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BMB Reports

Ho-Jae Lee, Ji-Young Cha
Fructose in the form of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup is absorbed by the intestinal transporter and mainly metabolized in the small intestine. However, excess intake of fructose overwhelms the absorptive capacity of the small intestine, leading to fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role in glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression in response to carbohydrate consumption. While ChREBP was initially identified as a glucose-responsive factor in the liver, recent evidence suggests that ChREBP is essential for fructose-induced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the small intestine as well as in the liver...
August 30, 2018: BMB Reports
Hyungjoo Kim, Seogho Son, Incheol Shin
The CCN protein family is composed of six matricellular proteins, which serve regulatory roles rather than structural roles in the extracellular matrix. First identified as secreted proteins which are induced by oncogenes, the acronym CCN came from the names of the first three members: CYR61, CTGF, and NOV. All six members of the CCN family consist of four cysteine-rich modular domains. CCN proteins are known to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, CCN proteins are associated with cardiovascular and skeletal development, injury repair, inflammation, and cancer...
August 30, 2018: BMB Reports
Bong-Seon Lee, Changhun Lee, Sumin Yang, Sae-Kwang Ku, Jong-Sup Bae
Zingerone (ZGR), a phenolic alkanone isolated from ginger, has been reported to possess pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. This study was initiated to determine whether ZGR could modulate renal functional damage in a mouse model of sepsis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The potential of ZGR treatment to reduce renal damage induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery in mice was measured by assessment of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, catalase activity, and superoxide dismutase activity...
August 30, 2018: BMB Reports
Rosa Hernández, Ester Sánchez-Jiménez, Consolación Melguizo, Jose Prados, Ana Rosa Rama
Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer in the world, has no specific biomarkers that facilitate its diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The miRNAs, small single-stranded RNAs that repress the mRNA translation and trigger the mRNA degradation, show aberrant levels in the CRC, by which these molecules have been related with the initiation, progression, and drug-resistance of this cancer type. Numerous studies show the microRNAs influence the cellular mechanisms related to the cell cycle, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration of the cancer cells through the post-transcriptionally regulated gene expression...
August 30, 2018: BMB Reports
Sushil Devkota
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), and to a lesser extent, the error-free pathway known as homology-directed repair (HDR) are cellular mechanisms for recovery from double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) induced by RNA-guided programmable nuclease CRISPR/Cas. Since NHEJ is equivalent to using a duck tape to stick two pieces of metals together, the outcome of this repair mechanism is prone to error. Any out-of-frame mutations or premature stop codons resulting from NHEJ repair mechanism are extremely handy for loss-of-function studies...
August 14, 2018: BMB Reports
Hye-Jun Ham, Jeong-Woo Park, Young-Seuk Bae
We investigated whether SIRT1 is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during CK2 downregulation-mediated senescence. SIRT1 overexpression suppressed ROS accumulation, reduced transcription of FoxO3a target genes, and nuclear export and acetylation of FoxO3a, which were induced by CK2 downregulation in HCT116 and MCF-7 cells. Conversely, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant SIRT1 (H363Y) counteracted decreased ROS levels, increased transcriptional activity of FoxO3a, and increased nuclear import and decreased acetylation of FoxO3a, which were induced by CK2 upregulation...
August 14, 2018: BMB Reports
Yeo Eun Hwang, Yumi Baek, Ahruem Baek, Dong-Eun Kim
The Alu element, the most abundant transposable element, is transcribed to Alu RNA. We hypothesized that the PIWI protein regulates the expression of Alu RNA in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, where accumulated Alu RNA leads to macular degeneration. Alu transcription was induced in RPE cells treated with H2O2. At an early stage of oxidative stress, PIWIL4 was translocated into the nucleus; however, subsequently it was sequestered into cytoplasmic stress granules, resulting in the accumulation of Alu RNA...
August 14, 2018: BMB Reports
Hyunsoo Kim, Tetsuhiro Kajikawa, Matthew C Walsh, Noriko Takegahara, Yun Hee Jeong, George Hajishengallis, Yongwon Choi
Purinergic receptor signaling is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of inflammation. The P2X family purinergic receptors P2X5 and P2X7 have both been implicated in bone biology, and it has been suggested recently that P2X5 may be a significant regulator of inflammatory bone loss. However, a role for P2X5 in periodontitis is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the functional role of P2X5 in ligature-induced periodontitis in mice. Five days after placement of ligature, analysis of alveolar bone revealed decreased bone loss in P2rx5-/- mice compared to P2rx7-/- and WT control mice...
August 14, 2018: BMB Reports
Zhaoyuan Liu, Qing Peng, Yang Li, Yi Gao
Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of HCC, but many patients will ultimately relapse with cisplatin-resistant disease. Used in combination with cisplatin, resveratrol has synergistic effect of increasing chemosensitivity of cisplatin in various cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of resveratrol enhancing cisplatin-induced toxicity have not been well characterized. Our study showed that resveratrol enhances cisplatin toxicity in human hepatoma cells via an apoptosis-dependent mechanism...
August 14, 2018: BMB Reports
Nam Hee Kim, Yoonmi Lee, Jong In Yook
As highly conserved signaling cascades of multicellular organisms, Wnt and Hippo pathways control a wide range of cellular activities, including cell adhesion, fate determination, cell cycle, motility, polarity, and metabolism. Dysregulation of those pathways are implicated in many human diseases, including cancer. Similarly to β-catenin in the Wnt pathway, the YAP transcription co-activator is a major player in Hippo. Although the intracellular dynamics of YAP are well-known to largely depend on phosphorylation by LATS and AMPK kinases, the molecular effector of YAP cytosolic translocation remains unidentified...
August 6, 2018: BMB Reports
Wook-Bin Lee, Won Young Choi, Dong-Hyun Lee, Hyeran Shim, Jeongsil Kim-Ha, Young-Joon Kim
Upon viral infection, the 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-ribonuclease L (RNaseL) system works to cleave viral RNA, thereby blocking viral replication. However, it is unclear whether OAS proteins have a role in regulating gene expression. Here, we show that OAS1 and OAS3 act as negative regulators of the expression of chemokines and interferon-responsive genes in human macrophages. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) technology was used to engineer human myeloid cell lines in which the OAS1 or OAS3 gene was deleted...
August 6, 2018: BMB Reports
Jung-Eun Park, Jinho Jang, Eun Ji Lee, Su Jung Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Semin Lee, Min-Ji Kang
Our previous study indicates that Drosophila Flightless-1 controls lipid metabolism, and that there is accumulation of triglycerides in flightless-1 (fliI)-mutant flies, where this mutation triggers metabolic stress and an obesity phenotype. Here, with the aim to characterize the function of FliI in metabolism, we analyzed the gene expression and levels of metabolites in fliI-mutant flies. The levels of enzymes related to glycolysis, lipogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway increased in fliI mutants; this result is consistent with the levels of metabolites corresponding to a metabolic pathway...
July 31, 2018: BMB Reports
Jaein Shin, Junyeop Kim, Hanseul Park, Jongpil Kim
Cell reprogramming has been considered a powerful technique in the regenerative medicine field. In addition to diverse its strengths, cell reprogramming technology also has several drawbacks generated during the process of reprogramming. Telomere shortening caused by the cell reprogramming process impedes the efficiency of cell reprogramming. Transcription factors used for reprogramming alter genomic contents and result in genetic mutations. Additionally, defective mitochondria functioning such as excessive mitochondrial fission leads to the limitation of pluripotency and ultimately reduces the efficiency of reprogramming...
July 24, 2018: BMB Reports
Kang Ik K Cho, Yoo Bin Kwak, Wu Jeong Hwang, Junhee Lee, Minah Kim, Tae Young Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Based on the piling reports of disruptions in the thalamus of patients with schizophrenia, the alteration in the thalamo-cortical system has been regarded as the core pathophysiology. As the thalamus is composed of distinctive nuclei with different cytoarchitecture and cortical connections, nuclei specific investigations have been actively conducted in post-mortem studies. In addition, the importance of early changes has been highlighted, which in turn has led to investigations of the thalamo-cortical system using non-invasive neuroimaging methods...
July 24, 2018: BMB Reports
Lanqin Cao, Qian Wan, Fengjie Li, Can-E Tang
Chemoresistance is a major barrier to successful cisplatin-based chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and emerging evidences suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the resistance. In this study, it was indicated that miR-363 downregulation was significantly correlated with EOC carcinogenesis and cisplatin resistance. Moreover, miR-363 overexpression could resensitise cisplatin-resistant EOC cells to cisplatin treatment both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, data revealed that EMT inducer Snail was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant EOC cell lines and EOC patients and was a functional target of miR-363 in EOC cells...
July 24, 2018: BMB Reports
Da Hyun Lee, Buhyun Lee, Jeong Su Park, Yu Seol Lee, Jin Hee Kim, Yejin Cho, Yoonjung Jo, Hyun-Seok Kim, Yong-Ho Lee, Ki Taek Nam, Soo Han Bae
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can cause hepatotoxicity by inducing mitochondrial damage and subsequent necrosis in hepatocytes. Sirtuin2 (Sirt2) is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that regulates several biological processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis, as well as inflammatory pathways. We show that APAP decreases the expression of Sirt2. Moreover, the ablation of Sirtuin2 attenuates APAP-induced liver injuries, such as oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in hepatocytes. We found that Sirt2 deficiency alleviates the APAP -mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and phosphorylation of the p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)...
July 19, 2018: BMB Reports
Mulan Wei, Xujie Liu, Chunyu Cao, Jianlin Yang, Yafeng Lv, Jiaojiao Huang, Yanlin Wang, Ye Qin
Recent studies showed that the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade is a dramatic therapy for melanoma by enhancing antitumor immune activity. Currently, major strategies for the PD-1/PD-L1 blockade have mainly focused on the use of antibodies and compounds. Seeking an alternative approach, others employ endogenous proteins as blocking agents. The extracellular domain of PD-1 (ePD1) includes the binding site with PD-L1. Accordingly, we constructed a PD-1-based recombinantly tailored fusion protein (dFv-ePD1) that consists of bivalent variable fragments (dFv) of an MMP-2/9-targeted antibody and ePD1...
July 19, 2018: BMB Reports
Seung-Ju Yang, Ji Woong Yang, Jung-Min Na, Ji Sun Ha, Soo Young Choi, Sung-Woo Cho
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic neurodegenerative disease mainly caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons. However, no complete pharmacotherapeutic approaches are currently available for PD therapies. 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced SH-SY5Y neurotoxicity has been broadly utilized to create cellular models and study the mechanisms and critical aspects of PD. In the present study, we examined the role of a novel azetidine derivative, 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792), against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells...
July 3, 2018: BMB Reports
Ji-Il Kim, Dong Il Choi, Bong-Kiun Kaang
In previous studies, memory storage was localized to engram cells distributed across the brain. While these studies have provided an individual cellular profile of engram cells, their synaptic connectivity, or whether they follow Hebbian mechanisms, remains uncertain. Therefore, our recent study investigated whether synapses between engram cells exhibit selectively enhanced structural and functional properties following memory formation. This was accomplished using a newly developed technique called "dual-eGRASP"...
August 2018: BMB Reports
Heeju Ryu, Yeonseok Chung
Cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis is caused by imbalanced lipid metabolism and represents a leading cause of death worldwide. Epidemiological studies show that patients with systemic autoimmune diseases exhibit a higher incidence of atherosclerosis. Conversely, hyperlipidemia has been known to accelerate the incidence of autoimmune diseases in humans and in animal models. However, there is a considerable gap in our understanding of how atherosclerosis impacts the development of the autoimmunity in humans, and vice versa...
August 2018: BMB Reports
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