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Public Health Ethics

Ben Bambery, Thomas Douglas, Michael J Selgelid, Hannah Maslen, Alberto Giubilini, Andrew J Pollard, Julian Savulescu
Strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates have typically targeted healthcare professionals (HCPs) and individuals in various high-risk groups such as the elderly. We argue that they should (instead or as well) focus on increasing vaccination rates in children. Because children suffer higher influenza incidence rates than any other demographic group, and are major drivers of seasonal influenza epidemics, we argue that influenza vaccination strategies that serve to increase uptake rates in children are likely to be more effective in reducing influenza-related morbidity and mortality than those targeting HCPs or the elderly...
July 2018: Public Health Ethics
Catherine R McGowan, Catherine F Houlihan, Patricia Kingori, Judith R Glynn
Online participation in research is used increasingly to recruit geographically dispersed populations. Obtaining online consent is convenient, yet we know little about the acceptability of this practice. We carried out a serostudy among personnel returning to the UK/Ireland following deployment to West Africa during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic. We used an online procedure for consenting returnees and designed a small descriptive study to understand: how much of the consent material they read, how informed they felt and if they preferred online to traditional face-to-face consent...
July 2018: Public Health Ethics
Adrian Guta, Stuart J Murray, Carol Strike, Sarah Flicker, Ross Upshur, Ted Myers
In this paper, we extend Michel Foucault's final works on the 'care of the self' to an empirical examination of research practice in community-based research (CBR). We use Foucault's 'morality of behaviors' to analyze interview data from a national sample of Canadian CBR practitioners working with communities affected by HIV. Despite claims in the literature that ethics review is overly burdensome for non-traditional forms of research, our findings suggest that many researchers using CBR have an ambivalent but ultimately productive relationship with institutional research ethics review requirements...
November 2017: Public Health Ethics
Kristin Voigt, Nicholas B King
The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project quantifies the impact of different health conditions by combining information about morbidity and premature mortality within a single metric, the Disability Adjusted Life Year. One important goal for the GBD project has been to inform decisions about global health priorities. A number of recent studies have used GBD data to argue that global health funding fails to align with the GBD. We argue that these studies' shared assumption that global health resources should 'align' with the burden of disease is unfounded and has troubling implications...
November 2017: Public Health Ethics
Peter G N West-Oram, Alena Buyx
For much of the 20th century, vulnerability to deprivations of health has often been defined by geographical and economic factors. Those in wealthy, usually 'Northern' and 'Western', parts of the world have benefited from infrastructures, and accidents of geography and climate, which insulate them from many serious threats to health. Conversely, poorer people are typically exposed to more threats to health, and have lesser access to the infrastructures needed to safeguard them against the worst consequences of such exposure...
July 2017: Public Health Ethics
Doris Schopper, Raffaella Ravinetto, Lisa Schwartz, Eunice Kamaara, Sunita Sheel, Michael J Segelid, Aasim Ahmad, Angus Dawson, Jerome Singh, Amar Jesani, Ross Upshur
The Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) ethics review board (ERB) has been solicited in an unprecedented way to provide advice and review research protocols in an 'emergency' mode during the recent Ebola epidemic. Twenty-seven Ebola-related study protocols were reviewed between March 2014 and August 2015, ranging from epidemiological research, to behavioural research, infectivity studies and clinical trials with investigational products at (very) early development stages. This article examines the MSF ERB's experience addressing issues related to both the process of review and substantive ethical issues in this context...
April 2017: Public Health Ethics
Rod Knight, Will Small, Jean Shoveller
Philosophical arguments stemming from the public health ethics arena suggest that public health interventions ought to be subject to normative inquiry that considers relational values, including concepts such as solidarity, reciprocity and health equity. As yet, however, the extent to which 'public' values influence the 'autonomous' decisions of the public remains largely unexplored. Drawing on interviews with 50 men in Vancouver, Canada, this study employs a critical discourse analysis to examine participants' decisions and motivations to voluntarily access HIV testing and/or to accept a routine HIV test offer...
November 2016: Public Health Ethics
Chris Degeling, Zohar Lederman, Melanie Rock
One Health (OH) is a novel paradigm that recognizes that human and non-human animal health is interlinked through our shared environment. Increasingly prominent in public health responses to zoonoses, OH differs from traditional approaches to animal-borne infectious risks, because it also aims to promote the health of animals and ecological systems. Despite the widespread adoption of OH, culling remains a key component of institutional responses to the risks of zoonoses. Using the threats posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses to human and animal health, economic activity and food security as a case exemplar, we explore whether culling and other standard control measures for animal-borne infectious disease might be justified as part of OH approaches...
November 2016: Public Health Ethics
Ross MacKenzie, Wendy Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Thomas Boysen Anker
This article analyses the paternalistic justification of the world's first mandatory tobacco plain packaging policy, which came into force in Australia in 2012. The policy is setting international precedence, with a range of developed and developing countries planning and implementing similar policies. Understanding the paternalistic dimension of the policy is therefore of imminent international importance. The policy meets important ethical benchmarks such as respect for citizens' self-interests and protection of others against harm...
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Yvette van der Eijk, Susanne Uusitalo
This article looks at how and why addiction should be understood as a 'sociorelational' (social and relational) disorder, and what this implies on a policy level in terms of the treatment and prevention of addiction. In light of scientific research, we argue that the neurobiological changes that underlie addiction are heavily influenced by sociorelational processes. We thereby advocate for a conceptual approach in which autonomy in addiction is a sociorelational concept, and social environments are considered autonomy undermining or autonomy promoting...
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Anna Wolters, Guido de Wert, Onno C P van Schayck, Klasien Horstman
Experimental vaccines are being developed for the treatment of 'unhealthy lifestyles' and associated chronic illnesses. Policymakers and other stakeholders will have to deal with the ethical issues that this innovation path raises: are there morally justified reasons to integrate these innovative biotechnologies in future health policies? Should public money be invested in further research? Focusing on the case of an experimental nicotine vaccine, this article explores the ethical aspects of 'lifestyle vaccines' for public health...
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Keith Syrett
This paper offers a brief comment on Jennings' preceding paper, focusing on the capacity of a republican approach to public health ethics to facilitate reconceptualization of the right to health in situations of limited resources through a relational reading.
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
David Owen
This commentary offers a response to Bruce Jennings' arguments concerning republicanism and health.
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Bruce Jennings
The further development of public health ethics will be assisted by a more direct engagement with political theory. In this way, the moral vocabulary of the liberal tradition should be supplemented-but not supplanted-by different conceptual and normative resources available from other traditions of political and social thought. This article discusses four lines of further development that the normative conceptual discourse of public health ethics might take. (i) The relational turn. The implications for public health ethics of the new 'ecological' or 'relational' interpretation that is emerging for concepts such as agency, self-identity, autonomy, liberty and justice...
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Cillian McBride
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Stephen John
In this article, I respond to 'Fighting Status Inequalities'. I first note a niggle about the paper's assumption that lowering socio-economic inequalities will lower the social gradient in health. I then suggest two further ways in which neorepublicanism may relate to social epidemiology: in terms of 'moral physiology' and through analysing which inequalities are unjust.
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen, Xavier Landes
Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a theoretical foil for this as compared to a liberal notion of non-interference. The article concludes that there is a prima facie case for incorporating non-dominance into our thinking about public health, but that it needs to go hand in hand with a more traditional liberal ideal of non-interference...
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Karen Yeung
This is a reply to Steve Latham's Article for the Republicanism special issue.
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Leticia Morales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
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