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Journal of Breath Research

Agne Krilaviciute, Christian Stock, Marcis Leja, Hermann Brenner
Regular screening for gastric cancer (GC) is based on invasive upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and is limited to few high incidence countries. As GC is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, a non-invasive, simple screening test is of value. We assessed the prevalence of preclinical GC and the corresponding numbers needed to screen (NNS) to detect GC cases both without and with preselection using breath tests from the literature in various populations. 
 Methods: Using age- and sex-specific GC incidence data and transition rates from preclinical to clinical GC, we estimated prevalences of preclinical GC worldwide in the populations aged 50-74 years, and we evaluated the accuracy of breath testing for GC detection based on published studies...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Victor N Morozov, Alexander N Nikolaev, Yuri M Shlyapnikov, Andrey Y Mikheev, Elena A Shlyapnikova, Tatevik R Bagdasaryan, Irina A Burmistrova, Tatiana G Smirnova, Irina Y Andrievskaya, Elena E Larionova, Irina Y Nikitina, Irina V Lyadova
In this report we present a proof-of-principle study aimed at developing noninvasive diagnostics for pulmonary TB that are based on analyzing TB biomarkers in exhaled microdroplets of lung fluid (MLFs). Samples were collected on electrospun filters recently developed by the authors, and then tested for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cells, Mtb DNA, and protein biomarkers (secreted Mtb antigens and antigen-specific antibodies). The latter were detected using rapid ultra-sensitive immunochemistry methods developed in our laboratory...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Clemens Ager, Karl Unterkofler, Paweł Mochalski, Susanne Teschl, Gerald Teschl, Christopher A Mayhew, Julian King
In a recent paper K.Unterkofler et al. (JBR 9 (2015), no. 3, 036002) we presented a simple two compartment model which describes 
 the influence of inhaled concentrations on exhaled breath concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with small Henry constants.
 In this paper we extend this investigation concerning the influence of inhaled concentrations on exhaled breath concentrations for VOCs with higher Henry constants.
 To this end we extend our model with an additional compartment which takes into account the influence of the upper airways 
 on exhaled breath VOC concentrations...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Dibyendu Dutta, Ngee S Chong, Seah H Lim
Not unlike many cancer types, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) exhibits many metabolic changes and reprogramming, causing changes in lipid metabolism. Some of the distinct molecular abnormalities associated with AML also modify the metabolic changes. Both processes result in changes in the production of endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The increasing availability of highly sensitive methods for detecting trace chemicals provides the opportunity to investigate the role of patient-specific VOC finger-prints as biomarkers for detecting early relapse or minimal residual disease (MRD) in AML...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Daisuke Sakai, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hiroki Kawashima, Eizaburo Ohno, Takuya Ishikawa, Hiroki Suhara, Tomoaki Takeyama, Toshinari Koya, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Tadashi Iida, Ryo Nishio, Hirotaka Suzuki, Kota Uetsuki, Masanobu Matsushita, Takeshi Yamamura, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Kohei Funasaka, Masanao Nakamura, Ryoji Miyahara, Osamu Watanabe, Masatoshi Ishigami, Akihiro Tsuruta, Woosuck Shin, Hidemi Goto
Hydrogen is produced from unabsorbed carbohydrates in the intestine through degradation and metabolism by hydrogenase of intestinal bacteria. The hydrogen is then partially diffused into blood flow and released and detected in exhaled breath. Pancreatic juice production is decreased in patients with reduced pancreatic exocrine function, including those with pancreatic cancer, thus decreasing digestion and absorption of nutrients including carbohydrates, which may increase undigested carbohydrates in the intestine and increase breath hydrogen concentration (BHC)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Sabina Seferaj, Shahid Ullah, Åsa Danielsson Tinglev, Sten Carlsson, Jesper Winberg, Peter Stambeck, Olof Beck
The microparticle fraction of exhaled breath is of interest for developing clinical biomarkers. Exhaled particles may contain non-volatile components from all parts of the airway system, formed during normal breathing. This study aimed to evaluate a simple, new sampling device, based on impaction, for collecting microparticles from exhaled breath. Performance of the new device was compared with that of the existing SensAbues membrane filter device. The analytical work used liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry methods...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Iván Ruiz, Mark Sprowls, Yue Deng, Doina Kulick, Hugo Destaillats, Erica S Forzani
The present work introduces the use of environmental sensors to assess indoor air quality (IAQ) in combination with human biometrics. The sensor array included temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and noise sensors. The array was used in a classroom as well as in a vehicle cabin to assess the indoor air quality and carbon dioxide production rate of individuals in a closed ventilation environment. Analysis of carbon dioxide production allowed for the quantification of the average metabolic rate of the group of individuals in the classroom, and for one individual in the vehicle cabin...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Hou-De Zhang, YongJian Ma, Qi-Fa Liu, Tie-Zhen Ye, Fan-Yi Meng, Yi-Wen Zhou, Guo-Pan Yu, Jian-Ping Yang, Hua Jiang, Quan-Shi Wang, Gui-Ping Li, Yong-Qiang Ji, Guo-Liang Zhu, Li-Tao Du, Kun-Mei Ji

 Existing standard techniques for erythrocyte (RBC) lifespan measurement, such as quantitation of labeling with isotopes or biotin, are cumbersome and time-consuming. Given that endogenous CO originates mainly from degraded RBCs, a team lead by Levitt developed a CO breath test to enable more efficient RBC lifespan estimation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of Levitts CO breath test method with our newly developed automatic instrument. RBC lifespan measurements conducted by Levitt's CO breath test method were conducted in 109 healthy subjects and 91 patients with chronic hemolytic anemia...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Keisuke Miki, Kazuyuki Tsujino, Tatsuya Edahiro, Seigo Kitada, Mari Miki, Kenji Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Kagawa, Yohei Oshitani, Yuko Ohara, Yuki Hosono, Hiroyuki Kurebe, Ryoji Maekura
Little is known about the applicability of respiratory muscle training based on exertional pathophysiological conditions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between breathing timing and exertional responses, as well as whether exertional changes in the inspiratory duty cycle (inspiratory time [Ti]/total time [Ttot]) affect pathophysiological conditions, including respiratory muscles. Methods: Forty-five stable COPD patients (mean age: 71...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Aifeng Liu, Jing Liang, Rongguang Shi, Zongshan Zhao, Yong Tian
A sensitive, rapid and easy operated sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) determination in exhaled breath was developed in this study. The polyaniline (PANI) film and Cu nanoparticles were successively electrochemical deposited on the surface of the three-dimensional nickel foam, i.e., synthetized nano-Cu/polyaniline/nickel foam. The Ni foam facilitates the charge and mass transfer, and it also provides a large amount of anchoring sites for Cu nanoparticle deposition. The synergistic electro-catalytic actions between Cu nanoparticles and PANI highly enhanced the reduction current of H2O2...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Alex Pizzini, Wojciech Filipiak, Johannes Wille, Clemens Ager, Helmut Wiesenhofer, Robert Kubinec, Jaroslav Blasko, Christoph Tschurtschenthaler, Christopher A Mayhew, Günter Weiss, Rosa Bellmann-Weiler
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations (AECOPD), caused by infectious and non-infectious agents, contribute to an increase in mortality. The diagnostic procedure of AECOPD is mainly based on clinical features. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath could be used to discriminate for acute exacerbated COPD. Three patient groups were included in this controlled study: AECOPD patients (n= 14, age mean ± SD: 71...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Raquel Rodríguez-Pérez, Roldán Cortés, Ana Verónica Guamán, Antonio Pardo, Yolanda Torralba, Federico Gómez, Josep Roca, Joan Albert Barberà, Marta Cascante, Santiago Marco
Breath analysis holds the promise of a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of diverse respiratory conditions including COPD and lung cancer. Breath contains small metabolites that may be putative biomarkers of these conditions. However, the discovery of reliable biomarkers is a considerable challenge in the presence of both clinical and instrumental confounding factors. Among the latter, instrumental time drifts are highly relevant, as since question the short and long-term validity of predictive models...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Pouline van Oort, Pedro Povoa, Ronny Schnabel, Paul Dark, Antonio Artigas, Dennis Bergmans, Timothy Felton, Luis Coelho, Marcus J Schultz, Stephen J Fowler, Lieuwe Bos
Diagnostic strategies currently used for pneumonia are time-consuming, lack accuracy and suffer from large inter-observer variability. Exhaled breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which include products of host and pathogen metabolism. In this systematic review we investigated the use of so-called 'breathomics' for diagnosing pneumonia. A Medline search yielded 18 manuscripts reporting on animal and human studies using organic and inorganic molecules in exhaled breath, that all could be used to answer whether analysis of VOC profiles could potentially improve the diagnostic process of pneumonia...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Kavitha Seerangaiyan, Frits Juch, Edwin G Winkel
Tongue coating (TC), a grayish white deposit on the tongue, is the main cause of intra-oral halitosis (IOH), a major socially unacceptable issue. This review covers the general features of TC, including its formation and the factors that influence it. Indeed, volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) are the principal elements of IOH, and TC and periodontal diseases are the two main sources of VSC. This review covers the relationship between VSC, TC, and periodontal disease. Moreover, we will comprehensively discuss the methods that are employed to quantify TC, its microbial composition, the influence on general health and the importance in general medicine...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Ann-Christin Bischoff, Peter Oertel, Pritam Sukul, Christian Rimmbach, Robert David, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Bacterial and cell cultures are known to emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Conventional biochemical methods are often destructive, time-consuming and expensive. In contrast, VOC analysis of headspace over cultures may offer a non-destructive alternative for the monitoring of cell proliferation and metabolism. VOC profiles from cultures of murine pluripotent stem cells and fibroblasts were assessed every 24 h for 3 days. Pure cell media were measured as parallel controls. VOC analysis was highly standardized with respect to time of measurement and phases of cell growth...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Phillip Trefz, Jochen K Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) represents an attractive tool for the real-time analysis of VOC profiles in human breath. Quantification of breath VOCs by means of direct MS may be affected by the matrix, as human breath not only contains several hundred VOCs at the ppbV-pptV level, but is water saturated and contains percentage levels of CO2 . Investigation of breath biomarkers in clinical studies requires quantitative and comparable results. We therefore systematically assessed the effect of humidity, CO2 and O2 on the results of PTR-MS analysis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Silvano Dragonieri, Vitaliano N Quaranta, Pierluigi Carratu, Teresa Ranieri, Onofrio Resta
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate whether the sex hormone profile during the ovarian cycle in healthy women could affect the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose). METHODS: We enrolled 21 healthy, never-smoking, regularly menstruating women who were not taking any medications. A series of exhaled breath measurements were performed on all subjects at predefined intervals (days 1-6, 7-12, 13-19, 20-25 and 26-31; day 1 was the first day of menstruation) during their ovarian cycle and analyzed by an e-nose (Cyranose 320)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Giorgia Purcaro, Christiaan A Rees, Wendy F Wieland-Alter, Mark J Schneider, Xi Wang, Pierre-Hugues Stefanuto, Peter F Wright, Richard I Enelow, Jane E Hill
Volatile metabolites are currently under investigation as potential biomarkers for the detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Unlike bacteria and fungi, which produce distinct volatile metabolic signatures associated with innate differences in both primary and secondary metabolic processes, viruses are wholly reliant on the metabolic machinery of infected cells for replication and propagation. In the present study, the ability of volatile metabolites to discriminate between respiratory cells infected and uninfected with virus, in vitro, was investigated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Maud Lacombe, Caroline Marie-Desvergne, Florence Combes, Alexandra Kraut, Christophe Bruley, Yves Vandenbrouck, Véronique Chamel Mossuz, Yohann Couté, Virginie Brun
To improve biomedical knowledge and to support biomarker discovery studies, it is essential to establish comprehensive proteome maps for human tissues and biofluids, and to make them publicly accessible. In this study, we performed an in-depth proteomics characterization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a sample obtained non-invasively by condensation of exhaled air that contains submicron droplets of airway lining fluid. Two pooled samples of EBC, each obtained from 10 healthy donors, were processed using a straightforward protocol based on sample lyophilization, in-gel digestion and liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry analysis...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Polyxeni Ntontsi, Petros Bakakos, Evgenia Papathanasiou, Zoi Tsilogianni, Konstantinos Kostikas, Georgios Hillas, Georgios Papatheodorou, Nikolaos Koulouris, Spyros Papiris, Stelios Loukides
INTRODUCTION: Increased vascularity may lead to loss of heat in the airways and may modulate exhaled breath temperature (EBT). Increased EBT has been associated with uncontrolled asthma. AIM: We wanted to determine whether the measurement of EBT in optimally treated asthmatic patients is influenced by the increased vascular permeability and whether Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated in the above process. Furthermore, to assess the impact of asthma severity on EBT values...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
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