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Journal of Breath Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928295/real-time-human-respiration-carbon-dioxide-measurement-device-for-cardiorespiratory-assessment
#1
Om Prakash Singh, Teo Aik Howe, Malarvili Balakrishnan
Development of a human respiration carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement device remains a demanding research to evaluate the cardio-respiratory status of human beings since last decades in and out of hospital. Hence, we report a real time, user operable CO2 measurement device using infrared CO2 sensor, Arduino Mega2560, and thin film transistor (TFT, 3.5"), incorporated with low pass (cut-off frequency,10Hz) and moving average (span,8) filters. The proposed device measures features such as partial end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), respiratory rate (RR), inspired carbon dioxide (ICO2) and newly proposed feature, Hjorth Activity that annotated with a date and time received from real-time clock and stores into the secure digital (SD) card...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925377/applied-upper-airway-resistance-instantly-affects-breath-components-a-unique-insight-into-pulmonary-medicine
#2
Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Svend Kamysek, Phillip Trefz, Wolfram Miekisch
Respiratory parameters such as flow or rate have complex effects onto exhalation of volatile substances and can hamper clinical interpretation of breath biomarkers. We investigated effects of progressively applied upper-airway resistances onto exhalation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in healthy humans. We performed real-time mass-spectrometric determination of breath volatiles in 50 subjects with parallel non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring, breath-resolved spirometry and capnometry during controlled tidal breathing (12 breaths/min)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920579/point-of-care-companion-diagnostic-tests-for-personalizing-psychiatric-medications-fulfilling-an-unmet-clinical-need
#3
Anil S Modak
Over the last decade stable isotope labeled substrates have been used as probes for rapid, point of care, non invasive and user friendly phenotype breath tests to evaluate activity of drug metabolizing enzymes. These diagnostic breath tests can be potentially used as Companion diagnostics (CDx) by physicians to personalize medications especially psychiatric drugs with narrow therapeutic windows, to monitor the progress of disease severity, medication efficacy and to study in vivo the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics, Several genotype tests have been approved by the FDA over the last 15 years, however, they have not been cleared for use in personalizing medications since they fall woefully short in identifying all non responders to drugs especially for the CYP450 enzymes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894051/standardization-of-the-collection-of-exhaled-breath-condensate-and-exhaled-breath-aerosol-using-a-feedback-regulated-sampling-device
#4
Brett R Winters, Joachim D Pleil, Michelle M Angrish, Matthew A Stiegel, Terence H Risby, Michael C Madden
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and associated exhaled breath aerosols (EBA) are valuable non-invasive biological media used for the quantification of biomarkers. EBC contains exhaled water vapor, soluble gas-phase (polar) organic compounds, ionic species, plus other species including semi- and non-volatile organic compounds, proteins, cell fragments, DNA, dissolved inorganic compounds, ions, and micro-biota (bacteria and viruses) dissolved in the co-collected EBA. EBC is collected from subjects who breathe "normally" through a chilled tube assembly for approximately 10 minutes and is then harvested into small vials for analysis...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872051/optimization-of-sampling-parameters-for-standardized-exhaled-breath-sampling
#5
Sophie Doran, Andrea Romano, George B Hanna
The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871073/optical-techniques-for-breath-analysis-from-single-to-multi-species-detection
#6
Markus Metsaelae
Optical spectroscopy can be used for trace level gas analysis in different applications, including exhaled breath research. A common approach is the targeted online, real-time analysis of small molecules (2-5 atoms). Currently, the methodology is normally used for the detection of single analytes at trace levels, or 2-3 species at most at the same time. The main limitation preventing sensitive multi-species detection has been the limited fast scanning range of the lasers used as light sources. This limitation is currently being eliminated by the availability of optical frequency combs (OFC) which offer wide spectral bandwidths and the benefits of a laser-type light source...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869421/a-systemic-view-on-the-distribution-of-diet-derived-methanol-and-hepatic-acetone-in-mice
#7
Martin Kistler, Andreea Muntean, Vera Hoellriegl, Georg Matuschek, Ralf Zimmermann, Christoph Hoeschen, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Jan Rozman
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from breath can successfully be used to diagnose disease-specific pathological alterations in metabolism. However, the exact origin and underlying biochemical pathways that could be mapped to VOC signatures are mainly unknown. There is a knowledge gap regarding the contribution of tissues, organs, the gut microbiome, and exogenous factors to the "sum signal" from breath samples. Animal models for human disease such as mutant mice provide the possibility to reproduce genetic predisposition to disease, thereby allowing the in-depth analysis of metabolic and biochemical functions...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850044/non-invasive-lung-disease-diagnostics-from-exhaled-microdroplets-of-lung-fluid-perspectives-and-technical-challenges
#8
Victor N Morozov, Andrey Y Mikheev, Yuri M Shlyapnikov, Alexander N Nikolaev, Irina V Lyadova
The combination of ultra-sensitive assay techniques and recent improvements in the instrumentation used to collect microdroplets of lung fluid (MLFs) from exhaled breath has enabled the development of noninvasive lung disease diagnostics that are based on MLF analysis. In one example of this approach, electrospun nylon filters were used to collect MLFs from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The filters were washed to obtain liquid probes that were then tested for human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) and fractions of h-IgA specific to ESAT-6 and Psts1, two antigens secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824012/conjugated-linoleic-acid-does-not-affect-digestion-and-absorption-of-fat-and-starch-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-parallel-study
#9
Jarosław Walkowiak, Klaudia Malikowska, Aleksandra Glapa, Paweł Bogdański, Ewa Fidler-Witoń, Monika Szulińska, Izabela Chudzicka-Strugała, Anna Miśkiewicz-Chotnicka, Edyta Mądry, Aleksandra Lisowska
Objective Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known as a potent agent for altering body weight and composition. However, its effect on the process digestion is still unknown. The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of 3 month supplementation with CLA on starch and fat digestion and absorption in humans. Research methods & procedures The study included 74 obese and overweight adults who were randomized to receive daily 3.0g CLA or sunflower oil as placebo for 3 months. Digestion and absorption of fat and starch was assessed using non-invasive breath tests with a stable <sup>13</sup>C isotope (cumulative percentage dose recovery - CPDR) before and after the supplementation period...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808178/metabolomic-profiles-of-plasma-exhaled-breath-condensate-and-saliva-are-correlated-with-potential-for-air-toxics-detection
#10
Chandresh Nanji Ladva, Rachel Golan, Roby Greenwald, Tianwei Yu, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat, W Dana Flanders, Karan Uppal, Douglas I Walker, ViLinh Tran, Donghai Liang, Dean P Jones, Jeremy Sarnat
Advances in the development of high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) have provided new opportunities for their use in characterizing exposures to environmental air pollutants and air pollution-related disease etiologies. Exposure assessment studies have considered blood, breath, and saliva as biological matrices suitable for measuring responses to air pollution exposures. The current study examines comparability among these three matrices using HRM and explored their potential for measuring mobile source air toxics...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795953/diagnostic-accuracy-of-breath-tests-for-pneumoconiosis-using-an-electronic-nose
#11
Pau-Chung Chen, Hsin-Yi Peng, Che-Jui Chang, Hsiao-Yu Yang
Breath analyses have attracted substantial attention as screens for occupational environmental lung disease. The objective of this study was to develop breath tests for pneumoconiosis by analysing volatile organic compounds using an electronic nose. A case-control study was designed. We screened 102 subjects from a cohort of stone workers. After excluding three subjects with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and one subject with asthma, 98 subjects were enrolled, including 34 subjects with pneumoconiosis and 64 healthy controls...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775245/the-necessity-of-external-validation-in-exhaled-breath-research-a-case-study-of-sarcoidosis
#12
Rianne Fijten, Agnieszka Smolinska, Marjolein Drent, Jan Dallinga, Remy Mostard, Daniëlle Pachen, Frederik Jan van Schooten, Agnes Boots
As in other disciplines of 'omics' research, reproducibility is a major problem in exhaled breath research. Many studies report discriminatory volatiles in the same disease, yet the similarity between lists of identified compounds is low. This can occur due to many factors including the lack of internal and in particular external validation. In an ideal situation, an external validation - sampled at for example a different location - is always included to ensure generalization of the observed findings to a general population...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775244/exhaled-breath-condensate-as-a-potential-biomarker-tool-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-pilot-study
#13
Barbara Rindlisbacher, Carina Strebel, Sabina A Guler, Attila Kollar, Thomas K Geiser, Georg Martin Fiedler, Alexander Benedikt Leichtle, Cedric Bovet, Manuela Funke
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease with poor survival. There is an urgent need to better diagnose and monitor IPF patients as new treatments are now available which slow down disease progression. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is easily and non-invasively collected, but analysis of potential biomarkers is difficult due to low concentrations and methodological limitations. We now used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to identify further discriminatory metabolic profiles that distinguish IPF patients from controls...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768897/strategies-for-the-identification-of-disease-related-patterns-of-volatile-organic-compounds-prediction-of-paratuberculosis-in-an-animal-model-using-random-forests
#14
Elisa Kasbohm, Sina Fischer, Anne Küntzel, Peter Oertel, Andreas Bergmann, Phillip Trefz, Wolfram Miekisch, Jochen Schubert, Petra Reinhold, Mario Ziller, Andreas Fröhlich, Volkmar Liebscher, Heike Köhler
Recently, modern statistical methods which were developed for automated pattern recognition are being used increasingly for data analysis in studies on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). With the detection of disease-related VOC profiles, novel non-invasive diagnostic tools could be developed for clinical applications. However, it is important to bear in mind that not all statistical methods are suited for the investigation of VOC profiles. In particular univariate methods are not able to discover VOC patterns as they consider each compound separately...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742064/the-effect-of-biosilver-nanoparticles-on-different-bacterial-strains-metabolism-reflected-in-their-vocs-profiles
#15
Boguslaw Buszewski, Ileana Andreea Ratiu, Maciej Milanowski, Pawel Pomastowski, Tomasz Ligor
Silver nanoparticles use has spawned during the last years a growing interest for many researchers, due to their bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties and synergetic effects, when they are used together with antibiotics, for an increased efficiency and less adverse reactions in treatment of bacterial infections. GC-MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry), which is considered "the golden standard" in chemical analysis has proven to be a reliable instrument, perfectly suitable for clinical analysis...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742057/effect-of-photodynamic-therapy-in-the-reduction-of-halitosis-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-trial
#16
Marcela Leticia Leal Gonçalves, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Yara Dadalti Fragoso, Vinícius Vieira Belarmino da Silva, Alessandro M Deana, Ana Carolina Ciarcia, Erika Horácio Pinto, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Cristiane Miranda França
Smell and odours play a vital role in social interaction. Halitosis is a social problem that affects one-third of the population causing a negative impact in the quality of life. There is little knowledge on the prevalence and management of halitosis in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the presence of halitosis in patients with MS when compared to a control group and the treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against halitosis. This is a case-control clinical study where 60 patients were evaluated: 30 MS patients in treatment at the Specialties Clinic School of Medicine, and 30 healthy patients, matched in age and gender, for the control group...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742055/kinetic-validation-of-the-limax-test-during-10-000-intravenous-13c-methacetin-breath-tests
#17
Tom Moses Rubin, Karsten Heyne, Axel Luchterhand, Jan Bednarsch, Florian W Vondran, Georgios Polychronidis, Maciej Malinowski, Alen Nikolic, Hans-Michael Tautenhahn, Maximilian Jara, Tilo Wuensch, Martin Stockmann, Johan Friso Lock
The LiMAx test, a novel 13C-methacetin-breath-test, has proven clinical validity in determining the hepatic metabolic capacity. In contrast to prior 13C-methacetin-breath-test protocols, the LiMAx-test is performed by intravenous body-weight adjusted substrate administration. Furthermore, the DOB kinetics (Delta over Baseline of the time dependent exhaled 13CO2/12CO2-ratio) are measured online at bedside with a high time resolution in order to determine the DOB maximum. The aim of this study was to analyze the recorded DOB kinetics in a large population for further refinement of the test protocol...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696336/perspectives-on-exhaled-nitric-oxide
#18
Fabio Luigi Massimo Ricciardolo, Philip E Silkoff
The history of nitric oxide (NO) in respiratory field dates back to the beginning of '90s with the ancestral study by Lars Gustafsson et al. describing the presence of endogenous NO in the exhaled breath of human beings. Soon after, independent studies showed that exhaled NO concentrations (FENO) is higher in asthmatics than in normal subjects. Not all asthmatics demonstrate a high FENO reflecting heterogeneity of asthma. High values of FENO are associated with over-expression of corticosteroid-sensitive iNOS isoform and allergic/eosinophilic inflammation...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686173/comparison-of-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-levels-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-bronchial-asthma-and-healthy-subjects-of-nepal
#19
Sanjeet Krishna Shrestha, Sanjeev Shrestha, Lucky Sharma, Subash Pant, Arpana Neopane
INTRODUCTION Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in exhaled breath can indicate on-going eosinophilic airway inflammation, specifically in asthma. But, its utility is being explored for airway centric inflammations including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Normal levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO50) have been defined in different studies but not in Nepal. This study compares fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in all three groups: normal, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671107/volatile-compounds-in-blood-headspace-and-nasal-breath
#20
Brian M Ross, Randa Babgi
Breath analysis is a form of metabolomics that utilises the identification and quantification of volatile chemicals to provide information about physiological or pathological processes occurring within the body. An inherent assumption of such analyses is that the concentration of the exhaled gases correlates with the concentration of the same gas in the tissue of interest. In this study we have investigated this assumption by quantifying some volatile compounds in peripheral venous blood headspace, and in nasal breath collected in Tedlar bags obtained at the same time from 30 healthy volunteers, prior to analysis by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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