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BMB Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320505/fine-tuning-of-gene-expression-dynamics-by-the-set2-rpd3s-pathway
#1
Bo Bae Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, TaeSoo Kim
RNA polymerase II-interacting the Set2 methyltransferase co-transcriptionally methylates histone H3 at lysine 36 within the body of genes. This modification facilitates histone deacetylation by Rpd3S HDAC in 3' transcribed regions to suppress cryptic initiation and slow elongation. Although this pathway is important for global deacetylation, no strong effects on genome-wide transcription have been seen under optimized laboratory conditions. In contrast, this pathway slows the kinetics of mRNA induction when target genes are induced upon environmental changes...
March 21, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320504/rna-at-the-heart-of-gene-expression-special-issue-of-bmb-reports-2017
#2
Yoon Ki Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320503/post-transcriptional-and-translational-regulation-of-mrna-like-long-non-coding-rnas-by-micrornas-in-early-developmental-stages-of-zebrafish-embryos
#3
Kyung-Tae Lee, Jin-Wu Nam
microRNA (miRNA) represses protein-coding gene via seed pairing to 3' untranslated reiongs (UTRs) of mRNA at the post-transcriptional and translational level. Although working models of miRNA-mediated gene silencing have been successfully established using miRNA transfections and knockouts, the regulatory interaction between miRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) remain unknown. In particular, how mRNA-resembling lncRNAs with 5' cap, 3' poly(A)-tail, or coding features are regulated by miRNA is yet to be examined...
March 21, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320502/hsv-1-icp27-represses-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-by-regulating-daxx-sumoylation
#4
Ji Ae Kim, Mi Sun Choi, Jung Sun Min, Inho Kang, Jeongho Oh, Jin Chul Kim, Jeong Keun Ahn
Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 is a multifunctional protein which is responsible for viral replication, late gene expression, and reactivation from latency. It has been reported that ICP27 interacts with various cellular proteins including Daxx. However, the role of interaction between ICP27 and Daxx is largely unknown. Since Daxx has been reported to repress NF-κB activity, there is a possibility that ICP27 may influence the inhibitory effect of Daxx on NF-κB activity. In this study, we tested whether ICP27 affects NF-κB activity through its interaction with Daxx...
March 21, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288699/longevity-regulation-by-nmd-mediated-mrna-quality-control
#5
Heehwa G Son, Seung-Jae V Lee
Proper maintenance of biological components is crucial for longevity and healthy aging. Although the role of homeostatic maintenance systems for DNA and protein in longevity is established, it remained largely unknown for RNA. In our recent work, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) promotes longevity in the roundworm C. elegans by enhancing RNA quality control. We find that the activity of NMD decreases during aging, raising the possibility that RNA quality declines in old animals. We then show that key components of NMD complex are required for long lifespan in C...
March 14, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288698/crispr-system-for-genome-engineering-the-application-for-autophagy-study
#6
Jianzhou Cui, Shirley Jia Li Chew, Yin Shi, Zhiyuan Gong, Han-Ming Shen
CRISPR/Cas9 is the latest tool introduced in the field of genome engineering and is so far the best genome-editing tool as compared to its precedents such as, meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effectors (TALENs). The simple design and assembly of the CRISPR/Cas9 system makes genome editing easy to perform as it uses small guide RNAs that correspond to their DNA targets for high efficiency editing. This has helped open the doors for multiplexible genome targeting in many species that were intractable using old genetic perturbation techniques...
March 14, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287067/translational-control-of-mrnas-by-3-untranslated-region-binding-proteins
#7
Akio Yamashita, Osamu Takeuchi
Eukaryotic gene expression is precisely regulated at all points between transcription and translation. In this review, we focus on translational control mediated by the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs. mRNA 3'-UTRs contain cis-acting elements that function in the regulation of protein translation or mRNA decay. RNA binding proteins that bind to these cis-acting elements regulate mRNA translation via various mechanisms targeting the mRNA cap structure, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-eIF4G complex, ribosomes, and the poly (A) tail...
March 13, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287066/neoagarohexaose-activates-dendritic-cells-via-toll-like-receptor-4-leading-to-stimulation-of-natural-killer-cells-and-enhancement-of-antitumor-immunity
#8
Moon Hee Lee, Jong-Hwa Jang, Gun Young Yun, Min-Goo Lee, Tae Heung Kang, Hee Dong Han, Seung Jun Lee, Hyuk Soon Kim, Wahn Soo Choi, Won Sun Park, Yeong-Min Park, In Duk Jung
β-agarase cleaves β-1,4 linkages of agar to produce neoagarooligosaccharides (NAO), which are associated with various physiological functions. However, the immunological functions of NAO are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that β-agarase DagA-produced neoagarohexaose (DP6), one among the many NAO products, promotes the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). DP6 directly and indirectly enhanced the activation of natural killer (NK) cells in a TLR4-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo...
March 13, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270302/cancer-stem-cell-surface-markers-on-normal-stem-cells
#9
Won-Tae Kim, Chun Jeih Ryu
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has captured the attention of many scientists because the elimination of CSCs is considered possible to eradicate the whole cancer. CSC surface markers provide molecular targeted therapies for the origins of cancer by using therapeutic antibodies. Various CSC surface markers have been identified and published. Interestingly, most of the markers used to identify CSCs are derived from the surface markers present on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or adult stem cells. In this review, we classify currently known 40 CSC surface markers into 3 different categories in terms of their expression in hESCs, adult stem cells, and normal tissue cells...
March 8, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270301/synapses-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
Jae Ryul Bae, Sung Hyun Kim
Synapse is a basic structural and functional component for neural communication in the brain. To initiate and maintain continuous functional neural information flow, the presynaptic terminal is a structurally and functionally essential place as an initiator for communication. It contains synaptic vesicles (SV) filled with neurotransmitter, active zone for release place, and a number of proteins for SV fusion and retrieval. The structural and functional synaptic plasticity is one of the representative characteristics however it is also highly vulnerable in various pathological circumstances...
March 8, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256198/calcium-activated-chloride-channels-as-a-new-target-to-control-the-spiking-pattern-of-neurons
#11
Go Eun Ha, Eunji Cheong
Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information in the neural circuits. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS). Spike-frequency adaptation in thalamocortical (TC) and CA1 hippocampal neurons is mediated by the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (CACC) anoctamin-2 (ANO2). Knockdown of ANO2 in these neurons results in significantly reduced spike-frequency adaptation along with increased number of spikes...
March 3, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256197/hsv-1-icp27-induces-apoptosis-by-promoting-bax-translocation-to-mitochondria-through-interacting-with-14-3-3%C3%AE
#12
Ji Ae Kim, Jin Chul Kim, Jung Sun Min, Inho Kang, Jeongho Oh, Jeong Keun Ahn
The subcellular localization of Bax plays crucial role for during apoptosis. In response to apoptotic stimuli, Bax translocates from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria where it promotes the release of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm. In cells infected with HSV-1, apoptosis is triggered or blocked by diverse mechanisms. Here, we show that HSV-1 ICP27 induces apoptosis and modulates mitochondrial membrane potential in HEK 293T cells. We found that ICP27 interacts with 14-3-3θ which sequesters Bax to the cytoplasm...
March 3, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256196/afatinib-ameliorates-osteoclast-differentiation-and-function-through-downregulation-of-rank-signaling-pathways
#13
Hye Jung Ihn, Ju Ang Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Hong-In Shin, Moon-Chang Baek, Eui Kyun Park
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the third most common cancer that spreads to the bone, resulting in osteolytic lesions caused by hyperactivation of osteoclasts. Activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGF-TK) is frequently associated with NSCLC, and afatinib is a first-line therapeutic drug, irreversibly targeting EGF-TK. However, the effects of afatinib on osteoclast differentiation and activation as well as the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Afatinib dramatically suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs)...
March 3, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228216/non-canonical-targets-play-an-important-role-in-mirna-stability-control-mechanism
#14
June Hyun Park, Chanseok Shin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by guiding Argonaute (Ago) containing RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to specific target mRNA molecules. It is well established that miRNAs are stabilized by Ago proteins, but the molecular features that triggers miRNA destabilization from Ago proteins remain largely unknown. To explore the molecular mechanisms of how targets affect the stability of miRNAs in human Ago (hAgo) proteins, we employed an in vitro system that consists of a minimal hAgo2-RISC in HEK293T cell lysates...
February 23, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228215/hnrnpk-regulated-ptov1-as1-modulates-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-via-mir-1207-5p
#15
Chang Hoon Shin, Seongho Ryu, Hyeon Ho Kim
Antisense transcripts were initially identified as transcriptional noise, but have since been reported to play an important role in the quality control of miRNA functions. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that hnRNPK regulates miRNA function via competitive endogenous RNAs, such as pseudogenes, long non-coding RNAs, and antisense transcripts. Based on analyses of RNA sequencing data, the knockdown of hnRNPK decreased antisense PTOV1-AS1 transcript, which harbors five binding sites for miR-1207-5p. We identified heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA as a novel target of miR-1207-5p by western blotting and Ago2 immunoprecipitation...
February 23, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228214/inhibition-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-non-receptor-type-2-by-ptp-inhibitor-xix-its-role-as-a-multiphosphatase-inhibitor
#16
Hien Thi Thu Le, Young-Chang Cho, Sayeon Cho
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play crucial roles in signal transduction and their functional alteration has been detected in many diseases. PTP inhibitors have been developed as therapeutic drugs for diseases that are related to the activity of PTPs. In this study, PTP inhibitor XIX, an inhibitor of CD45 and PTEN, was investigated whether it inhibits other PTPs. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) was selectively inhibited by the inhibitor in a competitive manner. Drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) analysis showed that the inhibitor induces conformational changes in PTPN2...
February 23, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193315/survivin-protects-fused-cancer-cells-from-massive-cell-death
#17
Mihyang Do, In-Hae Kwak, Ju-Hyun Ahn, In Jeong Lee, Jae-Ho Lee
Tetraploidy, a potential precursor of cancer-associated aneuploidy, is produced either by cell fusion or cytokinesis failure. Here, we used low p53-expressing HeLa cells to address the fate of cancer cells after fusion. We found that massive cell death or growth arrest occurred a few days after fusion. Interestingly, cells with larger nuclei preferentially died after fusion, suggesting that a larger deviation of DNA content is a strong inducer of apoptosis. Notably, a fraction of cells escaped cell death. It turned out that the stability of survivin was increased, and its localization changed preferentially to the cytosol in fused cells...
February 14, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193314/celecoxib-mediated-activation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induces-de-novo-ceramide-biosynthesis-and-apoptosis-in-hepatoma-hepg2-cells
#18
Hyo Jin Maeng, Jae-Hwi Song, Goon-Tae Kim, Yoo-Jeong Song, Kangpa Lee, Jae-Young Kim, Tae-Sik Park
Ceramides are the major sphingolipid metabolites involved in cell survival and apoptosis. When HepG2 hepatoma cells were treated with celecoxib, the expression of the genes in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis and sphingomyelinase pathway was upregulated and cellular ceramide was elevated. In addition, celecoxib induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in a time-dependent manner. SPTLC2, a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, was overexpressed by adenovirus. Adenoviral overexression of SPTLC2 (AdSPTLC2) decreased cell viability of HEK293 and HepG2 cells...
February 10, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148393/analyses-of-alternative-polyadenylation-from-old-school-biochemistry-to-high-throughput-technologies
#19
Hsin-Sung Yeh, Wei Zhang, Jeongsik Yong
Alternations in usage of polyadenylation sites during transcription termination yield transcript isoforms from a gene. Recent findings of transcriptome-wide alternative polyadenylation (APA) as a molecular response to changes in biology position APA not only as a molecular event of early transcriptional termination but also as a cellular regulatory step affecting various biological pathways. With the development of high-throughput profiling technologies at a single nucleotide level and their applications targeted to the 3'-end of mRNAs, dynamics in the landscape of mRNA 3'-end is measureable at a global scale...
February 2, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148392/microrna-200a-3p-enhances-mitochondrial-elongation-by-targeting-mitochondrial-fission-factor
#20
Heejin Lee, Hyosun Tak, So Jung Park, Yoon Kyung Jo, Dong Hyung Cho, Eun Kyung Lee
Mitochondria play pivotal roles in the ATP production, apoptosis and generation of reactive oxygen species. Although dynamic regulation of mitochondria morphology is a critical step to maintain cellular homeostasis, the regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated. In this study, we identified miR-200a-3p as a novel regulator of mitochondrial dynamics by targeting mitochondrial fission factor (MFF). We demonstrated that the ectopic expression of miR-200a-3p enhanced mitochondrial elongation, increased mitochondrial ATP synthesis, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption rate...
February 2, 2017: BMB Reports
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