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Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics

Liang Xu, Yong Qiu, Zhonghui Chen, Benlong Shi, Xi Chen, Song Li, Changzhi Du, Zezhang Zhu, Xu Sun
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the correction results of traditional dual growing rods (DGRs) on axial rotation using CT scans and to further explore the relationships between axial and torso deformities in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS). METHODS Patients with EOS who were treated with traditional DGRs between January 2006 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Plain radiographs were used to assess the degree of coronal and sagittal deformity. The apical vertebral rotation (AVR) and rib hump (RH) were measured on CT scans at the apical vertebra...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Desmond A Brown, Nicholas L Deep, Colin L Driscoll, Michael J Link, Mark E Jentoft, David J Daniels
Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth-muscle tumors are rare tumors seen in immunocompromised patients. Most cases occur in the context of AIDS and organ transplantation, and very rarely in the setting of congenital immunodeficiency, with only 5 case reports of the latter published so far in the literature. The authors report the case of a previously healthy 8-year-old girl with headaches and precocious puberty who was found to have a large skull base lesion. There was a synchronous left adrenal lesion. She underwent resection of the skull base lesion and a left adrenalectomy...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Brandon G Rocque, Bonita S Agee, Eric M Thompson, Mark Piedra, Lissa C Baird, Nathan R Selden, Stephanie Greene, Christopher P Deibert, Todd C Hankinson, Sean M Lew, Bermans J Iskandar, Taryn M Bragg, David Frim, Gerald Grant, Nalin Gupta, Kurtis I Auguste, Dimitrios C Nikas, Michael Vassilyadi, Carrie R Muh, Nicholas M Wetjen, Sandi K Lam
OBJECTIVE In children, the repair of skull defects arising from decompressive craniectomy presents a unique set of challenges. Single-center studies have identified different risk factors for the common complications of cranioplasty resorption and infection. The goal of the present study was to determine the risk factors for bone resorption and infection after pediatric cranioplasty. METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective case study that included all patients who underwent cranioplasty to correct a skull defect arising from a decompressive craniectomy at 13 centers between 2000 and 2011 and were less than 19 years old at the time of cranioplasty...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Nima Khavanin, John R Ruge, Frank A Vicari, Eric J Belin, Robert G Kellogg, Jordan P Steinberg
A parasitic twin represents a rare developmental anomaly in which an asymmetrical, nonviable conjoined twin is attached to the host body at the time of birth. Rachipagus is among the rarest of conjoined twin subtypes and typically features a parasitic twin mass attached at the spine. Herein, the authors review the literature and describe the case of a 9-month-old girl presenting with a rachipagus parasitic twin consisting of a fully developed set of lower extremities originating from the midline upper back...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Michael Iv, Omar Choudhri, Robert L Dodd, Shreyas S Vasanawala, Marcus T Alley, Michael Moseley, Samantha J Holdsworth, Gerald Grant, Samuel Cheshier, Kristen W Yeom
OBJECTIVE Patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) often require repeat imaging with MRI or MR angiography (MRA), CT angiography (CTA), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The ideal imaging modality provides excellent vascular visualization without incurring added risks, such as radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of ferumoxytol-enhanced MRA using a high-resolution 3D volumetric sequence (fe-SPGR) for visualizing and grading pediatric brain AVMs in comparison with CTA and DSA, which is the current imaging gold standard...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Douglas L Brockmeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Perran Boran, Fatma Oğuz, Andrzej Furman, Sibel Sakarya
OBJECTIVE Anterior fontanel size and closure time can be useful clinical signs for the early diagnosis of diseases. Knowing age-related normal variations is important to decide on further investigations. The authors of this study aimed to describe fontanel size variation according to age, determine fontanel closure time, and identify the optimal method for assessing fontanel size. METHODS For this prospective cohort study, 321 healthy term babies who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Yong Zhang, Xiang-Yang Bao, Lian Duan, Wei-Zhong Yang, De-Sheng Li, Zheng-Shan Zhang, Cong Han, Feng Zhao, Qian Zhang, Qian-Nan Wang
OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to summarize the long-term effect of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) for the treatment of pediatric moyamoya disease (MMD) and to investigate factors influencing the clinical outcomes of EDAS. METHODS Clinical features, angiographic findings, and clinical outcomes were analyzed among MMD patients younger than 18 years who had been treated with EDAS between 2002 and 2007 at the authors' institution. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate stroke risk after EDAS...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Andrew D Legarreta, Benjamin L Brett, Gary S Solomon, Scott L Zuckerman
OBJECTIVE Sport-related concussion (SRC) has become a major public health concern. Prolonged recovery after SRC, named postconcussion syndrome (PCS), has been associated with several biopsychosocial factors, yet the role of both family and personal psychiatric histories requires investigation. In a cohort of concussed high school athletes, the authors examined the role(s) of family and personal psychiatric histories in the risk of developing PCS. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of 154 high school athletes with complete documentation of postconcussion symptom resolution or persistence at 6 weeks was conducted...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Angela Bandte, Klaus Püschel, Kara Krajewski
OBJECTIVE So-called low falls are gaining interest in traumatology. To date, there are no studies on low versus high falls in the pediatric population. The aim of the current analysis was to characterize the symptoms, diagnostics, and injuries associated with high versus low falls and to examine the effect of fall height on injuries and outcome in the context of current guideline-based recommendations. METHODS After obtaining study approval from the local ethics committee, the authors reviewed the data for patients ages 5-17 years who had been consecutively treated at either hospital associated with the University Medical Center Hamburg in the period from January 2009 to August 2014 for diagnoses including traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
William G B Singleton, Alison S Bieneman, Max Woolley, David Johnson, Owen Lewis, Marcella J Wyatt, Stephen J P Damment, Lisa J Boulter, Clare L Killick-Cole, Daniel J Asby, Steven S Gill
OBJECTIVE The pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat has preclinical efficacy against diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), and the oral formulation has entered a Phase I clinical trial. However, panobinostat does not cross the blood-brain barrier in humans. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a novel neurosurgical drug delivery technique that bypasses the blood-brain barrier and is of considerable clinical interest in the treatment of DIPG. METHODS The authors investigated the toxicity, distribution, and clearance of a water-soluble formulation of panobinostat (MTX110) in a small- and large-animal model of CED...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Brandon W Smith, Nicholas J Chulski, Ann A Little, Kate W C Chang, Lynda J S Yang
OBJECTIVE Neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) continues to be a problematic occurrence impacting approximately 1.5 per 1000 live births in the United States, with 10%-40% of these infants experiencing permanent disability. These children lose elbow flexion, and one surgical option for recovering it is the Oberlin transfer. Published data support the use of the ulnar nerve fascicle that innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris as the donor nerve in adults, but no analogous published data exist for infants. This study investigated the association of ulnar nerve fascicle choice with functional elbow flexion outcome in NBPP...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Coleman P Riordan, Darren B Orbach, Edward R Smith, R Michael Scott
OBJECTIVE The most significant adverse outcome of intracranial hemorrhage from an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is death. This study reviews a single-center experience with pediatric AVMs to quantify the incidence and characterize clinical and radiographic factors associated with sudden death from the hemorrhage of previously undiagnosed AVMs in children. METHODS A single-center database review of the period from 2006 to 2017 identified all patients with a first-time intracranial hemorrhage from a previously undiagnosed AVM...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Kyle W Eastwood, Vivek P Bodani, Faizal A Haji, Thomas Looi, Hani E Naguib, James M Drake
OBJECTIVE Endoscope-assisted repair of craniosynostosis is a safe and efficacious alternative to open techniques. However, this procedure is challenging to learn, and there is significant variation in both its execution and outcomes. Surgical simulators may allow trainees to learn and practice this procedure prior to operating on an actual patient. The purpose of this study was to develop a realistic, relatively inexpensive simulator for endoscope-assisted repair of metopic and sagittal craniosynostosis and to evaluate the models' fidelity and teaching content...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
José Luis Thenier-Villa, Pablo Sanromán-Álvarez, Pablo Miranda-Lloret, María Estela Plaza Ramírez
OBJECTIVE One of the principles of the surgical treatment of craniosynostosis includes the release of fused bone plates to prevent recurrence. Such bone defects require a reossification process after surgery to prevent a cosmetic problem or brain vulnerability to damage. The objective of this study is to describe and analyze the radiological and clinical evolution of bone defects after craniosynostosis. METHODS From January 2005 to May 2016, 248 infants underwent surgical correction of craniosynostosis at HUiP La Fe Valencia; the authors analyzed data from 216 of these cases that met the inclusion criteria for this study...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Bassel Zebian, Nida Kalyal, Charlotte Burford, John Hanrahan, Ali Ansaripour, Wisam Al-Faiadh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Syed Hassan A Akbari, Christine E Averill, Jarod L Roland, Rachel Orscheln, Jennifer Strahle
Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative bacillus implicated in cat-scratch disease. Cat-scratch disease is usually self-limiting and results in local lymphadenopathy. In rare circumstances, patients may develop endocarditis, neuroretinitis, or osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis of the cervical spine is exceedingly rare, especially in the pediatric population, and to date there have been only 4 previously reported cases of cervical spine osteomyelitis caused by B. henselae, all of which were treated surgically. In this article, the authors report the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with neck swelling and was found to have a C2-4 paravertebral B...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Andrew Reisner, Joshua J Chern, Karen Walson, Natalie Tillman, Toni Petrillo-Albarano, Eric A Sribnick, Laura S Blackwell, Zaev D Suskin, Chia-Yi Kuan, Atul Vats
OBJECTIVE Evidence shows mixed efficacy of applying guidelines for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. A multidisciplinary team at a children's health system standardized intensive care unit-based TBI care using guidelines and best practices. The authors sought to investigate the impact of guideline implementation on outcomes. METHODS A multidisciplinary group developed a TBI care protocol based on published TBI treatment guidelines and consensus, which was implemented in March 2011. The authors retrospectively compared preimplementation outcomes (May 2009 to March 2011) and postimplementation outcomes (April 2011 to March 2014) among patients < 18 years of age admitted with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8) and potential survivability who underwent intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Kaitlyn Casimo, Fabio Grassia, Sandra L Poliachik, Edward Novotny, Andrew Poliakov, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Prior studies of functional connectivity following callosotomy have disagreed in the observed effects on interhemispheric functional connectivity. These connectivity studies, in multiple electrophysiological methods and functional MRI, have found conflicting reductions in connectivity or patterns resembling typical individuals. The authors examined a case of partial anterior corpus callosum connection, where pairs of bilateral electrocorticographic electrodes had been placed over homologous regions in the left and right hemispheres...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Stephen K Mendenhall, Andrew Huh, Janit Pandya, Vincent Alentado, Karl Balsara, Chang Ho, Andrew Jea
OBJECTIVE The revelation of normative radiographic measurements for the developing pediatric spine is incomplete. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the normal range of asymmetry of the lateral atlantodental interval (LADI) and define age- and sex-related differences. METHODS A total of 3072 children aged 0-18 years who underwent CT scanning of the cervical spine were identified at Riley Hospital for Children between 2005 and 2017. Patients were stratified by sex and age (in years) into 36 cohorts...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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