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BMB Reports

Eunjoo Cho, Euna Lee, Eun Young Kim
The circadian clock system enables organisms to anticipate the rhythmic environmental changes and to manifest behavior and physiology at advantageous times of day. Transcriptional/translational feedback loop (TTFL) is the basic feature of eukaryotic circadian clock and is based on the rhythmic association of circadian transcriptional activator and repressor. In Drosophila, repression of dCLOCK/CYCLE (dCLK/CYC) mediated transcription by PERIOD (PER) is critical for inducing circadian rhythms of gene expression...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
Dong-Hee Choi, Jin-Hee Ahn, In-Ae Choi, Ji-Hye Kim, Bo-Ram Kim, Jongmin Lee
Recent evidence indicates that the ephrin receptors and ephrin ligands (Eph/ephrin) expression modulates axonal reorganization and synaptic plasticity in stroke recovery. To investigate the effect of task-specific training (TST) on Eph/ephrin expression in the corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke, we compared Eph/ephrin expression in the peri-infarct cortex, pyramid, and spinal cord of the photothrombotic stroke rats treated with or without TST. The TST treatment showed significantly better recovery in the behavioral tests...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
Jiae Kim, Su-Min Kim, Jung-Min Na, Hoh-Gyu Hahn, Sung-Woo Cho, Seung-Ju Yang
We recently reported the anti-inflammatory effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792) on the ATP-induced activation of the NFAT and MAPK pathways through the P2X7 receptor in microglia. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of KHG26792, we studied its protective effects on hypoxia-induced toxicity in microglia. The administration of KHG26792 significantly reduced the hypoxia-induced expression and activity of caspase-3 in BV-2 microglial cells. KHG26792 also reduced hypoxia-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression, which correlated with reduced nitric oxide accumulation...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
RyeonJin Cho, You-Sun Kim, Ji-Young Kim, Yeon-Mok Oh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Emphysema, a pathologic component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, causes irreversible destruction. Many researchers have reported that mesenchymal stem cells can regenerate lung tissue after emphysema. METHODS: We evaluated if spheroid human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) showed greater regenerative effects than dissociated ASCs in elastase-induced emphysema mice. ASCs were administered via an intrapleural route. RESULTS: Mice injected with spheroid ASCs showed improved regeneration of lung tissue, increased expression of growth factors such as FGF2 and HGF, and a reduction in proteases with an induction of protease inhibitors when compared with mice injected with dissociated ASCs...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
Nambin Yim, Chulhee Choi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural carriers of biomolecules that play central roles in cell-to-cell communications. Based on this, there have been many attempts to use EVs as therapeutic drug carriers. Various macromolecules, from chemical reagents to nucleic acids, were successfully loaded into EVs; however, loading of proteins with high molecular weight has been huddled with several problems. Purification of recombinant proteins is expensive and time consuming, and easily results in modification of proteins by physical or chemical forces...
October 13, 2016: BMB Reports
Huyen-Thi Tran, Seon-Hwa Lee, Thien-Hoang Ho, Seung-Hye Hong, Kim-Hung Huynh, Yeh-Jin Ahn, Deok-Kun Oh, Lin-Woo Kang
The fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is important for both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in life. Class II (zinc dependent) FBA is an attractive target for the development of antibiotics against protozoa, bacteria, and fungi and also widely used to produce various high-value stereoisomers in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. In this study, crystal structures of class II Escherichia coli FBA (EcFBA) were determined from four different crystals with resolutions between 1.8 Å and 2.0 Å. Native EcFBA structures showed two separate sites of Zn1 (interior position) and Zn2 (active site surface position) for Zn2+ ion...
October 13, 2016: BMB Reports
Woonjung Kim, Jongjin Jung
Polymer brushes are the soft material units tethered covalently on the surface of scaffolds, which induce the functional and structural modification of a substrate's properties. Due to its facile fabrication, usability of various polymers, ECM (extracellular matrix)-like structural features, and in vivo stability, this surface coating approach has attracted special attentions in the fields of stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Here, we summarized polymer brush-based grafting approaches comparing SAM (self-assembled monolayer)-based coating method in addition to physico-chemical characterization techniques of surfaces such as wettability, stiffness/elasticity, roughness, and chemical composition mainly affecting cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
Ji-Hoi Moon, Jae-Hyung Lee
Human oral cavity contains a highly personalized microbiome that is essential to maintaining health but capable of causing oral and systemic diseases. Thus, an in-depth definition of "healthy oral microbiome" is critical to understanding variations in disease states from preclinical conditions and disease onset through progressive states of disease. With rapid advances in DNA sequencing and analytical technologies, population-based studies have documented the ranges and diversity of both taxonomic compositions and functional potentials observed in the oral microbiome in healthy individuals...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
Jihoon Shin, Hong-Duk Youn
In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), cell cycle regulation is deeply connected to pluripotency. Especially, core transcription factors (CTFs) which are essential to maintain the pluripotency transcription programs should be reset during M/G1 transition. However, it remains unknown about how CTFs are governed during cell cycle progression. Here, we describe that the regulation of Oct4 by Aurora kinase b (Aurkb)/protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) axis during the cell cycle is important for resetting Oct4 to pluripotency and cell cycle related target genes in determining the identity of ESCs...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
Jong-Joo Lee, Mikyoung Kim, Hyoung-Pyo Kim
Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a nuclear matrix-associated DNA-binding protein that functions as a chromatin organizer. SATB1 is highly expressed in aggressive breast cancer cells and promotes growth and metastasis by reprograming gene expression. Through genome-wide cross-examination of gene expression and histone methylation, we identified SATB1 target genes for which expression is associated with altered epigenetic marks. Among the identified genes, long noncoding RNA urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) was upregulated by SATB1 depletion...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
Wern-Joo Sohn, Jae-Young Kim, Dongbum Kim, Jeong-A Park, Younghee Lee, Hyung-Joo Kwon
Transmembrane and coiled-coil domain family 3 (TMCC3) has been reported to be expressed in the human brain; however, its function is still unknown. Here, we found that expression of TMCC3 is higher in human whole brain, testis and spinal cord compared to other human tissues. TMCC3 was expressed in mouse developing hind brain, lung, kidney and somites, with strongest expression in the mesenchyme of developing tongue. By expression of recombinant TMCC3 and its deletion mutants, we found that TMCC3 proteins self-assemble to oligomerize...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
Sunshin Kim, Ho Jin Sung, Ji Won Lee, Yun Hee Kim, Yong-Seok Oh, Kyong-Ah Yoon, Kyun Heo, Pann-Ghill Suh
The tubby protein (Tub), a putative transcription factor, plays important roles in the maintenance and function of neuronal cells. A splicing defect-causing mutation in the 3'-end of the tubby gene, which is predicted to disrupt the carboxy-terminal region of the Tub protein, causes maturity-onset obesity, blindness and deafness in mouse. Although this pathological Tub mutation leads to a loss of function, the precise mechanism has not yet been investigated. Here, we found that the mutant Tub were mostly localized to puncta found in the perinuclear region, and that the C-terminus was important for its solubility...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
Dan-Dan Dong, Hui Zhou, Gao Li
GPR78 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that is predominantly expressed in human brain tissues. Currently, the function of GPR78 is unknown. In this study, we found that GPR78 was expressed in lung cancer cells and functioned as a novel regulator of lung cancer cell migration and metastasis. We found that knockdown of GPR78 in lung cancer cells suppressed cell migration. Moreover, GPR78 modulated the formation of actin stress fibers in A549 cells in a RhoA- and Rac1-dependent manner. At a molecular level, GPR78 regulated cell motility through the activation of Gαq-RhoA/Rac1 pathway...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
Hyemin Min, Esther Youn, Ichiro Kawasaki, Yhong-Hee Shim
High-dose caffeine uptake is a developmental stressor and causes food-avoidance behavior (aversion phenotype) in C. elegans, but its mode of action is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of the caffeine-induced aversion behavior in C. elegans. We found that aversion phenotype induced by 30 mM caffeine was mediated by JNK/MAPK pathway, serotonergic and dopaminergic neuroendocrine signals. In this process, the dopaminergic signaling appears to be the major pathway because the reduced aversion behavior in cat-2 mutants and mutants of JNK/MAPK pathway genes was significantly recovered by pretreatment with dopamine...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
Shengfu Shen, Tiing Jen Loh, Hongling Shen, Xuexiu Zheng, Haihong Shen
Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a new and effective genetic editing tool. CRISPR was initially found in bacteria to protect it from virus invasions. In the first step, specific DNA strands of virus are identified by guide RNA that is composed of crRNA and tracrRNA. Then RNAse III is required for producing crRNA from pre-crRNA. In The second step, a crRNA:tracrRNA:Cas9 complex guides RNase III to cleave target DNA. After cleavage of DNA by CRISPR-Cas9, DNA can be fixed by Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) and Homology Directed Repair (HDR)...
September 12, 2016: BMB Reports
Dong-Hyeon Shin, Joung-Woo Hong
The short gastrulation (sog) shadow enhancer directs early and late sog expression in the neurogenic ectoderm and the ventral midline of the developing Drosophila embryo, respectively. Here, evidence is presented that the sog primary enhancer also has both activities, with the late enhancer activity dependent on the early activity. Computational analyses showed that the sog primary enhancer contains five Dorsal (Dl)-, four Zelda (Zld)-, three Bicoid (Bcd)-, and no Single-minded (Sim)-binding sites. In contrast to many ventral midline enhancers, the primary enhancer can direct lacZ expression in the ventral midline as well as in the neurogenic ectoderm without a canonical Sim-binding site...
September 5, 2016: BMB Reports
Hyo Sang Jo, Duk-Soo Kim, Eun Hee Ahn, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Su Bin Cho, Jung Hwan Park, Chi Hern Lee, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Christine Seok Young Chung, Sung-Woo Cho, Kyu Hyung Han, Jinseu Park, Won Sik Eum, Soo Young Choi
Oxidative stress is closely associated with various diseases and is considered to be a major factor in ischemia. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) protein is a known antioxidant protein that plays a protective role in various cells against oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of cell permeable Tat-NQO1 protein on hippocampal HT-22 cells and in an animal ischemia model. Tat-NQO1 protein transduced into HT-22 cells and significantly inhibited against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death and cellular toxicities...
August 30, 2016: BMB Reports
Ju-Seog Lee
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has compiled genomic, epigenomic, and proteomic data from more than 10,000 samples derived from 33 types of cancer, aiming to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer development. Availability of these genome-wide information provides an unprecedented opportunity for uncovering new key regulators of signaling pathways or new roles of pre-existing members in pathways. To take advantage of the advancement, it will be necessary to learn systematic approaches that can help to uncover potential biomarkers reflecting genetic alterations, prognosis, or response to treatments...
August 17, 2016: BMB Reports
Jin-Young Yang, Mi-Na Kweon
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, two closely linked metabolic disorders, is increasing worldwide. Over the past decade, the connection between these disorders and the microbiota of the gut has become a major focus of biomedical research, with recent studies demonstrating the fundamental role of intestinal microbiota in the regulation and pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. Because of the complexity of the microbiota community, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which the gut microbiota is associated with metabolic disorders remain poorly understood...
August 17, 2016: BMB Reports
Tiing Jen Loh, Heegyum Moon, Ha Na Jang, Yongchao Liu, Namjeong Choi, Shengfu Shen, Darren Reece Williams, Da-Woon Jung, Xuexiu Zheng, Haihong Shen
CD44 pre-mRNA includes 20 exons, among which exons1-5 (C1-C5) and exons16-20 (C6-C10) are constant exons, whereas exons 6-15 (V1-V10) are variant exons. V6 exon containing isoforms has been known to be implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we performed SR protein screen for CD44 V6 splicing using overexpression and lentivirus-mediated shRNA treatment. Using CD44 V6 minigene, we demonstrate that increased SRSF3 and SRSF4 expression do not affect V6 splicing, but increased expression of SRSF1, SRSF6 and SRSF9 inhibit V6 splicing significantly...
August 17, 2016: BMB Reports
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