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Journal of Breath Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146889/exhaled-markers-of-anti-oxidant-activity-and-oxidative-stress-in-stable-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-moderate-lung-disease
#1
Lucia Spicuzza, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Lucia Tardino, Nicola Ciancio, Raffaella Nenna, Fabio Midulla, Salvatore Leonardi
The sustained imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species contributes to lung damage in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Glutathione (GSH) is an important component of the antioxidant defense in the airways epithelial lining fluid and its transportation out of the cells may be altered in CF. The aim of this study was to assess the oxidants/anti-oxidants balance in the airways of patients with CF. We measured the concentrations of GSH, the total antioxidant capacity and the concentration of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane), a marker of oxidative stress, in the exhaled breath condensate of 17 non-smoking patients with CF, in stable phase, and in 17 age-matched healthy subjects...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146888/halitosis-in-children-with-adenoid-hypertrophy
#2
Małgorzata Sikorska-Żuk, Marek Bochnia
This paper attempts to identify the sources and evaluate the prevalence of halitosis in children with adenoid hypertrophy. The study included pediatric patients admitted for adenoidectomy due to obstructive symptoms. Patients with possibly other causes of halitosis, were excluded from the study. Halitosis was detected in 30 out of 136 children (22.1%). The effect of adenoid hypertrophy on halitosis was confirmed by the significant reduction in the organoleptic score rated according to the Rosenberg Scale (on average by 2 degrees) and the levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) (on average 84 ppb) post-adenoidectomy, as compared to pre-surgery results...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109305/breath-based-diagnosis-of-fungal-infections
#3
Mahesh Jayamanna Thalavitiya Acharige, Seena Koshy, Nour Ismail, Obadah Aloum, Majd Jazaerly, Carmen Leon Astudillo, Sophia Koo
Invasive aspergillosis and other invasive fungal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, in large part due to limitations of existing diagnostic methods for these infections. Detection of species-specific volatile sesquiterpene metabolites of fungal origin in the breath of patients with invasive fungal infections allows the diagnosis and monitoring of these infections in vivo, noninvasively and more rapidly than possible with current diagnostic methods...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104183/exhaled-breath-aerosol-eba-the-simplest-non-invasive-medium-for-public-health-and-occupational-exposure-biomonitoring
#4
Joachim D Pleil, Ariel Wallace, Michael C Madden
Exhaled breath collection has long been recognized as requiring the least invasive methods of the biological fluids and so is preferred for environmental and public health studies. This commentary describes how breath biomonitoring is generally preferred for certain logistical reasons in public health and occupational biomonitoring. Three different fractions of exhaled breath are considered: gas-phase, liquid condensate, and aerosols. The focus is on the exhaled breath aerosol (EBA) fraction and the development of targeted sampling and analysis methods...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104182/lipid-peroxidation-in-cardiac-surgery-towards-consensus-on-biomonitoring-diagnostic-tools-and-therapeutic-implementation
#5
Rosalba Romano, Simona M Cristescu, Terence H Risby, Nandor Marczin
This review focuses on oxidative stress and more specifically lipid peroxidation in cardiac surgery, one of the fundamental theories of perioperative complications. We present the molecular pathways leading to lipid peroxidation and integrate analytical methods that allow detection of lipid peroxidation markers in the fluid phase with those focusing on volatile compounds in exhaled breath. In order to explore the accumulated data in the literature, we present a systematic review of quantitative analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), a widely used lipid peroxidation product at various stages of cardiac surgery...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091047/instrumental-sensing-of-trace-volatiles-a-new-promising-tool-for-detecting-the-presence-of-entrapped-or-hidden-people
#6
Paweł Mochalski, Vera Ruzsanyi, Helmut Wiesenhofer, Christopher A Mayhew
There is a growing demand for rapid analytical systems for detecting the presence of humans who are either entrapped as a result of a disaster or in particular hidden, as in the case of smuggling or trafficking. The trafficking and smuggling of people to Europe have reached epidemic proportions in recent years. This does not only put a major strain on European resources, but puts at risk the health and lives of the people being trafficked or smuggled. In this context, the early detection and interception of smuggled/trafficked people is of particular importance in terms of saving migrants from life-threatening situations...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083318/obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-can-be-identified-by-ion-mobility-spectrometry-derived-smell-prints-of-different-biological-materials
#7
Timm Greulich, Hannes Fischer, Dirk Lubbe, Christoph Nell, Joerg Ingo Baumbach, Ulrich Koehler, Tobias Boeselt, Claus Vogelmeier, Andreas Koczulla
The analysis of sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is time- and cost-intensive. A number of studies demonstrated that the non-invasive analysis of exhaled breath may be suitable to distinguish between OSAS patients and healthy subjects (HS). Methods/Population: We included OSAS patients (n=15) and HS (n=15) in this diagnostic proof-of-concept-study. All participants underwent polygraphy to verify or exclude OSAS and performed spirometry to exclude pulmonary ventilatory diseases. The VOC profile of exhaled breath and of the headspaces over exhaled breath condensate, pharyngeal washing fluid, and serum was measured using ion mobility spectrometry (BioScout®) and an e-nose (Cyranose® 320)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068321/relationship-between-total-serum-immunoglobulin-e-levels-fractional-exhaled-breath-nitric-oxide-levels-and-absolute-blood-eosinophil-counts-in-atopic-and-non-atopic-asthma-a-controlled-comparative-study
#8
Sanjeet Krishna Shrestha, Arne Drews, Lucky Sharma, Subash Pant, Sanjeev Shrestha, Arpana Neopane
ABSTRACT Introduction Asthma is a prevalent non communicable disease both in low and high income countries, including Nepal. Total serum immunoglobulin E levels and peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts are known inflammatory markers of asthma. And Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide measure in breath has also been proposed as a non-invasive biomarker to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation. This study explores the correlation between these three variables with intent that one may replace the other in resource limited setup...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068319/microbiome-associated-with-dentures-malodour
#9
Shai Yitzhaki, Leah Reshef, Uri Gophna, Mel Rosenberg, Nir Sterer
In the past, our inability to cultivate most of the oral microorganisms has limited our view of this complex ecosystem. In the present study, we utilized next generation deep sequencing techniques to revisit the microbiome associated with dentures malodour a growing problem with the rise in life expectancy. Study population comprised of twenty six full dentures patients (mean age 71±6.4, 16 females) who visited the Tel Aviv University dental geriatric clinic. Dentures malodour was rated organoleptically by a single odour judge and dentures scored 2 and above were considered malodour positive...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068318/advances-in-chemical-sensing-technologies-for-vocs-in-breath-for-security-threat-assessment-illicit-drug-detection-and-human-trafficking-activity
#10
Stamatios Giannoukos, Agapios Agapiou, S Taylor
On-site chemical sensing of compounds associated with security and terrorist attacks is of worldwide interest. Other related bio-monitoring topics include identification of individuals posing a threat from illicit drugs, explosive manufacturing, as well as searching for victims of human trafficking and collapsed buildings. The current status of field analytical technologies is directed towards the detection and identification of vapours and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some VOCs are associated with exhaled breath; where research is moving from individual breath testing (volatilome) to cell breath (microbiome) and most recently to crowd breath metabolites (exposome)...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052557/determination-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-exhaled-breath-of-heart-failure-patients-by-needle-trap-micro-extraction-coupled-with-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Denise Biagini, Tommaso Lomonaco, Silvia Ghimenti, Francesca Giuseppa Bellagambi, Massimo Onor, Maria Chiara Scali, Valentina Barletta, Mario Marzilli, Pietro Salvo, Maria Giovanna Trivella, Roger Fuoco, Fabio Di Francesco
The analytical performances of needle trap micro-extraction (NTME) coupled with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were evaluated by analyzing a mixture of twenty-two representative breath VOCs belonging to different chemical classes (i.e. hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics and sulfurs). NTME is an emerging technique that guarantees detection limits in pptv range by pre-concentrating low volumes of sample, and it is particularly suitable for breath analysis. For most VOCs, detection limits between 20 and 500 pptv were obtained by pre-concentrating 25 mL of a humidified standard gas mixture at a flow rate of 15 mL/min...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033395/perioperative-changes-in-exhaled-nitric-oxide-during-oesophagectomy
#12
Piers Boshier, Alison Knaggs, George B Hanna, Nandor Marczin
Introduction Oesophagectomy is a major surgical procedure, associated with high rates of postoperative cardiopulmonary morbidity, that is in part due to the frequent requirement for periods of intraoperative one lung ventilation (OLV). The current pilot study aims to investigate variation in exhaled NO levels during oesophagectomy with emphasis on the response to OLV and correlation to physiological variables and clinical outcomes. Methods Breath-to-breath concentrations of NO were analysed in patients undergoing oesophagectomy at various stages of two lung ventilation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033394/diagnostic-biomarkers-for-lung-cancer-prevention
#13
Roberto Gasparri, Rosalia Romano, Giulia Sedda, Alessandro Borri, Francesco Petrella, Domenico Galetta, Monica Casiraghi, Lorenzo Spaggiari
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death for neoplasm. The lung cancer mortality is frequently associated with late diagnosis, therefore an early diagnosis is a key factor to significantly improve overall survival in high risk populations of asymptomatic patients. Conventional cancer screenings (low-dose computed tomography or chest x-ray) today offers early detection but are invasive and expensive. Up to date these studies evaluated the solid and topographic cancer structure and morphology. Today the concept of tumor has been remodeled and it has been defined as a disease that has its own genetic, biological and metabolic identity and on this new awareness we should base the new screening methods...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018179/exhaled-isoprene-for-monitoring-recovery-from-acute-hypoxic-stress
#14
Sean William Harshman, Brian A Geier, Anthony Qualley, Leslie A Drummond, Laura Flory, Maomian Fan, Rhonda Pitsch, Claude C Grigsby, Jeffrey B Phillips, Jennifer Martin
Hypoxia-like incidents in-flight have increased over the past decade causing severe safety concerns across the aviation community. As a result, the need to monitor flight crews in real-time for the onset of hypoxic conditions is paramount for continued aeronautical safety. Here, hypoxic events were simulated in the laboratory via a reduced oxygen-breathing device to determine the effect of recovery gas oxygen concentration (21% and 100%) on exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) composition. Data from samples collected both serially (throughout the exposure), prior to, and following exposures yielded 326 statistically significant features, 203 of which were unique...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972201/what-is-the-real-utility-of-breath-ammonia-concentration-measurements-in-medicine-and-physiology
#15
Patrik Spanel, David Smith
Much effort continues to be devoted to the development of devices to analyse breath ammonia with the anticipation that breath ammonia analyses will be useful in clinical practice. In this perspective we refer to the analytical techniques that have been used to measure breath ammonia, focusing on selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, of which we have special knowledge and understanding. From the collected data obtained using the different techniques, we exam the origins of mouth- and nose-exhaled ammonia and conclude that mouth-exhaled ammonia is always elevated above a concentration that would be equilibrated with blood ammonia and is largely produced by the action of enzymes on salivary urea...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972196/relationship-between-glycated-haemoglobin-concentration-and-erythrocyte-survival-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-determined-by-a-modified-carbon-monoxide-breath-test
#16
Zhenhe Huang, Yajing Liu, Yanfang Mao, Wenwen Chen, Zhangang Xiao, Yangyang Yu
In clinical practice, an unexplained discordance between percentage hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and the progression of diabetes and its complication is observed. HbA1c is determined by blood glucose and red blood cell (RBC) lifespan. Whether RBC lifespan changes in diabetic patients remains undefined because of the lack of the convenient and accurate measuring method. In the present study, we aim to observe the RBC lifespan in type 2 diabetic patients with poor blood glucose control by endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) measurement using a rapid and simplified CO breath test machine...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972195/exposure-to-genotoxic-compounds-alters-in-vitro-cellular-voc-excretion
#17
Rianne Fijten, Agnieszka Smolinska, Quan Shi, Daniëlle Pachen, Jan Dallinga, Agnes Boots, Frederik Jan van Schooten
Genotoxic carcinogens significantly damage cells and tissues by targeting macromolecules such as proteins and DNA, but their mechanisms of action and effects on human health are diverse. Consequently, determining the amount of exposure to a carcinogen and its cellular effects is essential, yet difficult. The aim of this manuscript was to investigate the potential of detecting alterations in Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) profiles in the in vitro headspace of pulmonary cells after exposure to the genotoxic carcinogens cisplatin and benzo[a]pyrene using two different sampling set-ups...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952968/comprehensive-volatile-metabolic-fingerprinting-of-bacterial-and-fungal-pathogen-groups
#18
Christiaan Rees, Alison Burklund, Pierre-Hugues Stefanuto, Joseph D Schwartzman, Jane E Hill
The identification of pathogen-specific volatile metabolic "fingerprints" could lead to the rapid identification of disease-causing organisms either directly from <i>ex vivo</i> patient bio-specimens or from <i>in vitro</i> cultures. In the present study, we have evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by 100 clinical isolates belonging to ten distinct pathogen groups that, in aggregate, account for 90 % of bloodstream infections, 90 % of urinary tract infections, and 80 % of infections encountered in the intensive care unit setting...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947683/headspace-volatile-organic-compounds-from-bacteria-implicated-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-analysed-by-td-gc-ms
#19
Oluwasola Lawal, Howbeer Muhamadali, Waqar Ahmed, Iain R White, Tamara M E Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Stephen J Fowler
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a healthcare-acquired infection arising from the invasion of the lower respiratory tract by opportunistic pathogens in critically ill ventilated patients. The current method of diagnosis requires the culture of an airway sample such as bronchoalveolar lavage, which is invasive to obtain and may take up to seven days to identify a causal pathogen, or indeed rule out infection. While awaiting results, patients are administered empirical antibiotics; risks of this approach include lack of effect on the causal pathogen, contribution to the development of antibiotic resistance and downstream effects such as increased length of intensive care stay, cost, morbidity and mortality...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947682/assessment-of-a-combined-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometer-sensor-gc-mss-system-for-detecting-biologically-relevant-volatile-compounds-vcs
#20
Oliver Gould, Tomas Wieczorek, Ben P J de Lacy Costello, Raj Persad, Norman Ratcliffe
There have been a number of studies in which metal oxide sensors (MOS) have replaced conventional analytical detectors in gas chromatography systems. However, despite the use of these instruments in a range of applications including breath research the sensor responses (i.e. resistance changes w.r.t. concentration of VCs) remain largely unreported. This paper addresses that issue by comparing the response of a metal oxide sensor directly with a mass spectrometer (MS), whereby both detectors are interfaced to the same GC column using an s-swafer...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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