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Journal of Breath Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220762/drug-detection-in-breath-non-invasive-assessment-of-illicit-or-pharmaceutical-drugs
#1
Phillip Trefz, Svend Kamysek, Patricia Fuchs, Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath - similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests - would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The noninvasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the U...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220034/exhaled-and-nasal-nitric-oxide-in-relation-to-lung-function-blood-cell-counts-and-disease-characteristics-in-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Christina Krantz, Christer Janson, Annika Hollsing, Kjell Alving, Andrei Malinovschi
BACKGROUND: Patients with CF have similar or lower exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and lower nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels than controls. There are divergent results on alveolar NO (CalvNO) concentrations in relation to CF. There are inconsistent results on correlation between different nitric oxide parameters and lung function and inflammation in CF. AIM: To compare FeNO, CalvNO and nNO levels between subjects with CF, asthma and healthy controls and to study whether these parameters are related to lung function, blood cell counts or clinical characteristics in CF patients...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165332/exhaled-breath-and-oral-cavity-vocs-as-potential-biomarkers-in-oral-cancer-patients
#3
Marcos Bouza, Jesus Gonzalez-Soto, Rosario Pereiro, Juan Carlos de Vicente, Alfredo Sanz-Medel
Corporal mechanisms attributed to cancer, such as oxidative stress or the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, seem to be responsible of the generation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that could be used as non-invasive diagnosis biomarkers. The present work presents an attempt of using VOCs from exhaled breath and oral cavity air as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. 52 breath samples were collected (3 L Tedlar bags) from 26 OSCC patients and 26 cancer-free controls...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102830/can-exhaled-volatile-organic-compounds-predict-asthma-exacerbations-in-children
#4
Dillys van Vliet, Agnieszka Smolinska, Quirijn Jöbsis, Jean Muris, Philippe Rosias, Jan Dallinga, Edward Dompeling, Frederik van Schooten
Background Asthma control falls short of current goals of asthma management guidelines. Non-invasive monitoring of airway inflammation may help to improve the level of asthma control in children. Aim 1) To identify a set of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that is most predictive for an asthma exacerbation in children. 2) To determine the chemical background of predictive VOCs. Methods In an one-year prospective observational study, 96 asthmatic children were studied . At clinical visits with an interval of 2 months, asthma control, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, lung function (FEV1, FEV1/VC) and VOCs in exhaled breath were determined by means of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070022/stable-isotope-profiles-reveal-active-production-of-vocs-from-human-associated-microbes
#5
Joann Phan, Simone Meinardi, Barbara Barletta, Donald Blake, Katrine Whiteson
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured from exhaled breath have great promise for the diagnosis of bacterial infections. However, determining human or microbial origin of VOCs detected in breath remains a great challenge. For example, the microbial fermentation product 2,3-butanedione was recently found in the breath of CF patients; parallel culture-independent metagenomic sequencing of the same samples revealed that Streptococcus and Rothia spp. have the genetic capacity to produce 2,3-butanedione. To investigate whether the genetic capacity found in metagenomes translates to bacterial production of a VOC of interest such as 2,3-butanedione, we fed stable isotopes to three bacterial strains isolated from Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients: two Gram-positive bacteria, Rothia mucilaginosa and Streptococcus salivarius, and a dominant opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991859/breath-mass-ion-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer
#6
Michael Phillips, Renee Cataneo, Cassie Lebauer, Mayur Mundada, Christobel Saunders
BACKGROUND: Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contain biomarkers of breast cancer that are detectable with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS). However, chemical identification of breath VOC biomarkers may be erroneous because spectral matching can misidentify their structure. Breath mass ions detected with GC MS have been proposed as intrinsically robust biomarkers because they can be identified without spectral matching. We investigated whether breath mass ion biomarkers could identify breast cancer...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134131/design-and-characterization-of-a-cough-simulator
#7
Bo Zhang, Chao Zhu, Zhiming Ji, Chao-Hsin Lin
Expiratory droplets from human coughing have always been considered as potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory infectious disease transmission. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing, a transient repeatable cough simulator has been designed and built. Cough droplets are generated by different mechanisms, such as the breaking of mucus, condensation and high-speed atomization from different depths of the respiratory tract. These mechanisms in coughing produce droplets of different sizes, represented by a bimodal distribution of 'fine' and 'coarse' droplets...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140379/factors-that-influence-the-volatile-organic-compound-content-in-human-breath
#8
L Blanchet, A Smolinska, A Baranska, E Tigchelaar, M Swertz, A Zhernakova, J W Dallinga, C Wijmenga, F J van Schooten
BACKGROUND: Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues that still need to be tackled are related to potential confounding factors like gender and age and endogenous and exogenous factors, like f.i. smoking. METHODS: The aim of this study was to systematically access the effect of endogenous and exogenous factors on VOC composition of exhaled breath...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104897/optimal-flow-rate-sampling-designs-for-studies-with-extended-exhaled-nitric-oxide-analysis
#9
Noa Molshatski, Sandrah P Eckel
INTRODUCTION: The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation. Repeat FeNO maneuvers at multiple fixed exhalation flow rates (extended NO analysis) can be used to estimate parameters quantifying proximal and distal sources of NO in mathematical models of lower respiratory tract NO. A growing number of studies use extended NO analysis, but there is no official standard flow rate sampling protocol. In this paper, we provide information for study planning by deriving theoretically optimal flow rate sampling designs...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212110/the-impact-of-chewing-gum-on-halitosis-parameters-a-systematic-review
#10
Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes Muniz, Stephanie Anagnostopoulos Friedrich, Carina Folgearini Silveira, Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing
This study aimed to analyze the impact of chewing gum on halitosis parameters. Three databases were searched with the following focused question: 'Can chewing gum additionally reduce halitosis parameters, such as organoleptic scores and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), when compared to a control treatment'? Controlled clinical trials presenting at least two halitosis measurements (organoleptic scores and/or VSC) were included. Ten studies were included, and different active ingredients were used. One study was performed using a chewing gum without any active ingredient...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102831/biomarkers-in-adult-asthma-a-systematic-review-of-8-isoprostane-in-exhaled-breath-condensate
#11
Adam M Peel, Christina-Jane Crossman-Barnes, Jonathan Tang, Stephen J Fowler, Gwyneth A Davies, Andrew M Wilson, Yoon K Loke
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the evidence for the use of 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a biomarker in adult asthma. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of EBC 8-isoprostane. METHODS: We searched a number of online databases (including PubMed, Embase and Scopus) in January 2016. We included studies of adult non-smokers with EBC collection and asthma diagnosis conducted according to recognised guidelines. We aimed to pool data using random effects meta-analysis and assess heterogeneity using I (2)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054515/method-validation-of-nanoparticle-tracking-analysis-to-measure-pulmonary-nanoparticle-content-the-size-distribution-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-depends-on-occupational-exposure
#12
J-J Sauvain, G Suarez, J-L Edmé, O M P A Bezerra, K G Silveira, L S Amaral, A P S Carneiro, N Chérot-Kornobis, A Sobaszek, S Hulo
A particle exposure assessment based on the dose deposited in the lungs would be the gold standard for the evaluation of any resulting health effects. Measuring particles in exhaled breath condensate (EBC)-a matrix containing water and airway lining fluid-could help to evaluate particle retention in the lungs. This study aimed to (1) validate a nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) method for determining the particle number concentration and their hydrodynamic size distribution in EBC, and (2) apply this method to EBC collected from workers exposed to soapstone (n = 55) or quartz dust (n = 12) and controls (n = 11)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049865/adherence-of-volatile-propofol-to-various-types-of-plastic-tubing
#13
F Maurer, D J Lorenz, G Pielsticker, T Volk, D I Sessler, J I Baumbach, S Kreuer
Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic. Currently, it is not possible to routinely measure blood concentration of the drug in real time. However, multi-capillary column ion-mobility spectrometry of exhaled gas can estimate blood propofol concentration. Unfortunately, adhesion of volatile propofol on plastic materials complicates measurements. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the extent to which volatile propofol adheres to various plastics used in sampling tubing. Perfluoralkoxy (PFA), polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), polyurethane (PUR), silicone, and Tygon tubing were investigated in an experimental setting using a calibration gas generator (HovaCAL)...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068297/fatty-acid-derivative-chemokine-and-cytokine-profiles-in-exhaled-breath-condensates-can-differentiate-adult-and-children-paucibacillary-tuberculosis-patients
#14
Sergio Fabián Mosquera-Restrepo, Ana Cecilia Caro, Luis F García, Carlos Alberto Peláez-Jaramillo, Mauricio Rojas
The anti-mycobacterial immune response in adults and children with tuberculosis (TB), as well as the response in bacteriologically positive and negative patients, is different. However, knowledge of the immunological events occurring in the lungs in these clinical situations remains scarce. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples may be useful for studying the inflammatory environment of the lower airways in TB patients. The fatty acid, cytokine, and chemokine profiles in EBC from healthy adults; smear-positive and smear-negative adult patients; and healthy, asthmatic, and TB children were determined using gas chromatography and LUMINEX, respectively...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068294/canine-olfaction-as-an-alternative-to-analytical-instruments-for-disease-diagnosis-understanding-dog-personality-to-achieve-reproducible-results
#15
Klaus Hackner, Joachim Pleil
Recent literature has touted the use of canine olfaction as a diagnostic tool for identifying pre-clinical disease status, especially cancer and infection from biological media samples. Studies have shown a wide range of outcomes, ranging from almost perfect discrimination, all the way to essentially random results. This disparity is not likely to be a detection issue; dogs have been shown to have extremely sensitive noses as proven by their use for tracking, bomb detection and search and rescue. However, in contrast to analytical instruments, dogs are subject to boredom, fatigue, hunger and external distractions...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068292/a-rabbit-model-for-assessment-of-volatile-metabolite-changes-observed-from-skin-a-pressure-ulcer-case-study
#16
Michael Schivo, Alexander A Aksenov, Alberto Pasamontes, Raquel Cumeras, Sandra Weisker, Anita M Oberbauer, Cristina E Davis
Human skin presents a large, easily accessible matrix that is potentially useful for diagnostic applications based on whole body metabolite changes-some of which will be volatile and detected using minimally invasive tools. Unfortunately, identifying skin biomarkers that can be reliably linked to a particular condition is challenging due to a large variability of genetics, dietary intake, and environmental exposures within human populations. This leads to a paucity of clinically validated volatile skin biomarker compounds...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068290/a-collection-system-for-dry-solid-residues-from-exhaled-breath-for-analysis-via-atomic-force-microscopy
#17
Victor N Morozov, Andrey Y Mikheev
Exhaled air contains sub-micron droplets of lung liquid, which potentially bear biomarkers of lung diseases. After dehydration they form dry residue particles (DRPs). As a first step in developing techniques to characterize individual DRPs, a new electrostatic collector was designed in which DRPs are charged within a unipolar corona charger, concentrated in a cone funnel, and deposited onto a limited area of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. The collector captures 80%-90% of DRPs at an optimal flow rate of 0...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068289/cancer-metabolism-the-volatile-signature-of-glycolysis-in-vitro-model-in-lung-cancer-cells
#18
Tali Feinberg, Jens Herbig, Ingrid Kohl, Guy Las, John C Cancilla, Jose S Torrecilla, Maya Ilouze, Hossam Haick, Nir Peled
Discovering the volatile signature of cancer cells is an emerging approach in cancer research, as it may contribute to a fast and simple diagnosis of tumors in vivo and in vitro. One of the main contributors to such a volatile signature is hyperglycolysis, which characterizes the cancerous cell. The metabolic perturbation in cancer cells is known as the Warburg effect; glycolysis is preferred over oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), even in the presence of oxygen. The precise mitochondrial alterations that underlie the increased dependence of cancer cells on aerobic glycolysis for energy generation have remained a mystery...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068288/monitoring-of-breath-vocs-and-electrical-impedance-tomography-under-pulmonary-recruitment-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#19
Beate Brock, Svend Kamysek, Josephine Silz, Phillip Trefz, Jochen K Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Analysis of exhaled VOCs can provide information on physiology, metabolic processes, oxidative stress and lung diseases. In critically ill patients, VOC analysis may be used to gain complimentary information beyond global clinical parameters. This seems especially attractive in mechanically ventilated patients frequently suffering from impairment of gas exchange. This study was intended to assess (a) the effects of recruitment maneuvers onto VOC profiles, (b) the correlations between electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data and VOC profiles and (c) the effects of recruitment onto distribution of ventilation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004646/exhaled-breath-condensate-ph-and-cysteinyl-leukotriens-in-patients-with-chronic-cough-secondary-to-acid-gastroesophageal-reflux
#20
Enrico Heffler, Claudia Crimi, Luisa Brussino, Stefania Nicola, Stefania Sichili, Luca Dughera, Giovanni Rolla, Nunzio Crimi
Chronic cough is one of the most common clinical problems and it may be secondary to different stimuli and diseases, including low-level physical and chemical stimulation of the esophageal-bronchial reflex, suggestive of cough-reflex hyperresponsiveness, in patients with gastroesophageal reflux; however, it is still debated whether gastroesophageal reflux could induce airway inflammation and acidification. The aim of this study was to investigate airway pH and cysteynil-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) concentration (a marker of airway inflammation) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
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