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Journal of Breath Research

Madara Tirzīte, Māris Bukovskis, Gunta Strazda, Normunds Jurka, Immanuels Taivans
Lung cancer is a very common malignancy with a low five-year survival rate. Artificial olfactory sensor (electronic nose) is a tool that recently has been studied as a probable optimal screening tool for early detection of lung cancer, but still no statistical method has been put forward as the preferable one.
 The aim of the study was to explore the use of logistic regression analysis to analyse patients' exhaled breath samples with electronic nose in order to differentiate lung cancer patients (regardless of the stage of the cancer) from patients with other lung diseases and healthy individuals...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Michiel A G E Bannier, Kim D G van de Kant, Quirijn Jöbsis, Edward Dompeling
The measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath is a promising tool for diagnosing and monitoring various lung diseases in children. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is a frequently used standard technique for VOCs analysis. However, as GC-MS is an expensive and time-consuming technique, hand-held devices or electronic noses (eNoses) have been developed. Recently, the Aeonose was introduced as an easy-to-use handheld eNose capable of point-of-care testing. Although first results using this eNose in adults are promising, studies in children are lacking...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Marco Beccaria, Carly Bobak, Boitumelo Maitshotlo, Theodore R Mellors, Giorgia Purcaro, Flavio A Franchina, Christiaan A Rees, Mavra Nasir, Andrew Black, Jane E Hill
Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease, and yet accurate diagnostics for the disease are unavailable for many subpopulations. In this study, we investigate the possibility of using human breath for the diagnosis of active TB among TB suspect patients, considering also several risk factors for TB for smokers and those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The analysis of exhaled breath, as an alternative to sputum-dependent tests, has the potential to provide a simple, fast, non-invasive, and readily available diagnostic service that could positively change TB detection...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Waqar M Ahmed, Paul Brinkman, Hans Weda, Hugo H Knobel, Yun Xu, Tamara M Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Nicholas Rattray, Teunis J Vink, Marco Santonico, Giorgio Pennazza, Paolo Montuschi, Peter J Sterk, Stephen J Fowler
Methods for breath sampling and analysis require robust quality assessment to minimise the risk of false discoveries. Planning large-scale multi-site breath metabolite profiling studies also requires careful consideration of systematic and random variation as a result of sampling and analysis techniques. In this study we use breath sample data from the recent U-BIOPRED cohort to evaluate and discuss some important methodological considerations such as batch variation and correction, variation between sites, storage and transportation, as well as inter-instrument analytical differences...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Mithun Pal, Sanchi Maithani, Abhijit Maity, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
Over the past several decades, it has been generally believed that microbial nitrification and denitrification are not significant processes in the human gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, the underlying physiological link between exhaled nitrous oxide (N2 O) and aerobic denitrification in the gastric environment is still largely unknown. In this report, we provide direct experimental evidence of the aerobic denitrification process in the human gastrointestinal tract by evaluating concentrations of dissolved N2 O and its precursor nitrite ([Formula: see text]) ion in the gastric juice along with exhaled N2 O concentration using a high-precision laser spectroscopy technique...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Tobias Hüppe, Thomas Volk, Sascha Kreuer
Critically ill patients typically need some kind of functional organ support or replacement. Cardiopulmonary and renal replacement therapies are well established measures in intensive care units. However, there are also inherent risks associated with these treatments. The appropriate and timely commencement, maintenance and termination of organ replacement procedures currently use weak surrogates as decision support in clinical practice. A more reasonable application of extracorporeal organ support can be expected to potentially lower adverse events and save costs in healthcare systems, if a precise online monitoring was available...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Anurag Gupta, T Sonamani Singh, R D S Yadava
The paper presents a simulation study of breath analysis based on theoretical models of microelectromechanical structure (MEMS) cantilever sensor array. The purpose of this study is to suggest a methodology for the development of MEMS electronic nose (e-nose) for monitoring disease-specific volatiles in exhaled breath. Oxidative stress and diabetes are taken as case studies for the assessment of e-nose designs. The detection of ethane for general oxidative stress, isoprene for hypoxia, and acetone for diabetes are considered for targeted detection...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Theodore R Mellors, Mavra Nasir, Flavio A Franchina, Agnieszka Smolinska, Lionel Blanchet, JoAnne L Flynn, Jaime Tomko, Melanie O'Malley, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, Jeff Wagner, Jane E Hill
In this pilot study, volatile molecules produced by cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were evaluated to determine whether they could be used to discriminate between uninfected and M. tuberculosis-infected macaques. Thirty seven of the culture biomarkers were detectable in macaque breath and were shown to discriminate between uninfected and infected animals with an area under the curve (AUC) of 87%. An AUC of 98% was achieved when using the top 38 discriminatory molecules detectable in breath. We report two newly discovered volatile biomarkers, not previously associated with M...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Marilena Bazzano, Luca Laghi, Chenglin Zhu, Gian Enrico Magi, Evelina Serri, Andrea Spaterna, Beniamino Tesei, Fulvio Laus
The present work characterized the metabolomic profile of tracheal wash (TW) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in healthy horses and horses with respiratory disease. Six asthma-affected horses (group A) and six healthy controls (group H) underwent clinical, endoscopic and cytologic examinations of upper airways to confirm the active phase of asthma. TW and EBC samples were collected from each animal and investigated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) metabolomic analysis. A total of ten out of 38 metabolites found in the TW were significantly different between the groups (p < 0...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Amalia Z Berna, James S McCarthy, X Rosalind Wang, Michelle Michie, Florence G Bravo, Julie Cassells, Stephen C Trowell
We previously showed that thioether levels in the exhaled breath volatiles of volunteers undergoing controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with P. falciparum increase as infection progresses. In this study, we show that thioethers have diurnal cyclical increasing patterns and their levels are significantly higher in P. falciparum CHMI volunteers compared to those of healthy volunteers. The synchronized cycle and elevation of thioethers were not present in P. vivax-infection, therefore it is likely that the thioethers are associated with unique factors in the pathology of P...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Min Wang, Jiajing Sheng, Qian Wu, Yingchang Zou, Yanjie Hu, Kejing Ying, Hao Wan, Ping Wang
Lung cancer (LC) is a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally, and exhaled breath testing has been considered as a fast, convenient and non-invasive way to diagnose LC in its early stages. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as markers of LC in exhaled breath, have been widely investigated for cancer diagnosis. However, few studies have reported on the interference of benign pulmonary diseases (BPD) in the selection of VOC markers for LC. During this study, 207 samples were analyzed using thermal desorption instrumentation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) to detect C6 -C30 VOCs, and all samples were divided into four groups: LC group, BPD group, lung disease (LD) group (including LC group and BPD group) and healthy group...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Marcia Soares, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Hatice Koca, Emilia Viklund, Matthew Richardson, Per Gustafsson, Anna-Carin Olin, Salman Siddiqui
RATIONALE: Asthma is often characterised by inflammation, damage and dysfunction of the small airways, but no standardised biomarkers are available. OBJECTIVES: Using a novel approach-particles in exhaled air (PExA)-we sought to (a) sample and analyse abundant protein biomarkers: surfactant protein A (SPA) and albumin in adult asthmatic and healthy patients and (b) relate protein concentrations with physiological markers using phenotyping. METHODS: 83 adult asthmatics and 21 healthy volunteers were recruited from a discovery cohort in Leicester, UK, and 32 adult asthmatics as replication cohort from Sweden...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Thomas Hector Chappuis, Bao An Pham Ho, Morgan Ceillier, Florence Ricoul, Manuel Alessio, Jean-Francois Beche, Christelle Corne, Gérard Besson, Jérôme Vial, Didier Thiébaut, Bertrand Bourlon
This work presents the performances of silicon micro-preconcentrators chips for breath sampling. The silicon chips were coupled to a handheld battery powered system for breath sampling and direct injection in a laboratory gas chromatography mass spectrometry system through thermal desorption (TD). Performances of micro-preconcentrators were first compared to commercial TD for benzene trapping. Similar chromatographic peaks after gas chromatographic separation were observed while the volume of sample needed was reduced by a factor of 5...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
S Hulo, J L Edme, J Inamo, R Van Bulck, S Dharancy, R Neviere
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Increased nitric oxide is involved in abnormal hemodynamic parameters and respiratory function of cirrhotic patients. We aimed to quantify partitioning exhaled nitric oxide measurements in exhaled air in liver transplantation (LT) candidates and evaluate their relationships with chronotropic incompetence and aerobic capacity. METHODS: We compared exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements, heart rate response and peak oxygen uptake during incremental exercise in liver transplantation candidates to those of controls...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Andrew J Ghio, Joleen M Soukup, John McGee, Michael C Madden, Charles R Esther
Investigation employing bronchoalveolar lavage supports both increased and decreased iron concentrations in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of smokers. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is an alternative approach to sampling the ELF. We evaluated for an association between iron homeostasis and both smoking and a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by measuring metal concentrations in EBC samples from non-smoker controls, smoker controls, and individuals diagnosed with COPD. The total number of EBC specimens was 194...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Athina C Georgiou, Marja L Laine, Dong M Deng, Bernd W Brandt, Cor van Loveren, Xanthippi Dereka
BACKGROUND & AIM: Halitosis is defined as an offensive breath odour of whatever source and therefore may affect a person's social interactions. Intra-oral halitosis is a result of bacterial activity. Therefore, probiotics may offer an appropriate and biological solution as a part of the therapy of intra-oral halitosis. The aim of this systematic review was to study the effect of the administration of probiotics alone or as an adjunct to other treatments on the level of halitosis as measured by volatile sulphur compound (VSC) levels, organoleptic scores (ORG) or hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide levels...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Claire S Byrne, Tom Preston, Jerusa Brignardello, Isabel Garcia-Perez, Elaine Holmes, Gary S Frost, Douglas J Morrison
BACKGROUND: The appetite-regulating effects of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) have in part previously been attributed to their effects on intestinal transit rates as well as microbial production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Increased colonic production of the SCFA propionate has been shown to reduce energy intake and stimulate gut hormone secretion acutely in humans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of the propiogenic NDC, L-rhamnose, on gastrointestinal transit times using a combined 13 CO2 /H2 breath test...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Aldo Pezzuto, Marco Stellato, Giovanna Catania, Calogero Mazzara, Sara Tonini, Marco Caricato, Pierfilippo Crucitti, Giuseppe Tonini
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking cessation can change the natural history of COPD, as we know from the GOLD guidelines. Little is known about the short-term clinical and functional effects of smoking cessation treatment combined with anti-muscarinic bronchodilators. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether quitting smoking, obtained by smoking cessation treatment combined with the use of a new long-acting muscarinic antagonist bronchodilator (LAMA), can improve lung function tests and respiratory symptoms more than the use of LAMA alone...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Kiran Sankar Maiti, Michael Lewton, Ernst Fill, Alexander Apolonski
Breath analysis has great potential for becoming an important clinical diagnosis method due to its friendly and non-invasive way of sample collection. Hundreds of endogenous trace gases (volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) are present in breath, representing different metabolic processes of the body. They are not only characteristic for a person, their age, sex, habit etc, but also specific to different kinds of diseases. VOCs, related to diseases could serve as biomarkers for clinical diagnostics and disease monitoring...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
T Lomonaco, A Romani, S Ghimenti, D Biagini, F G Bellagambi, M Onor, P Salvo, R Fuoco, F Di Francesco
A reliable method for the determination of carbonyl compounds in exhaled breath based on on-sorbent derivatization coupled with thermal desorption and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described. The analytical performances were optimized for a mixture of C2-C9 aldehydes and C3-C9 ketones, particularly interesting for clinical applications, by using an internal standard and applying a 23 full factorial design. A volume of sample (250 ml) was loaded at 50 ml min-1 into a Tenax GR sorbent tube containing 130 nmol of O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
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