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Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine

George Anifandis, Alexandros Michopoulos, Alexandros Daponte, Katerina Chatzimeletiou, Mara Simopoulou, Christina I Messini, Nikolas P Polyzos, Katerina Vassiou, Konstantinos Dafopoulos, Dimitrios G Goulis
Infertile couples with low oocyte yield in combination with abnormal semen parameters may experience intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) failure. An established factor associated with ICSI failure is oocyte activation deficiency (AOD). The latter originates from seminal contributors, such as phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) that is not adequate to produce calcium (Ca2+ ) oscillations for oocyte activation. Apart from this natural activator, other stimulants, such as A23187, ionomycin, strontium chloride or even electric pulses, have been used in embryological laboratories to overcome AOD and ICSI failure...
September 12, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Yangchun Liu, Jiao Xu, Feiyin Zhu, Haifeng Ye, Chuan Hu, Jian Huang, Yuehui Zheng
Stem cells are ideal seeding cells, which have the potential for self-renewal and multiple differentiation, and they play a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis and regenerating and repairing tissue. The discovery of female germline stem cells (FGSCs) brings much hope for the postnatal renewal of oocytes and solving some female infertility problems. Ovarian function declines with increasing female age. Moreover, ovarian germline stem cell niche-aging could be the main cause of ovarian senescence, which ultimately leads to decreased follicle generation, declining female fertility, and age-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and ovarian cancer...
September 11, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Peter L Davies, Laurie A Graham
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect marine fishes from freezing in icy seawater. They evolved relatively recently, most likely in response to the formation of sea ice and Cenozoic glaciations that occurred less than 50 million years ago, following a greenhouse Earth event. Based on their diversity, AFPs have independently evolved on many occasions to serve the same function, with some remarkable examples of convergent evolution at the structural level, and even instances of lateral gene transfer. For some AFPs, the progenitor gene is recognizable...
September 4, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Rod Balhorn, Klaus Steger, Martin Bergmann, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Stefanie Neuhauser, Monique C Balhorn
The expression of protamines and the binding of these small arginine-rich proteins to DNA complete the process of spermatid chromatin reorganization and the global inactivation of the male's haploid genome that occurs during the final stages of sperm development in mammals. While a number of anti-protamine antibodies have been created during the last 40 years, only a few have proven useful for detecting the presence of the protamines, determining the timing of their expression and deposition in chromatin, and investigating their structure and function in both maturing spermatids and sperm...
August 31, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Jovita Mezquita-Pla
Even before Rosalin Franklin had discovered the DNA double helix, in her impressive X-ray diffraction image pattern, Erwin Schröedinger, described, in his excellent book, What is Life, how the finding of aperiodic crystals in biological systems surprised him (an aperiodic crystal, which, in my opinion is the material carrier of life). In the 21st century and still far from being able to define life, we are attending to a quick acceleration of knowledge on regulatory information. With the discovery of new codes and punctuation marks, we will greatly increase our understanding in front of an impressive avalanche of genomic sequences...
August 23, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Maurice Andre Recanati, Hongling Du, Katherine J Kramer, Maik Hüttemann, Robert A Welch
The episodic pattern of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus is driven by an integrated network of cells termed the GnRH pulse generator. Cultured and immortalized GnRH neurons also produce a pulsatile pattern of GnRH secretions when grown in the absence of other cell types, suggesting the presence of an intrinsic oscillator mediating GnRH secretion. The mechanisms underlying such pulsatility comprise one of the most tantalizing problems in contemporary neuroendocrinology. In order to study the mechanism by which GnRH is produced in a pulsatile fashion, the autocrine effect of GnRH on GnRH-producing neurons must be eliminated...
August 23, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Kenneth Cole Kleene
Gordon Dixon's pioneering work on the replacement of histones by protamines during spermatogenesis inspired research as recombinant DNA became widely used to analyze gene expression in mammalian spermatogenic cells. The impact of recombinant DNA began immediately with the identification of mouse protamine 1 as a haploid-expressed mRNA, resolving a decades-long controversy whether gene expression in haploid spermatogenic cells distorts transmission of alleles to progeny. Numerous insights into the biology of spermatogenesis followed as the sequences of many mRNAs revealed that the patterns of gene expression in spermatogenic cells are astonishingly different from those in other cells in the mammalian body...
August 21, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Jie Liu, Jie Zheng, Ya-Lan Lei, Xiao-Feng Wen
We explored the strategy of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) in the women with advanced maternal age (AMA). We first determined the age cut-off point of AMA by retrospective analysis of pregnancy outcomes in the patients undergoing FET. The patients with AMA were divided into 3 groups including natural cycle (NC) group, controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) group, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) group, and simultaneously were divided into 2 groups including cleavage-stage embryo transfer (CET) group and blastocyst-stage embryo transfer (BET) group...
August 9, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Mara Simopoulou, Konstantinos Sfakianoudis, Nikolaos Antoniou, Evangelos Maziotis, Anna Rapani, Panagiotis Bakas, George Anifandis, Theodoros Kalampokas, Stamatis Bolaris, Agni Pantou, Konstantinos Pantos, Michael Koutsilieris
Assisted reproductive technology has evolved tremendously since the emergence of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the course of the recent decade, there have been significant efforts in order to minimize multiple gestations, while improving percentages of singleton pregnancies and offering individualized services in IVF, in line with the trend of personalized medicine. Patients as well as clinicians and the entire IVF team benefit majorly from 'knowing what to expect' from an IVF cycle. Hereby, the question that has emerged is to what extent prognosis could facilitate toward the achievement of the above goal...
August 8, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Xiao Shi, Carol Pui Shan Chan, Tarah Waters, Ling Chi, David Yiu Leung Chan, Tin-Chiu Li
In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of lifestyle and demographic factors on classic and functional semen parameters. Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects who underwent semen analysis were recruited. Routine SA, sperm vitality, acrosome reaction (AR) assay and sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were analyzed. Demographic and lifestyle information, including (1) BMI, (2) current smoking and alcohol drinking frequency, (3) sleep habits, (4) daily fluid intake, (5) weekly meat intake, (6) sports frequency, (7) trouser cell phone use, (8) age, and (9) abstinence time, were collected...
July 23, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Soraya Labied, Caroline Jouan, Frédéric Wenders, Stéphanie Ravet, Olivier Gaspard, Fabienne Thonon, Virginie Gridelet, Laurie Henry, Sophie Perrier d'Hauterive, Michelle Nisolle
The oil overlay in microdrop culture systems prevents medium evaporation, helps to maintain appropriate pH and osmotic conditions and protects from microbial contamination. In the present study, we prospectively compared covering by Ovoil™, a paraffin oil, and LiteOil®, a mineral oil, on the in vitro development of human embryos and their suitability for transfer/freezing at day 3 and live birth rate. One hundred and one patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment by  intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were enrolled in our study...
July 9, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Dragoş Albu, Alice Albu
Available evidence suggests that the fertility of growth hormone deficient female patients could be decreased, although the responsible mechanisms are unknown. Taking into account the multiple effects of growth hormone on reproduction suggested by experimental and clinical studies in women without growth hormone deficiency, the growth hormone deficit by itself could contribute to infertility in these patients. However, the necessity of growth hormone administration and the profile of the infertile patients with growth hormone deficiency who would benefit from treatment are largely unknown...
July 5, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
B Fatemeh Nobakht M Gh
Preeclampsia is a multifactorial disorder defined by hypertension and increased urinary protein excretion during pregnancy. It is a significant cause of maternal and neonatal deaths worldwide. Despite various research efforts to clarify pathogenies of preeclampsia and predict this disease before beginning of symptoms, the pathogenesis of preeclampsia is unclear. Early prediction and diagnosis of women at risk of preeclampsia has not markedly improved. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a review on metabolomic articles assessing predictive and diagnostic biomarkers of preeclampsia...
July 2, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Munevver Serdarogullari, Onder Coban, Fazilet Kubra Boynukalin, Ekrem Murat Bilgin, Necati Findikli, Mustafa Bahceci
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of using a sucrose gradient-based warming protocol as a universal warming approach on human cleavage stage embryos. Between January 2013 and November 2014, a total of 118 warming cycles were performed on 705 embryos which had previously been cryopreserved/thawed by slow freezing protocols or cryopreserved by slow freezing and warmed by vitrification thaw solution. Clinical outcomes have been retrospectively analyzed depending on cryopreservation and warming techniques used, embryo viability, day of cryopreservation, clinical pregnancy, implantation, and live birth rate...
June 28, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Ferran Barrachina, Dafni Anastasiadi, Meritxell Jodar, Judit Castillo, Josep Maria Estanyol, Francesc Piferrer, Rafael Oliva
A very common conception about the function of the spermatozoon is that its unique role is to transmit the paternal genome to the next generation. Most of the sperm genome is known to be condensed in many species by protamines, which are small and extremely positively charged proteins (50-70% arginine) with the functions of streamlining the sperm cell and protecting its DNA. However, more recently, it has been shown in mammals that 2-10% of its mature sperm chromatin is also associated to a complex population of histones and chromatin-associated proteins differentially distributed in the genome...
June 25, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Eduardo H Umeoka, Matheus C Eiras, Iara G Viana, Vanessa S Giorgi, Aline Bueno, Débora C Damasceno, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Paula A Navarro
Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is an animal model for epilepsy studies, the chronic multifactorial disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The animals of this strain are genetically predisposed to sound-induced seizures, called audiogenic seizures, and have been used for many years in studies to understand the mechanisms involved in the epilepsies and their neuropsychiatric comorbidities, as well as the screening of potential anti-convulsant agents. Nevertheless, little is known about the reproductive characteristics of these animals...
June 21, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Vijaya Ganesh, Vettriselvi Venkatesan, Teena Koshy, Sanjeeva Nellapalli Reddy, Suruli Muthumuthiah, Solomon Franklin Durairaj Paul
Despite the advances in in vitro fertilization (IVF), the implantation success rate for infertile women remains approximately only 15%. In this study, we sought to determine whether implantation failure after repeated IVF treatments is influenced by the presence of common variants in estrogen α, progesterone and follicle stimulating hormone receptor genes. The study population included three groups of women: group 1 were 50 women who had the transfer of ≥3 high-quality embryos during the IVF procedure without ever having had a clinical pregnancy; group 2 were 50 women who achieved a clinical pregnancy after ≤3 high-quality embryos transfers and group 3 were 50 control subjects who achieved a clinical pregnancy without any fertility therapy that resulted in a one live-born infant...
August 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Alyse N Steves, Adam Turry, Brittany Gill, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Joshua M Bradner, Ian Bachli, W Michael Caudle, Gary W Miller, Anthony W S Chan, Charles A Easley
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) represent a highly ubiquitous group of synthetic chemicals used in products ranging from water and oil repellents and lubricants to firefighting foam. These substances can enter and accumulate in multiple tissue matrices in up to 100% of people assessed. Though animal models strongly identify these compounds as male reproductive toxicants, with exposed rodents experiencing declines in sperm count, alterations in hormones, and DNA damage in spermatids, among other adverse outcomes, human studies report conflicting conclusions as to the reproductive toxicity of these chemicals...
August 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Ioannis A Sfontouris, George T Lainas, Tryfon G Lainas, Efthimios Faros, Maria Banti, Katerina Kardara, Katerina Anagnostopoulou, Harris Kontos, George K Petsas, Efstratios M Kolibianakis
The presence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates (SERa) in the ooplasm is considered as the most severe oocyte dysmorphism due to its serious and potentially lethal outcomes in offspring. In the present case report, a couple underwent their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle using a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, followed by fetal ultrasound scanning and amniocentesis. SERa were observed in all oocytes retrieved. A singleton pregnancy was established. The second trimester fetal ultrasound scan revealed a female fetus with overlapping fingers in both hands, and amniocentesis was performed for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities...
August 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Marta Gòdia, Fabiana Quoos Mayer, Julieta Nafissi, Anna Castelló, Joan Enric Rodríguez-Gil, Armand Sánchez, Alex Clop
The study of the boar sperm transcriptome by RNA-seq can provide relevant information on sperm quality and fertility and might contribute to animal breeding strategies. However, the analysis of the spermatozoa RNA is challenging as these cells harbor very low amounts of highly fragmented RNA, and the ejaculates also contain other cell types with larger amounts of non-fragmented RNA. Here, we describe a strategy for a successful boar sperm purification, RNA extraction and RNA-seq library preparation. Using these approaches our objectives were: (i) to evaluate the sperm recovery rate (SRR) after boar spermatozoa purification by density centrifugation using the non-porcine-specific commercial reagent BoviPureTM ; (ii) to assess the correlation between SRR and sperm quality characteristics; (iii) to evaluate the relationship between sperm cell RNA load and sperm quality traits and (iv) to compare different library preparation kits for both total RNA-seq (SMARTer Universal Low Input RNA and TruSeq RNA Library Prep kit) and small RNA-seq (NEBNext Small RNA and TailorMix miRNA Sample Prep v2) for high-throughput sequencing...
August 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
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