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Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics

Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Masaki Matsushita, Kenichi Mishima, Ryusaku Esaki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh
OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Helen J Sims-Williams, Hugh P Sims-Williams, Edith Mbabazi Kabachelor, James Fotheringham, Benjamin C Warf
OBJECTIVE Myelomeningocele (MM) is a neural tube defect complicated by neurological deficits below the level of the spinal lesion and, in many cases, hydrocephalus. Long-term survival of infants treated for MM in a low- and middle-income country has never been reported. This retrospective cohort study reports 10-year outcomes and factors affecting survival for infants undergoing MM repair at CURE Children's Hospital of Uganda. METHODS Patients were traced by telephone or home visit. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Ang Deng, Hong-Qi Zhang, Ming-Xing Tang, Shao-Hua Liu, Yu-Xiang Wang, Qi-Le Gao
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of posterior-only surgical correction of dystrophic scoliosis in patients with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) using a multiple anchor point method (MAPM). METHODS From 2005 to 2014, 31 patients (mean age 13.5 years old, range 10-22 years old) suffering from dystrophic scoliosis associated with NF1 underwent posterior-only surgical correction using a MAPM. The apex of the deformity was thoracic (n = 25), thoracolumbar (n = 4), and lumbar (n = 2)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Jacob R Joseph, Brandon W Smith, Hugh J L Garton
Blunt prenatal trauma is known to have consequences to the developing brain, and can result in subdural hematoma (SDH) or epidural hematoma (EDH). The authors present a case of blunt prenatal trauma resulting in a fetal SDH, intraparenchymal hematoma, and intraventricular hemorrhage, and perform a systematic review of the literature. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Relevant studies (up to April 2016) that reported on cases of fetal SDH or EDH after blunt prenatal trauma were identified from the PubMed database...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Hyun Gi Kim, Seung-Koo Lee, Jung-Dong Lee
OBJECTIVE Young patients with moyamoya disease can exhibit infarction after revascularization surgery. This analysis of the characteristics of infarction after encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) in young patients with moyamoya disease was undertaken in an effort to elucidate the infarction mechanism. METHODS The authors retrospectively collected clinical information and reviewed pre- and postoperative MRI studies from cases involving patients younger than 18 years who underwent EDAS for the treatment of moyamoya disease between January 2012 and February 2015...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Alexander W L Gerard, Jignesh Tailor, Catia Gradil, Bhaskar Thakur, Bassel Zebian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Vera Vigo, Domenica Immacolata Battaglia, Paolo Frassanito, Gianpiero Tamburrini, Massimo Caldarelli, Luca Massimi
Cephalohematoma, one of the most common neonatal head injuries, generally undergoes spontaneous resorption. When calcified, it may cause cranial vault distortion and depression of the inner skull layer, although it remains asymptomatic. Surgery, indeed, is usually performed for cosmetic purposes. For these reasons, the long-term effects of calcified cephalohematoma (CC) are widely unknown. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a persistent calcified CC causing skull deformity and delayed electroencephalography (EEG) anomalies...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Ali H Palejwala, Jared S Fridley, Krystal Garcia, Sanjeev A Vasudevan, David Khechoyan, Surya Rednam, Chester J Koh, Andrew Jea
Neurofibrosarcoma is rare in the pediatric age group. A malignant tumor of the sacrum presents significant challenges, especially if the goals are to resect with wide and clean surgical margins and to achieve acceptable functional outcomes. The authors report a case of this rare tumor affecting the sacrum and sacral nerve roots of a 7-year-old girl and review the role of total hemisacrectomy sparing the contralateral sacral nerve roots and lumbopelvic reconstruction in the treatment of this disease. This patient is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the youngest to be treated in this manner...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Jeffrey Steinberg, Vincent Cheung, Gunjan Goel, J Scott Pannell, Javan Nation, Alexander Khalessi
Although there have been reports of carotid artery pseudoaneurysm formation after adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy secondary to iatrogenic injury, there are no case reports of successful endovascular reconstruction of the injured artery in the pediatric population. In most pediatric cases, the internal carotid artery (ICA) is sacrificed. The authors report on a 6-year-old girl who presented with odynophagia, left-sided Horner's syndrome, hematemesis, and severe anemia 6 months after a tonsillectomy. On examination she was found to have a pulsatile mass along the left posterior lateral oropharynx, and imaging demonstrated a dissection of the extracranial left ICA and an associated pseudoaneurysm...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Michael J Ellis, Dean M Cordingley, Sara Vis, Karen M Reimer, Jeff Leiter, Kelly Russell
OBJECTIVE There were 2 objectives of this study. The first objective was to identify clinical variables associated with vestibulo-ocular dysfunction (VOD) detected at initial consultation among pediatric patients with acute sports-related concussion (SRC) and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The second objective was to reexamine the prevalence of VOD in this clinical cohort and evaluate the effect of VOD on length of recovery and the development of PCS. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted for all patients with acute SRC and PCS who were evaluated at a pediatric multidisciplinary concussion program from September 2013 to May 2015...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kei Ando, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
OBJECTIVE Corrective surgery for spinal deformities can lead to neurological complications. Several reports have described spinal cord monitoring in surgery for spinal deformity, but only a few have included patients younger than 20 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The goal of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of cases with intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potential (Tc-MEP) waveform deterioration during posterior corrective fusion for AIS. METHODS A prospective database was reviewed, comprising 68 patients with AIS who were treated with posterior corrective fusion in a prospective database...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
David Dornbos, Jocelyn Morin, Joshua R Watson, Jonathan Pindrik
Osteomyelitis of the spine with associated spinal epidural abscess represents an uncommon entity in the pediatric population, requiring prompt evaluation and diagnosis to prevent neurological compromise. Cat scratch disease, caused by the pathogen Bartonella henselae, encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical presentations; however, an association with osteomyelitis and epidural abscess has been reported in only 4 other instances in the literature. The authors report a rare case of multifocal thoracic osteomyelitis with an epidural abscess in a patient with a biopsy-proven pathogen of cat scratch disease...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Choon Sung Lee, Chang Ju Hwang, Eic Ju Lim, Dong-Ho Lee, Jae Hwan Cho
OBJECTIVE Postoperative shoulder imbalance (PSI) is a critical consideration after corrective surgery for a double thoracic curve (Lenke Type 2); however, the radiographic factors related to PSI remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the radiographic factors related to PSI after corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in patients with a double thoracic curve. METHODS This study included 80 patients with Lenke Type 2 AIS who underwent corrective surgery. Patients were grouped according to the presence [PSI(+)] or absence [PSI(-)] of shoulder imbalance at the final follow-up examination (differences of 20, 15, and 10 mm were used)...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Berje Shammassian, Sunil Manjila, Efrem Cox, Kaine Onwuzulike, Dehua Wang, Mark Rodgers, Duncan Stearns, Warren R Selman
Intracranial ectopic salivary gland rests within dural-based lesions are reported very infrequently in the literature. The authors report the unique case of a 12-year-old boy with a cerebellar medulloblastoma positive for sonic hedgehog (Shh) that contained intraaxial mature ectopic salivary gland rests. The patient underwent clinical and radiological monitoring postoperatively, until he died of disseminated disease. An autopsy showed no evidence of salivary glands within disseminated lesions. The intraaxial presence of salivary gland rests and concomitant Shh positivity of the described tumor point to a disorder in differentiation as opposed to ectopic developmental foci, which are uniformly dural based in the described literature...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Luyuan Li, John N Jensen, Sara Szabo, Peter VanTuinen, Sean M Lew
Desmoid tumors, also known as aggressive fibromatosis, are locally infiltrating musculoaponeurotic neoplasms arising in connective tissues. Desmoid tumors may be associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a genetic disorder that presents with hundreds to thousands of precancerous colorectal polyps. The authors report the case of an 18-month-old boy who underwent resection of a right temporal desmoid tumor (initially diagnosed as cranial fasciitis) and developed a bilateral frontoparietal calvarial desmoid tumor 2 years later...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Dean Cordingley, Richard Girardin, Karen Reimer, Lesley Ritchie, Jeff Leiter, Kelly Russell, Michael J Ellis
OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and clinical use of graded aerobic treadmill testing in pediatric patients with sports-related concussion (SRC), and 2) to evaluate the clinical outcomes of treatment with a submaximal aerobic exercise program in patients with physiological post-concussion disorder (PCD). METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients (age < 20 years) with SRC who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and underwent graded aerobic treadmill testing between October 9, 2014, and February 11, 2016...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Ashley Ralston, Patti Ogden, Michael H Kohrman, David M Frim
Vagus nerve stimulators (VNSs) are currently an accepted treatment for intractable epilepsy not amenable to ablative surgery. Battery death and lead damage are the main reasons for reoperation in patients with VNSs. In general, any damage to the lead requires revision surgery to remove the helical electrodes from the vagus nerve and replace the electrode array and wire. The electrodes are typically scarred and difficult to remove from the vagus nerve without injury. The authors describe 6 patients with VNSs who presented with low lead impedance on diagnostic testing, leading to the intraoperative finding of lead insulation disruption, or who were found incidentally at the time of implantable pulse generator battery replacement to have a tear in the outer insulation of the electrode wire...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Brian J Dlouhy, Dennis C Nguyen, Kamlesh B Patel, Gwendolyn M Hoben, Gary B Skolnick, Sybill D Naidoo, Albert S Woo, Matthew D Smyth
OBJECTIVE Endoscope-assisted methods for treatment of craniosynostosis have reported benefits over open calvarial vault reconstruction. In this paper, the authors evaluated 2 methods for endoscope-assisted correction of sagittal synostosis: wide vertex suturectomy and barrel stave osteotomies (WVS+BSO) and narrow vertex suturectomy (NVS). METHODS The authors evaluated patients with nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis treated with either wide vertex suturectomy (4-6 cm) and barrel stave osteotomies (WVS+BSO) or narrow vertex suturectomy (NVS) (approximately 2 cm) between October 2006 and July 2013...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Philip Weidinger, Gundrun Gröppel, Georgios Karanikas, Wolfgang Wadsak, Gregor Kasprian, Christian Dorfer, Anastasia Dressler, Angelika Muehlebner, Marcus Hacker, Thomas Czech, Martha Feucht
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate whether fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET ((18)F-FDG PET) can help to predict seizure outcome after hemispherotomy and therefore may be useful in decision making and patient selection. METHODS Children and adolescents less than 18 years of age who underwent (18)F-FDG PET studies during presurgical evaluation prior to hemispherotomy and had follow-up data of at least 12 months after surgery were included. Seizure outcome was classified according to the recommendations of the International League Against Epilepsy...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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