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Journal of Breath Research

Tobias Hueppe, Thomas Volk, Sascha Kreuer
Critically ill patients typically need some kind of functional organ support or replacement. Cardiopulmonary and renal replacement therapies are well established measures in intensive care units. However, there are also inherent risks associated with these treatments. The appropriate and timely commencement, maintenance and termination of organ replacement procedures currently use weak surrogates as decision support in clinical practice. A more reasonable application of extracorporeal organ support can be expected to potentially lower adverse events and save costs in healthcare systems, if a precise online monitoring was available...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Madara Tirzīte, Māris Bukovskis, Gunta Strazda, Normunds Jurka, Immanuels Taivans
Lung cancer is a very common malignancy with a low five-year survival rate. Artificial olfactory sensor (electronic nose) is a tool that recently has been studied as a probable optimal screening tool for early detection of lung cancer, but still no statistical method has been put forward as the preferable one.
 The aim of the study was to explore the use of logistic regression analysis to analyse patients' exhaled breath samples with electronic nose in order to differentiate lung cancer patients (regardless of the stage of the cancer) from patients with other lung diseases and healthy individuals...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Michiel A G E Bannier, Kim D G van de Kant, Quirijn Jöbsis, Edward Dompeling
The measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath is a promising tool for diagnosing and monitoring various lung diseases in children. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is a frequently used standard technique for VOCs analysis. However, as GC-MS is an expensive and time-consuming technique, hand-held devices or electronic noses (eNoses) have been developed. Recently, the Aeonose was introduced as an easy-to-use handheld eNose capable of point-of-care testing. Although first results using this eNose in adults are promising, studies in children are lacking...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Marilena Bazzano, Luca Laghi, Chenglin Zhu, Gian Enrico Magi, Evelina Serri, Andrea Spaterna, Beniamino Tesei, Fulvio Laus
The present work characterized the metabolomic profile of tracheal wash (TW) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in healthy horses and horses with respiratory disease. Six asthma-affected horses (Group A) and six healthy controls (Group H) underwent clinical, endoscopic and cytologic examinations of upper airways to confirm the active phase of asthma. TW and EBC samples were collected from each animal and investigated by Proton Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) metabolomic analysis. A total of 10 out of 38 metabolites found in TW were significantly different between groups (p< 0...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Anurag Gupta, T Sonamani Singh, R D S Yadava
The paper presents a simulation study of breath analysis based on theoretical models of MEMS cantilever sensor array. The purpose of this study is to suggest a methodology for development of MEMS electronic nose for monitoring disease specific volatiles in the exhaled breath. The oxidative stress and diabetes have been taken as prototype case studies for assessment of E-nose designs. The detection of ethane for general oxidative stress, isoprene for hypoxia and acetone for diabetes are considered for targeted detection...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Amalia Z Berna, James S McCarthy, X Rosalind Wang, Michelle Michie, Florence G Bravo, Julie Cassells, Stephen C Trowell
We previously showed that thioether levels in the exhaled breath volatiles of volunteers undergoing controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with P. falciparum increase as infection progresses. In this study, we show that thioethers have diurnal cyclical increasing patterns and their levels are significantly higher in P. falciparum CHMI volunteers compared to those of healthy volunteers. The synchronized cycle and elevation of thioethers were not present in P. vivax-infection, therefore it is likely that the thioethers are associated with unique factors in the pathology of P...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Min Wang, Jiajing Sheng, Qian Wu, Yingchang Zou, Yanjie Hu, Kejing Ying, Hao Wan, Ping Wang
Lung cancer (LC) is a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally, and exhaled breath testing has been considered as a fast, convenient and non-invasive way to diagnose LC in its early stages. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as markers of LC in exhaled breath, have been widely investigated for cancer diagnosis. However, few studies have reported on the interference of benign pulmonary diseases (BPD) in the selection of VOC markers for LC. During this study, 207 samples were analyzed using thermal desorption instrumentation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) to detect C6 -C30 VOCs, and all samples were divided into four groups: LC group, BPD group, lung disease (LD) group (including LC group and BPD group) and healthy group...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Marcia Soares, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Hatice Koca, Emilia Viklund, Matthew Richardson, Per Gustafsson, Anna-Carin Olin, Salman Siddiqui
RATIONALE: Asthma is often characterised by inflammation, damage and dysfunction of the small airways, but no standardised biomarkers are available. OBJECTIVES: Using a novel approach-particles in exhaled air (PExA)-we sought to (a) sample and analyse abundant protein biomarkers: surfactant protein A (SPA) and albumin in adult asthmatic and healthy patients and (b) relate protein concentrations with physiological markers using phenotyping. METHODS: 83 adult asthmatics and 21 healthy volunteers were recruited from a discovery cohort in Leicester, UK, and 32 adult asthmatics as replication cohort from Sweden...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Thomas Hector Chappuis, Bao An Pham Ho, Morgan Ceillier, Florence Ricoul, Manuel Alessio, Jean-Francois Beche, Christelle Corne, Gérard Besson, Jérôme Vial, Didier Thiébaut, Bertrand Bourlon
This work presents the performances of silicon micro-preconcentrators chips for breath sampling. The silicon chips were coupled to a handheld battery powered system for breath sampling and direct injection in a laboratory gas chromatography mass spectrometry system through thermal desorption (TD). Performances of micro-preconcentrators were first compared to commercial TD for benzene trapping. Similar chromatographic peaks after gas chromatographic separation were observed while the volume of sample needed was reduced by a factor of 5...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
S Hulo, J L Edme, J Inamo, R Van Bulck, S Dharancy, R Neviere
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Increased nitric oxide is involved in abnormal hemodynamic parameters and respiratory function of cirrhotic patients. We aimed to quantify partitioning exhaled nitric oxide measurements in exhaled air in liver transplantation (LT) candidates and evaluate their relationships with chronotropic incompetence and aerobic capacity. METHODS: We compared exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements, heart rate response and peak oxygen uptake during incremental exercise in liver transplantation candidates to those of controls...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Andrew J Ghio, Joleen M Soukup, John McGee, Michael C Madden, Charles R Esther
Investigation employing bronchoalveolar lavage supports both increased and decreased iron concentrations in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of smokers. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is an alternative approach to sampling the ELF. We evaluated for an association between iron homeostasis and both smoking and a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by measuring metal concentrations in EBC samples from non-smoker controls, smoker controls, and individuals diagnosed with COPD. The total number of EBC specimens was 194...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Athina C Georgiou, Marja L Laine, Dong M Deng, Bernd W Brandt, Cor van Loveren, Xanthippi Dereka
BACKGROUND & AIM: Halitosis is defined as an offensive breath odour of whatever source and therefore may affect a person's social interactions. Intra-oral halitosis is a result of bacterial activity. Therefore, probiotics may offer an appropriate and biological solution as a part of the therapy of intra-oral halitosis. The aim of this systematic review was to study the effect of the administration of probiotics alone or as an adjunct to other treatments on the level of halitosis as measured by volatile sulphur compound (VSC) levels, organoleptic scores (ORG) or hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide levels...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Claire S Byrne, Tom Preston, Jerusa Brignardello, Isabel Garcia-Perez, Elaine Holmes, Gary S Frost, Douglas J Morrison
BACKGROUND: The appetite-regulating effects of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) have in part previously been attributed to their effects on intestinal transit rates as well as microbial production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Increased colonic production of the SCFA propionate has been shown to reduce energy intake and stimulate gut hormone secretion acutely in humans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of the propiogenic NDC, L-rhamnose, on gastrointestinal transit times using a combined 13 CO2 /H2 breath test...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Aldo Pezzuto, Marco Stellato, Giovanna Catania, Calogero Mazzara, Sara Tonini, Marco Caricato, Pierfilippo Crucitti, Giuseppe Tonini
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking cessation can change the natural history of COPD, as we know from the GOLD guidelines. Little is known about the short-term clinical and functional effects of smoking cessation treatment combined with anti-muscarinic bronchodilators. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether quitting smoking, obtained by smoking cessation treatment combined with the use of a new long-acting muscarinic antagonist bronchodilator (LAMA), can improve lung function tests and respiratory symptoms more than the use of LAMA alone...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Kiran Sankar Maiti, Michael Lewton, Ernst Fill, Alexander Apolonski
Breath analysis has great potential for becoming an important clinical diagnosis method due to its friendly and non-invasive way of sample collection. Hundreds of endogenous trace gases (volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) are present in breath, representing different metabolic processes of the body. They are not only characteristic for a person, their age, sex, habit etc, but also specific to different kinds of diseases. VOCs, related to diseases could serve as biomarkers for clinical diagnostics and disease monitoring...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
T Lomonaco, A Romani, S Ghimenti, D Biagini, F G Bellagambi, M Onor, P Salvo, R Fuoco, F Di Francesco
A reliable method for the determination of carbonyl compounds in exhaled breath based on on-sorbent derivatization coupled with thermal desorption and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described. The analytical performances were optimized for a mixture of C2-C9 aldehydes and C3-C9 ketones, particularly interesting for clinical applications, by using an internal standard and applying a 23 full factorial design. A volume of sample (250 ml) was loaded at 50 ml min-1 into a Tenax GR sorbent tube containing 130 nmol of O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Pawel Mochalski, Marcis Leja, Evita Gasenko, Roberts Skapars, Daiga Santare, Armands Sivins, Dan Erik Aronsson, Clemens Ager, Carsten Jaeschke, Gidi Shani, Jan Mitrovics, Christopher A Mayhew, Hossam Haick
The presence of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of patients with gastric cancer has been reported by a number of research groups; however, the source of these compounds remains controversial. Comparison of VOCs emitted from gastric cancer tissue to those emitted from non-cancerous tissue would help in understanding which of the VOCs are associated with gastric cancer and provide a deeper knowledge on their generation. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) coupled with head-space needle trap extraction (HS-NTE) as the pre-concentration technique, was used to identify and quantify VOCs released by gastric cancer and non-cancerous tissue samples collected from 41 patients during surgery...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Paul R Afolabi, Eleonora Scorletti, Debbie E Smith, Amal A Almehmadi, Philip C Calder, Christopher D Byrne
Hepatic mitochondrial function (HMF) assessed by the 13 C-ketoisocaproate breath test (13 C-KICA BT) has been previously shown to be significantly associated with the severity of biopsy proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it is uncertain whether any perturbation in HMF relates specifically to severity of liver disease or factors associated with metabolic syndrome within (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate whether there was any change in HMF assessed by 13 C-KICA BT in patients with NAFLD compared to control subjects, and to assess the factors that are independently associated with HMF...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Selina Traxler, Ann-Christin Bischoff, Phillip Trefz, Jochen K Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles emitted in trace concentrations from bacteria or cells has gained increasing importance over the decades. Analysis of VOCs in the headspace does not interfere with in vitro systems and, therefore, offers new options for non-invasive monitoring of cultures. Currently there is not any available standardized in vitro sampling system which considers effects of dilution and contamination onto ppbV to pptV VOC concentrations during. In this study a new in vitro system for online and offline headspace measurement of biological cultures was designed...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Giorgia Purcaro, Christiaan A Rees, Jeffrey A Melvin, Jennifer M Bomberger, Jane E Hill
Volatile molecules in exhaled breath represent potential biomarkers in the setting of infectious diseases, particularly those affecting the respiratory tract. In particular, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a critically important respiratory pathogen in specific subsets of the population, such as those with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infections caused by P. aeruginosa can be particularly problematic when co-infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) occurs, as this is correlated with the establishment of chronic P...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
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