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BMB Reports

Incheol Ryu, Yoon Ki Kim
In mammals, cap-dependent translation of mRNAs is initiated by two distinct mechanisms: CBC-dependent translation (CT) and eIF4E-dependent translation (ET). Both translation initiation mechanisms share common features in driving cap-dependent translation; nevertheless, they can be distinguished from each other based on their molecular features and biological roles. CT is largely associated with mRNA surveillance, whereas ET is predominantly involved in the bulk of protein synthesis. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that CT and ET have similar roles in translational regulation...
January 16, 2017: BMB Reports
Sun-Uk Bak, Suji Kim, Hae-Jun Hwang, Yun Jung-A, Wan-Sung Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Ji-Yoon Kim, Kwon-Soo Ha, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Heme oxygenase (HO-1) catalyzes heme to carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin/bilirubin, and iron. It prevents the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Here we assessed the beneficial effect of heme degradation products on osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with CORM-2 (a CO donor) and bilirubin, but not with iron, decreased RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, with CORM-2 having a more potent anti-osteogenic effect. CORM-2 also inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic resorption activity in marrow-derived macrophages...
January 16, 2017: BMB Reports
Hye-Jin Jung, Seung-Soon Im, Dae-Kyu Song, Jae-Hoon Bae
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a major phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and is implicated in its atherogenic activity. This study investigated the effects of LPC on cell viability, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and the protective mechanisms of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). LPC increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores and via Ca2+ influx through store-operated channels (SOCs). LPC also increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased cell viability...
January 16, 2017: BMB Reports
Soonok Kim, Yun Sung Cho, Jong Bhak, Stephen J O'Brian, Joo-Hong Yeo
Recent advances in genome sequencing technologies enabled humans produce and investigate wild species genomes. This included a very large family of cats such as tiger, lion, and leopard. We have performed an in-depth comparative analysis to identify the genomic signatures in the evolution of felid to become the top carnivore predators on land. Our focus was on how carnivore genomes, compared to omnivore or herbivore, shared evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with nutrient metabolism, muscle strength, agility, and other traits responsible for hunting and meat digestion...
January 2, 2017: BMB Reports
Heegwon Shin, Jungmin Lee, Youngmi Kim, Seonghui Jang, Takbum Ohn, Younghoon Lee
Brain cytoplasmic 200 RNA (BC200 RNA) is a neuron-specific non-coding RNA that has been implicated in the inhibition of local synaptodendritic protein synthesis. It is also highly expressed in some cancer cells. Although BC200 RNA has been shown to inhibit translation in vitro, the cellular location of this inhibition was previously unknown. In this study, we used a BC200 RNA-recognizing antibody to identify the cellular locations of BC200 RNA in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. We observed punctate signals in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, and further found that BC200 RNA colocalized with the p-body decapping enzyme, DCP1A, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E2 (hnRNP E2)...
January 2, 2017: BMB Reports
Haemin Kim, Yong Deok Lee, Min Kyung Kim, Jun-Oh Kwon, Min-Kyoung Song, Zang Hee Lee, Hong-Hee Kim
Patients with inflammatory bone disease or cancer have an increased risk of fractures and delayed healing of bones. S100A4 protein is a member of the calcium-binding S100 protein family, which is abundantly expressed in inflammatory diseases and cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of extracellular S100A4 on osteoblasts, cells responsible for bone formation. Treatment of mouse primary calvarial osteoblasts with recombinant S100A4 resulted in reductions in matrix mineralization. The expression of osteoblast marker genes including osteocalcin and osterix was also suppressed...
December 21, 2016: BMB Reports
Kiyoung Eun, Seok-Won Ham, Hyunggee Kim
Most of cancers still remain to be incurable human diseases. According to recent findings, especially targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) is the most issued therapeutic strategy. CSCs take charge of a cancer hierarchy, harboring stem cell-like properties involving self-renewal and aberrant differentiation potential. Most of all, presence of CSCs is closely associated with tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance. Despite the numerous efforts to target CSCs, current anti-cancer therapies are still impeded by CSC-derived cancer malignancies; increased metastases, recurrence, and even acquired resistance after the anti-CSC therapies developed in experimental models...
December 20, 2016: BMB Reports
Kyungseop Ahn
Natural product drugs, or botanical drugs, are drugs composed of natural substances which has constituent and efficacy. In Korea, government-led projects brought attention to botanical drugs invigorating domestic botanical drug industry. Foreign markets, as well, are growing bigger as the significance of botanical drugs stood out. To follow along with the tendency, Korea puts a lot of effort on developing botanical drugs suitable for global market. However, standards on approving drug sales varies by countries...
December 20, 2016: BMB Reports
Min Hee Park, Namoh Kim, Hee Kyung Jin, Hee Kyung Bae
Ovariectomy-induced bone loss is related to an increased deposition of osteoclasts on bone surfaces. We reported that the 36-amino-acid-long neuropeptide Y (NPY) could mobilize hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood by regulating HSPC maintenance factors and that mobilization of HSPCs ameliorated low bone density in an ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis mouse model by reducing the number of osteoclasts. Here, we demonstrated that new NPY peptides, recombined from the cleavage of the full-length NPY, showed better functionality for HSPC mobilization than the full-length peptide...
December 20, 2016: BMB Reports
Da Hyun Lee, Jeong Su Park, Yu Seol Lee, Su Haeng Sung, Yong-Ho Lee, Soo Han Bae
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) provides cellular defense against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. The calcium antagonist verapamil is an FDA-approved drug prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. Here, we show that verapamil acts as a potent Nrf2 activator without causing cytotoxicity through degradation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an Nrf2 repressor. Furthermore, verapamil-induced Keap1 degradation is prominently mediated by a p62-dependent autophagic pathway...
December 20, 2016: BMB Reports
Mi Hye Song, Varun Sasidharan Nair, Kwon Ik Oh
Previously, we reported that vitamin C facilitates the CpG demethylation of Foxp3 enhancer in CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) by enhancing the activity of a DNA demethylase ten-eleven-translocation (Tet). However, it is not clear whether vitamin C affects other helper T cell lineages like T helper type 17 (Th17) cells which are related with Tregs. Here, we show that the expression of interleukin-17A (IL17) increases with the treatment of vitamin C but not with other antioxidants. Interestingly, the upregulation of IL17 was not accompanied by DNA demethylation in Il17 promoter and was independent of Tet enzymes...
December 9, 2016: BMB Reports
Sunhwa Oh, Hyungjoo Kim, KeeSoo Nam, Incheol Shin
Elevated glucose levels in cancer cells can be attributed to increased levels of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins. Glut1 expression is increased in human malignant cells. To investigate alternative roles of Glut1 in breast cancer, we silenced Glut1 in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system. Glut1 silencing was verified by Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Knockdown of Glut1 resulted in decreased cell proliferation, glucose uptake, migration, and invasion through modulation of the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway and integrin β1/Src/FAK signaling pathways...
December 9, 2016: BMB Reports
Myoung Sup Shim, Keun-Young Kim, Won-Kyu Ju
Glaucoma is characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of optic nerve, including retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the optic nerve head (ONH), leading to visual impairment. Despite the high prevalence, the biological basis of glaucoma pathogenesis still is not yet fully understood, and the factors contributing to its progression are currently not well characterized. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor, and reduction of IOP is the standard treatment for glaucoma. However, lowering IOP itself is not always effective for preserving visual function in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma...
December 5, 2016: BMB Reports
Jung-Soon Mo
The Hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in adult tissue homeostasis and organ size control. In Drosophila and vertebrates, it consists of a highly conserved kinase cascade, which involve MST and Lats that negatively regulate the activity of downstream transcription coactivators, YAP and TAZ. Through its interaction with TEADs and other transcription factors, they mediate both proliferative and antiapoptotic gene expression and thus regulate tissue repair and regeneration. Dysregulation or mutation of the Hippo pathway is linked to tumorigenesis and cancer development...
December 5, 2016: BMB Reports
Hyo Rim Ko, Inwoo Hwang, So Yoon Chang, Yun Sil Kim, Won Soon Park, Jee-Yin Ahn
P48 Ebp1 is expressed in rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells and accelerates cell growth and survival. However, its expression pattern and role in central nervous system development have not been studied. Here, we demonstrated the spatiotemporal expression pattern of p48 Ebp1 during embryonic development and the postnatal period. During embryonic development, p48 Ebp1 was highly expressed in the brain. Expression gradually decreased after birth but was still more abundant than p42 expression after birth...
December 5, 2016: BMB Reports
Wantae Kim, Sanjoy Kumar Khan, Yingzi Yang
Acquiring a selective growth advantage by breaking the proliferation barrier established by gatekeeper genes is a centrally important event in tumor formation. Removal of mammalian Hippo kinase Mst1 and Mst2 in hepatocytes leads to very rapid hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) formation, indicating that the Hippo signaling pathway is a critical gatekeeper in hepatocytes that restrains abnormal growth. By rigorous genetic approaches, we have identified an interacting network of the Hippo, Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways that controls organ size and HCC development...
November 24, 2016: BMB Reports
Younghwa Kim, Yoon-Jae Jeon, Kang Ryu, Tae-Yoon Kim
Recently, we demonstrated that superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) is a strong biomedicine candidate. SOD3 accomplished anti-oxidant function without cell penetration and inhibited inflammatory responses via non-enzymatic functions. SOD3 has the heparin binding domain associating cell surface. Interestingly, we have found that Zn2+ promotes transduction effects of recombinant human SOD3 (rhSOD3) by increasing uptake via heparin binding domain (HBD). We showed an uptake of rhSOD3 from media to cell lysate via HBD, resulting in an accumulation of rhSOD3 into the nucleus, which is promoted by the presence of Zn2+...
November 24, 2016: BMB Reports
Ok-Hee Kim, Hyojung Kim, Jinku Kang, Dongki Yang, Yu-Hoi Kang, Dae Ho Lee, Gi Jeong Cheon, Sang Chul Park, Byung-Chul Oh
Accumulation of tissue macrophages is a significant characteristic of disease-associated chronic inflammation, and facilitates the progression of disease pathology. However, the functional roles of these bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in aging are unclear. Here, we identified age-dependent macrophage accumulation in the bone marrow, showing that aging significantly increases the number of M1 macrophages and impairs polarization of BMDMs. We found that age-related dysregulation of BMDMs is associated with abnormal overexpression of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10...
November 18, 2016: BMB Reports
Jong Sub Lee, Dong Woo Song, Jei Hyoung Park, Jin Ock Kim, Chunghee Cho, Do Han Kim
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential cytokine that has functions in the formation of new blood vessels and regression of cardiac hypertrophy. VEGF/VEGF-receptor-1(VEGFR1) signaling plays a key role in the regression of cardiac hypertrophy, whereas VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling leads to cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we identified the prohypertrophic role of miR-374 using neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Our results showed that overexpression of miR-374 activated G protein-coupled receptor-mediated prohypertrophic pathways by the inhibition of VEGFR1-dependent regression pathways...
November 2, 2016: BMB Reports
Changhoon Kim
The human reference genome, maintained by the Genome Reference Consortium, is conceivably the most complete genome assembly ever, since its first construction. It has continually been improved by incorporating corrections made to the previous assemblies, thanks to various technological advances. Many currently-ongoing population sequencing projects have been based on this reference genome, heightening hopes of the development of useful medical applications of genomic information, thanks to the recent maturation of high-throughput sequencing technologies...
December 2016: BMB Reports
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