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BMB Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602162/endothelial-mir-26a-regulates-vegf-nogo-b-receptor-mediated-angiogenesis
#1
Ha-Neul Jo, Hyesoo Kang, Aram Lee, Jihea Choi, Woochul Chang, Myeong-Sok Lee, Jongmin Kim
The Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) is necessary for not only Nogo-B-mediated angiogenesis but also vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory role of the VEGF-NgBR axis in angiogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we report that miR-26a serves as a critical regulator of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis through directly targeting NgBR in endothelial cells (ECs). Stimulation of ECs by VEGF increased the expression of NgBR and decreased the expression of miR-26a...
June 12, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602161/cytoprotective-effect-exerted-by-geraniin-in-hepg2-cells-is-through-microrna-mediated-regulation-of-bach-1-and-ho-1
#2
Hoda Aayadi, Smriti P K Mittal, Anjali Deshpande, Makarand Gore, Saroj S Ghaskadbi
Geraniin, a hydrolysable tannin, used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia, is known to exhibit various biological activities. As an antioxidant it is known to up-regulate phase II enzyme Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However its mechanism is not clearly understood. Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) is transcriptionally up-regulated by Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and retained in nucleus due to inactivated Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β). Geraniin additionally down-regulates expression of microRNA 217 and 377 (miR-217 and miR-377) which target HO-1 mRNA...
June 12, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602160/kahweol-inhibits-lipid-accumulation-and-induces-glucose-uptake-through-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk
#3
Jung-Hwan Baek, Nam-Jun Kim, Jun-Kyu Song, Kyung-Hee Chun
Weight loss ≥5% is sufficient to significantly reduce health risks for people with obesity; therefore, development of novel weight loss compounds with reduced toxicity is urgently required. After screening of natural compounds with anti-adipogenesis properties in 3T3-L1 cells, we determined that kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene, inhibited adipogenesis. Kahweol reduced lipid accumulation and expression levels of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation-related factors. Levels of Phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated JAK2, which induce lipid accumulation, decreased in kahweol-treated cells...
June 12, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571594/dual-torcs-driven-and-b56-orchestrated-signaling-network-guides-eukaryotic-cell-migration
#4
Lou W Kim
Different types of eukaryotic cells may adopt seemingly distinct modes of directional cell migration. However, several core aspects are regarded common whether the movement is either ameoboidal or mesenchymal. The region of cells facing the attractive signal is often termed leading edge where lamellipodial structures dominates and the other end of the cell called rear end is often mediating cytoskeletal F-actin contraction involving Myosin-II. Dynamic remodeling of cell-to-matrix adhesion involving integrin is also evident in many types of migrating cells...
June 2, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571593/structure-signaling-and-the-drug-discovery-of-the-ras-oncogene-protein
#5
Chang Woo Han, Mi Suk Jeong, Se Bok Jang
Mutations in Ras GTPase are among the most common genetic alterations in human cancers. Despite extensive research investigating Ras proteins, their functions still remain a challenge over a long period of time. The currently available data suggests that solving the outstanding issues regarding Ras could lead to development of effective drugs that could have a significant impact on cancer treatment. Developing a better understanding of their biochemical properties or modes of action, along with improvements in their pharmacologic profiles, clinical design and scheduling will enable the development of more effective therapies...
June 2, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539161/single-cell-rna-seq-unveils-tumor-microenvironment
#6
Hae-Ock Lee, Woong-Yang Park
Single cell transcriptome analysis became an essential tool to define cell types or sub-populations within a heterogeneous bulk population. Tumor-associated microenvironment is a complex ecosystem with numerous cell types, supporting the tumor growth, angiogenesis, immune evasion, and metastasis. With the success of checkpoint inhibitors targeting the immune cell compartment, tumor microenvironment is an emerging anti-cancer target and its understanding becomes an imminent issue in the cancer biology.
May 25, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539160/phosphorylation-of-p53-at-threonine-155-is-required-for-jab1-mediated-nuclear-export-of-p53
#7
Eun-Woo Lee, Wonkyung Oh, Hosung Paul Song, Won Kon Kim
The Jun activation-domain binding protein 1 (Jab1) induces p53 nuclear export and cytoplasmic degradation. However, the underlying mechanism is not clearly addressed. Here, we identify that phosphorylation at threonine 155 residue is indispensable for Jab1-mediated p53 nuclear export. Jab1 stimulated phosphorylation of p53 at T155, which was inhibited by curcumin, an inhibitor of COP9 signalosome (CSN)-associated kinases. T155E mutant, which mimics phosphorylated p53, exhibited spontaneous cytoplasmic localization in the absence of Jab1...
May 25, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539159/anti-microbial-peptide-sr-0379-stimulates-human-endothelial-progenitor-cell-mediated-repair-of-peripheral-artery-diseases
#8
Tae Wook Lee, Soon Chul Heo, Yang Woo Kwon, Gyu Tae Park, Jung Won Yoon, Seung-Chul Kim, Il Ho Jang, Jae Ho Kim
Ischemia is a major plague of modern life. In the search of peptide drug candidates for curing ischemic disease, we evaluated the effects of an anti-microbial peptide SR-0379 on stem cell-mediated therapy of ischemic diseases. Migration and tube-forming ability of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were enhanced by SR-0379 treatment in vitro. Intramuscular administration of SR-0379 into murine ischemic hindlimb significantly enhanced blood perfusion and decreased tissue necrosis, and increased the number of blood vessels in ischemic muscle...
May 25, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502290/deubiquitinase-yod1-the-potent-activator-of-yap-in-hepatomegaly-and-liver-cancer
#9
Youngeun Kim, Eek-Hoon Jho
The advances of our understanding in the Hippo signaling as a key regulatory pathway of proliferation and apoptosis have provided mechanical insights for controlling organ size and tumorigenicity. Recently, much attention was given to the regulation of LATS1/2 (large tumor suppressor) kinases that phosphorylate YAP/TAZ, a transcriptional co-activator in the Hippo pathway, and control the level and nuclear localization of YAP/TAZ. In our recent work, we showed that deubiquitinase YOD1 stabilizes ITCH and facilitates ITCH-mediated LATS1/2 ubiquitination and degradation, which results in increased YAP/TAZ level...
May 15, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502289/the-chronophin-activation-is-necessary-in-doxorubicin-induced-actin-cytoskeleton-alteration
#10
Su Jin Lee, Jeen Woo Park, Beom Sik Kang, Dong-Seok Lee, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sooyoung Choi, Oh-Shin Kwon
Although it is known that doxorubicin (Dox)-induced oxidative stress is associated with its cytotoxicity, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Genotoxic stress not only generates free radicals but also affects actin cytoskeleton stability. We showed that Dox-induced RhoA signaling stimulated actin cytoskeleton alterations resulting in central stress fiber disruption at early time points and later cortical actin formation at the cell periphery in HeLa cells. Interestingly, activation of a cofilin phosphatase, chronophin (CIN), was initially evoked by Dox-induced RhoA signaling, resulting in a rapid phosphorylated cofilin turnover leading to actin cytoskeleton remodeling...
May 15, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454607/a-fca-mediated-epigenetic-route-towards-thermal-adaptation-of-autotrophic-development-in-plants
#11
Hyo-Jun Lee, Jun-Ho Ha, Chung-Mo Park
Plants are able to recognize even small changes of surrounding temperatures to optimize their growth and development. At warm temperatures, plants exhibit diverse architectural adjustments, including hypocotyl and petiole elongation, leaf hyponasty, and reduced stomatal density. However, it was unknown until recently how warm temperatures affect the early stages of seedling development. In our recent study, we demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein FCA is critical for sustaining chlorophyll biosynthesis during early seedling development, which is a prerequisite for autotrophic transition, at warm temperatures...
April 29, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454606/therapeutic-implication-of-autophagy-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
Md Ataur Rahman, Hyewhon Rhim
Autophagy, a catabolic process to maintain intracellular homeostasis, has been recently focus in numerous human disease conditions, such as aging, cancer, development, immunity, longevity, and neurodegeneration. However, sustaining autophagy is essential for cell survival and dysregulate autophagy is anticipated to speed up neurodegeneration progression; although, the actual molecular mechanism is not yet fully understood. In contrast, emerging evidence suggests that basal autophagy is necessary for removal of misfolded aggregation proteins and damaged cellular organelles through lysosomal mediated degradation...
April 29, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391780/clinical-significance-linked-to-functional-defects-in-bone-morphogenetic-protein-type-2-receptor-bmpr2
#13
Myung-Jin Kim, Seon Young Park, Hae Ryung Chang, Eun Young Jung, Anudari Munkhjargal, Jong-Seok Lim, Myeong-Sok Lee, Yonghwan Kim
Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor (BMPR2) is one of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily receptors, playing diverse roles during embryonic development, vasculogenesis, and osteogenesis. Human BMPR2 consists of 1,038 amino acids and contains functionally conserved extracellular, transmembrane, kinase, and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) engage the tetrameric complex, composed of BMPR2 and its corresponding type 1 receptors, which initiates SMAD family of proteins-mediated signal transduction leading to expression of target genes implicated in development or differentiation of the embryo, organs and bones...
April 10, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391779/tusc2-fus1-regulates-osteoclast-differentiation-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nfatc1
#14
Inyoung Kim, Jung Ha Kim, Kabsun Kim, Semun Seong, Nacksung Kim
Tumor suppressor candidate 2 (Tusc2, also known as Fus1) regulates calcium signaling, and Ca2+-dependent nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, which play roles in osteoclast differentiation. However, the role of Tusc2 in osteoclasts remains unknown. Here, we report that Tusc2 positively regulates the differentiation of osteoclasts. Overexpression of Tusc2 in osteoclast precursor cells enhanced receptor of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation...
April 10, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366191/emerging-role-of-mitophagy-in-human-diseases-and-physiology
#15
Jee-Hyun Um, Jeanho Yun
Mitophagy is a process of selective removal of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria using autophagic machineries. Mitophagy plays an essential role in mitochondria quality control and mitochondria homeostasis. Mitochondria dysfunctions and mitophagy defects in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, metabolic diseases indicate a close link between human disease and mitophagy activity. Furthermore, recent studies showing the involvement of mitophagy in differentiation and development, suggest that mitophagy may play a more active role in controlling cellular functions...
April 3, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347400/monoacylglycerol-o-acyltransferase-1-mgat1-localizes-to-the-er-and-lipid-droplets-promoting-triacylglycerol-synthesis
#16
Yoo Jeong Lee, Jae-Woo Kim
Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (MGAT) was identified as a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG), but the subcellular localization and catalytic function domain of this enzyme is poorly understood. In this report, we identify that murine MGAT1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with basal condition, whereas, under conditions of enriching fatty acids, MGAT1 also co-localize to the lipid droplets (LD), contributing TAG synthesis and LD expansion...
March 28, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454605/a-chaperone-surveillance-system-in-plant-circadian-rhythms
#17
Joon-Yung Cha, Laila Khaleda, Hee Jin Park, Woe-Yeon Kim
The circadian clock is an internal system that is synchronized by external stimuli, such as light and temperature, and influences various physiological and developmental processes in living organisms. In the model plant Arabidopsis, transcriptional, translational and post-translational processes are interlocked by feedback loops among morning- and eveningphased genes. In a post-translational loop, plant-specific singlegene encoded GIGANTEA (GI) stabilize the F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL), driving the targeted-proteasomal degradation of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR 5 (PRR5)...
May 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366190/structural-characterization-of-as-mif-and-hjab1-during-the-inhibition-of-cell-cycle-regulation
#18
Young-Hoon Park, Mi Suk Jeong, Ki-Tae Ha, Hak Sun Yu, Se Bok Jang
The biological activities of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) might be mediated through a classical receptormediated or non-classical endocytic pathway. JAB1 (C-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1) promotes the degradation of the tumor suppressor, p53, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27. When MIF and JAB1 are bound to each other in various intracellular sites, MIF inhibits the positive regulatory effects of JAB1 on the activity of AP-1. The intestinal parasite, Anisakis simplex, has an immunomodulatory effect...
May 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347399/role-of-galnt14-in-lung-metastasis-of-breast-cancer
#19
Mi-Young Kim
Aberrant expression of the polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase (GALNTs) has been associated with cancer, but their function(s) in metastasis remains elusive. We have recently identified GALNT14, one of the O-GalNAc glycosylationinitiating enzymes, as a prognostic marker for pulmonary relapse in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, we showed that GALNT14 promotes lung metastasis by the following novel mechanisms: 1) enhancing metastasis initiation by inhibiting the anti-metastatic effect of BMP produced from the lung stroma, 2) exploiting growth signals (e...
May 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320502/hsv-1-icp27-represses-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-by-regulating-daxx-sumoylation
#20
Ji Ae Kim, Mi Sun Choi, Jung Sun Min, Inho Kang, Jeongho Oh, Jin Chul Kim, Jeong Keun Ahn
Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 is a multifunctional protein responsible for viral replication, late gene expression, and reactivation from latency. ICP27 interacts with various cellular proteins, including Daxx. However, the role of interaction between ICP27 and Daxx is largely unknown. Since Daxx is known to repress NF-κB activity, there is a possibility that ICP27 may influence the inhibitory effect of Daxx on NF-κB activity. In this study, we tested whether ICP27 affects the NF-κB activity through its interaction with Daxx...
May 2017: BMB Reports
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