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Journal of Breath Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902492/exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-a-middle-aged-icelandic-population-cohort
#1
Anna Kristin Thorhallsdottir, David Gislason, Andrei Malinovschi, Michael Clausen, Thorarinn Gislason, Christer Janson, Bryndis Benediktsdottir
The prevalence of atopy and asthma is relatively low in Iceland. The purpose of this study was to describe exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels in the general population in correlation with demographic characteristics, smoking status, asthma, rhinitis, atopic status and lung function tests. Altogether 403 subjects, from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) III who answered the main questionnaire and were checked by FeNO measurements, lung function testing, skin prick testing and measurement of total IgE and specific IgE were included...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902490/detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-using-breath-voc-profiles
#2
A H Neerincx, B P Geurts, J van Loon, V Tiemes, J J Jansen, F J M Harren, L A J Kluijtmans, P J F M Merkus, S M Cristescu, L M C Buydens, R A Wevers
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common bacterium infecting children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Since current detection methods are difficult to perform in children, there is need for an alternative. This proof of concept study investigates whether breath profiles can discriminate between S. aureus infected and non-infected CF patients based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We collected exhaled breath of CF patients with and without S. aureus airways infections in which VOCs were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869110/volatile-organic-compound-markers-of-psychological-stress-in-skin-a-pilot-study
#3
H J Martin, M A Turner, S Bandelow, L Edwards, Svetlana Riazanskaia, C L P Thomas
The forehead was studied as a possible sampling site for capturing changes in volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles associated with psychological-stress. Skin-VOCs were sampled with a polydimethylsilicone (PDMS)-coupon and the resulting VOCs were recovered and analysed with two-stage thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifteen young adult volunteers (19 years-26 years) participated in two interventions run in a randomised crossover design. One intervention, termed 'Neutral', required the participants to listen to peaceful music, the other, termed a 'paced audio serial addition task', required the participants to undertake a series of rapid mental arithmetic calculations in a challenging environment that induced a stress response...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869109/effect-of-red-dyes-on-blue-light-phototoxicity-against-vsc-producing-bacteria-in-an-experimental-oral-biofilm
#4
U Jeffet, R Nasrallah, N Sterer
Oral malodour is considered to be caused mainly by the production of volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by anaerobic Gram-negative oral bacteria. Previous study showed that these bacteria were susceptible to blue light (wavelengths of 400-500 nm). In the present study, we tested the effect of blue light in the presence of red dyes on malodour production in an experimental oral biofilm. Biofilms were exposed to a plasma-arc light source for 30, 60, and 120 s (i.e. fluences of 41, 82, and 164 J cm(-2), respectively) with the addition of erythrosine, natural red and rose bengal (0...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869108/limonene-in-exhaled-breath-is-elevated-in-hepatic-encephalopathy
#5
M E O'Hara, R Fernández Del Río, A Holt, P Pemberton, T Shah, T Whitehouse, C A Mayhew
Breath samples were taken from 31 patients with liver disease and 30 controls in a clinical setting and proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-Quad-MS) used to measure the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All patients had cirrhosis of various etiologies, with some also suffering from hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and/or hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Breath limonene was higher in patients with No-HCC than with HCC, median (lower/upper quartile) 14.2 (7.2/60.1) versus 3.6 (2...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869104/comparative-analysis-of-the-volatile-metabolomes-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates
#6
Heather D Bean, Christiaan A Rees, Jane E Hill
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nearly ubiquitous Gram-negative organism, well known to occupy a multitude of environmental niches and cause human infections at a variety of bodily sites, due to its metabolic flexibility, secondary to extensive genetic heterogeneity at the species level. Because of its dynamic metabolism and clinical importance, we sought to perform a comparative analysis on the volatile metabolome (the 'volatilome') produced by P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. In this study, we analyzed the headspace volatile molecules of 24 P...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869103/th-17-cytokines-and-interstitial-lung-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis
#7
G Rolla, E Fusaro, S Nicola, C Bucca, C Peroni, S Parisi, M C Cassinis, A Ferraris, F Angelino, E Heffler, M Boita, L Brussino
The two phenotypes of both limited and diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc) have different forms of pulmonary involvement: pulmonary arterial hypertension (limited phenotype) or interstitial lung disease (ILD) (diffuse phenotype). We aimed to investigate whether Th17-related cytokines, as measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in serum were connected to ILD in diffuse SSc patients. We found that for both limited and diffuse SSc, the EBC levels of all cytokines and most of the cytokine serum levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls, while, the EBC levels of Th-17 cytokines and the serum levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were significantly higher in diffuse than in limited SSc...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811381/report-from-iabr-breath-summit-2016-in-zurich-switzerland
#8
J Beauchamp, J Pleil, T Risby, R Dweik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811380/exhaled-breath-profiling-in-patients-with-copd-and-osa-overlap-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#9
Silvano Dragonieri, Vitaliano N Quaranta, Pierluigi Carratu, Teresa Ranieri, Onofrio Resta
The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by an electronic nose (e-nose) is a groundbreaking method that provides distinct exhaled molecular patterns in several respiratory and systemic diseases. It has been shown that an e-nose can detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OSA and COPD are sometimes associated into the so-called overlap syndrome (OVS). In this pilot study we hypothesized that an e-nose could discriminate the exhaled breath of patients with OVS from that of subjects with OSA and COPD alone...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753432/imputing-defensible-values-for-left-censored-below-level-of-quantitation-loq-biomarker-measurements
#10
Joachim D Pleil
Biomarker datasets often include entries 'below the level of quantitation' (LoQ) wherein the instrumentation is no longer able to provide values that meet required analytical quality standards, a phenomenon referred to as 'left-censored' data. Generally, some form of imputation for missing values is required to allow calculating distributions and summary statistics for comparing datasets to each other. This article discusses the available options for imputing (modeling) left-censored data, presents the methods for implementing different procedures, and provides examples and guidelines using realistic data to assess relative performance...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753430/light-activated-antimicrobial-agents-can-inactivate-oral-malodour-causing-bacteria
#11
Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732571/elimination-characteristics-of-post-operative-isoflurane-levels-in-alveolar-exhaled-breath-via-ptr-ms-analysis
#12
R Fernández Del Río, M E O'Hara, P Pemberton, T Whitehouse, C A Mayhew
Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether), C3H2ClF5O, is a commonly used inhalation anaesthetic. Using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) we have detected isoflurane in the breath of patients several weeks following major surgery. That isoflurane is detected in the breath of patients so long after being anaesthetised raises questions about when cognitive function has fully returned to a patient. Temporal profiles of isoflurane concentrations in breath are presented for five patients (F/M 3/2, mean age 50 years, min-max 36-58 years) who had undergone liver transplant surgery...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732570/storage-stability-of-exhaled-breath-on-tenax-ta
#13
Sean W Harshman, Nilan Mani, Brian A Geier, Jae Kwak, Phillip Shepard, Maomian Fan, Gregory L Sudberry, Ryan S Mayes, Darrin K Ott, Jennifer A Martin, Claude C Grigsby
Exhaled breath is coming to the forefront of non-invasive biomarker discovery efforts. Concentration of exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on thermal desorption (TD) tubes with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has dominated this field. As discovery experimentation increases in frequency, the need to evaluate the long-term storage stability of exhaled breath VOCs on thermal desorption adsorbent material is critical. To address this gap, exhaled breath was loaded on Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes and stored at various temperature conditions...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732569/comparison-of-volatile-organic-compounds-from-lung-cancer-patients-and-healthy-controls-challenges-and-limitations-of-an-observational-study
#14
Kristin Schallschmidt, Roland Becker, Christian Jung, Wolfram Bremser, Thorsten Walles, Jens Neudecker, Gunda Leschber, Steffen Frese, Irene Nehls
This paper outlines the design and performance of an observational study on the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of 37 lung cancer patients and 23 healthy controls of similar age. The need to quantify each VOC considered as a potential disease marker on the basis of individual calibration is elaborated, and the quality control measures required to maintain reproducibility in breath sampling and subsequent instrumental trace VOC analysis using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over a study period of 14 months are described...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532494/stool-microbiome-reveals-diverse-bacterial-ureases-as-confounders-of-oral-urea-breath-testing-for-helicobacter-pylori-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-bamako-mali
#15
Mamoudou Maiga, Keira Cohen, Bocar Baya, Geetha Srikrishna, Sophia Siddiqui, Moumine Sanogo, Anou M Somboro, Bassirou Diarra, Mariam H Diallo, Varun Mazumdar, Christian Yoder, Susan Orsega, Michael Belson, Hamadoun Kassambara, Drissa Goita, Robert L Murphy, Sounkalo Dao, Michael Polis, Souleymane Diallo, Graham S Timmins, Lori Dodd, Ashlee M Earl, William R Bishai
Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. We enrolled 34 individuals newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 46 healthy subjects in Bamako, Mali and performed oral UBT, mycobacterial sputum culture and H...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272697/breath-analysis-for-noninvasively-differentiating-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-from-its-respiratory-tract-colonization-of-ventilated-patients
#16
Jianping Gao, Yingchang Zou, Yonggang Wang, Feng Wang, Lang Lang, Ping Wang, Yong Zhou, Kejing Ying
A number of multiresistant pathogens including Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) place a heavy burden on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients in intensive care units (ICU). It is critically important to differentiate between bacterial infection and colonization to avoid prescribing unnecessary antibiotics. Quantitative culture of lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens, however, requires invasive procedures. Nowadays, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been studied in vitro and in vivo to identify pathogen-derived biomarkers...
June 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272440/cancerous-glucose-metabolism-in-lung-cancer-evidence-from-exhaled-breath-analysis
#17
Tali Feinberg, Layah Alkoby-Meshulam, Jens Herbig, John C Cancilla, Jose S Torrecilla, Naomi Gai Mor, Jair Bar, Maya Ilouze, Hossam Haick, Nir Peled
Cancer cells prefer hyperglycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation, even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon is used through the FDG-PET scans, and may affect the exhaled volatile signature. This study investigates the volatile signature in lung cancer (LC) before and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to determine if tumor cells' hyperglycolysis would affect the volatile signature. Blood glucose levels and exhaled breath samples were analyzed before the OGTT, and 90 min after, in both LC patients and controls...
June 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272219/how-long-may-a-breath-sample-be-stored-for-at%C3%A2-%C3%A2-80-%C3%A2-c-a-study-of-the-stability-of-volatile-organic-compounds-trapped-onto-a-mixed-tenax-carbograph-trap-adsorbent-bed-from-exhaled-breath
#18
S Kang, C L Paul Thomas
Thermal desorption is used extensively in exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis, and it is often necessary to store the adsorbent tube samples before analysis. The possible introduction of storage artefacts is an important potential confounding factor in the development of standard methodologies for breath sampling and analysis. The stability of VOCs trapped from breath samples onto a dual bed Tenax(®) TA:Carbograph adsorbent tube and stored  -80°C was studied over 12.5 month. 25 samples were collected from a single male participant over 3 h and then stored at  -80 °C...
June 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184114/breath-concentration-of-acetic-acid-vapour-is-elevated-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#19
David Smith, Kristýna Sovová, Kseniya Dryahina, Tereza Doušová, Pavel Dřevínek, Patrik Španěl
A study has been carried out of the volatile organic compounds present in the exhaled breath of 58 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. An important observation is that the acetic acid vapour concentration measured by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is significantly elevated in the exhaled breath of CF patients, independent of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection status (PA-infected median 170 ppbv; PA-negative median 182 ppbv), compared to that of healthy controls (median 48 ppbv). The cause for this may be decreased pH of the mucus lining the CF airways...
June 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163334/the-volatile-metabolome-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-human-blood
#20
Christiaan A Rees, Agnieszka Smolinska, Jane E Hill
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of bloodstream infections in critically-ill patients, with mortality exceeding 50% for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains. Despite its importance as a bacteremia-causing agent, there is little known about the metabolism of K. pneumoniae during growth in pure human blood. Here, we comprehensively profile the volatile metabolites produced by K. pneumoniae during growth in human blood to approximately mid-exponential (7 h) and early stationary (12 h) phases using 2D gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS)...
June 2016: Journal of Breath Research
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