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Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports

Ryszard Nosalski, Eilidh McGinnigle, Mateusz Siedlinski, Tomasz J Guzik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension is a common disorder with substantial impact on public health due to highly elevated cardiovascular risk. The mechanisms still remain unclear and treatments are not sufficient to reduce risk in majority of patients. Inflammatory mechanisms may provide an important mechanism linking hypertension and cardiovascular risk. We aim to review newly identified immune and inflammatory mechanisms of hypertension with focus on their potential therapeutic impact. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to the established role of the vasculature, kidneys and central nervous system in pathogenesis of hypertension, low-grade inflammation contributes to this disorder as indicated by experimental models and GWAS studies pointing to SH2B3 immune gene as top key driver of hypertension...
2017: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Samuel M Kim, Pamela L Lutsey, Erin D Michos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a state-of-the-art update on some emerging measures of vitamin D status and discuss how assessment of these key vitamin D metabolites might improve prognostication of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition and relatively easy to treat with supplementation and/or modest sunlight exposure. A substantial body of experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for CVD...
January 2017: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Holly Gooding, Heather M Johnson
It is well established that atherosclerosis, the pathological basis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), begins in childhood and progresses steadily between the ages of 15 to 35 years. These adolescent and young adult years are also marked by significant physiological, psychological, and sociodemographic changes that impact both CVD risk factor development and CVD prevention and treatment strategies. In this review, we highlight the importance of the primordial prevention of CVD risk factors before they ever occur and the primary prevention of CVD by treating CVD risk factors in this age group...
September 2016: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Pamela J Schreiner
Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or remained the same in the limited number of studies considering companion animals...
February 2016: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Rebeccah A McKibben, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Lena M Mathews, Erin D Michos
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Despite improvements in cardiovascular disease prevention efforts, there remain gaps in cardiovascular disease awareness among women, as well as age and racial disparities in ASCVD outcomes for women. Disparity also exists in the impact the traditional risk factors confer on ASCVD risk between women and men, with smoking and diabetes both resulting in stronger relative risks in women compared to men. Additionally there are risk factors that are unique to women (such as pregnancy-related factors) or that disproportionally affect women (such as auto-immune disease) where preventive efforts should be targeted...
January 2016: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Alexandra M Hajduk, Sarwat I Chaudhry
Sedentary behavior is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may be particularly relevant to the cardiovascular health of older adults. This scoping review describes the existing literature examining the prevalence of sedentary time in older adults with CVD and the association of sedentary behavior with cardiovascular risk in older adults. We found that older adults with CVD spend >75 % of their waking day sedentary, and that sedentary time is higher among older adults with CVD than among older adults without CVD...
January 2016: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Shannon M Dunlay, Alanna M Chamberlain
Multimorbidity affects more than two thirds of older individuals and the vast majority of patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Patients with multimorbidity have high resource utilization, poor mobility, and poor health status and are at an increased risk for death. The presence of multimorbidity imposes numerous management challenges in caring for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. It complicates decision-making, promotes fragmented care, and imposes an immense burden on the patient and their social support system...
January 2016: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Matthew Finn, Philip Green
Cardiac risk assessment in aging patients poses a significant challenge to the practicing clinician, particularly when evaluating the use of invasive procedures. Frailty is a valuable risk marker that has been associated with worse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, and aortic stenosis. Integrating the available frailty studies into cardiac risk assessments can help improve shared decision-making between physicians and their patients. In this review, we provide an up-to-date, case-based appraisal of the available clinical trial data focusing on the impact of frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease...
December 2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Carl Fulwiler, Judson A Brewer, Sinead Sinnott, Eric B Loucks
Obesity affects more than one-third of U.S. adults and is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, primarily from cardiovascular disease. Traditional behavioral interventions for weight loss typically focus on diet and exercise habits and often give little attention to the role of stress and emotions in the initiation and maintenance of unhealthy behaviors, which may account for their modest results and considerable variability in outcomes. Stress eating and emotional eating are increasingly recognized as important targets of weight loss interventions...
October 2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Masako Morishita, Kathryn C Thompson, Robert D Brook
Fine particulate matter (<2.5 µm, PM2.5) air pollution is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide. The largest portion of adverse health effects is from cardiovascular diseases. In North America, PM2.5 concentrations have shown a steady decline over the past several decades; however, the opposite trend has occurred throughout much of the developing world whereby daily concentrations commonly reach extraordinarily high levels. While air quality regulations can reduce air pollution at a societal level, what individuals can do to reduce their personal exposures remains an active field of investigation...
June 2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Heidi Mochari-Greenberger, Lori Mosca
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death for people of most ethnicities in the USA. However, several racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately burdened by CHD and experience higher mortality rates and rehospitalization rates compared with whites. Contemporary CHD research has been dedicated in part to broadening our understanding of the root causes of racial and ethnic disparities in CHD outcomes. Several factors contribute, including socioeconomic and comorbid conditions. These factors may be amenable to change, and targets for initiatives to reduce disparities and improve CHD outcomes...
May 2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Pelbreton C Balfour, Carlos J Rodriguez, Keith C Ferdinand
Race-ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) have persisted in the USA over the past few decades. Hypertension (HTN) is a significant contributor to CVD, including coronary heart disease, stroke, end-stage kidney disease and overall mortality and race-ethnic disparities in longevity. Additionally, both non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) and Hispanic adults have been known to have higher prevalence of poorly controlled blood pressure compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). Addressing these disparities has been a focus of programs such as the Million Hearts initiative...
April 2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Jacqueline F Hayes, Myra Altman, Jackson H Coppock, Denise E Wilfley, Andrea B Goldschmidt
BACKGROUND: There is limited research on optimal treatment formats for childhood obesity. Group-based interventions are popular, but it is unclear whether outcomes can be obtained without an additional individual component. AIM: To examine statistically and clinically significant outcomes of recent group-based and mixed-format (group + Individual) pediatric obesity interventions. METHODS: Effect sizes and magnitudes of weight change were calculated for studies published between January 2013 and September 2014...
April 2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Kiarri N Kershaw, Sandra S Albrecht
A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed higher segregation was related to higher CVD risk, although relationships were less clear for certain outcomes...
March 2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Sanne A E Peters, Rachel R Huxley, Naveed Sattar, Mark Woodward
Strong evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes confers a stronger excess risk of cardiovascular diseases in women than in men; with women having a 27 % higher relative risk of stroke and a 44 % higher relative risk of coronary heart disease compared with men. The mechanisms that underpin these sex differences in the associations between diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk are not fully understood. Some of the excess risk may be the result of a sex disparity in the management and treatment of diabetes, to the detriment of women...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Gyrd O Gjevestad, Kirsten B Holven, Stine M Ulven
Regular physical activity seems to be one of the most important contributors to prevent disease and promote health. Being physically active reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some types of cancers. The molecular mechanisms are however not fully elucidated. Depending on duration and intensity, exercise will cause disruption of muscle fibers triggering a temporary inflammatory response. This response may not only involve the muscle tissue, but also peripheral tissues such as white blood cells, which are important components of the immune system...
2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Semra A Aytur, Sydney A Jones, Michelle Stransky, Kelly R Evenson
Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation's health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations...
January 2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Dharam J Kumbhani, Steven P Marso, Carlos A Alvarez, Darren K McGuire
Diabetes mellitus is a global pandemic, associated with a high burden of cardiovascular disease. There are multiple platelet derangements in patients with diabetes, and antiplatelet drugs remain the first-line agents for secondary prevention as well as for high-risk primary prevention among patients with diabetes. This review provides a summary of oral antiplatelet drug hypo-responsiveness in patients with diabetes, specifically aspirin and Clopidogrel resistance. Topics discussed include antiplatelet testing, definitions used to define hypo-response and resistance, its prevalence, association with clinical outcomes and strategies to mitigate resistance...
January 2015: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Harvey J Murff, Todd L Edwards
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important structural components of cellular membranes and are converted into eicosanoids which serve various biological roles. The most common dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are linoleic acid and α-linoleic acid, respectively. These 18-carbon chain fatty acids undergo a series of desaturation and elongation steps to become the 20-carbon fatty acids arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, respectively. Evidence from genome wide association studies has consistently demonstrated that plasma and tissue levels of the n-6 long-chain PUFA arachidonic acid and to a lesser extent the n-3 long-chain PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid, are strongly influenced by variation in fatty acid desaturase-1,-2, and elongation of very long chain fatty acid genes...
December 1, 2014: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Arjun D Sinha, Rajiv Agarwal
Chronic kidney disease is common and frequently complicated with hypertension. As a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in this high risk population, treatment of hypertension in chronic kidney disease is of paramount importance. We review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of hypertension in chronic kidney disease and then update the latest study results for treatment including salt restriction, invasive endovascular procedures, and pharmacologic therapy. Recent trials draw into question the efficacy of renal artery stenting or renal denervation for hypertension in chronic kidney disease, as well as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade as first line therapy of hypertension in end stage renal disease...
October 2014: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
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