochemical production. A limited number of FAEs have been functionally characterized compared to over 1000 putative fungal FAEs that were recently predicted by similarity-based genome mining, which divided phylogenetically into different subfamilies (SFs)...
November 23, 2017: New Biotechnology
Ju Yeon Lee, Arifur Rahman, Juliana Behrens, Conor Brennan, Baknoon Ham, Hyung Seok Kim, Chu Won Nho, Seong-Taek Yun, Hossain Azam, Man Jae Kwon
The potential of microbial processes for removal of major nutrients (e.g., N, P) and inorganic cations (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+) from hydroponic systems was investigated. Microbial consortium- and axenic culture-based experiments were conducted in a waste nutrient solution (WNS). A microbial consortium grown in the WNS and selected microalgae species of Paracercomonas saepenatans were inoculated in two different synthetic media (Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) and synthetic WNS) in batch systems, and the microbial growth characteristics and the rate and extent of nutrient removal were determined for each system...
November 21, 2017: New Biotechnology
Alessandro Presentato, Elena Piacenza, Max Anikovskiy, Martina Cappelletti, Davide Zannoni, Raymond J Turner
The wide anthropogenic use of selenium compounds represents the major source of selenium pollution worldwide, causing environmental issues and health concerns. Microbe-based strategies for metal removal/recovery have received increasing interest thanks to the association of the microbial ability to detoxify toxic metal/metalloid polluted environments with the production of nanomaterials. This study investigates the tolerance and the bioconversion of selenite (SeO32-) by the aerobically grown Actinomycete Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1 in association with its ability to produce selenium nanoparticles and nanorods (SeNPs and SeNRs)...
November 21, 2017: New Biotechnology
Felipe Marques Souza de Oliveira, Stefan Mereiter, Peter Lönn, Benjamin Siart, Qiujin Shen, Johan Heldin, Doroteya Raykova, Niclas Karlsson, Karol Polom, Franco Roviello, Celso A Reis, Masood Kamali-Moghaddam
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein activities to help orchestrate and fine-tune cellular processes. Dysregulation of PTMs is often related with disorders and malignancies, and may serve as a precise biomarker of disease. Developing sensitive tools to measure and monitor low-abundant PTMs in tissue lysates or serum will be instrumental for opening up new PTM-based diagnostic avenues. Here, we investigate the use of solid-phase proximity ligation assay (SP-PLA) for detection of different PTMs...
October 31, 2017: New Biotechnology
Jennifer McGinnis, Brian K Kay
Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF2) plays an important role in mammalian cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair. Its activation is dependent on the sequential phosphorylation of residue threonine 71 (T71) followed by threonine 69 (T69) in its transactivation domain. While these modifications can be directed by a variety of kinases, the time to reach full phosphorylation is dependent on which signaling pathway has been activated, which is thought to be important for proper temporal regulation. To explore this phenomenon further, there have been ongoing efforts to generate affinity reagents for monitoring phosphorylation events in cellular assays...
October 26, 2017: New Biotechnology
Adiphol Dilokpimol, Miia R Mäkelä, Gabriella Cerullo, Miaomiao Zhou, Simona Varriale, Loknath Gidijala, Joana L A Brás, Peter Jütten, Alexander Piechot, Raymond Verhaert, Vincenza Faraco, Kristiina S Hilden, Ronald P de Vries
4-O-Methyl-d-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) is a side-residue of glucuronoarabinoxylan and can form ester linkages to lignin, contributing significantly to the strength and rigidity of the plant cell wall. Glucuronoyl esterases (4-O-methyl-glucuronoyl methylesterases, GEs) can cleave this ester bond, and therefore may play a significant role as auxiliary enzymes in biomass saccharification for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. GEs belong to a relatively new family of carbohydrate esterases (CE15) in the CAZy database (www...
October 16, 2017: New Biotechnology
Claus Wasternack, Miroslav Strnad
Jasmonates (JAs) are signals in plant stress responses and development. One of the first observed and prominent responses to JAs is the induction of biosynthesis of different groups of secondary compounds. Among them are nicotine, isoquinolines, glucosinolates, anthocyanins, benzophenanthridine alkaloids, artemisinin, and terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), such as vinblastine. This brief review describes modes of action of JAs in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, nicotine, TIAs, glucosinolates and artemisinin...
October 7, 2017: New Biotechnology
Nikolaos Pantidos, Matthew C Edmundson, Louise Horsfall
In nanoparticle production there are a number of important considerations that must be made. Producing nanoparticles of uniform size and shape is vital, but no less important is ensuring the production process is as efficient as possible in time, cost and energy. Traditional chemical and physical methods of nanoparticle production often involve high temperatures and pressures, as well as the use of toxic substrates; in contrast the bioproduction of nanoparticles is greener and requires a smaller input of energy resources...
October 7, 2017: New Biotechnology
Danilo Elton Evangelista, Evandro A de Araújo, Mario Oliveira Neto, Marco Antonio Seiki Kadowaki, Igor Polikarpov
Among the structural polymers present in the plant cell wall, pectin is the main component of the middle lamella. This heterogeneous polysaccharide has an α-1,4 galacturonic acid backbone, which can be broken by the enzymatic action of pectinases, such as exo-polygalacturonases, that sequentially cleave pectin from the non-reducing ends, releasing mono or di-galacturonic acid residues. Constant demand for pectinases that better suit industrial requirements has motivated identification and characterization of novel enzymes from diverse sources...
October 6, 2017: New Biotechnology
Kristine Rose M Ramos, Kris Niño G Valdehuesa, Grace M Nisola, Won-Keun Lee, Wook-Jin Chung
Research on the enzymatic breakdown of seaweed-derived agar has recently gained attention due to the progress in green technologies for marine biomass utilization. The enzymes known as agarases catalyze the cleavage of glycosidic bonds within the polysaccharide. In this study, a new β-agarase, Aga2, was identified from Cellulophaga omnivescoria W5C. Aga2 is one of four putative agarases from the W5C genome which belong to the glycoside hydrolase 16 family. It was shown to be exclusive to the Cellulophaga genus...
September 26, 2017: New Biotechnology
Daniel Foshag, Erik Henrich, Ekkehard Hiller, Miriam Schäfer, Christian Kerger, Anke Burger-Kentischer, Irene Diaz-Moreno, Sofía M García-Mauriño, Volker Dötsch, Steffen Rupp, Frank Bernhard
Protein production using processed cell lysates is a core technology in synthetic biology and these systems are excellent to produce difficult toxins or membrane proteins. However, the composition of the central lysate of cell-free systems is still a "black box". Escherichia coli lysates are most productive for cell-free expression, yielding several mgs of protein per ml of reaction. Their preparation implies proteome fractionation, resulting in strongly biased and yet unknown lysate compositions. Many metabolic pathways are expected to be truncated or completely removed...
September 21, 2017: New Biotechnology
Daniela Huber, Adrianna Grzelak, Martina Baumann, Nicole Borth, Gerhard Schleining, Gibson S Nyanhongo, Georg M Guebitz
A bioactive O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel crosslinked with natural phenolics with potential application in wound dressings was synthesized using a laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila (MTL). The highest degree of cross-linking (49.7%) was achieved with catechol. All the phenolic-CMCS hydrogels synthesized showed excellent anti-oxidant properties with a free radical scavenging activity up to 4-fold higher than in the absence of the phenolics, as quantified by the di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) assay...
September 18, 2017: New Biotechnology
Arturo Blázquez Navarro, Francesco Lescai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
Shivashkar Singh, Lakshmi Manjoosha Adapa, Nicholas Hankins
In this study, the effects of common wastewater stimulants, namely NH4Cl and KH2PO4, on the development and performance of metalworking fluid biofilm bioreactors are presented. It is shown that biofilms flourished only when one of these components was present in limiting quantities. Biofilm yields significantly declined when both of the components were withheld from the bioreactors or when both components were provided in excess. Stimulations to the reactors using NH4Cl significantly reduced the total carbon removal performance, while stimulations using KH2PO4 resulted in significant increases in performance...
October 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
Felix Krujatz, Anja Lode, Julia Seidel, Thomas Bley, Michael Gelinsky, Juliane Steingroewer
The diversity and complexity of biotechnological applications are constantly increasing, with ever expanding ranges of production hosts, cultivation conditions and measurement tasks. Consequently, many analytical and cultivation systems for biotechnology and bioprocess engineering, such as microfluidic devices or bioreactors, are tailor-made to precisely satisfy the requirements of specific measurements or cultivation tasks. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the possibility of fabricating tailor-made 3D laboratory equipment directly from CAD designs with previously inaccessible levels of freedom in terms of structural complexity...
October 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
Giovanna Siracusa, Simone Becarelli, Roberto Lorenzi, Alessandro Gentini, Simona Di Gregorio
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are hazardous soil contaminants for which a bio-based technology for their recovery is essential. The objective of this study was to validate the exploitation of spent mushroom substrate (SMS), a low or null cost organic waste derived from the industrial production of P. ostreatus, as bulking agent in a dynamic biopile pilot plant. The SMS shows potential oxidative capacity towards recalcitrant compounds. The aim was consistent with the design of a process of oxidation of highly chlorinated PCBs, which is independent from their reductive dehalogenation...
October 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
Agata Motyka, Sabina Zoledowska, Wojciech Sledz, Ewa Lojkowska
Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium spp. are etiological agents of soft rot on crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. They also cause blackleg on potato. These pectinolytic phytopathogens are responsible for significant economic losses, mostly within the potato production sector. Importantly, there are no methods to eradicate these microorganisms once they have infected plant material. Solely preventive measures remain, including early detection and identification of the pathogens, monitoring of their spread in addition to planting certified seed material tested for latent infections...
October 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
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