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Journal of Breath Research

Lucas Küppers, Olaf Holz, Sven Schuchardt, Jens Gottlieb, Jan Fuge, Mark Greer, Jens Hohlfeld
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) with its clinical correlative of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains the major limiting factor for long-term graft survival. Currently there are no established methods for the early diagnosis or prediction of BOS. To assess the feasibility of breath collection as a non-invasive tool and the potential of breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the early detection of BOS, we compared the breath VOC composition between transplant patients without and different stages of BOS...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Konstantin O Zamuruyev, Alexander James Schmidt, Eva Borras, Mitchell M McCartney, Michael Schivo, Nicholas J Kenyon, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Cristina E Davis
In this work, we present a hydrophilic self-cleaning condenser surface for collection of biological and environmental aerosol samples. The condenser is installed in a battery-operated, hand-held breath sampling device. The device performance is characterized with collection and analysis of exhaled breath samples from a group of volunteers. The exhaled breath condensate is collected on a sub-cooled condenser surface, transferred into a storage vial, and its chemical content is analyzed with mass spectrometric methods...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Vera Ruzsanyi, Miklós Péter Kalapos, Christine Schmidl, Daniela Karall, Sabine Scholl-Buergi, Matthias Baumann
Ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to clinical practice as alimentary approaches with the aim to control drug-resistant epilepsies. Therapy control, particularly at initiation, happens through regular blood analysis and control of urine ketone levels. However, there is a lack of fast, reliable and preferably non-invasive methods of analysis. The exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can be modified by diet. The instrumental development of VOC detection converges in the direction of low cost sensors, which can facilitate the self-monitoring of the patients in the future if reliable breath markers are available...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Giorgia Purcaro, Christiaan Rees, Jeffrey A Melvin, Jennifer M Bomberg, Jane E Hill
Volatile molecules in exhaled breath represent potential biomarkers in the setting of infectious diseases, particularly those affecting the respiratory tract. In particular, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a critically-important respiratory pathogen in specific subsets of the population, such as those with cystic fibrosis. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa can be particularly problematic when co-infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) occurs, as this is correlated with the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Simone Scarlata, Panaiotis Finamore, Simona Santangelo, Gilda Giannunzio, Giorgio Pennazza, Simone Grasso, Marco Santonico, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly heterogeneous disease and airflow limitation and symptoms only partially capture such heterogeneity. Since COPD is known to affect the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), we aimed at verifying to which extent exhaled VOCs can characterize newly diagnosed COPD patients and changes in response to inhaled therapy.
 Materials and methods: Fifty newly diagnosed COPD patients were consecutively recruited among those attending the pulmonary medicine outpatient clinic at "Campus Bio-Medico" University Hospital...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Joachim D Pleil, Ariel Wallace
Exhaled breath technology is expanding beyond conventional gas-phase analysis, and conversely, methodology from other disciplines is finding applications in breath research. Recently, the authors attended conferences that incorporated new technologies into "breath related" applications. The first was the International Submarine Air Monitoring and Air Purification (SAMAP) held in Uncasville Connecticut, November 2017, and the second was the Pittcon Conference and Exposition (Pittcon) held in Orlando Florida, February 2018...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Felicia Seichter, Erhan Tuetuencue, Tamina Hagemann, Josef Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Michael Groeger, Sandra Kress, Peter Radermacher, Boris Mizaikoff
Exhaled breath offers monitoring bio markers, as well as diagnosing diseases and therapeutic interventions. In addition, vital functions may be non-invasively monitored on-line. Animal models are frequently used in research for determining novel therapeutic approaches and/or for investigating biological pathways. The exhaled carbon dioxide concentration, exhaled and inhaled oxygen concentration, and the subsequent respiratory quotient (RQ) offer insight into metabolic activity. One may adapt breath sampling systems and equipment designed for human applications to large animal studies, however, such adaptations are usually impossible for small animals due to their minuscule breath volume...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Caroline Marie-Desvergne, Muriel Dubosson, Véronique Chamel Mossuz
 In the field of nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring, oxidative stress biomarkers measured in exhaled breath condensate appear promising to detect early respiratory effects in workers handling nanomaterials. However, condensation is known for its poor efficiency in collecting non-volatiles in exhaled breath, leading to the low sensitivity of such measurements. Moreover, to be easily used in field studies on large groups of workers, the collection device must be disposable and convenient.
 In this study, we have tested a totally disposable commercial device that allows for the easy dry collection of exhaled air after filtration on a patented filter...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Peter Oertel, Anne Küntzel, Petra Reinhold, Heike Köhler, Jochen Schubert, Johann Kolb, Wolfram Miekisch
The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) allows non-invasive investigations of diseases. Animal studies are conducted as a model to perform research of VOCs and their relation to diseases. In large animal models ruminants were often used as experimental animal. The effect of their physiological eructation on VOC exhalation has not been examined yet and is the objective of this study.
 Methods: Continuous breath profiles of 2 young cattle, 4 adult goats and 4 adult sheep were measured through a mask, covering mouth and nose, in real-time (200 ms) by means of PTR-TOF-MS...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Brian Terence Andrews, Wolfgang Denzer, Gus Hancock, Dan Lunn, Robert Peverall, Grant Ritchie, Karen Williams
Breath acetone concentrations were measured in 141 subjects (aged 19-91 yrs, mean=59.11yrs standard deviation=12.99yrs), male and female, undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), having been referred to clinic on suspicion of type 2 diabetes. Breath samples were measured using an ion-molecule-reaction mass spectrometer, at the commencement of the OGTT, and after 1 and 2hrs. Subjects were asked to observe the normal routine before and during the OGTT, which includes an overnight fast and ingestion of 75g glucose at the beginning of the routine...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Andrew C Bishop, Mark Libardoni, Ahsan Choudary, Biswapriya Biswavas Misra, Kenneth Lange, John Bernal, Mark Nijland, Cun Li, Michael Olivier, Peter W Nathanielsz, Laura A Cox
Rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) studies indicate that developmental programming by reduced perinatal nutrition negatively impacts life course cardio-metabolic health. We have developed a baboon model in which we feed control mothers (CON) ad libitum while nutrient restricted mothers are fed 70% of ad libitum global feed in pregnancy and lactation. Offspring of nutrient restricted mothers are intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) at term. By 3.5 years IUGR baboons showed signs of insulin resistance, indicating a pre-diabetic phenotype, in contrast to healthy CON offspring...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Santanu Mandal, Prabuddha Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjit Ghosh, Mithun Pal, Gourab Dutta Banik, Tanmoy Chatterjee, Shibendu Ghosh, Manik Pradhan
The underlying mechanisms towards the progression of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are poorly understood and it still remains a major clinical stumbling block for early detection of CKD. Most patients with CKD pass through ESRD with the necessity of frequent hemodialysis (HD) treatment. At present, plasma urea and creatinine levels are examined in most of the CKD patients to monitor the patients' health status after dialysis. But it is really impossible to get immediate feedback of the patients' health as the conventional tests are involved with the collection of blood samples, laboratory processing for prolong time and finally analysis of those samples...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Thomas Gaisl, Lukas Bregy, Nina Stebler, Martin T Gaugg, Tobias Bruderer, Diego García-Gómez, Alexander Moeller, Florian Singer, Esther I Schwarz, Christian Benden, Pablo M-L Sinues, Renato Zenobi, Malcolm Kohler
We aimed at defining profiles of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a novel real-time mass spectrometry technique. In this prospective matched case-control study, 30 patients with CF, and 30 healthy control subjects were matched one-to-one according to age, gender, and smoking state. We performed exhaled breath analysis by untargeted secondary electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (SESI-HRMS). Patients with CF (mean age 26.0 ± 13.0 years) and controls (mean age 27...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Agne Krilaviciute, Christian Stock, Marcis Leja, Hermann Brenner
BACKGROUND: Regular screening for gastric cancer (GC) is based on invasive upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and is limited to few high-incidence countries. As GC is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, a non-invasive, simple screening test is of value. We assessed the prevalence of preclinical GC and the corresponding numbers needed to screen (NNS) to detect GC cases both without and with preselection using breath tests from the literature in various populations. METHODS: Using age- and sex-specific GC incidence data and rates of transition from preclinical to clinical GC, we estimated the prevalences of preclinical GC worldwide in populations aged 50-74 years, and we evaluated the accuracy of breath testing for GC detection based on published studies...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Victor N Morozov, Alexander A Nikolaev, Yuri M Shlyapnikov, Andrei Y Mikheev, Elena A Shlyapnikova, Tatevik R Bagdasaryan, Irina A Burmistrova, Tatyana G Smirnova, Irina Y Andrievskaya, Elena E Larionova, Irina Y Nikitina, Irina V Lyadova
In this report we present a proof-of-principle study aimed at developing non-invasive diagnostics for pulmonary TB that are based on analyzing TB biomarkers in exhaled microdroplets of lung fluid (MLFs). Samples were collected on electrospun filters recently developed by the authors, and then tested for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cells, Mtb DNA, and protein biomarkers (secreted Mtb antigens and antigen-specific antibodies). The latter were detected using rapid ultra-sensitive immunochemistry methods developed in our laboratory...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Clemens Ager, Karl Unterkofler, Pawel Mochalski, Susanne Teschl, Gerald Teschl, Chris A Mayhew, Julian King
In a recent paper (Unterkofler et al 2015 J. Breath Res. 9 036002) we presented a simple two compartment model which describes the influence of inhaled concentrations on exhaled breath concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with small Henry constants. In this paper we extend this investigation concerning the influence of inhaled concentrations on exhaled breath concentrations for VOCs with higher Henry constants. To this end we extend our model with an additional compartment which takes into account the influence of the upper airways on exhaled breath VOC concentrations...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Dibyendu Dutta, Ngee S Chong, Seah H Lim
Not unlike many cancer types, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) exhibits many metabolic changes and reprogramming, causing changes in lipid metabolism. Some of the distinct molecular abnormalities associated with AML also modify the metabolic changes. Both processes result in changes in the production of endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The increasing availability of highly sensitive methods for detecting trace chemicals provides the opportunity to investigate the role of patient-specific VOC finger-prints as biomarkers for detecting early relapse or minimal residual disease in AML...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Iván Ruiz, Mark Sprowls, Yue Deng, Doina Kulick, Hugo Destaillats, Erica S Forzani
The present work introduces the use of environmental sensors to assess indoor air quality (IAQ) in combination with human biometrics. The sensor array included temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and noise monitors. The array was used in a classroom as well as in a vehicle cabin to assess the carbon dioxide production rate of individuals in a closed ventilation environment. Analysis of carbon dioxide production allowed for the quantification of the average metabolic rate of the group of individuals in the classroom, and for one individual in the vehicle cabin...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Keisuke Miki, Kazuyuki Tsujino, Ryuya Edahiro, Seigo Kitada, Mari Miki, Kenji Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Kagawa, Yohei Oshitani, Yuko Ohara, Yuki Hosono, Hiroyuki Kurebe, Ryoji Maekura
RATIONALE: Little is known about the applicability of respiratory muscle training based on exertional pathophysiological conditions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between breathing timing and exertional responses, as well as whether exertional changes in the inspiratory duty cycle (Ti/Ttot) affect pathophysiological conditions, including respiratory muscles. METHODS: Forty-five stable COPD patients (mean age: 71...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Raquel Rodríguez-Pérez, Roldán Cortés, Ana Guamán, Antonio Pardo, Yolanda Torralba, Federico Gómez, Josep Roca, Joan Albert Barberà, Marta Cascante, Santiago Marco
Breath analysis holds the promise of a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of diverse respiratory conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Breath contains small metabolites that may be putative biomarkers of these conditions. However, the discovery of reliable biomarkers is a considerable challenge in the presence of both clinical and instrumental confounding factors. Among the latter, instrumental time drifts are highly relevant, as since question the short and long-term validity of predictive models...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
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