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BMB Reports

So-Mi Kang, Min-Ho Yoon, Bum-Joon Park
Lamin A and its alternative splicing product Lamin C are the key intermediate filaments (IFs) of the inner nuclear membrane intermediate filament. Lamin A/C forms the inner nuclear mesh with Lamin B and works as a frame with a nuclear shape. In addition to supporting the function of nucleus, nuclear lamins perform important roles such as holding the nuclear pore complex and chromatin. However, mutations on the Lamin A or Lamin B related proteins induce various types of human genetic disorders and diseases including premature aging syndromes, muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy and neuropathy...
May 16, 2018: BMB Reports
Young Chan Chae, Jae Ho Kim
Increasing evidence suggests that cancer stem cell (CSC) theory represents an important mechanism underlying the observed failure of existing therapeutic modalities to fully eradicate cancers. In addition to their more established role in maintaining minimal residual disease after treatment and forming the new bulk of the tumor, CSCs might also critically contribute to tumor recurrence and metastasis. For this reason, specific elimination of CSCs may thus represent one of the most important treatment strategies...
May 16, 2018: BMB Reports
Sujeong Kwon, Eun Ji E Kim, Seung-Jae V Lee
Mitochondria are crucial organelles that generate cellular energy and metabolites. Recent studies indicate that mitochondria also regulate immunity. In this review, we discuss key roles of mitochondria in immunity against pathogen infection and underlying mechanisms, focusing on discoveries using Caenorhabditis elegans. Various mitochondrial processes, including mitochondrial surveillance mechanisms, mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), mitophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, contribute to immune responses and resistance of C...
May 16, 2018: BMB Reports
Jinyoung Park, Eun Joo Song
Aurora B is an important kinase involved in dynamic cellular events in mitosis. Aurora B activity is controlled by several post-translational modifications (PTMs). Among them, E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated ubiquitination plays crucial roles in controlling the relocation and degradation of Aurora B. Aurora B, ubiquitinated by different E3 ligases, moves to the exact site for its mitotic function during metaphase-anaphase transition and is then degraded for cell cycle progression at the end of mitosis. However, how the stability of Aurora B is maintained until its degradation has been poorly understood...
May 16, 2018: BMB Reports
Jung-Min Koh
We identified osteoclast-derived SLIT3 as a new coupling factor using fractionated secretomics. Coupling links bone resorption to bone formation. SLIT3 stimulated the recruitment and proliferation of osteoblasts into bone remodeling sites via activation of β-catenin. Autocrine signaling by SLIT3 also inhibited bone resorption by suppressing the fusion and differentiation of pre-osteoclasts. All mice lacking Slit3 or its receptor Robo1 showed an osteopenic phenotype with low bone formation and high bone resorption...
May 16, 2018: BMB Reports
Zhiguo Wang, Hong Luo, Zehui Fang, Yanling Fan, Xiaojuan Liu, Yujing Zhang, Shuping Rui, Yafeng Chen, Luojia Hong, Jincheng Gao, Mei Zhang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most common hematological malignancies all around the world. MicroRNAs have been determined to contribute various cancers initiation and progression, including AML. Although microRNA-204 (miR-204) exerts anti-tumor effects in several kinds of cancers, its function in AML remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed miR-204 expression in AML blood samples and cell lines. We also investigated the effects of miR-204 on cellular function of AML cells and the underlying mechanisms of the action of miR-204...
May 16, 2018: BMB Reports
Sun-Hye Jeong, Dae-Sik Lim
NAFLD induces the development of advanced liver diseases such as NASH and liver cancer. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of NAFLD development is critical for its prevention and treatment. Ablation of PTEN or Hippo pathway components induces liver cancer in a murine model by hyperactive AKT or YAP/TAZ, respectively. Although the regulation of these two pathways occurs in the same hepatocyte, the details of crosstalk between Hippo-YAP/TAZ and PTEN-AKT pathways in liver homeostasis and tumorigenesis still remain unclear...
April 27, 2018: BMB Reports
Do-Hyun Kim, Je-Min Choi
Chitinase-Like Proteins (CLPs) are an evolutionarily conserved protein which lose their enzymatic activity for degrading chitin macromolecules. Chitinase-3-like-1 (Chi3l1) is a type of CLP that is highly expressed in epithelial cells, macrophages, etc., and is known to have correlations with type 2 inflammation and cancer. Although the increased level of Chi3l1 in the blood was reported in various disease patients, the function of Chi3l1 in adaptive immunity has been totally unknown. Recently, we found that Chi3l1 is expressed in T cells and has a negative regulatory role in T-cell activation and proliferation...
April 27, 2018: BMB Reports
Hyundong Jo, Ha Young Jang, Gi Soo Youn, Donggyu Kim, Chae Yeon Lee, Jae Hee Jang, Soo Young Choi, Jong-Gab Jun, Jinseu Park
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) transactivator of transcription (Tat) is an important viral factor in neuro-inflammation. Hindsiipropane B, present in Celastrus hindsii, possesses various biological mechanisms including anti-inflammatory activity. In this report, we explored the regulatory activity of hindsiipropane B on HIV-1 Tat-mediated chemokine production and its mode of action in astrocytes. Hindsiipropane B significantly alleviated HIV-1 Tat-mediated production of inflammatory chemokines, CCL2, CXCL8, and CXCL10...
April 27, 2018: BMB Reports
Seoyoung Park, Jung Hoon Lee, Min Jae Lee
Tau protein is encoded in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene and contributes to the stability of microtubules in axons. Despite of its basic isoelectric point and high solubility, tau is often found in intraneuronal filamentous inclusions such as paired helical filaments (PHFs), which are the primary constituent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). This pathological feature is the nosological entity termed "tauopathies" which notably include Alzheimer's disease (AD). A proteinaceous signature of all tauopathies is hyperphosphorylation of the accumulated tau, which has been extensively studied as a major pharmacological target for AD therapy...
April 17, 2018: BMB Reports
Young Sik Cho
Necroptosis is an emerging form of programmed cell death occurring via active and well-regulated necrosis, distinct from apoptosis morphologically, and biochemically. Necroptosis is mainly unmasked when apoptosis is compromised in response to cell stress. Unlike apoptotic cells, which are cleared by macrophages or neighboring cells, necrotic cells release danger signals, triggering inflammation, and exacerbating tissue damage. Evidence increasingly suggests that programmed necrosis is not only associated with pathophysiology of disease, but also induces innate immune response to viral infection...
April 11, 2018: BMB Reports
Seong-Deok Lee, Kyung-Lee Yu, Seong-Hyun Park, Yu-Mi Jung, Ji Chang You
The activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 belongs to the ATF/CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding bZIP (Basic Leucine Zipper)) transcription factor family, and plays a central role in the UPR (Unfolded Protein Response) process in cells. The induction of ATF4 expression has previously been shown to increase the replication of HIV-1. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this effect and the factors involved in the regulation of ATF4 function are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate first that knocking out ATF4 using siRNA shows a strong negative effect on HIV-1 production, indicating that ATF4 is a functional positive cellular factor in HIV-1 production...
April 11, 2018: BMB Reports
Xiaochang Chen, Yunmei Sun, Rui Cai, Guoqiang Wang, Xiaoyan Shu, Weijun Pang
Previously considered as a component of transcriptional noise, long noncoding RNAs ( lncRNAs) were neglected as a therapeutic target, however, recently increasing evidence has shown that lncRNAs can participate in numerous biological processes involved in genetic regulation including epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional regulation. In this review, we discuss the fundamental functions of lncRNAs at different regulatory levels and their roles in metabolic balance. Typical examples are introduced to illustrate their diverse molecular mechanisms...
April 11, 2018: BMB Reports
Byoung-Doo Lee, Joon-Yung Cha, Mi Ri Kim, Nam-Chon Paek, Woe-Yeon Kim
CONSTANS (CO) induces the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in the photoperiodic pathway, and thereby regulates the seasonal timing of flowering. CO expression is induced and CO protein is stabilized by FLAVIN-BINDING KELCH REPEAT F-BOX PROTEIN 1 (FKF1) in the late afternoon, while CO is degraded by CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) during the night. These regulatory cascades were thought to act independently. In our study, we investigated the relationship between FKF1 and COP1 in the regulation of CO stability in response to ambient light conditions...
March 27, 2018: BMB Reports
Young-Kyoung Lee, Eui-Yeun Yi, Shi-Young Park, Won-Jun Jang, Yu-Seon Han, Myeong-Eun Jegal, Yung-Jin Kim
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are often observed in various cancer types. Although the correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and cancer malignancy has been demonstrated by several studies, further research is required to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying accelerated tumor development and progression due to mitochondrial mutations. We generated an mtDNA-depleted cell line, ρ0, via long-term ethidium bromide treatment to define the molecular mechanisms of tumor malignancy induced by mitochondrial dysfunction...
March 27, 2018: BMB Reports
Jaesung Seo, Hyun Jung Kee, Hae-Ji Choi, Jae Eun Lee, Soo-Yeon Park, Seung-Hyun Lee, Mi-Hyeon Jeong, Garam Guk, SooYeon Lee, Kyung-Chul Choi, Yoon Young Choi, Hyunki Kim, Sung Hoon Noh, Ho-Geun Yoon, Jae-Ho Cheong
Wntless/GPR177 functions as WNT ligand carrier protein and activator of WNT/β-catenin signaling, however, its molecular role in gastric cancer (GC) has remained elusive. We investigated the role of GPR177 in gastric tumorigenesis and provided the therapeutic potential of a clinical development of anti-GPR177 monoclonal antibodies. GPR177 mRNA expression was assessed in GC transcriptome data sets (GSE15459, n=184; GSE66229, n=300); protein expression was assessed in independent patient tumor tissues (Yonsei TMA, n=909)...
March 20, 2018: BMB Reports
Seong-Hyun Park, Kyung-Lee Yu, Yu-Mi Jung, Seong-Deok Lee, Ji Chang You
Transcription termination factor-1 (TTF-I) is an RNA polymerase 1-mediated transcription terminator and consisting of a C-terminal DNA-binding domain, central domain, and N-terminal regulatory domain. This protein binds to a so-called 'Sal box' composed of an 11-base pair motif. The interaction of TTF-I with the 'Sal box' is important for many cellular events, including efficient termination of RNA polymerase-1 activity involved in pre-rRNA synthesis and formation of a chromatin loop. To further understand the role of TTF-I in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-I virus production, we generated various TTF-I mutant forms...
March 20, 2018: BMB Reports
Ohseong Kwon, Youngsik Seo, Heonyong Park
Pinosylvin is known to have anti-inflammatory activity in endothelial cells. In this study, we found that pinosylvin had a pro-apoptotic activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-preconditioned leukocytes. This finding suggests that pinosylvin has an effect on the resolution of inflammation. To understand the detailed mechanism, we examined if pinosylvin enhances cyclooxygenase (COX) or lipoxygenase (LOX) activity in THP-1 and U937 cells. LOX activity was found to be markedly increased by pinosylvin, whereas COX activity was not altered...
March 20, 2018: BMB Reports
Sun-Ju Yi, Kyunghwan Kim
Chromatin is an intelligent building block that can express either external or internal needs through structural changes. To date, three methods to change chromatin structure and regulate gene expression have been well-documented: histone modification, histone exchange, and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. Recently, a growing body of literature has suggested that histone tail cleavage is related to various cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, osteoclast differentiation, granulocyte differentiation, mammary gland differentiation, viral infection, aging, and yeast sporulation...
March 15, 2018: BMB Reports
Kwonho Hong, Youngsok Choi
In humans, hormonal regulation is crucial for the preparation of uterine environment leading to either successful implantation or menstrual cycle. Estrogen is a pivotal female steroid hormone that regulates the uterine dynamics along with progesterone in the estrous and menstrual cycles in humans. Estrogen signals act via nuclear estrogen receptor or membrane-bound receptor. The membrane-bound estrogen receptor plays a crucial role in the rapid response of estrogen in the uterine epithelium. Recently, RASD1 has received attention as a novel signal transducer of estrogen in various systems including female reproductive organs...
March 9, 2018: BMB Reports
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