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New Biotechnology

Claus Wasternack, Miroslav Strnad
Jasmonates (JAs) are signals in plant stress responses and development. One of the first observed and prominent responses to JAs is the induction of biosynthesis of different groups of secondary compounds. Among them are nicotine, isoquinolines, glucosinolates, anthocyanins, benzophenanthridine alkaloids, artemisinin, and terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), such as vinblastine. This brief review describes modes of action of JAs in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, nicotine, TIAs, glucosinolates and artemisinin...
October 7, 2017: New Biotechnology
Nikolaos Pantidos, Matthew C Edmundson, Louise Horsfall
In nanoparticle production there are a number of important considerations that must be made. Producing nanoparticles of uniform size and shape is vital, but no less important is ensuring the production process is as efficient as possible in time, cost and energy. Traditional chemical and physical methods of nanoparticle production often involve high temperatures and pressures, as well as the use of toxic substrates; in contrast the bioproduction of nanoparticles is greener and requires a smaller input of energy resources...
October 7, 2017: New Biotechnology
Danilo Elton Evangelista, Evandro A de Araújo, Mario Oliveira Neto, Marco Antonio Seiki Kadowaki, Igor Polikarpov
Among the structural polymers present in the plant cell wall, pectin is the main component of the middle lamella. This heterogeneous polysaccharide has an α-1,4 galacturonic acid backbone, which can be broken by the enzymatic action of pectinases, such as exo-polygalacturonases, that sequentially cleave pectin from the non-reducing ends, releasing mono or di-galacturonic acid residues. Constant demand for pectinases that better suit industrial requirements has motivated identification and characterization of novel enzymes from diverse sources...
October 6, 2017: New Biotechnology
Kristine Rose M Ramos, Kris Niño G Valdehuesa, Grace M Nisola, Won-Keun Lee, Wook-Jin Chung
Research on the enzymatic breakdown of seaweed-derived agar has recently gained attention due to the progress in green technologies for marine biomass utilization. The enzymes known as agarases catalyze the cleavage of glycosidic bonds within the polysaccharide. In this study, a new β-agarase, Aga2, was identified from Cellulophaga omnivescoria W5C. Aga2 is one of four putative agarases from the W5C genome which belong to the glycoside hydrolase 16 family. It was shown to be exclusive to the Cellulophaga genus...
September 26, 2017: New Biotechnology
Daniel Foshag, Erik Henrich, Ekkehard Hiller, Miriam Schäfer, Christian Kerger, Anke Burger-Kentischer, Irene Diaz-Moreno, Sofía M García-Mauriño, Volker Dötsch, Steffen Rupp, Frank Bernhard
Protein production using processed cell lysates is a core technology in synthetic biology and these systems are excellent to produce difficult toxins or membrane proteins. However, the composition of the central lysate of cell-free systems is still a "black box". Escherichia coli lysates are most productive for cell-free expression, yielding several mgs of protein per ml of reaction. Their preparation implies proteome fractionation, resulting in strongly biased and yet unknown lysate compositions. Many metabolic pathways are expected to be truncated or completely removed...
September 21, 2017: New Biotechnology
Daniela Huber, Adrianna Grzelak, Martina Baumann, Nicole Borth, Gerhard Schleining, Gibson S Nyanhongo, Georg M Guebitz
A bioactive O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel crosslinked with natural phenolics with potential application in wound dressings was synthesized using a laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila (MTL). The highest degree of cross-linking (49.7%) was achieved with catechol. All the phenolic-CMCS hydrogels synthesized showed excellent anti-oxidant properties with a free radical scavenging activity up to 4-fold higher than in the absence of the phenolics, as quantified by the di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) assay...
September 18, 2017: New Biotechnology
Fabrizio Di Caprio, Pietro Altimari, Francesca Pagnanelli
The influence of Ca(2+) concentration on the growth of the microalga Scenedesmus sp. in heterotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivations was investigated. Heterotrophic growth was induced by the addition of olive mill wastewaters (9% v·v(-1)) to the culture. Variations in the calcium concentration affected differently biomass production depending on whether microalgae were cultivated under heterotrophic or photoautotrophic regime. In photoautotrophic regime, increasing the calcium concentration from 20 to 230mg/L decreased maximum cell concentration and growth rate...
September 14, 2017: New Biotechnology
Renata N Florindo, Valquiria P Souza, Hemily S Mutti, Cesar Camilo, Lívia Regina Manzine, Sandro R Marana, Igor Polikarpov, Alessandro S Nascimento
β-glucosidases are glycoside hydrolases able to cleave small and soluble substrates, thus producing monosaccharides. These enzymes are distributed among families GH1, GH2, GH3, GH5, GH9, GH30 and GH116, with GH1 and GH3 being the most relevant families with characterized enzymes to date. A recent transcriptomic analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum, known for its increased β-glucosidase activity as compared to Trichoderma reesei, revealed two enzymes from family GH1 with high expression levels. Here we report the cloning, recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of these enzymes, ThBgl1 and ThBgl2...
September 6, 2017: New Biotechnology
Aza Kobakhidze, Vladimir Elisashvili, Philippe F-X Corvini, Monika Čvančarová
Methylphenidate is widely used as a medication for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Less than 1% of methylphenidate is excreted unchanged in urine, while 80% of an oral dose is excreted as ritalinic acid (which is reportedly poorly degradable). This study aims to investigate the biotransformation of ritalinic acid by free and immobilized enzymes. The influence of various laccase mediators on biotransformation efficiency has been tested. Formation of the main transformation products has been monitored and their potential structures suggested...
August 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Monika Čvančarová, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Philippe F-X Corvini, Danuta Cichocka
The consumption of nootropic drugs has increased tremendously in the last decade, though the studies on their environmental fate are still scarce. Nootropics are bioactive compounds designed to alter human's physiology therefore the adverse effects towards wildlife can be expected. In order to understand their environmental impact, the knowledge on their transformation pathways is necessary. Methylphenidate belongs to the most prescribed neuro-enhancers and is among the most favored smart drugs used in non-medical situations...
August 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
Diogo A M Alexandrino, Inês Ribeiro, Luís M Pinto, Rafael Cambra, Rui S Oliveira, Filipe Pereira, Maria F Carvalho
This work focused on the biodegradation of three structurally related fluoroacetates (FAs), mono- (MFA), di- (DFA) and trifluoroacetate (TFA), using as microbial inocula samples collected from a site with a long history of industrial contamination and activated sludge obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Biodegradation experiments were carried out under different modes of substrate supplementation, which included (i) FAs fed as sole carbon sources; (ii) FAs (only for DFA and TFA) fed in co-metabolism with sodium acetate; and (iii) mixtures of MFA with DFA or TFA...
August 26, 2017: New Biotechnology
Gilda Carvalho, Inês Pedras, Soren M Karst, Catarina S S Oliveira, Anouk F Duque, Per H Nielsen, Maria A M Reis
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers that can be produced by mixed microbial cultures using wastes or industrial by-products, which represent an economical and environmental advantage over pure culture processes. The use of alternate feedstocks enables using seasonal by-products, providing that the process is resilient to transient conditions. The mixed microbial communities of a 3-stage PHA producing system fed initially with molasses and then cheese whey were investigated through amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
August 21, 2017: New Biotechnology
Ruiyan Wang, Qin Cao, Qiuwei Zhao, Yin Li
With its vast population of over 1.4 billion, China is predicted soon to become the biggest single-country market in the world. The large population offers not only immense economic opportunity but also poses serious challenges related to resource depletion, pollution, and environmental degradation. To solve these burgeoning problems, biotechnology appears to be particularly well-positioned, since the Chinese government and large Chinese companies provide strong support towards the development of this field in terms both of policy and finance...
August 19, 2017: New Biotechnology
Rubén Vicente, Rafael Martínez-Carrasco, Pilar Pérez, Rosa Morcuende
The use of correlation networks and hierarchical cluster analysis provides a framework to organize and study the coordination of parameters such as genes, metabolites, proteins and physiological parameters. We have analyzed 142 traits from primary C and N metabolism, including biochemical and gene expression analyses, in a range of 32 different growth conditions (various [CO2] levels, temperatures, N supplies, growth stages and experimental methods). To test the integration of primary metabolism, particularly under climate change, we investigated which C and N metabolic traits and transcript levels are correlated in durum wheat flag leaves using a correlation network and a hierarchical cluster analysis...
August 18, 2017: New Biotechnology
J Valdés, G Kutralam-Muniasamy, B Vergara-Porras, R Marsch, F Pérez-Guevara, M R López-Cuellar
Many heterologous transformation studies have been carried out using the Cupriavidus necator PHB(-4) strain to investigate the expression characteristics of various polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase enzymes. In this study, we generated a recombinant C. necator PHB(-4) strain by transforming a plasmid (pMRC03) harbouring the synthetic phaC2 gene of Pseudomonas putida CA-3. Under conditions favourable for expression of the phaC2 P.putCA-3 gene, canola oil was used as carbon source for the synthesis of PHAs...
August 18, 2017: New Biotechnology
Alicia Paz, David Outeiriño, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira, José Manuel Domínguez
Bacillus aryabhattai BA03, a strain isolated in our laboratory, has interesting properties related to the production of natural aromas and flavors. Specifically, we have found that it was able to produce vanillin from ferulic acid (FA). Furthermore, this strain produces high amounts of 4-vinylguaiacol in only 14h, this being the only intermediate metabolite observed in the process. FA is an inexpensive feedstock for the production of natural value-added compounds when extracted from lignocellulosic wastes. In this study, we optimized the operational conditions (temperature, pH and agitation), medium composition and bioconversion technology (batch or fed-batch) to produce vanillin...
August 9, 2017: New Biotechnology
Thierry Stadler, Jean-Marie Chauvet
The cluster's policy initiated in France in 2005 was a formidable opportunity to boost innovation in the bioeconomy and to develop innovation platforms allowing industrial demonstration and feasibility at technology readiness level (TRL) from 5 to 9. The IAR Cluster (Industries and Agro-Resources), based in the Hauts-de-France and Grand Est regions is completely dedicated to the bioeconomy. IAR's work has contributed to build a complete innovation ecosystem on bioeconomy by opening up relationships between actors along the full value chain...
August 8, 2017: New Biotechnology
Francis Jingxin Hu, Anna-Luisa Volk, Helena Persson, Anna Säll, Carl Borrebaeck, Mathias Uhlen, Johan Rockberg
Surface display couples genotype with a surface exposed phenotype and thereby allows screening of gene-encoded protein libraries for desired characteristics. Of the various display systems available, phage display is by far the most popular, mainly thanks to its ability to harbour large size libraries. Here, we describe the first use of a Gram-positive bacterial host for display of a library of human antibody genes which, when combined with phage display, provides ease of use for screening, sorting and ranking by flow cytometry...
August 1, 2017: New Biotechnology
Shivashkar Singh, Lakshmi Manjoosha Adapa, Nicholas Hankins
In this study, the effects of common wastewater stimulants, namely NH4Cl and KH2PO4, on the development and performance of metalworking fluid biofilm bioreactors are presented. It is shown that biofilms flourished only when one of these components was present in limiting quantities. Biofilm yields significantly declined when both of the components were withheld from the bioreactors or when both components were provided in excess. Stimulations to the reactors using NH4Cl significantly reduced the total carbon removal performance, while stimulations using KH2PO4 resulted in significant increases in performance...
October 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
Felix Krujatz, Anja Lode, Julia Seidel, Thomas Bley, Michael Gelinsky, Juliane Steingroewer
The diversity and complexity of biotechnological applications are constantly increasing, with ever expanding ranges of production hosts, cultivation conditions and measurement tasks. Consequently, many analytical and cultivation systems for biotechnology and bioprocess engineering, such as microfluidic devices or bioreactors, are tailor-made to precisely satisfy the requirements of specific measurements or cultivation tasks. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the possibility of fabricating tailor-made 3D laboratory equipment directly from CAD designs with previously inaccessible levels of freedom in terms of structural complexity...
October 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
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