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BMB Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391780/clinical-significance-linked-to-functional-defects-in-bone-morphogenetic-protein-type-2-receptor-bmpr2
#1
Myung-Jin Kim, Seon Young Park, Hae Ryung Chang, Eun Young Jung, Anudari Munkhjargal, Jong-Seok Lim, Myeong-Sok Lee, Yonghwan Kim
Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor (BMPR2) is one of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily receptors, playing diverse roles during embryonic development, vasculogenesis, and osteogenesis. Human BMPR2 consists of 1,038 amino acids and contains functionally conserved extracellular, transmembrane, kinase, and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) engage the tetrameric complex, composed of BMPR2 and its corresponding type 1 receptors, which initiates SMAD family of proteins-mediated signal transduction leading to expression of target genes implicated in development or differentiation of the embryo, organs and bones...
April 10, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391779/tusc2-fus1-regulates-osteoclast-differentiation-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nfatc1
#2
Inyoung Kim, Jung Ha Kim, Kabsun Kim, Semun Seong, Nacksung Kim
Tumor suppressor candidate 2 (Tusc2, also known as Fus1) regulates calcium signaling, and Ca2+-dependent nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, which play roles in osteoclast differentiation. However, the role of Tusc2 in osteoclasts remains unknown. Here, we report that Tusc2 positively regulates the differentiation of osteoclasts. Overexpression of Tusc2 in osteoclast precursor cells enhanced receptor of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation...
April 10, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366191/emerging-role-of-mitophagy-in-human-diseases-and-physiology
#3
Jee-Hyun Um, Jeanho Yun
Mitophagy is a process of selective removal of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria using autophagic machineries. Mitophagy plays an essential role in mitochondria quality control and mitochondria homeostasis. Mitochondria dysfunctions and mitophagy defects in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, metabolic diseases indicate a close link between human disease and mitophagy activity. Furthermore, recent studies showing the involvement of mitophagy in differentiation and development, suggest that mitophagy may play a more active role in controlling cellular functions...
April 3, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366190/structural-characterization-of-as-mif-and-hjab1-during-the-inhibition-of-cell-cycle-regulation
#4
Young-Hoon Park, Mi Suk Jeong, Ki-Tae Ha, Hak Sun Yu, Se Bok Jang
The biological activities of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) might be mediated through a classical receptor-mediated or non-classical endocytic pathway. JAB1 (C-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1) promotes the degradation of the tumor suppressor, p53, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27. When MIF and JAB1 are bound to each other in various intracellular sites, MIF inhibits the positive regulatory effects of JAB1 on the activity of AP-1. The intestinal parasite, Anisakis simplex, has an immunomodulatory effect...
April 3, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347400/monoacylglycerol-o-acyltransferase-1-mgat1-localizes-to-the-er-and-lipid-droplets-promoting-triacylglycerol-synthesis
#5
Yoo Jeong Lee, Jae-Woo Kim
Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (MGAT) was identified as a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG), but the subcellular localization and catalytic function domain of this enzyme is poorly understood. In this report, we identify that murine MGAT1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with basal condition, whereas, under conditions of enriching fatty acids, MGAT1 also co-localize to the lipid droplets (LD), contributing TAG synthesis and LD expansion...
March 28, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347399/the-role-for-galnt14-in-the-lung-metastasis-of-breast-cancer
#6
Mi-Young Kim
Aberrant expression of polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferases (GALNTs) has been associated with cancer, but their function(s) in metastasis remains elusive. Recently, we have identified GALNT14, one of the O-GalNAc glycosylation-initiating enzymes, as a prognostic marker for pulmonary relapses in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, we showed that GALNT14 promotes lung metastasis by novel mechanisms: 1) enhancing metastasis initiation by inhibiting anti-metastatic effect of BMPs produced from lung stroma, 2) exploiting growth signals (e...
March 28, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320502/hsv-1-icp27-represses-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-by-regulating-daxx-sumoylation
#7
Ji Ae Kim, Mi Sun Choi, Jung Sun Min, Inho Kang, Jeongho Oh, Jin Chul Kim, Jeong Keun Ahn
Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 is a multifunctional protein which is responsible for viral replication, late gene expression, and reactivation from latency. It has been reported that ICP27 interacts with various cellular proteins including Daxx. However, the role of interaction between ICP27 and Daxx is largely unknown. Since Daxx has been reported to repress NF-κB activity, there is a possibility that ICP27 may influence the inhibitory effect of Daxx on NF-κB activity. In this study, we tested whether ICP27 affects NF-κB activity through its interaction with Daxx...
March 21, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288698/crispr-system-for-genome-engineering-the-application-for-autophagy-study
#8
Jianzhou Cui, Shirley Jia Li Chew, Yin Shi, Zhiyuan Gong, Han-Ming Shen
CRISPR/Cas9 is the latest tool introduced in the field of genome engineering and is so far the best genome-editing tool as compared to its precedents such as, meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effectors (TALENs). The simple design and assembly of the CRISPR/Cas9 system makes genome editing easy to perform as it uses small guide RNAs that correspond to their DNA targets for high efficiency editing. This has helped open the doors for multiplexible genome targeting in many species that were intractable using old genetic perturbation techniques...
March 14, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287066/neoagarohexaose-activates-dendritic-cells-via-toll-like-receptor-4-leading-to-stimulation-of-natural-killer-cells-and-enhancement-of-antitumor-immunity
#9
Moon Hee Lee, Jong-Hwa Jang, Gun Young Yun, Min-Goo Lee, Tae Heung Kang, Hee Dong Han, Seung Jun Lee, Hyuk Soon Kim, Wahn Soo Choi, Won Sun Park, Yeong-Min Park, In Duk Jung
β-agarase cleaves β-1,4 linkages of agar to produce neoagarooligosaccharides (NAO), which are associated with various physiological functions. However, the immunological functions of NAO are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that β-agarase DagA-produced neoagarohexaose (DP6), one among the many NAO products, promotes the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). DP6 directly and indirectly enhanced the activation of natural killer (NK) cells in a TLR4-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo...
March 13, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270302/cancer-stem-cell-surface-markers-on-normal-stem-cells
#10
Won-Tae Kim, Chun Jeih Ryu
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has captured the attention of many scientists because the elimination of CSCs is considered possible to eradicate the whole cancer. CSC surface markers provide molecular targeted therapies for the origins of cancer by using therapeutic antibodies. Various CSC surface markers have been identified and published. Interestingly, most of the markers used to identify CSCs are derived from the surface markers present on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or adult stem cells. In this review, we classify currently known 40 CSC surface markers into 3 different categories in terms of their expression in hESCs, adult stem cells, and normal tissue cells...
March 8, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270301/synapses-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
Jae Ryul Bae, Sung Hyun Kim
Synapse is a basic structural and functional component for neural communication in the brain. To initiate and maintain continuous functional neural information flow, the presynaptic terminal is a structurally and functionally essential place as an initiator for communication. It contains synaptic vesicles (SV) filled with neurotransmitter, active zone for release place, and a number of proteins for SV fusion and retrieval. The structural and functional synaptic plasticity is one of the representative characteristics however it is also highly vulnerable in various pathological circumstances...
March 8, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256197/hsv-1-icp27-induces-apoptosis-by-promoting-bax-translocation-to-mitochondria-through-interacting-with-14-3-3%C3%AE
#12
Ji Ae Kim, Jin Chul Kim, Jung Sun Min, Inho Kang, Jeongho Oh, Jeong Keun Ahn
The subcellular localization of Bax plays crucial role for during apoptosis. In response to apoptotic stimuli, Bax translocates from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria where it promotes the release of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm. In cells infected with HSV-1, apoptosis is triggered or blocked by diverse mechanisms. Here, we show that HSV-1 ICP27 induces apoptosis and modulates mitochondrial membrane potential in HEK 293T cells. We found that ICP27 interacts with 14-3-3θ which sequesters Bax to the cytoplasm...
March 3, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228214/inhibition-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-non-receptor-type-2-by-ptp-inhibitor-xix-its-role-as-a-multiphosphatase-inhibitor
#13
Hien Thi Thu Le, Young-Chang Cho, Sayeon Cho
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play crucial roles in signal transduction and their functional alteration has been detected in many diseases. PTP inhibitors have been developed as therapeutic drugs for diseases that are related to the activity of PTPs. In this study, PTP inhibitor XIX, an inhibitor of CD45 and PTEN, was investigated whether it inhibits other PTPs. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) was selectively inhibited by the inhibitor in a competitive manner. Drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) analysis showed that the inhibitor induces conformational changes in PTPN2...
February 23, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193315/survivin-protects-fused-cancer-cells-from-massive-cell-death
#14
Mihyang Do, In-Hae Kwak, Ju-Hyun Ahn, In Jeong Lee, Jae-Ho Lee
Tetraploidy, a potential precursor of cancer-associated aneuploidy, is produced either by cell fusion or cytokinesis failure. Here, we used low p53-expressing HeLa cells to address the fate of cancer cells after fusion. We found that massive cell death or growth arrest occurred a few days after fusion. Interestingly, cells with larger nuclei preferentially died after fusion, suggesting that a larger deviation of DNA content is a strong inducer of apoptosis. Notably, a fraction of cells escaped cell death. It turned out that the stability of survivin was increased, and its localization changed preferentially to the cytosol in fused cells...
February 14, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320505/fine-tuning-of-gene-expression-dynamics-by-the-set2-rpd3s-pathway
#15
Bo Bae Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, TaeSoo Kim
RNA polymerase II-interacting the Set2 methyltransferase co-transcriptionally methylates histone H3 at lysine 36 within the body of genes. This modification facilitates histone deacetylation by Rpd3S HDAC in 3' transcribed regions to suppress cryptic initiation and slow elongation. Although this pathway is important for global deacetylation, no strong effects have been seen on genome-wide transcription under optimized laboratory conditions. In contrast, this pathway slows the kinetics of mRNA induction when target genes are induced upon environmental changes...
April 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320504/rna-at-the-heart-of-gene-expression-special-issue-of-bmb-reports-2017
#16
Yoon Ki Kim
[BMB Reports 2017; 50(4): 157].
April 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320503/post-transcriptional-and-translational-regulation-of-mrna-like-long-non-coding-rnas-by-micrornas-in-early-developmental-stages-of-zebrafish-embryos
#17
Kyung-Tae Lee, Jin-Wu Nam
At the post-transcriptional and translational levels, microRNA (miRNA) represses protein-coding genes via seed pairing to the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNA. Although working models of miRNA-mediated gene silencing are successfully established using miRNA transfections and knockouts, the regulatory interaction between miRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) remain unknown. In particular, how the mRNA-resembling lncRNAs with 5' cap, 3' poly(A)-tail, or coding features, are regulated by miRNA is yet to be examined...
April 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288699/longevity-regulation-by-nmd-mediated-mrna-quality-control
#18
Heehwa G Son, Seung-Jae V Lee
Proper maintenance of biological components is crucial for longevity and healthy aging. Although the role of homeostatic maintenance systems for DNA and protein in longevity is established, it remains largely unknown for RNA. In our recent work, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) promotes longevity in the roundworm C. elegans by enhancing RNA quality control. We find that the activity of NMD decreases during aging, raising the possibility that RNA quality declines in old animals. We then show that key components of NMD complex are required for prolonged lifespan in C...
April 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287067/translational-control-of-mrnas-by-3-untranslated-region-binding-proteins
#19
Akio Yamashita, Osamu Takeuchi
Eukaryotic gene expression is precisely regulated at all points between transcription and translation. In this review, we focus on translational control mediated by the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs. mRNA 3'-UTRs contain cis-acting elements that function in the regulation of protein translation or mRNA decay. Each RNA binding protein that binds to these cis-acting elements regulates mRNA translation via various mechanisms targeting the mRNA cap structure, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-eIF4G complex, ribosomes, and the poly (A) tail...
April 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228216/non-canonical-targets-play-an-important-role-in-microrna-stability-control-mechanisms
#20
June Hyun Park, Chanseok Shin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by guiding the Argonaute (Ago)-containing RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to specific target mRNA molecules. It is well established that miRNAs are stabilized by Ago proteins, but the molecular features that trigger miRNA destabilization from Ago proteins remain largely unknown. To explore the molecular mechanisms of how targets affect the stability of miRNAs in human Ago (hAgo) proteins, we employed an in vitro system that consisted of a minimal hAgo2-RISC in HEK293T cell lysates...
April 2017: BMB Reports
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